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(Formally Professor of Civil Engineering, Delhi College of Engineering)

1. Introduction
Hydraulic structures e.g. spill ways, outlets, drops, regulators flow meter and numerous such structures are to be provided with energy dissipation devices for dissipation of energy arising out of change in energy level upstream and downstream of these structures. Usually, upstream of these structures, the flow is at subcritical stage and the flow downstream of these structures is supercritical which has a subtational amount of kinetic energy. If this kinetic energy is allowed to persist beyond the structures, there will be immense problems due to uncontrolled erosion arising out of high velocity flow. In a mobile bed made of alluvial materials like clay, silt, sand and gravel, the erosion will be unprecedented leading to collapse of the structure in a very short time. Even where the bed and banks are made of inerodible materials like rock, the high velocity flow causes erosion over a period of time ultimately causing failure of the structure. The turbulent high velocity jet enters in to the cracks, fissures, bedding planes and joints of the rock mass subjecting it to constant vibration and dynamic uplift resulting in gradual movement of the rock mass and its failure. It is extremely important; therefore, that excess kinetic energy of flow must be dissipated down stream of the hydraulic structures specially built for the purpose of energy dissipation, commonly known as energy dissipaters. Energy dissipaters must be efficient enough so that the flow downstream of the energy dissipaters is tranquil and dont contain any excess energy of flow. Figure 1 shows a typical spillway structures indicating the energy level upstream and downstream and the amount of energy lost (head loss) within the energy dissipater.

Fig. 1 Showing energy dissipation below spillway, energy levels and residual kinetic energy of flow leaving the stilling basin If the energy dissipation is complete, the velocity distribution downstream will be almost normal as shown in figure 2. In case the energy dissipation is incomplete or partial within the domain of the dissipater, the excess kinetic energy of flow will be

carried by the stream downstream resulting in distortion of flow as shown fig.2.

Fig. 2 showing distribution of velocity downstream of a basin with and without complete energy dissipation. The excess kinetic energy of the stream causes flow distortion results in highly non-uniform velocity distribution. Corriolis coefficient () defined as

= 1/AV 3 / u3 dA
Where A is the area of flow section, V is the mean velocity of flow; u is the local velocity through an elementary area of flow dA. In case the energy dissipation is complete, the value of will be almost equal to unity. If energy dissipation is incomplete or partial, value will be greater than unity. The residual kinetic energy of flow moving downstream of the structure in case of incomplete energy dissipation will be If = 1, residual kinetic energy of flow is zero. The objective of design of an energy dissipater should be to ensure that is near unity and there is no residual kinetic energy of flow after the dissipater. Higher the value of , more will be the erosion and consequent problems to be faced perpetually with high maintenance cost. 1.3 VARIOUS TYPES OF ENERGY DISSIPATERS There are several types of energy dissipaters. Selection of particular type of energy dissipater depends upon the amount of energy to be dissipated and erosion control required down-stream of a structure. It is governed by inflow Froude number (Fr1), available tail water depth (y2) and nature of bed and bank materials. One or more of the following methods achieves the reduction in velocity. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The free failing jet is allowed to strike the rocky surface directly. In this method the energy is dissipated through turbulent diffusion. The direction of free falling jet is reversed and allowed to go into the air. The energy is dissipated through air entrapment and diffusion. By impact of one jet against other, thus reducing the energy through impact. By creation of hydraulic jump thereby increasing the depth of flow and decrease in velocity. By striking the flow in such a way that rollers are formed which further reduce the downstream flow velocity. The basic feature used in all the above methods is to convert the kinetic energy into turbulence. Energy transformed to turbulent flow field is ultimately lost as

