PERGAMON
International
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 41 (1998) 29672977
Theoretical 
study of heat and mass transfer 
in a zeolite bed 

during 
water 
desorption 
: validity of local thermal 

equilibrium 
assumption 
A. Mhimid
Departement de GCnieEnergPtique, Ecole Nationale d’lnghieurs
de Monastir, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia
Received 20 June 1997; in final form 8 December
1997
Abstract
We have studied 
heat and 
mass transfer 
in a zeolite bed during 
water 
desorption. 
For this 
purpose, 
a mathematical 

model 
based 
has been established. 
We have 
tested 
the local thermal 
equilibrium 
assumption 
in 
a two 

dimensional on scale changing flow. 

The problem is numerically 
resolved using 
a finite 
volume method. 
The numerical 
simulation 
gives the time 
and 
space 

evolution of temperature 
and 
moisture 
The 
influence 
of different 
effects 
(essentially 
the 
effective conductivity 

of the solid and the reactor geometry) reserved. content. on the total 
mass desorbed 
are examined. 0 
1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights 

Key 
words: Zeolithe ; Desorption 
; Kinetic ; Moisture content ; Bidimensional; Numerical resolution ; Finite volume. 

Nomenclature 
Greek symbols 

_{C}_{,} 
specific heat [J kg’ K‘1 
_{A}_{H} 
latent 
heat of vaporization 
[J kg‘] 

_{d}_{,} 
mean particle diameter 
[m] 
_{A}_{r} 
radial 
depth increment 
[m] 

h 
heat transfer coeficient 
between the bed and the heat 
_{A}_{Z} 
longitudinal depth 
increment 
[m] 

ing 
source [W m*1 
At 
time 
increment 
[s] 

_{h}_{,}_{,} 
heat transfer coefficient 
between solid 
and 
gas 
[W 
E 
bed porosity 

m*1 
1 
thermal 
conductivity 
[w 
m’ 
K‘1 

_{h}_{o} 
heat transfer coefficient 
between the bed and 
the dut 
_{i}_{*} 
effective thermal 
conductivity 
[w 
m’ K‘1 

let 
of the gas [W m*1] 
p 
density 
[kg m‘1 

_{W} 
height of the bed 
[m] 
w 
volume 
[m’]. 
^{,} 

K 
permeability [m*] 

_{t}_{n} 
evaporation rate 
[kg mm3 s‘] 
Subscripts 

P 
pressure [Pa] 
c 
condenser 

Pr 
Prandtl number 
eq 
equilibrium 

r 
radial coordinate 
],m] 
g 
gas 

_{R} 
ray of the bed drying 
[m] 
ge 
gas effective 

Re 
Reynolds number 
h 
heating 

S 
solidgas transfer 
area 
[m* m‘1 
i 
initial 

t 
time [s] 
j 
constituent 

T 
temperature [K] 
m, 
n 
spatial indices 

Y 
gas velocity [m s‘1 
s 
solid 

X 
moisture content 
se 
solid 
effective 

z 
axial coordinate 
[ml. 
sat 
saturation 

00179310/98 $19.00 0 
1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. 
All rights 
reserved 
P11:S0017~9310(98)000106
2968
A. Mhimidllnt.
J. Heat Transfer 41 (1998)
29672977
v 
vapor 
1). The 
reactor is composed of a solid phase 
(zeolite 
and 

vap 
vaporization. 
water) 
and 
a gaseous 
phase so it is a discontinu 

ous medium. 
The equations (vapor) which govern heat 
and 
mass 

transfer 
are 
generally 
obtained by changing 
the 
scale 

1. Introduction 
[191. One passes from 
the microscopic view, in which 
the 
The zeolitewater
reactor
has been used in many
instal
lations. Applications 
of adsorption 
system including 

solar cooling, 
energy storage, 
automobile 
and residential 
space
ledge
water sorption
conditioning
and
of heat
by
have
been
mass
transfer
reported
[l7].
in the reactor
zeolite
is very
important
A know
during
the
for reactor
optimization. Several 
attempts 
have 
been 
made 
to 
ana 
lyze the sorption phenomena 
and chemical 
sorption 
[6 
14]. In these
solid
studies,
the
temperatures
local
thermal)
and
the models
are equal
the
transfer
assumed
(validity
that
the gas and
of equilibrium
is
a
onedimensional
process. The twodimensional model 
is 
used 
by 
Hajji 
and Khalloufi [lo]. We have established 
a mathematical 

model equation librium for energy model between transport [ 151 based which assumes the fluid and local 
on the two phases 

no the solid 
thermal phases. The 
equi same 

assumption has been used previously 
to study 
heat 
and 

transfer during chemical sorption 
[16, 171. 

