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Identification of Gases

You have a sample of gas. You suspect it is carbon dioxide, but you are not sure. So you need to do a test. Below are some tests for common gases. Each is based on particular properties of the gas, including its appearance and some times its smell. Ammonia, NH3 Properties Test Result Carbon dioxide,CO2 Properties Gas is lighter than air. Collect downward displacement of air. Ammonia is a colourless alkaline gas with a pungent smell. Carefully smell gas, and hold damp indicator paper in it. Recognizable odour, and damp red litmus paper turns blue. Gas is heavier than air. Collect the upward displacement of air or over water. Carbon dioxide is colourless, weakly acidic gas. It reacts with lime water(a solution calcium hydroxide in water) to give a white precipitate of calcium carbonate). Turns damp blue litmus paper to red. CO2(g) + Ca(OH)2(aq) CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) Bubble the gas through lime water. Lime water turns cloudy or milky. Gas is heavier than air. Collect the upward displacement of air. Chlorine is a green poisonous gas which bleaches dyes. Hold damp indicator paper in the gas, in a fume cupboard. Indicator paper turns white. (bleach) Gas is lighter than air. Collect downward displacement of air or over water. Hydrogen is colourless.It combines violently with oxygen when ignite.tak care Collect the gas in a tube and hold a lighted splint to it. The gas burns with a squeaky pop. Gas is heavier than air. Collect the upward displacement of air. Hydrogen is a colourless, acidic gas with a choking smell. Turns damp blue litmus paper to red. It reacts with the alkali ammonia to form the salt ammonium chloride: HCl(g) + NH3(g) NH4Cl(s) Hold a rod dipped in concentrated ammonia solution in the gas,in a fume cupboard. A white smoke of ammonium chloride form. Gas is sparingly soluble in water. Density is equal to the air. over water method is used to collect. Oxygen is colourless gas. Fuels burn much more readily in it than air. Collect the gas in a test tube and hold a glowing splint to it. The splint immediately bursts into flame. Gas is heavier than air. Collect the upward displacement of air. Sulphur dioxide is a colourless gas. With a choking smell. Turns damp blue litmus paper to red. It reacts with acidified potassium dichromate solution, reducing the orange dichromate, Cr2O7-2 to the green chromium ion Cr+3 3SO2 (g) + 2H+(aq) + Cr2O7-2(aq) 3SO4-2 (aq) + H2O(l) + 2Cr+3(aq) acid orange solution green solution Hold a piece of filter paper soaked in acidified potassium dichromate solution in the gas, In a fume cupboard. The paper turns from orange to green. Hydrogen sulfide is a colourless gas. With a choking smell. It reacts with acidified potassium chromate solution, reducing the yellow chromate, CrO4-2 to the green chromium ion Cr+3 3H2S(g) + 2CrO4-2(aq) + 10H+(aq) S(s) + 2Cr+3(aq) + 8H2O(l) Hold a piece of filter paper soaked in acidified potassium chromate solution in the gas, In a fume cupboard. The paper turns from yellow to green

Test Result Chlorine, Cl2 Properties Test Result Hydrogen,H2 Properties Test Result Hydrogen chloride,HCl Properties Test Result Oxygen,O2 Properties Test Result Sulphur dioxide,SO2 Properties

Test Result Hydrogen sulfide,H2S Properties Test Result

Test for Anions


Anion Carbonate CO3-2 Test Add dilute hydrochloric acid Test result Effervescence observed, When gas evolved is bubbled through limewater, a white precipitate is formed The gas is carbon dioxide. 1White ppt formed, insoluble in dilute nitric acid but soluble in dilute Ammonia. 2A white ppt is formed. Reactions that occur CO3-2 + 2H+ Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CO2 + H2O CaCO3 + H2O white AgCl white Chloride ClIn solution 1Add acidified silver nitrate solution 2Add acidified Lead(II)nitrate solution Bromide BrIn solution 1Add acidified silver nitrate solution 2Add acidified Lead(II)nitrate solution Iodide IIn solution 1Add acidified AgNO3 2Add acidified Pb(NO3)2 solution Nitrate NO3In solution 1Ag+ + Cl-

2 Pb+2 + 2Cl-

PbCl2 white AgBr cream

1Cream ppt formed, Insoluble in dilute nitric acid but soluble in concentrated NH3not dilute NH3 2Cream ppt formed.

1 Ag + + Br-

2 Pb+2 + 2Br-

PbBr2 cream AgI yellow PbI2 yellow NH4Cl

1Yellow precipitate is formed, does not soluble in concentrated NH3. 2Yellow ppt formed.

1 Ag + + I-

2 Pb+2 + 2INH3 + HCl

Add aqueous Effervescence observed, NaOH then a pungent gas is produced aluminium powder, and it turns moist red litmus warm mixture. paper blue. Gas also forms dense white fumes with concentrated HCl.