(-1) V2/2g

heat energy and part of the kinetic energy is also transformed to sound and pressure energy Various typed of energy dissipaters are illustrated in following paragraphs. 1.3.1 HYDRAULIC JUMP TYPE STILLING BASINS A hydraulic jump type-stilling basin may be defined as a dissipater in which whole or part of a hydraulic jump is confined. In this type of basins, the energy is dissipated by formation of hydraulic jump within the basin. These basins are further subdivided as under. Horizontal Apron Type A rectangular cistern with its floor either at or below the riverbed creates conditions for the formation of a well-defined hydraulic jump. A shallow jet of water moving at a super-critical velocity strikes the water in the basin having conjugate depth and moving at a sub-critical velocity. There, part of kinetic energy of water is converted to pressure energy and the remaining into turbulent energy which ultimately gets converted into heat energy. Water level gradually rises so that no velocity at the basin end is reduced to the normal velocity of flow in the river. The length of basin required depends primarily upon the prejump Froude number (Fr1) and the discharge intensity. The conjugate depth required for the jump depends on the prejump Froudes number of the entering jet and may be expressed as D2 / D 1 = [{ 8 F12 + 1}1/2- 1] Where D2 is the post jump conjugate depth , D 1 is the prejump depth and F1 is the prejump Froue number of flow given by F1 = V1/ {g D1} Where V1 is the prejump mean velocity of flow. Commonly used U.S.B.R. stilling basins are of type-I, II, III and IV{Fig.3,4,5 & 6 respectively} depending upon the pre-jump Froudes number and incoming velocity of flow before the jump. The basins are provided with dentated sills, baffle blocks, Chute blocks and end sills, depending upon pre-jump Froude number and prejump velocity. Forced jump length due to these appurtenances is smaller thereby reducing the basin length. Appurtenances also help in stabililsing the jump in the basin even with reduced tail water depth.

Fig. 3 U.S.B.R. Stilling basin-I

Fig. 4 U.S.B.R. Stilling basin-II

Fig. 5 U.S.B.R. Stilling basin-III

Fig. 6 U.S.B.R. Stilling basin-IV

Stilling basins are provided when available depths of tail water does not vary more than 10% to 15% of sequent depths needed for the perfect jump. 1.3.2 Sloping Apron Type Bye using sloping aprons; it is possible to produce efficient jump at all discharges especially in situation when tail water depth available is more than sequent depth required for jump. It is generally agreed that a hydraulic jump with strong turbulence and excellent energy dissipating characteristics will form in channels with sloping apron down stream with an inclination no steeper than three horizontal to one vertical. When slope is too steep, the high velocity jet dips under the surface of the pool with little dissipation of energy and resulting in erosion of the streambed and sides downstream. This basin is; however, very costly due to excessive thickness of apron required. Fig. No. 7{a & b) illustrates the various types of appurtenances used for stablising jumps in stilling basins.

Fig. 7(a) Showing T-type baffle blocks in lower Bhwani Dam

Fig. 7(b) Showing Hexagonal type used baffle blocks devloped by Pillai

1.3.3 WATER CUSHION (PLUNG POOL TYPE DISSPATOR) In this type, the nappe impinges into the stilling water cushion below. There is no clear standing wave formation and the energy is dissipated by the turbulent diffusion as the high velocity jet enters the deep pool on the downstream. The water cushion offers easy solution but actually the design of suitable water cushion is difficult. Also, since this requires a huge depression just at or beyond the toe of the

dam, and damage occurring to the basin may endanger the safety of the structure which is subjected to vibration due to impact and separation of free falling jet from the structure.

1.3.4 SOLD ROLLER BUCKE TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATOR An upturn sold bucket (Fig. No.8) is used when tail water depth is much in excess of sequent depth and in which dissipation of considerable portion of energy occurs as a result of formation of two complementary elliptical rollers, one in the bucket proper, called bucket roller, which is anti-clockwise (if the flow is to the right) and the other down stream of the bucket, called ground roller, which is clockwise. Bucket roller is effective within a design range of tail water variation. If the tail water is lower than the permissible lower limit, the incoming high velocity jet will sweep out and form a sky jump. When the tail water level exceeds the uppermost limit, the incoming jet will not form rollers but moves to the surface causing little dissipation of energy.