mass In all these different models, the principal 
idea consists 
of: 

(i) 
two temperatures (gas, solid) 
or one temperature 
are 

considered in the medium 
; 

(ii) 
pressure is constant or variable 
; 

(iii) 
onedimensional or twodimensional transfers. 

The validity of these assumptions 
is not yet completely 

studied. In this paper, we report 
the 
results of heat 
and 

mass transfer during water desorption 
by zeolite 
and 
we 
address : 

the 
local thermal equilibrium 
assumption 
; 

the 
twodimensional 
transfer. 

Two mathematical 
models 
based 
on 
scale 
changing, 

have 
been established, 
to study 
heat 
and 
mass 
transfer 
in 

a zeolite bed 
during 
water desorption. 
The 
solution 
of 
the
the
gives
and
system
finite
the
moisture
of equations
volume
method
time
and
content.
space
has been obtained
[181. The numerical
evolution
of the
effects
numerically
by
simulation
temperatures
such
Different
are examined
averaging 
volume 
is small 
compared to the pores, to the 

macroscopic 
view in which 
the averaging volume is large 

with 
regard 
to the pores. 
This 
scale changing enables 
us 
to
convert
the
real
discontinuous
medium
to
a fictious
continuous 
equivalent one. 
Each 
macroscopic 
term 
is 

obtained 
by averaging the 
microscopic one. 
The 
macro 

scopic 
differential equations 
are 
obtained by taking 
the 

average 
of the microscopic 
equations over the averaging 

volume 
which holds a lot of grains 
and by using 
closing 
assumptions.
tions
The
of momentum,
microscopic
mass
and
equations
are
the
energy
conservation
equa
in all
considered 
phases and 
at the interfaces. 
These equations 

are obtained 
by using 
thermodynamic 
and mechanic 
laws 
of continuous 
media. 
Several 
assumptions 
are 
made 
in 
order 
to 
obtain 
a 
closed set of governing 
equations at macroscopic 
scale 
_{:} 
the 
porous medium is homogeneous 
and 
isotropic 
; 

the 
porous particles are incompressible 
; 

the 
compression 
work 
and 
viscous dissipation 
are neg 

ligible _{;} 

the 
interparticle 
radiation 
is linearized 
and 
included 

in the heat exchange solidgas coefficient 
and 
the solid 

thermal conductivity 
; 

the 
dispersion 
terms 
and 
the tortuosity 
terms 
can 
be 

modeled as diffusive 
fluxes _{;} 
as the 
effective conductivity 
of the solid and the reactor 

geometry, 
on the total mass 
desorbed. Also, 
the validity 

of 
the 
local thermal equilibrium (LTE) 
has 
been 

discussed. 

2. 
Formulation of heat and mass transfer 

The cylindrical reactor, 
considered in this paper, 
exch 

anges 
heat through lateral 
and base area 
at a constant 
temperature
and
a constant
flow rate
heating
fluid
(Fig.
Fig. 1.Sketch of the fixed bed.
A. Mhimidllnt.J. Heat Transfer41 (1998) 29672977
_{2}_{9}_{6}_{9}
the
gas phase
point.
is ideal
from
the thermodynamic
view
When the transfers are two dimensional and depend on the r and z axes, the governing equations become :
(1) Vapor mass conservation
equation
where the coefficients
imentally, by Guilleminot [211.
X0 and
D are determined,
exper
2.1. Boundary and initial conditions
2.1 .I.
Initial conditions
ax+div(p,V,)ti. a& 
_{(}_{1}_{)} 
Initially, 
the temperature, 
the pressure 
and the moist 

ure content in the reactor are assumed to be constants 
: 

(2) Gas energy equation 
T,(O, r,z) 
= T,(O, r,z) 
= T,, 
P,(O, r,z) 
= 
Pi 

EP.&, 2 
+ ppI’&,, 
grad( T,) 
= div [E& grad( 
and 
X(O,r,z) 
= 
Xi. 