Sulphate SO4-2 In solution Bicarbonate

Acidify with dilute A white ppt is formed. nitric acid, then add aqueous barium nitrate Add dilute Effervescence observed,

Ba+2 + SO4-2

BaSO4 white

HCO3- + H+

CO2 + H2O

HCO3-

hydrochloric acid

when gas evolved is bubbled through limewater, a white precipitate is formed The gas is carbon dioxide.

Ca(OH)2 + CO2

CaCO3 + H2O white

1 A gas Y, is less dense than air, very soluble in water and is an alkali. Which method is used to collect a dry sample of the gas?

2 The diagram shows apparatus used to test the gases produced by burning coal.

Which substance is placed in tube R to show that sulphur dioxide is formed? A acidified potassium dichromate(VI) B aqueous potassium iodide C damp red litmus paper D limewater 3 An 80 cm3 sample of air is trapped in a syringe. The air is slowly passed over heated iron in a tube until there is no further decrease in volume.

When cooled to the original temperature, which volume of gas remains? A 80 cm3 B 64 cm3 C 20 cm3 D 16 cm3 4The equation for the reaction between aqueous lead(II) nitrate and aqueous potassium iodide is shown. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) colourless colourless yellow colourless Which method could be used to separate the products? A chromatography B crystallization C distillation D filtration 5 Which of the following hazard warning signs should appear on a bottle of ethanol? A B C D

6 Hydrogen chloride is very soluble in water, whereas chlorine is only slightly soluble in water. Both gases can be dried using concentrated sulphuric acid. Which diagram represents the correct method of obtaining dry chlorine from damp chlorine containing a small amount of hydrogen chloride? A B

7 An excess of hydrochloric acid is added to 0.10 mol of magnesium in the apparatus shown.

Why is it impossible to measure the total volume of hydrogen produced using this apparatus? A Hydrogen is less dense than air. B Hydrogen is soluble in hydrochloric acid. C There is air in the tube. D The volume of hydrogen formed is greater than 100 cm3. 8A gas X is insoluble in water and less dense than air. An impure supply of X contains water vapour and a watersoluble impurity.

In which order should the pieces of apparatus shown be joined together to collect a pure, dry sample of X? A 1, 2, 3, 4 B 1, 2, 3, 5 C 1, 3, 2, 5 D 1, 3, 2, 9 Which method of preparation of a pure salt solution requires the use of a pipette and burette? A BaCl2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2HCl (aq)

B CuO(s) + 2HCl (aq) C KOH(aq) + HCl (aq) D MgCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq)

CuCl 2(aq) + H2O(l) KCl (aq) + H2O(l) MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

10 In an experiment 5 cm3 of 1.0 mol / dm3 sodium hydroxide are gradually added to 10 cm3 of 1.0 mol / dm3 hydrochloric acid containing methyl orange.

Which change occurs in the mixture? A The concentration of the H+ ions increases. B A precipitate is formed.

C More water molecules are formed. D The methyl orange changes colour.

11 A gas, X, is less dense than air and insoluble in water. Which method cannot be used to collect the gas?

12A student made some chlorine by the reaction between concentrated hydrochloric acid and potassium manganate(VII). Chlorine is more dense than air and soluble in water. Which of the following methods of collection is most suitable for chlorine?

13 The diagram shows apparatus used to test the gases produced by burning coal.

Which substance is placed in tube R to show that carbon dioxide is formed? A aqueous potassium dichromate(VI) C aqueous potassium iodide B damp red litmus paper D limewater 14 This apparatus is used to show that a liquid hydrocarbon burns to produce water and carbon dioxide.

What are the most suitable substances to have at X and at Y? X Y A anhydrous copper(II)sulphate lime water B sodium hydroxide lime water C sodium hydroxide universal indicator solution D anhydrous copper(II)sulphate universal indicator solution 15 Aqueous hydrogen peroxide undergoes catalytic decomposition as shown in the equation below. 2H2O2(aq) 2H2O(l) + O2(g) The diagram shows part of the apparatus used to measure the rate of decomposition.

Which piece of apparatus is connected at position X? A burette B gas syringe C measuring cylinder

D pipette

16 The student was asked to produce a dry sample of a gas by passing it through a drying agent. Which apparatus should be used to dry the gas? A B C D

17 The diagram shows apparatus for measuring the volume of hydrogen given off when an excess of dilute hydrochloric acid is added to powdered metal. The volume of gas is measured at room temperature and pressure.

The experiment is carried out three times, using the same mass of powder each time but with different powders: pure magnesium pure zinc a mixture of magnesium and zinc Which powder gives the greatest volume of hydrogen and which the least volume? greatest volume of hydrogen least volume of hydrogen A magnesium zinc B magnesium the mixture C zinc magnesium D zinc the mixture 18Substance X melts at 53oC and boils at 100oC. It does not dissolve in water and it does not reactwith water. Which diagram shows the method most suitable for separating X from a mixture of X and water?