Fig. 8 Showing solid bucket type energy dissipator 1.3.5 SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATOR An upturn bucket with teeth in it is used when the tail water depth is much in excess of sequent depth and in which the dissipation of energy occurs by lateral spreading of jet passing through bucket slots in addition to the formation of two rollers as in solid roller bucket. The range of tail water variation in which a slotted roller bucket remains effective is less than that in a solid roller bucket. 1.3.6 SKI-UMP (OR FLIP OR TRAJECTORY BUCKET) TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATOR An upturn solid bucket is used when the tail water depth is insufficient for formation of hydraulic jump and the bed of the channel downstream comprises of sound rock which is capable of withstanding (without excessive scour), the impact of high velocity jet. The flow coming down the spillway is thrown away from toe of the discharging upturned bucket and it falls into the channel directly, thereby avoiding excessive scour immediately downstream of the spillway. There is hardly any energy dissipation within the bucket itself. The device is used mainly to increase the distance from the structure to the place where high velocity jet hits the channel bed, thus avoiding the danger of excessive scour immediately downstream of the spillway. Due to the throw of the jet in the shape of trajectory, energy dissipation takes place by: -

i) ii) iii)

Internal friction within the jet The interaction between the jet and surrounding air The diffusion of the jet in the tail water pool in the crator formed due to scouring action of the jet. The impact on the channel bed.


SELECTION OF TYPE OF ENERGY DISSIPATOR Although there is no hard and fast rule to select a particular type of energy dissipater, but following factors are considered while selecting the type of energy dissipater: i) Type of dam and its spillway ii) Frequency and intensity of flood flows. iii) The degree of protection to be provided for very high floods. iv) Proximity of power house, tailrace and other structure. v) Velocity and nature of flow. vi) Elevation of tail water at various discharges. vii) Nature of foundations. viii) Type and amount of bed material rolling on the spillway. ix) Safety of existing structure downstream. x) Hydraulic approach conditions including specific discharge, energy head of approach flow, head loss and type of outlet. xi) Any special consideration such as deep pool in close proximity of dam or its downstream. xii) Economic comparison with other dissipaters. These factors only give broad guidelines to select a suitable type of energy dissipater, which is subjected to model study. The final choice can be made after satisfactory results from model studies are obtained. However, some guidelines are observed as follows. 1.4.1 TYPE OF DAM AND ITS SPILLWAY If the dam is an arch dam with a free fall spillway, it is generally provided with stilling pools of high depths. An earth dam, with chute spillway, can be provided with a hydraulic jump basin, with or without baffles or end sills to suit tail water rating curves. Similarly, if water flows from a reservoir through a tunnel outlet, the energy can best be dissipated by jet diffusion. When the tail water depth is low and the riverbed is rocky, flip bucket type energy dissipater is preferred. 1.4.2 NATURE OF FOUNDATIONS If the riverbed is of solid rock, a bucket type dissipater may be most suitably adopted with much lesser length of stilling basin. In case riverbed consists of softer, jointed and fractured rock or of alluvial deposit a long apron with a hydraulic jump type-stilling basin with baffles and end sills may be more suitable. 1.4.3 VELOCITY OF FLOW If the velocity of flow is very high, baffles in the stilling basin cannot be provided as the baffles are subjected to cavitation damage. 1.4.4 ELEVATION OF TAIL WATER AT VARIOUS DISCHARGES

