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Introduction to Chemistry

Introduction to Chemistry Louie Paolo D. Carpio Instructor 3 Institute of Chemistry, UP Diliman

Louie Paolo D. Carpio

Instructor 3 Institute of Chemistry, UP Diliman

Introduction to Chemistry Louie Paolo D. Carpio Instructor 3 Institute of Chemistry, UP Diliman

OBJECTIVES for today

OBJECTIVES for today 1. Define chemistry 2. Define matter 3. Classification of matter 4. Phases of

1. Define chemistry

2. Define matter

3. Classification of matter

4. Phases of matter

5. Describe properties of matter

1. Define chemistry 2. Define matter 3. Classification of matter 4. Phases of matter 5. Describe

Chemistry: Definition

Chemistry: Definition CHEMISTRY – study of matter (composition, structure, properties, transformations and energy

CHEMISTRY – study of matter (composition, structure, properties, transformations and energy involved in the transformations)

– study of matter (composition, structure, properties, transformations and energy involved in the transformations)

Matter: Definition

Matter: Definition Matter – an object which has 2 basic properties: 1. mass - describes quantity

Matter – an object which has 2 basic properties:

1. mass - describes quantity of matter

2. volume – amount of space it occupies

object which has 2 basic properties: 1. mass - describes quantity of matter 2. volume –

Matter: Exercise

Matter: Exercise Which of the following is an example of matter? table thought love computer light

Which of the following is an example of matter?

table

thought

love

computer

light

mass

volume

matter?

?

?

?

volume matter?             ? ?

Phases of matter

Phases of matter 1. Solids - definite shape and volume 2. Liquids – definite volume but

1. Solids - definite shape and volume

2. Liquids – definite volume but not shape

3. Gases – no definite volume and shape

4. Liquid crystals*

5. plasma*

2. Liquids – definite volume but not shape 3. Gases – no definite volume and shape

Phases of matter

Phases of matter
Phases of matter
Phases of matter

Chemistry: Study of Matter

Chemistry: Study of Matter Psychiatry Neurology Pharmacology Medicine Physiology Biology Toxicology Agriculture

Psychiatry

Neurology

Pharmacology

Medicine

Physiology

Biology
Biology

Toxicology

Agriculture

Electronics

Chemistry
Chemistry

Mat. Science

Physics
Physics

Metallurgy

Engineering

Food Science

Envt’l Science

Economics

Agriculture Electronics Chemistry Mat. Science Physics Metallurgy Engineering Food Science Envt’l Science Economics

Classification of Matter:

Classification of Matter: MATTER SUBSTANCES • has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties

MATTER

Classification of Matter: MATTER SUBSTANCES • has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties
Classification of Matter: MATTER SUBSTANCES • has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties

SUBSTANCES

has fixed or definite composition

• unique set of properties

• has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties MIXTURES • composed of two

MIXTURES

composed of two or more substances

• has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties MIXTURES • composed of two

SUBSTANCES

SUBSTANCES - have definite composition and properties SUBSTANCES ELEMENTS • simplest type of matter • substance

- have definite composition and properties

SUBSTANCES

- have definite composition and properties SUBSTANCES ELEMENTS • simplest type of matter • substance that
- have definite composition and properties SUBSTANCES ELEMENTS • simplest type of matter • substance that

ELEMENTS

simplest type of matter

• substance that is composed of only one type of atom

• substance that is composed of only one type of atom COMPOUNDS • combination of different

COMPOUNDS

combination of different elements in a definite ratio

substance that is composed of only one type of atom COMPOUNDS • combination of different elements

ELEMENTS

ELEMENTS - simplest type of matter and composed of only one type of atom - found

- simplest type of matter and composed of only one type of atom

- found in the periodic table

Examples:

1. Carbon – represented as C

2. Sodium – represented as Na

3. Oxygen – represented as O

the periodic table Examples: 1. Carbon – represented as C 2. Sodium – represented as Na

ELEMENTS: classification

ELEMENTS: classification Elements are classified in the periodic table as: 1. Metals – conductivity, luster,

Elements are classified in the periodic table as:

1. Metals – conductivity, luster, malleability,

ductility (majority of the elements are metals)

2. Nonmetals – non-conductivity, reactivity

3. Metalloids – combination of metallic and

nonmetallic properties (semiconductors)

– non-conductivity, reactivity 3. Metalloids – combination of metallic and nonmetallic properties (semiconductors)

ELEMENTS: classification

ELEMENTS: classification
ELEMENTS: classification
ELEMENTS: classification

ELEMENTS in the Periodic Table

ELEMENTS in the Periodic Table
ELEMENTS in the Periodic Table
ELEMENTS in the Periodic Table

