Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14


What Is Aggression? (handout/exercise) Aggression Defined:

This is any form of behavior that is intended to harm or injure some person, oneself, or an object. Instrumental vs. Hostile Aggression IA: This is the intentional use of harmful behavior so that one can achieve some other goal HA: This is the intentional use of harmful behavior, where the goal is simply to cause injury or death to the victim.

Theoretical perspectives
Instinct perspectives Biological theories Drive theories Social learning theory Cognitive theories

1-Instinct Perspectives
People, like animals, possess an innate aggressive instinct. Aggression is part of human nature Freud held that aggression stems from a forceful death wish or instinct Initially aimed at self destruction But, to survive, is redirected outwardly Was greatly influenced by witnessing the annihilation of the Jews in WWII Lorenz proposed that aggression stems from a fighting instinct Developed during the course of evolution because it promoted survival of the species Spread the population over a wide area Helped assure that only the strongest would pass genes on to future generations

Modern instinct theory: Sociobiology assumes that aggression increases the likelihood that an individual will survive and successfully reproduce. (Go to Psy 1010 web links) Most social psychologists are critical of instinct theory Levels of at least some forms of aggression vary greatly among various societies (Tasaday vs. Yanamano Indians) Such huge differences in behavior indicate that aggressive behavior is greatly influenced by cultural and social factors Nonetheless, remember how you feel when encroached upon by a nonrelated member of human species. Ever feel incredibly rageful? Or how would you react if someone tried to "harm" a relative?

2-Biological theories
Growing body of evidence indicates that biological factors predispose some individuals toward aggression Amygdala & electrical stimulation Brain damage Attempted suicides and persons institutionalized because of extremely high levels of aggression had lower levels of serotonin than normal healthy controls Female transsexuals receiving large doses of testosterone report higher levels of anger and aggression during treatment None of the studies show that aggressive tendencies are inherited in a direct way or that biological factors are the most important determinants of aggressive behavior

3-Social learning theory (Bandura)

Instrumentally aggressive behaviors are learned through direct experience or through observation We learn not only how to behave aggressively, but who are appropriate targets, what behaviors "justify" aggressive retaliation, and in what situations aggression is appropriate Direct reinforcement: If aggression is rewarded, aggressive response is strengthened. What if aggression punished? Does it decrease? Observational learning: Bobo doll experiment. Study the experiment. Short-term laboratory experiments:

Even young children can acquire new ways of aggressing from watching media violence (e.g., Geen, 1991)

4-Cognitive theories
Aggression comes from a complex interplay among cognitive factors -- scripts, attributions, affective states (moods) and other factors--e.g., memories Studies on direct provocation: Actions by others may trigger aggression. ONLY IF they are perceived to stem from malicious intent. We tend NOT to "turn the other cheek" in this case. What provokes us? Harris (1993) found both male and females find physical and verbal aggression most anger provoking But females are much more likely than males to be provoked by condescension and insensitivity Males provoked by casting aspersions on their sexuality; incompetence; physical threats Studies on hostile attributional bias: Dodge et al. (1986) found that the greater the tendency of boys to attribute hostile intentions to others, the greater their tendency to engage in aggression while playing with other children Studies of adolescents also show that the tendency to perceive malice in the action of others is closely related to high levels of aggression Not everyone has been able to replicate, however

5-Drive theories
Suggest that aggression comes from external conditions that arouse the motive to harm others Hostile Aggression & The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: F-A hyp. first developed by a group of social psychologists in 1939. It states that frustration causes aggression and that catharsis is the reduction in the aggressive drive following an aggressive act. Frustration (interference with goal-directed behavior) arouses a drive whose primary goal is that of harming a person or object--usually the perceived cause of the frustration (coke machine) Early tests of the theory were mostly successful, but....

Criticisms: frustration does not always lead to aggression nor is aggression always the result of frustration. frustration only leads to aggression when it is seen as intentionally meant to thwart the person. Catharsis: We all like to believe that catharsis (a drive) works, but it does not. I'll get to this later.