Accuracy of data in this respect is a pre-requisite for the most efficient and economic type of dissipater. The jump height curve may be related to the depth discharge curve as illustrated as under: Jump Height (or conjugate depth) is Always Above The Tail Water Depth This means that the depth of flow in the river in the particular section is insufficient for all discharges for the formation of a jump at the toe of the structure. The jump will try to sweep across the apron at a high velocity and attack the bed downstream. To dissipate energy here following methods is useful: i) By lowering the floor level downstream of the dam, so that the tail water depth in the stilling basin equals the jump height for all discharges. Three alternatives for this are: a) A horizontal floor depressed below the river bed level. b) A depressed floor having rise towards the downstream end. c) A depressed floor having slope away from the toe of the dam. ii)
iii) iv)

Stilling basin with baffles or sills at riverbed level. Stilling basin with a low subsidiary dam downstream. Ski-jump Bucket. Jump Height is Less Than Tail Water Depth With higher depth of tail water, the tendency of the high velocity flow is to dive under the tail water and travel a long distance along the bottom, forming only a very imperfect jump. The energy dissipation can be done in the following ways: i) Sloping apron. ii) Roller bucket type of energy dissipaters Jump Height is More Than Tail Water Depth at Low Discharges and less at Higher Discharges For such a condition, the solution lies in creating artificially enough water depth to make the jump form on the apron at low discharges. The following alternatives can be applied: i) ii) Stilling basin with a low secondary dam. Stilling basin with baffle piers or some form of dentated sills. Jump Height Below The Tail Water Depth At Low Discharges And Above At Higher Discharges The main condition to be met in this case is the provision of sufficient depth of tail water for the formation of the jump to high flows. Construction of secondary dam or sloping apron will serve the purpose. A bucket type of energy dissipater can be provided with success if rock below is sound. It will act as roller bucket for low discharges and ski-jump bucket at higher discharges. STILLING BASIN WITH DIVERGING SIDE WALLS In the conventional design of an energy dissipater for a flumed structure, the width of the stilling basin is kept same till the end of the stilling basin (equal to flumed width). The flume is widened again to the original cross-section of the channel by providing another set of expanding transitions (Fig. No.9). The entire portion from 1.5

the start of the contracting transitions to the end of expanding transition is very long. They are often concrete lined and the thickness is given according to the uplift pressure. Sidewalls of dissipation structure are kept parallel to avoid separation of flow. The length of the jump governs the length of the energy dissipater.

Fig. 9 Showing stilling basin with diverging side walls Various kinds of jump-type dissipaters developed by USBR (1) and others when sidewalls are kept parallel are popular. But in some cases, it is difficult to provide as The cost of construction of such basins is very high. They are not suitable when tail water variation w.r.t. Sequent depth requirement is too high. iii) Performance of conventional stilling basins is not satisfactory when pre-jump Froudes number (Fr1) is less than about 4.5. iv) At high value of prejump velocity (V1 > 16 m/s), baffle blocks are subjected to cavitation. In order to overcome these difficulties, an attempt was made by Mazumder (2) by developing a non-convetional type of energy dissipator with diverging sidewalls. In this new type of design of energy dissipator, dissipating and transition structures have been combined into one unit by flaring the sidewalls of dissipating structure right from the toe of the fall. The proposed design is shown in (Fig.No.9). PROVISION OF ADVERSE SLOPE TO THE BASIN FLOOR FOR STABILISING THE JUMP AND IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF BASIN WITH DIVERGING SIDE WALLS If the side walls diverge out at a rate greater than 1 in 3 F1, hydraulic jump in an expanding passages is unsymmetric skew type jump when the floor of the basin is level and no appurtenance is used .Almost whole of the kinetic energy of incoming flow remains undissipated and a large amount of residual kinetic energy leaves the basin. Since the depth of flow remains the same after the exit of the expansion, the mean velocity (V2) of flow in tail channel remains practically the same. The excess kinetic energy of flow (2-1)V22/2g over normal kinetic energy of flow (V22/2g) can 1.6 i) ii)