+ C&r[Tg  
TJ  
&S[ 
Tg 
T,]. 
(2) 
2.1.2. 
Pressure boundary conditions 

(3) Solid energy equation 
At the outlet of the bed (z = 0) the pressure is assumed constant : 

pCP% 
= div[(l e)&,grad(T,)] 
Pp(t, r, 0) 
= 
PC. 

+ mAI&, + H,,S[T, 
 
T’s] 
(3) 
At the base surface (z = 
H), 
at the lateral 
area 
(r 
= R), 

where 
pC, 
= ps( 1  ~1) [C,, + XC,,]. 
and at the inner 
surface (r = r,), the wall is impervious 
: 
(4) Energy equation (when LTE is valid) One of the assumptions made in many studies consist of considering T%equal to T, at any point (the medium is considered at local thermal equilibrium). Then, a single equation is sufficient to determine the temperature field in the reactor. To avoid exchange terms, this equation is
obtained by adding equations (2) and (3).
[(l_E)p,(C,,+XC,,)+&p,C,,1~+p,C,,V,grad(T)
(4)
where I* = (1 E)&,
The model formed by equations (l), (2) and (3) on one hand and by the eqnations (1) and (4) on the other hand will be denoted in the remaining part of this paper as respectively NLTEModel and LTEModel. (5) Momentum equation The vapor velocity can be expressed by Darcy’s law
= tiAHvap + div [J.*grad(T)]
+
E&.
VP=

Egrad(P,).
_{(}_{5}_{)}
(6) Kinetic equation The mass rate of evaporation is :
z(t, 
r, II) 
= 
0 
%(t, 
R,z) 
= 
0 
_{%}_{(} t,rO,z) = 0.
_{(}_{1}_{0}_{)}
_{(}_{1}_{1}_{)}
2.1.3. Thermal boundaries conditionsfor the NLTEModel
(when gas temperature andsolid temperature are different)
At the outlet of the cylinder (z = 0) the exchanges are not well known and the flow existing on the porous sur face is very complex. In order to solve this problem cor rectly, it is necessary to extend the domain of com
putation to take into account fluid flow and heat transfer in the fluid near the upper surface. However, these con ditions may complicate enormously this study. To avoid this problem, we have introduced in the case a heat trans
fer coefficient ho.The effect is negligible [ 151
i,z(t,r,O)
= h,(T,T,)
of ho on the total mass transfer
_{(}_{1}_{2}_{)}
ii’l
=
(I
E)P,;
where X is the moisture
content
:
dX 

dt 
= 
G(X 
Xeqm). 
_{(}_{6}_{)}
_{(}_{7}_{)}

1,, z(t,
r, 0)
=
h,(T,

T,,).
The
base
area
(z =
H),
and
the lateral
area
(r
are heated with a constant temperature, we have
introduced
a heat transfer
coefficients h :
_{(}_{1}_{3}_{)}
=
R)
also
The mass transfer coefficient G is obtained by esti mation from experimental data [6]. In this equation the equilibrium moisture content X,, is determined by Dub inin’s equation [20]
X_=X,,exp[D(T,log(y)i]
(8)
for 
the solid : 
i,.:(t,r,H) 
= h(T,T,) 
i,,$(t,R,z) 
= h(T,T,,) 

for 
the gas : 
1,z(t,r,II) 
= h(T,Th) 
_{(}_{1}_{4}_{)}
_{(}_{1}_{5}_{)}
_{(}_{1}_{6}_{)}
_{2}_{9}_{7}_{0}
A. Mhimidllnt.
J. Heat
Transfer
41 (1998)
29672977
.
~&t,
aTg
R,z)
= h(T,T,).
Taking
surface
small
is supposed
a
Y,,, the
volume
limited
isothermal,
we deduce
,~O>Z)= 0
at
that
the
:
_{(}_{1}_{7}_{)}
inner
(18)
(19)
of a physical quantity
_{t} _{+} _{A}_{t}
over this control domain
[t, t+Atl.
Y
at
_{‘}_{I}_{’}_{$}_{,}_{‘}_{.}
_{w}_{i}_{l}_{l}
_{b}_{e} _{n}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{d}
any
The
and
point
P,,,
equations
over
the
and
are
interval
at the time integrated of time
In order
to discretize
the
resulting
integral
equations
back 
to 
algebraic 
equations 
tying 
together 
the 
solution 

values 
at 
the 
nodes 
of the 
grid, we make 
the 
following 

assumption 
: 
the
fluxes
are
constant
on the
face
of the control
vol
2.2. For the LTEModel
(local thermalequilibrium
is valiq
ume 
which is perpendicular 
to them 
_{;} 

the 
accumulation 
terms 
and 
the source 
terms 
can 
be 
Initially, 
the temperature 
is uniform : T(0, 
r, z) 
= 
T,. 