Berkowitz' recent rendition of a "kind" of drive theory

A revised frustration-aggression hypothesis states that frustration is just one of the many factors that can stimulate negative affect. Berkowitz (1989) proposed a revision that incorporates both cognitive and affective factors. (study him!) Frustration is an aversive experience, and it leads to aggression because it is unpleasant & arousing Frustration sometimes leads to aggression because of a basic relationship between negative affect and aggressive behavior Does so most when the frustrating event is perceived as maliciously intended This helps explain why unexpected and/or illegitimate or unjustified frustration tends to produce stronger aggression Presumably it produces more negative affect than frustration that is expected or viewed as justified

Other Factors Involved in or Theories of Aggression: Temperature and Aggression

Hot weather can put people in bad moods, and these moods can make them more likely to respond to frustration with aggression. Study Affect-Arousal models. Know differences.

Excitation Transfer Theory of Aggression Zillmann (1988)

Arousal produced in one situation can persist and intensify emotional reactions occurring in later situations (exercise study)

These effects are most likely to occur when person is unaware of the presence of the residual arousal or when persons recognize their residual arousal, but attribute it to the present situation

Zillmann (1994)
Expanded 1988 theory to incorporate interaction between cognition and emotion Cognitions can lead us to reappraise various emotion-arousing events which may influence our emotional reactions Arousal can influence our thoughts, producing a cognitive deficit--a reduced ability to plan rationally or evaluate the outcomes of our behavior Example: Sexual arousal Relatively mild levels of sexual arousal can reduce aggression Exposure to more arousing sexual materials can increase aggression Zillmann (1984) proposes a two- component model: Exposure to erotic stimuli increases arousal influences current affective states Mild erotic materials produce weak levels of arousal but high levels of positive affect-tending to reduce overt aggression Very explicit sexual materials produce stronger arousal and negative affect (because many people find some of the acts shown to be disturbing)--tending to increase overt aggression

Aggressive Cues as "Triggers" of Aggression

Presence of aggression-associated cues in the environment act as triggers for hostile outbursts (e.g., weapons). Study Berkowitz.

Alcohol and Aggression

The research has found a strong correlation between alcohol intoxication and a host of different types of aggression, including domestic abuse, assault, rape, and homicide. Think of recent hate crimes.

Television Violence and Observational Learning

Experimental and field studies of media violence indicate a clear relationship between viewing aggressive models on television or film and increases aggressive behavior in children. Longitudinal studies of media violence suggest that the frequency of viewing televised violence does seem to contribute to later aggressive behavior. Cross-cultural research on media violence indicates relatively stable results across cultures.

The Contagion of Violence: Copycat Aggression

It appears that news reports sometimes are sufficient catalysts to promote disturbed individuals to commit an act they had been contemplating but had not yet acted on.

Why Does Exposure to Media Violence Affect Behavior?

Disinhibition suggests that viewing the violence of others reduces people's inhibitions against engaging in similar actions. The formation of aggressive scripts is a guide for behavior and problem solving that is developed and stored in memory and is characterized by aggression. Cognitive priming: Aggressive cues in television and films can prime a host of aggressive ideas and violent actions may trigger aggressive actions.

Sexual Aggression, Pornography and Sexual Assault What is pornography? The combination of sexual material along with abuse or
degradation in a manner that appears to endorse, condone, or encourage such behavior. The rape myth is a false belief--that deep down, women enjoy forcible sex and find it sexually exciting. Aggressive behavior research indicated that when men watch a mixture of sex and violence they tend not to only underestimate the seriousness of rape, they also are more likely to justify sexual aggression have reduced inhibitions about engaging in aggressive behaviors. Desensitizing and conditioning violence is often motivated for the wrong reasons (MONEY). Ethical issues in conducting pornography research include the problem of men who see films or read of women being sexually assaulted (shades of observational learning) learning that rape is not harmful.

Sexual Scripts and Acquaintance Rape

Acquaintance rape is forced sexual intercourse that occurs either on a date or between people who are acquainted or romantically involved. The female resistant role must be consistent; she must mean "no" when she says "no". The male predator role research indicates that the predator believes that women like a little force to enjoy sex; he does not view acquaintance rape as rape.

Jealousy and Aggression

Research indicates that what often results is an increasing escalation of physical and psychological abuse.