21 The diagrams show mixtures of chemicals that react to produce gases. In which reaction will the litmus paper change colour? A B C D

22 In an experiment, a student needs to measure out 36.50 cm3 of a solution. Which piece of apparatus would measure this volume most accurately? A beaker B burette C measuring cylinder D pipette 23 A student mixes 25 cm3 samples of dilute hydrochloric acid with different volumes of aqueous sodium hydroxide. Each time, the student measures the change in temperature to test if the reaction is exothermic. Which piece of apparatus is not needed?

24 The apparatus shown can be used to prepare aqueous copper(II) sulphate.

What are substances X and Y?

A B C D

substance X copper copper(II)chloride copper(II)oxide sulphur

substance Y iron(II)sulphate sulphuric acid sulphuric acid copper(II)chloride

25 The reaction between solution P and solution Q is exothermic. A student is told to test this statement by mixing equal volumes of the two solutions and measuring the temperature change. Which two pieces of apparatus should the student use? A balance and clock B balance and thermometer C pipette and clock D pipette and thermometer 26 The word equation shows a chemical reaction.

What could substance Y be? A copper(II) oxide B magnesium C sodium carbonate D sodium hydroxide 27 Which piece of equipment can be used to show that a gas is hydrogen?

28 In an experiment to find the formula of magnesium oxide, magnesium metal is heated in a covered crucible.

Why is the crucible covered with a loose-fitting lid? A to prevent air escaping from the crucible B to prevent magnesium carbonate forming C to prevent magnesium oxide escaping from the crucible D to prevent water vapour entering the crucible 29 Which words in the table complete the following description of the preparation of copper(II) sulphate? An excess of copper(II) oxide was added to dilute sulphuric acid. The mixture was -1 to remove the excess of oxide. The solution was 2 to half its volume and then cooled, so that it -3 . A 1 distilled 2 evaporated 3 crystallised

B C D

distilled filtered filtered

filtered condensed evaporated

evaporated crystallised crystallised

30 The diagram shows a simple laboratory apparatus for the preparation and collection of a dry gas.

What is the gas? A carbon dioxide

B chlorine

C hydrogen

D hydrogen chloride

31 Dry hydrogen gas is passed over a powdered solid and then through a cooled U-tube before the excess of hydrogen is burned in air.

A colourless liquid collects in the U-tube. What could the powdered solid be? A calcium oxide B copper(II) oxide 32 Lead(II) oxide is reduced in the apparatus shown.

C magnesium

D zinc oxide

How do the masses of parts X and Y of the apparatus change? X Y A decreases decreases B decreases increases C increases decreases

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increases

increases

33 Anhydrous calcium chloride is used as a drying agent. An alkaline solution of pyrogallol absorbs oxygen and carbon dioxide. Clean air is passed through the apparatus shown.

Which gases are present in the air leaving the apparatus? argon nitrogen hydrogen A B C D 34 Aqueous sodium hydroxide is added to two different solutions with the results shown.

Which cation is present in X and in Y? X A ammonium B copper(II) C iron(II) D iron(III)

Y iron(II) ammonium copper(II) ammonium

35 Anhydrous calcium chloride is used as a drying agent. An alkaline solution of pyrogallol absorbs oxygen and carbon dioxide. Clean air is passed through the apparatus shown.

Which gases are present in the air leaving the apparatus? argon nitrogen A B C D

hydrogen

36 When hydrated copper(II) sulphate is heated in the apparatus shown, solid X and liquid Y are produced.

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Which changes are noticed when liquid Y is added to cold solid X? colour change heat change A blue to white heat given out B blue to white heat taken in C white to blue heat given out D white to blue heat taken in 37 Which test method and gas are correctly linked? A B C D test method alighted splint a glowing splint damp litmus paper lime water gas oxygen hydrogen chlorine ammonia

38 Which mixture can be separated by adding water, stirring and filtering? A barium chloride and sodium chloride B copper and magnesium C diamond and graphite D silver chloride and sodium nitrate 39 Aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia each give a white precipitate when added to aqueous zinc sulphate. What happens when an excess of each of these reagents is added? excess NaOH(aq) excess NH3(aq) A precipitate dissolves precipitate dissolves B precipitate dissolves precipitate does not dissolve C precipitate does not dissolve precipitate dissolves D precipitate does not dissolve precipitate does not dissolve 40 Aqueous sodium hydroxide is added to two different solutions with the results shown.

What are the cations present in X and Y? X A copper(II) B copper(II) C iron(II)

Y iron(II) iron(III) copper(II)

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iron(III)

copper(II)

41 In which experiment does the limewater not turn milky?

42 Aqueous lead(II) nitrate is added to a solution containing iodide ions. Lead(II) iodide is formed. Which type of reaction takes place? A neutralisation B oxidation C precipitation D reduction

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