ELEMENTS and Allotropes

ELEMENTS and Allotropes - simplest type of matter and composed of only one type of atom

- simplest type of matter and composed of only one type of atom

Allotropes – one of two or more forms of an element in the same physical state (Masterton, 2004)

examples:

Carbon graphite (black solid) and diamond (clear hard solid)

Oxygen O 2 (elemental oxygen) and O 3 (ozone)

SUBSTANCES

SUBSTANCES - have definite composition and properties SUBSTANCES ELEMENTS • simplest type of matter • substance

- have definite composition and properties

SUBSTANCES

- have definite composition and properties SUBSTANCES ELEMENTS • simplest type of matter • substance that
- have definite composition and properties SUBSTANCES ELEMENTS • simplest type of matter • substance that

ELEMENTS

simplest type of matter

• substance that is composed of only one type of atom

• substance that is composed of only one type of atom COMPOUNDS • combination of different

COMPOUNDS

combination of different elements in a definite ratio

substance that is composed of only one type of atom COMPOUNDS • combination of different elements

COMPOUNDS

COMPOUNDS - combination of different atoms / elements in a definite ratio - has unique properties

- combination of different atoms / elements in a definite ratio

- has unique properties

Examples:

1. Carbon dioxide– represented as CO 2

2. Sodium hydroxide – represented as NaOH

3. Water – represented as H 2 O

Carbon dioxide– represented as CO 2 2. Sodium hydroxide – represented as NaOH 3. Water –

COMPOUNDS & LODC

COMPOUNDS & LODC Definite composition of compounds can be described in two ways: 2. Type and

Definite composition of compounds can be described in two ways:

2. Type and the number of atoms

3. Masses or mass percentage of each

element in the compound Example: CO 2 has a definite composition of:

2. one atom of carbon and 2 atoms of oxygen

3. 12.011 g (27.3 %) of carbon and 32.000 g (72.7%) of oxygen for each 44.011 g of CO 2

of carbon and 2 atoms of oxygen 3. 12.011 g (27.3 %) of carbon and 32.000

Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter MATTER SUBSTANCES • has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties

MATTER

Classification of Matter MATTER SUBSTANCES • has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties
Classification of Matter MATTER SUBSTANCES • has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties

SUBSTANCES

has fixed or definite composition

• unique set of properties

• has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties MIXTURES • composed of two

MIXTURES

composed of two or more substances

• has fixed or definite composition • unique set of properties MIXTURES • composed of two

MIXTURES

MIXTURES   MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has
 

MIXTURES

 
 
 
 
  MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has uniform
  MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has uniform

HOMOGENEOUS

   

HETEROGENEOUS

• has only one phase and has uniform composition

made up of two or more phases

has indefinite composition and properties

phases • has indefinite composition and properties COLLOIDS • intermediate phase between homogeneous and

COLLOIDS

• intermediate phase between homogeneous and heterogeneous phase (1-1000 nm)

composition and properties COLLOIDS • intermediate phase between homogeneous and heterogeneous phase (1-1000 nm)

HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES:

HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES: also known as SOLUTIONS examples: air, alloys, iced tea, rubbing alcohol SOLUTION – components

also known as SOLUTIONS

examples: air, alloys, iced tea, rubbing alcohol

SOLUTION – components

1. Solvent – in greater amount

2. Solute – in lesser amount

important: solute is dissolved in solvent (dissolution process)

– in greater amount 2. Solute – in lesser amount important: solute is dissolved in solvent

MIXTURES

MIXTURES   MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has
 

MIXTURES

 
 
 
 
  MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has uniform
  MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has uniform

HOMOGENEOUS

   

HETEROGENEOUS

• has only one phase and has uniform composition

made up of two or more phases

has indefinite composition and properties

phases • has indefinite composition and properties COLLOIDS • intermediate phase between homogeneous and

COLLOIDS

• intermediate phase between homogeneous and heterogeneous phase (1-1000 nm)

composition and properties COLLOIDS • intermediate phase between homogeneous and heterogeneous phase (1-1000 nm)

COLLOIDS

COLLOIDS they appear homogeneous but have larger particle sizes examples: fog, smoke, gelatin, foam, etc. They

they appear homogeneous but have larger particle sizes examples: fog, smoke, gelatin, foam, etc.

They can be discriminated from homogeneous solutions and substances based on the Tyndall effect

Tyndall effect – scattering of light when it passes though a colloidal medium

substances based on the Tyndall effect Tyndall effect – scattering of light when it passes though

COLLOIDS

COLLOIDS Unlike in solutions, the components of a colloid are the following: 1. Dispersed particle 2.