Applications: Reducing Aggression Punishment is not enough.

May reduce aggressive behavior under certain circumstances. When, do you think? It does not teach the aggressor new prosocial forms of behavior; punishment also serves as a model for aggressive behavior.

Social Modeling:
Do as I do. Teaches by example. Research suggests that both aggression and nonaggression can be learned through social modeling.

Inducing Incompatible Responses:

Will not be aggressive when you are feeling responses inconsistent with aggression Humor, mild sexual arousal, feelings of empathy have all been effective in reducing overt aggression

Cognitive Interventions:
People can presumably control their aggressiveness by thinking that they should not or will not aggress Example: Asking kids to state why it is bad to imitate television violence Example: Having children think about how their aggressive behavior hurts another.

Ethnic or Cultural Differences in Aggressiveness

Ostermann et al. (1994); 8-year-old children's self-reports or peer ratings

Aggressive in this order: African American children (from Chicago inner city) most aggressive, then Caucasian American, Polish, and Finnish children. Why?

Gender Differences
Are men more aggressive than women? This is the stereotype, from early age onwards. Males may be more aggressive with no provocation. But, when provoked, differences are minimal Physical aggression more prevalent in males. Verbal or indirect more prevalent in females. How to explain gender differences? Social role interpretation? (Eagly et al.) Biological factors (e.g., testosterone). Correlational research.

Aggressiveness in Communication
Aggressiveness in communication is a style in which individuals express their feelings and opinions and/or advocate for their needs and rights in a way that violates the rights of others. Aggressive communicators are often verbally and/or physically abusive.


- try to dominate others - use humiliation to control others - criticize, blame or attack others - be very impulsive - have low frustration tolerance - speak in a loud, demanding and overbearing voice - act threateningly and rudely - not listen well - interrupt frequently - use you statements - have piercing eye contact and an overbearing posture

The impact of a pattern of agressive communication is that these individuals: - become alienated from others - alienate others - generate fear and hatred in others - do not mature because every problem is someone elses fault


- Im superior and right and youre inferior and wrong. - Im loud, bossy and pushy. - I can dominate and intimidate others. - I can violate other peoples rights. - Ill get my way no matter what. - Youre not worth anything. - I step on other people. - Its all your fault. - I react instantly. - Im entitled. - You owe me. - I own you.

Aggression as a Tactic Threat Tactics

Using power Bluffing Threating Harming the other side when he/she passes over the limits Implying harm by reprisal when the other side use his power hostile etc

Coercive Tactics
Requesting compensation by complaining Requesting commitment Requesting something that the other side could not do Hiding information Confusing the other side Humiliating the other side

How can you overcome aggression?

explore emotions of hurt and fear underlyng the anger develop empathetic understanding assume the best intentions (whenever possible) examine underlying expectations choose happiness instead of anger

How can you overcome aggression?

Accept reality and forgive Forgiving is not forgetting, it is remembering and letting go. (Claudia Black) choose the HAPPINESS DOCTRINE over the fairness doctrine

choose ACCEPTING the unchangeable aspects of reality over hostility

Every moment of anger is one less moment of happiness How to Overcome Aggressive Negotiators Tactics
Beat aggression through managing the manipulative negotiation tactics of the other party by asking the right questions. Stay calm and adopt an assertive approach Notice the aggressor and allow them to let of steam Listen actively

How to Overcome Aggressive Negotiators Tactics

Do not reward rudeness or abuse Do not bluff Focus on the story, not the aggression Training and role-play

Is aggression always bad?

serving very positive functions when expressed properly. Studies continue to show that anger can have beneficial effects on individuals' health, their relationships and their work. Socially, very positive changes can come from anger -- for instance, the civil rights movement of the 1960s or the women's suffrage movement in the early 20th century. On an individual level, scientists have shown angriness actually strengthen personal relationships more than half of the time.

Is agression always bad?