At the outlet 
(z 
= 
0) we have 
: 

I*f$t,,_,O) 
= h,(T 
T,,). 
_{(}_{2}_{0}_{)} 

At the base area T, equal considering (Z = to 
H) and at the lateral of local T, (validity 
area thermal (Y = R), equi 

librium) and 
adding equation 
(14) to equation 
(16), and 

equation (15) to equation (17) we obtain 
: 

I.* “,‘(I, r, H) 
= h(T 
T,,) 
_{(}_{2}_{1}_{)} 

z 

i*$t,R,z) 
= h(TT,,). 
(22) 

At the inner 
surface, 
we can write 
: 

l*g(r.r”.r) 
= 0. 
(23) 

3. Numerical 
resolution 

The system 
of 
the 
presented equations 
is solved 

numerically by the method ofcontrol 
volume as described 

by Patankar 
[19]. The 
advantage of this method 
ensures 

flux conservation, 
and 
thus avoids generation of parasitic 

sources. The method consists 
of defining a grid 
of points 

P,,, within the calculated domain and then constructing 
around
each
point
a control
volume
(Fig.
2). The
value
approximated by averages on the control 
volume 
con 

structed 
around 
P,,,,,. 

To 
avoid 
numerical instabilities 
we have 
adopted 
an 

implicit scheme. 

At 
the boundary 
limits of the 
bed, 
the equations 
are 
discretized by integrating
volume
by taking
and
over
into
the
half
account
of
the
the
control
boundary
conditions. we have 
used the quarter 
of the 

control 
At the corner volume. 

The 
terms of transport by convection 
are discretized 

using 
an Upwind scheme. This 
scheme 
supposed 
that 
the 

values 
of convicted quantities 
at 
the 
face 
of the 
control 

volume 
are equal to their values 
at the grid 
point situated 

in the upstream. 

The first derivatives, which 
are evaluated 
on the control 

volume 
faces, are approximated 
over 
two 
nodes 
within 

the porous medium using. 
Considering 
these assumptions, 
the form 
of the result 

ing algebraic 
equations 
become 
_{:} 
The resulting 
system 
of algebraic 
equation 
is solved 

numerically 
by 
the 
iterative linebyline 
sweeping 
method.
The
choice
of
this
method
is justified
by
its
t1
”
1
2
1
_{I}
controle volume
_{2}
mlm
m+l
Ml
M
rapid convergence 
compared 
to point by point 
methods. 

Scanning 
along 
the r axis, 
we 
set 
: 

where 

D = A,Y;,?‘,.,, + A,Y;;‘,,,, 
+A, 

This method 
solution 
consists 
in the evaluation 
using 

the predicted solution 
of 
A,, 
A,, 
A, and 
D. 
Then, 
the 
tridiagonal 
resulting system 
of equations 
is solved by the 

standard 
Gaussianelimination 
method. 
If the difference 

between 
the calculated 
and 
estimated 
solutions is small, 
the
convergence
to
the
solution
is achieved,
or
else
we
repeat 
the 
procedure 
of 
evaluation of the coefficients 

using 
the 
solution which 
have already 
calculated 
until 
Fig.
2. Numerical
grid.
convergence.
A. Mhimidllnt.J. Heat Transfer41 (1998) 29672977
_{2}_{9}_{7}_{1}
4.
Numerical
data
The cylinder
and
has an inner
lateral
radius
0.03 m, an outer
filled with
0.1 m
of zeolithe.
perature
a height
The
1.2 m. This
area
cylinder
is heated
by a constant
to a condenser
T,, = 400 K. It is connected
radius
grains
tem
which
has a constant 
T, 
= 
313 K and a constant 

pressure 
P, temperature = 70 mbars. 

