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WATER RESOURCE

cycle 1 2013
ENG. ROBERTO BALDA MSc
3153821789

Basic Reactors

FEATURES :
Suspended culture Continuous mixed tank Immediate particle dispersion High pollution load removal

Complete mix
Substrate (BOD)

Q,Si

Q,Se

Biomass (g/L)

Aerobic digestion of sludge and concentrated wastes Aerated lagoons and activated sludge

Basic Reactors
Batch reactor
Q,Si x BOD tests Very high pollution loads removal SBR

MAIN FEATURES
Suspended culture There is no incoming or outgoing flow All the components involved are added before the start-up. Cycles

Basic Reactors
Si

Plug Flow Reactor


MAIN FEATURES
Suspended culture No complete mix as a whole Variation of the substrate concentrations and of microorganisms across the reactor Used in activated sludge units, other aerobic and anaerobic treatment, stabilization ponds Si decreases along the flow pattern Se

Biofilm reactors
Packed bed reactor

MAIN FEATURE
Attached biological growth Stones /plastic media @ Plug flow Non-submersed (Trickling Filter)

Average pollution load removal

If submersed in water: aerobic or anaerobic filters

Biofilm reactors (continue)


FEATURES
Attached growth, but suspended High upflow velocities (!) Bed expansion or recirculation Particles with biofilm Sand/GAC/diatomaceous earths: abrasion resistant Plug flow/Complete mix Low organics concentrations (aromatic hydrocarbons): aerobic treatment For denitrification and anaerobic treatment UASB

Fluidized bed

Biofilm reactors (continue)


FEATURES
Attached biological growth on fixed media Discs or rotors on a shaft Submersed piece absorbs pollutants to be oxidized Piece in contact with air absorbs oxygen Most cases are plug flow Anaerobic conditions when covered Complete mix when the flow is divided perpendicular to the total length of the tank

Rotating Biological Contactor (discs)

I. Recirculation of settled cells


Q,Si xr Qr,Xr Qw,Xr,Se Activated sludge process Keep enough population of m.o. inside the reactor x Se Q+ Qr Q-Qw,Se Xe

II. Recirculation after sedimentation


Q,Si Se+Ser Q+ Qr Qr,Ser Dilution of influent loads Avoids: excess of oxygen demand, of organic acid production, or substrate toxicity. Increases hydraulic loading (trickling filters, UASB, fluidized beds) Q,Se Xe

III. Recirculation of effluent from reactor


Q,Si Se+Ser Q+ Qr Qr,Ser Dilution of influent loads Avoids: excess of oxygen demand, of organic acid production, or substrate toxicity. Increases hydraulic loading (trickling filters, UASB, fluidized beds) Q,Se Xe

In series

When different sorts of treatment are required Organic oxidation nitrification denitrification To create plug flow conditions Can be reactors of the same type or different types of reactors

In parallel
To be conservative as designer When a stand-by unit is required When willing to have complete mix reactors