Social scientists agree that anger can be beneficial when it is expressed constructively. Constructive anger expression involves both parties, not just the angry person. Ideally, the angry person expresses his or her anger and the target has a chance to respond for solving a problem. Agression Or Passivity - What Is Better? I am the world. The world must obey me. I can never be wrong. I know what is to be done and how. All of you must follow what I say without any protest, because I tolerate no dissent. I am the storehouse of all the knowledge and what I do not know is not worth knowing. I am the most intelligent person going around and though I do not show it clearly, I know that all of you are much lower than me in intelligence. I am the boss. Please be with me. I do not know how to face the world. I will do what you say, but please protect me from this world. I do not know much and please guide me at every step. I need you. Please help me at all the times.

These are two ends of extreme personalities. The first one - aggressive and the second one -passive. Psychology is as complex as the human mind and as the time passes more discoveries and more theories get propounded. But I am not talking about clinical psychology. I am talking about what we observe in our everyday life and what it teaches us. As you read the descriptions above, you will agree that both the types are not healthy. The healthy personality has respect for its strengths and acknowledges its weaknesses without feeling bad about them. The healthy personality respects others for their strengths and does not show any disdain for their weaknesses. He/she knows that all of us are imperfect in some way. The healthy personality does not try to overwhelm others with knowledge, but helps with guidance. The healthy type is equally not overwhelmed by more dominant people but acknowledges that they are good in some areas and respects them for that. But does not behave submissively. In this world, none of us is perfect. We all should be ready to learn new things without feeling inferior. All right, I do not know how to play the piano. Please teach me. If I find out that I will learn it and like playing I will continue learning, otherwise I will try my hand at something else. For a healthy person, the qualities do not make a person inferior or superior. He/she treats all as human beings first and says that some one is good or not very good at doing something. If a healthy personality has to express his/her opinion about someone's shortcoming, it will not be - that person is a fool, but that person has certain deficiencies but the deficiencies can be taken care of by proper learning.


In our dance programme we want to show how the agression could be show in an artistic way. Firstly there was a girl and two boys who was fighting for the girl. And also the music was hard and it also shows the aggressive behaviour. Among the boys one of them was good, and one of them was bad. And also the girl didnt prefer both of them at the end. But the boys fighted. Here, we thought that the effects of music and dance. For example, as a classic example we thought the fans of arabeskmusic. As a result of that we know the people who harms himself or herself and eachother. Further more, as we stated in our presentation and report, the artists are a model for the ordinaries. (social modeling). Beside this, we wanted to show as an application for reducing agression. Because the scientist shows us dance reduces the stress and aggression. we must remember from our presentation and report that jealosy was a major factor for aggression. In our dance show, the bad boy and good boy were jealusy of the girl. And this made them aggressive. And the girl(jealusy) was the reason for their fight. As an important point we must say triggers. In the show, the girl was a trigger for boys. Because the girl was a fighting reason


Although there are many legends and stories about the origins and development of tango, we will attempt to give an outline that is broadly accepted, and we have picked up from a variety