be contained through non-uniform distribution of flow. Naresh (3) estimated that 1% of energy remaining undissipated (=99%) shall make 2 =2.46 and when the residual kinetic energy of flow is 2%, (=98%) ,2 was found to be varying from 4 to 10 depending upon the discharge.The distorted and concentrated velocity profile resulted in high value of 2. Being unstable in nature, the jet flow swings from one side to another with reverse flow on the other side and vice versa.The unstable flow is due to the axial component of the diverging side wall reaction in the direction of flow . This forward axial component of side walls reaction can be balanced by raising the bed of basin floor at an optimum adverse slope (opt) within the basin. Fig.No.10 shows the variation of 2 for velocity distribution at the exit end of basin after provision of adverse slope to the basin floor. Sharma (4) computed theoretically the values of for different flow conditions and the basin was tested for values varying form 10 to 50. Result found was highly satisfactory. Mazumder (5) carried on further study to standardise the design of stilling basins with diverging sidewalls for flumed hydraulic structures like drops, regulators, and flow meters, side-channel and chute spillway etc.

Fig. 10(a) Showing variation of opt Fig. 10 (b) Showing variation of opt for different discharges and F1 (Atulya for different discharges and F1 Sharma) for straight glacis type spillway (Sadananad Ozha) for Ogee type spillway

References :
(1) United States Bureau of Reclamation ,Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins andBucket Energy DissipatorsEngineering Monograph No. 25, 1958. (2) Mazumder, S.K.,Stilling Basins with Diverging Side Walls Proc. Int. Model Testing in Hydraulic Research, Org. by CBI&P and CW&PRS at Pune, 24-26 Sept.1987. (3) Mazumder, S.K. & Naresh H.S.Use of Appurtenances for Efficient Design of Jump type Dissipators having Diverging Side Walls for Flumed Canal FallsJ. of C.E. Div.,The Institution of Engineers (India) Vol. 68 Pt. CI 6 ,May,1988. (4) Mazumder, S.K.& Sharma, Atulya Stilling Basin with Diverging Side WallsProc. XX Congress of IAHR Vol.7,Moscow, Sept.5-7, 1983. (5) Mazumder, S.K. Stilling Basin with Rapidly Diverging Side Walls for Flumed Hydraulic Structures, National Symp. On Recent Trends in Design of Hydraulic Structures Org. by Deptt. Of Civil Engg.,University of Roorkee and Indian Society for Hydraulics at Roorkee Univ.,March 18-19,1994. (6) Mazumder,S.K & Patl P.L Model Study of a Sky-Jump type Energy Dissipator Proc. Of Hydro-2001,Org. by ISH & CW&PRS, Pune Dec.67,2001. (7) Hager,Willi H Energy Dissipators and Hydraulic Jump Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992. (8) Bureau of Indian Standards Is: 4997-Criteria for design of Jump type Stilling Basin with Horizontal and Sloping Aprons (9) Bueau of Indian Standards IS:5186 Criteria for Design of Chute and Side Channel Spillways (10) Bueau of Indian Standards IS:7365 Criteria for Hydraulic Design of Bucket type Energy Dissipators (11) USBR Design of small DamsIndian Edition, Pub. By Oxford &IBH Pub. CO., Calcutta. (12) Ven- Te-Chow Open Channel Flow McGraw Hill Book Co. (13) Bradley & Peterka The Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins Papers 1401,1402,1403,Proc.ASCE , J. of Hyd. Divn.HY 5, 1983. (14) Elevatorsky, E.A Hydraulic Energy Dissipators. McGraw-Hill Book Company (15) Pillai, N. & Unny, T.E Shapes for Appurtenances in Stilling Basins Proc. ASCE, J. Hydraulic Division 90 (HY3), 1964 (16) Task Force on Energy Dissipators for Spillway and Outlet Works Energy Dissipators for Spillways and Outlet Works. Proc. ASCE, J. Hydraulics Division 90(HY1) : P359-363 : 1964, 90 (HY5) : P201-222; 1965, 91(HY2): P292-300.