The physical 
characteristics 
of the vapor and 
the zeo 
lithe 
[4, 
14, 231 are: 
E = 0.7, d, = 2.510’ 
m, 
pS = 
1400 

kg rnm3, A* = 0.2 W 
m’ Kl, 
C,, 
= 
836 
J kg’ 
K‘, 

Ape= 0.024 
W 
mm’ K‘, C,, = 1840 
J kg’ 
K’ 
and 

C,, = 
4180 J kg’ Kl. 

Initially, the moisture 
content, 
the temperature 
and the 

pressure 
in 
the reactlor 
are : X, = 
0.266 
kg of water/kg of 

zeolithe, 
T, = 
293 K, 
P, = 6 mbars. 

The 
permeability and the specific 
surface 
area 
of the 

packed 
bed 
which appears in energy equations 
are [24, 

251: 

K= 
&‘d’ P 
an,d 
S=~jy. 

lSO(1 &)2 
P 

The 
heat 
transfer coefficient between 
solid 
and 
gas is 

given 
by 
[25] : 

h,, = 2 
(2 + 1.8Pr0.33Re’.‘) 

P 

Re = 
, PP 
v,4 
Pr= 
k!c,, 

PLp 
1, 
5.
Results
and discussion
i 1507
_{0} _{+}_{r}_{T}_{’}_{~}_{m}_{r}_{m}_{7}
0
5000
TrrrrrrrTrrnynTrIT7q7TrT~
10000
15000
L.
Fig. 3. Time evolution surface.
t(s)
of the temperature
A
800
600 
i
20000
at the inner
25000
and
outer
5.1. Validation of the numerical simulation
The 
numerical simulation 
has 
been 
validated by com 

parison 
with 
experimental 
data 
[6] of a cylindrical 
solar 

collector. The 
cylinder 
has 
an 
inner 
radius 0.03 
m, 
an 
outer 
radius 0.1 m 
and a height 
1.2 m. The lateral 
area 
is 

heated 
by a solar 
energy. 
The 
temperature T,, is variable 
and
takes
the values
measured.
These
values
correspond
to those of outer surface. 
In these 
we have 
a 

constant temperature 
T, 
= 
3 13 K 
conditions, and a constant 
pressure 

P, 
= 70 mbars. 

From the measurements 
of the 
day (17 October 
1989), 

numerical 
and experimental 
values 
of temperature 
on the 
inner
3. The difference
surface
and
that
of the outer
surface
is given
between
temperature
calculated
in Fig.
the
and
experimental values 
2°C. 

The 
total mass is less than desorbed calculated 
and 
the 
exper 

imental 
values 
are 
plotted in 
Fig. 
4. 
The 
two 
results 
obtained 
are very similar. 
5.2.
General description
t(s)
Fig. 
4. Time evolution 
of the total 
mass 
desorbed. 

(Fig. 
5), and moisture content 
(Fig. 
6) at different 
times 

(t 
= 
60 s, 
t = 3600 s, t = 28 800 
s). 

In these 
figures, we can 
see a front (Fig. 6) of desorp 

tion 
that 
moves with time 
and 
divides 
the 
bed 
in 
two 

regions 
(dried region and 
wet 
region). 
Evaporation 
is 

essentially 
localized in the zone 
in which 
the gradient 
of 

moisture 
content is high 
(front 
of evaporation). 
When 
time
increases,
the
front
of evaporation
approaches
in
the center 
of the medium 
and 
the humid 
region 
contracts. 

The results of the numerical simulation 
are 
presented 
After a large 
time, 
the moisture content 
tends 
to its equi 

as a curve giving the space evolution 
of solid 
temperature 
librium 
value 
and 
the 
mass 
rate is diminishing. After 
2912
t 
= 
60 
s 

‘l’a, 
e;o 
6 
0 

Fig. 
5. Timespace 
evolution 
A. Mhimidllnt. 
J. Heat 
Transfer 41 (1998) 
29672977 

t 
= 
60 
s 

t 
= 
7200 
s 

t 
= 
26600 
s 

of solid 
temperature. 