of sources. Tango is a dance and music that originated in Buenos Aires at the turn of the century, developing in the melting pot of cultures that was Buenos Aires. Immigrants from Europe - Italy, Spain, Britain, Poland, Russia, Germany and every other European country mixed with earlier generation of settlers of all races from other South American countries. Tango was initially danced on streets, in bars, cafes, gambling houses, and quilombos (prostitution places). Later on dancing houses that provided girls for dancing and entertainment, appeared. They brought their native music and dances with them, and continued to assimilate new innovations from abroad. Traditional polkas, waltzes and mazurkas were mixed with the popular Habanera from Cuba to form a new dance and music, the milonga, which was popular in the 1870s . This was known as the "poor man's Habanera". The word tango was used at the time to describe various music and dance, for example the "tango andaluza" from Spain in the 1880s. The black population had their dances, the candombe, a mix of many different african traditions, and the place they danced and the dance itself have also been referred to as tango. Buenos Aires was very poor city, with almost penniless immigrants coming to make their fortunes on the plains of Argentina or Uruguay, failing and ending up in the cities. In the early years of the 1900 2 million immigrants arrived in BsAs from Europe, 1/2 from Italy, 1/3 from Spain. Many were single men, hoping to earn enough to return to Europe, or bring their family or buy a bride from Europe. A poor, desperate, male population bred crime, brothels, gangsters, and the tango! The generally accepted history has the tango dance originating from the minor toughs, the compadritos, with nothing to their name except macho pride, imitating the dances of the African population, as the danced on the street. Thus, the much wilder candombe was mixed with the milonga to form the early Tango. Men danced together - there were few women, but tango inevitably moved to where they could be found - in the brothels, and it is said that the women could chose their clients by their dancing skill. The man had three dances to prove himself! In the mysterious way that popular culture develops, this dance and music moved up the social scale, met more refined cousins coming down, and was picked up by the sons of the rich who preferred to send their time in the less salubrious parts of their city. By 1910 the rich sons of Argentina were making their way to Paris, centre of the cultural and entertainment world. They introduced the tango into a society eager for innovation, and not entirely averse to the risqu nature of this import, especially as taught by the dashing, rich latin boys who brought it. In 1913 the Tango had spread from St Petersburg to New York, not without controversy, and had become an international phenomena, even if its heart was still on the Rio de la Plata and the cities of BsAs and Montevideo. The Argentine upper classes who had shunned the tango were now forced into accepting it, because it was fashionable in Paris. Hollywood glamorised the tango to a mass audience, with Valentino as the most famous if completely inauthentic tangoing gaucho. At this point a long conflict started between tango as the expression of the soul and experience of the Buenos Aires resident- the Porteo, and this being inaccessible to anyone else, and a universally practiced and meaningful music and dance. The First World War was a hiatus to the development, but during this time the first films were made, the tango lyric and music developed and recordings made. After the War the tango was again taken up again and became the dominant music and dance of the fun seeking and culturally anarchic 20s. The development of tango in this period reflects its emergence from the small venues, where sex and machismo were the everyday, to become a mass entertainment, danced by thousands of respectable citizens of prospering cities: Argentina was now one of the richest countries in the world. The dance was refined to the slick and elegant

'salon' style, the lyrics of the songs slowly moved from lamenting the poverty and loneliness of the immigrant men, to more generic love songs for the mass market. However, many lyrics played on nostalgia for the "good old days" before the neighbourhoods were cleaned up. Stars were made, singers, notably Gardel, and many other musicians, dancers, lyricists and composers. They were not only famous in Argentina and Uruguay, but travelled the world. By 1930 it was out of fashion in Europe, but in Argentina the Golden Age was starting, with a flourishing in music, poetry and culture, and the tango came to be a fundamental expression of Argentine culture. The depression also changed the character of tango, and the lyrics reflected the renewed poverty and social divisions in the country. However the Golden Age lasted through the 40s and 50s, and this is the period of its greatest development and expression. Tango changed with political and economic conditions, and we can hear this in the music. In poorer times, orchestras were smaller, and as political repression developed, lyrics become political too, until they started to be banned as subversive. The dance style changed, as large salons closed , and dancers were once again forced into small venues with less space. Tango eventually went out of fashion, crushed like many other dances, by the arrival of America swing and rock and roll, and was repressed by the nationalist government . From the 1960s to the 1980s it was only danced and played by a few of the older generation and enthusiasts. The current revival dates from the early 1980s, when a stage show Tango Argentino toured the world creating a dazzling version of the tango and a romantisisation of the early and golden ages of tango. This is said to have stimulated the revival in the US, Europe and Japan. With the arrival of democracy in Argentina, and a search for a national culture, tango interest was revived, and although still ignored by many young people, there is enough interest to supply the world with a steady stream of hopeful tango teachers and a market for musicians to rediscover and reinvent the music. The 1990s is again a period of renewal, of tension between the international and the argentine, between a desire to recreate the Golden Age, and another to evolve it in the light of modern culture and values. There is an explosion of interest around the world with places to dance in many cities and towns, and a growing circuit of international festivals

1- Gregory rocklin, Combit Boston, 1973, MANS AGGRESSION 2- Edited by Ashleymontage second edition Newyork, Oxford University Pres, MAN AND AGGRESSION 3- Edited by Russel G.G. , Edmard I. D. 1983, AGGRESSION 4- Edited by Edwih J.Megorgel and Jack E. Hakanson, 1970, THE DYNAMCS OF AGGRESSION. 5- (Utah State University) 6- 7- 8-