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S.Nr Book, Journal (Ref.) Vernacular architecture as a sustainable design method for residential buildings in Ghana. Bakaleka, Bonginkosi G. The vernacular as a model for sustainable design in Africa. The vernacular is designed by immediate response and 001 has had the fortunate ability to be modified accordingly, to suit the occupants thermal needs, resulting in practical and non-stylistic buildings. Nick Ladd, (2003). Essays on the vernacular. 002 Vernacular architecture is perfect because it is derived from nature. 2 Page




Sipazwe chapa hector, (2011). Gree n architecture in africa, professional challenges for designers. Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to 003 reflect the environmental, cultural and historical context in which it exists. V. Bezemer, (2008). Can vernacular architecture in the tropics assist with modern passive ventilation design in domestic buildings? Untutored builders of the vernacular had an admirable 004 talent for suiting buildings to their environment. Ahmadreza. Foruzanmehr, Prof. Fergus Nicol (2008). Towards new approaches for integrating vernacular passive-coolingsystems into modern buildings in warm-dry climates of Iran. We can not simply go back to traditional buildings, for 005 they were designed for a different culture and climate. In this regard, the key challenge in the 21st century is to learn fundamental lessons and principles of vernacular architecture, and to find ways of integrating those principles into development programmes to upgrade existing settlements and to plan new ones. Rudofsky B. (1964). Architecture without Architects A short Introduction to Non Pedigreed Architecture, Doubleday and Company Inc., New York 006 Many a feature invented in recent years is old hat in vernacular architecture prefabrication, standardization of building components, flexible and movable structures, and, more especially, floor-heating, air-conditioning, light control and even elevators.





Nisrine Naciri, (2007). Sustainable features of the vernacular architecture.


Through studying this type of architecture, it is clear that every single feature of these dwellings is well thought in order to contribute to the creation of a microclimate within the town.


Rapoport, A. (1969). House Form and Culture. Vernacular architecture is the most widespread method 08 of building homes across the globe. Velinga, M. Oliver, P. and Bridge, A. (2007). Atlas of Vernacular Architecture of the World. 09 vernacular architecture comprises dwellings and all other buildings constructed by the people related to their environmental contexts and available resources, and they are customarily owner or community-built, utilising traditional technologies.




Oliver, P. (2006). Built to meet needs : cultural issues in vernacular architecture. Culture without the presence of its history is a culture 010 without roots and meaning.


Nash E.P. and Wright F.L. (1996). Frank Lloyd Wright: force of nature Vernacular architecture is a primitive form of design, 011 lacking intelligent thought. Koomson Attah Ebenezer. (2012). Post-occupancy evaluation of traditional courtyard and compound houses, Santasi-Kumasi,Ghana. Evaluation process 012 15 Zami, M. S. and Lee, A. Volume 1, (2008) - The Built & Human Environment Review Available at: (Accessed 7th April, 2012) 013 The aim of this project was to evaluate the response of the 50 people towards earth structure and the performance of low tech and sustainable materials used in the construction of low cost housing




Davis, D. (2000). The Culture of Building. Buildings designed by an amateur without any training in 014 design; the individual will have been guided by a series of conventions built up in his locality, paying little attention to what may be fashionable.


Moon, Garrett. (2007). Sustainable Architecture. Increasing reliance on natural lighting and passive heating 5 015 and cooling are some of the most effective ways of reducing energy consumption in a home. Murakami Shuzo and Ikaga Toshiharu, (2008). Environmental performance of vernacular architecture. Another remarkable feature of vernacular architecture is 016 the use of local building materials to construct housing that makes such good use of passive energy that almost no extra energy is required to maintain the housing. Birkeland, Janis. (2002). Design for Sustainability: A Sourcebook of Integrated, Eco-logical Solutions. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd. Designing buildings that will last and be of use for 017 generations should be a major goal of any architect. Ghana museums and Monuments Board, (2004). Navrongo cathedral: the merge of two cultures. 018 The cathedral is very clearly of European influence. However, it is a hybrid structure, a mix of vernacular and western know-how, using both local and imported materials, in a complimentary mix. 3






Ghana Museums and Monuments Board, (2004). Larabanga. This architectural style is characterised by the fusion of 019 the vernacular construction technique with the architectural rules which have to be respected when building a mosque. Mahdavi, A. and Orehounig, K. (2009). Building Energy Use Via Intelligent Passive Cooling, 6te Internationale Energiewirtschaft, TU Wien, IEWT 2009 020 Effects of night cooling and thermal mass as a passive cooling strategy