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Psychological factors affecting Consumer Buying Behavior Motivation

Human needs consumer needs are the basis of all modern marketing. Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. The key to a companys survival, profitability and growth in a highly competitive market place is its ability to identify and satisfy unfulfilled consumer needs better and sooner than the competition. Marketers do not create needs, they may make consumers more keenly aware of unfelt needs.

Presented By Neha Gupta

Three important aspects of understanding consumer motivation Survival understanding dynamic nature of consumer Profitability by right value proposition Growth adapting to the changing motives Customer satisfy their needs on basis of intensity or requirement of the needs Motivation is a strong urge that drives a persons activities towards unfulfilled need and wants Customers have motives or set of motives when they have unfulfilled demands

Motivation refers to `the processes that cause people to behave as they do'. It occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy. Once a need has been activated, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the tension. Marketers try to create products and services that will provide the desired benefits and permit the consumer to reduce this tension, by going in for consumption or acquisition of the products/services.

Motivation as a Psychological Force

Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs.

Goal Drive Want Interdependence of needs and goals

Alternatively motivation has been defined as the inner drive in individuals which impels them to action

Sought after results of motivated behavior Goals are generic or product specific e.g. Apple i-phone Motivation can be positive or negative
positive wants, desires, excitement, etc negative fears, worries, etc

Dynamics of motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied- new needs can be stronger and of higher order Success and failure influence goals Failure of goals leads to- substitute goals, Frustration, defense mechanism Defense mechanism can be Aggression, rationalization, regression, withdrawal, projection, daydreaming, identification, repression

Motivation can be rational or emotional

rational size, weight, price, etc emotional pride, fear, affection or status

Arousal of motives
Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental/situational arousal The set of needs an individual experiences at a particular time are often activated by specific cues in the environment. Without these cues, the needs might remain dormant. e.g. the sight or smell of bakery goods, fast-food commercials on television, etc

Types and Systems of Needs

Henry Murrays 28 psychogenic needs Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs A trio of needs

Henry Murrays 28 psychogenic needs

He believed that everyone has the same basic set of needs but that individuals differ in their priority of those needs. His needs include many motives that are important when studying consumer behavior, including acquisition, achievement, recognition, and exhibition.

Murrays List of Psychogenic Needs

Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige Needs Connected with Human Power

Murrays List of Psychogenic Needs (continued)

Sado-Masochistic Needs Needs Concerned with Affection between People Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse

Acquisition Conservancy Order Retention Construction

Superiority Achievement Recognition Exhibition Infavoidance

Dominance Deferrence Similance Autonomy Contrariance

Affiliation Aggression Rejection Nurturance Abasement Succorance Play Exposition Cognizance

Maslows hierarchy Model

Self Actualization needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs

Needs is a feeling or desire for something, which is lacking and through performing various activities to get the feeling of lacking removal and thus become satisfied.

An evaluation of the need hierarchy and marketing applications

Brand communication should also communicate and connect to people. The links between Britannia and health are felt all over the world. This connectivity is the rational justification for people to overcome the extra spending required to acquire the Brand. Asian Paints in the Indian market has made it to go in for global branding in countries such as Nepal, Fiji and Korea with its typical low cost formulations and service delivery propositions to support the brand name Asian Paints.

A Trio of Needs
Power individuals desire to control environment Affiliation need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging Achievement need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs

To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?

The Affiliation Needs Of Young, Environmentally Concerned Adults

Measurement of Motives
Researchers rely on a combination of techniques Qualitative research is widely used

Qualitative Measures of Motives

This method, including the tool termed ZMET, was discussed in detail in Chapter 2. DuPont used this method to study womens emotions regarding product. This method consists of having customers tell real-life stories regarding their use of the product under study. Kimberly-Clark used this method to develop pull-ups.


Projective techniques are often very successful in identifying motives.

WORD ASSOCIATION In this method, respondents are presented with words, one at a time, and asked to say AND SENTENCE the first word that comes to mind. COMPLETION

Evaluation of need hierarchy and marketing applications

Proper segmentation. HOW??? Promotional applications. HOW???

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