Fig. 6. Timespace 
evolution 
of moisture 
content.
an important 
period 
of time, 
the 
remaining quantity 
of 

moisture content 
in the reactor 
becomes 
too small. 
tend, respectively, to heating temperature and to the equi 

We can notice 
that 
the 
desorption is more important 
librium moisture content. 

near the lateral 
area 
than 
at 
the 
center. 
In fact, in this 

region, the 
temperature 
is greater 
than 
in the interior 
of 
5.3. Validity of the local thermal equilibrium assumption 

the reactor. 
This 
situation 
is due 
to the external heating 

fluid (Fig. 
5). When 
time increases, 
the overheating 
without desorption 

propagates 
inside 
the medium. 
At the end 
of desorption 
Figure 7 shows 
the timespace evolution of the relative 

process, the 
solid 
temperature 
and the moisture content 
difference 1T, 
T,I between solid temperature 
and 
gas 
_{A}
t 
= 
60 
s 

_{t} 
_{=} 
28800 
s 
A. Mhimidllnt.
J. Heat
Fig. 
7. Timespace 
ev’alution 
of 
the difference 
between 
solid 

temperature and gas temperature, 
without desorption. 

temperature 
which 
iz;calculated 
without 
desorption 
with 

the NLTEModel. 
At the beginning, 
this difference 
is only 

important at 
the 
lateral 
area, 
because 
the 
heating 
tem 

perature is higher 
than 
the 
initial medium 
temperature. 

After 
that, this difference decreases 
until 
zero. 
Figure 
8 shows the: difference 
1T 
T,l between 
the 
solid 

temperature calculated by the NLTEModel, 
and the tem 

perature 
calculated 
by 
the 
LTEModel. 
The 
results 

obtained 
from 
the 
two 
models show an 
important 
dis 

crepancy 
at 
the 
beginning. 
The difference 
(T 
T,I 

decreases 
and 
advances 
in 
the 
bed. Except 
the 
first 

instants, 
the 
absolute 
and 
the 
relative 
value 
of 
the 

maximum 
difference 
between 
the 
local 
values 
of 
tem 

perature 
calculated 
without desorption is very small 
(see 
Table 
1). 
Consequently, 
the local 
thermal 
equilibrium 

assumption 
can 
be used. 

with 
desorption 

Figure 
9 shows 
the timespace evolution 
of the differ 
ence
1T,
Tgl between
solid
temperature
and
gas
tem
Transfer 
41 
(1998) 
29672977 
2913 

t 
= 28800 
s 

Fig. 8. Timespace 
evolution 
of 
the 
difference 
between 
solid 

temperature 
calculated 
by the twotemperature 
model 
and 
tem 

perature 
calculated 
by 
the onetemperature 
model, 
without 

desorption. 
culated by 
the 
NLTEModel 
and 
the temperature 
cal 

culated by the 
LTEModel. 
We can 
see 
that within 
the 

reactor, the 
difference 
IT, 
TJ between 
the local 
tem 

perature values 
calculated, 
when LTE 
is not 
valid, 
is 

negligible. However, 
near the outer 
wall 
the difference 
is 

in the 
order 
of 
10 K 
for short 
times 
then 
decreases 
with 

time. 
This difference 
is due to the differences between 
the 

thermal characteristics 
of solid and 
the 
gas. 
As 
it 
has 

been 
reported 
previously [27, 281, the difference 
1T,  
Tgl 

depends on the 1,,/1, 
and decreases 
when 
this ratio 
tends 

to unity. 
The results of 
1T,  Tgl and IT,  TI obtained 
by using 

the 
two models 
are compared (see Table 
2). We 
found 

that 
the absolute 
values 
of the 
temperature 
differences 

1T,  
TI are higher than 
the absolute 
values 
of the differ 

ence 
between the solid and gas temperature 
1T,  
T81. 

Figure 11 shows the 
timespace 
evolution 
of 
differ 

ences 
IX,Xl 
between 
the moisture 
contents 
using 
the 

two 
models. We 
can notice that 
the 
results 
are 
different 
perature 
calculated, (during the desorption, 
by the NLTE 
in region 
corresponding to 
the 
front 
of vaporization. 

Model. 
Figure 10 shows the timespace 
evolution 
of the 
After desorption, 
this 
difference decreases 
to zero. 
Con 

difference 
ITS Tj between the 
solid temperature 
cal 
sequently, 
the 
total 
mass 
desorbed displays 
a 
small 
_{2}_{9}_{7}_{4}
A. Mhimid/Int. J. Heat
Transfer
41 (1998)
29672977
Table 
1 

The 
absolute 

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