Unlike in solutions, the components of a colloid are the following:

1. Dispersed particle

2. Dispersing medium

dispersion instead of dissolution

components of a colloid are the following: 1. Dispersed particle 2. Dispersing medium dispersion instead of

COLLOIDS vs SOLUTIONS

COLLOIDS vs SOLUTIONS Criteria COLLOIDS SOLUTIONS Particle Size 1-1000 nm Less than 1 nm Appearance

Criteria

COLLOIDS

SOLUTIONS

Particle Size

1-1000 nm

Less than 1 nm

Appearance

Homogeneous but components can separate with time

Homogeneous

Exhibits Tyndall effect?

yes

no

Mode / process involved

Dispersion (dispersing medium and dispersed particle)

Dissolution (solute and solvent)

no Mode / process involved Dispersion (dispersing medium and dispersed particle) Dissolution (solute and solvent)
Mode / process involved Dispersion (dispersing medium and dispersed particle) Dissolution (solute and solvent)

Types of Colloids

Types of Colloids Dispersed Dispersing type Example particle medium Gas Liquid foam Shaving

Dispersed

Dispersing

type

Example

particle

medium

Gas

Liquid

foam

Shaving cream

Gas

Solid

Solid foam

Marshmallow

Liquid

Gas

Liquid

Fog and clouds

aerosol

Liquid

Liquid

Emulsion

Milk, blood

Liquid

Solid

Gel

Cheese, butter

Solid

Gas

Solid aerosol

Smoke

Solid

Liquid

Sol

Paint, gelatin

Solid

solid

Solid sol

Colored glass

Gas Solid aerosol Smoke Solid Liquid Sol Paint, gelatin Solid solid Solid sol Colored glass

MIXTURES

MIXTURES   MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has
 

MIXTURES

 
 
 
 
  MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has uniform
  MIXTURES     HOMOGENEOUS     HETEROGENEOUS • has only one phase and has uniform

HOMOGENEOUS

   

HETEROGENEOUS

• has only one phase and has uniform composition

made up of two or more phases

has indefinite composition and properties

phases • has indefinite composition and properties COLLOIDS • intermediate phase between homogeneous and

COLLOIDS

• intermediate phase between homogeneous and heterogeneous phase (1-1000 nm)

composition and properties COLLOIDS • intermediate phase between homogeneous and heterogeneous phase (1-1000 nm)

HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES

HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES also known as SUSPENSIONS • components of the mixture can be easily identified since

also known as SUSPENSIONS

• components of the mixture can be easily identified since the particles are large enough (more than 1000nm)

examples: spaghetti, salads, oil and water, computer

identified since the particles are large enough (more than 1000nm) examples: spaghetti, salads, oil and water,

SEPARATION OF COMPONENTS

SEPARATION OF COMPONENTS - components of a mixture can be separated by physical means Process Components

- components of a mixture can be separated by physical means

Process

Components that can be separated

magnetism

Magnetic and nonmagnetic material

filtration

Solid and liquid

evaporation

Soluble solid and liquid

sieving

Solids of different sizes

distillation

Liquids of different boiling points

decantation

Large solid and liquid

chromatography

Components of different polarity

of different boiling points decantation Large solid and liquid chromatography Components of different polarity

Distillation Set-up

Distillation Set-up
Distillation Set-up

Classification of Matter: Summary

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

MATTER

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids
Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

SUBSTANCES

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

MIXTURES

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids
Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

elements

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids
Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

solutions

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids
Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

suspensions

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids
Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

compounds

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

colloids

Classification of Matter: Summary MATTER SUBSTANCES MIXTURES elements solutions suspensions compounds colloids

Alternative Classification

Alternative Classification
Alternative Classification

Exercise on type of matter

Exercise on type of matter Classify the type of matter cellphone table salt 14-K gold mixture

Classify the type of matter

cellphone

table salt

14-K gold

mixture - suspension

substance - compound

mixture - solution

mixture - solution

mixture - colloid

substance - element mixture - suspension

gasoline

coffee with cream

chlorine gas (Cl 2 )

book

mixture - colloid substance - element mixture - suspension gasoline coffee with cream chlorine gas (Cl

PROPERTIES of MATTER

PROPERTIES of MATTER DEPENDENT on Amount 1. Extensive or Extrinsic – dependent on the amount of

DEPENDENT on Amount

1. Extensive or Extrinsic – dependent on the amount of matter (ex. mass, volume, energy)

2. Intensive or Intrinsic – independent of amount (ex. density, temperature)

of matter (ex. mass, volume, energy) 2. Intensive or Intrinsic – independent of amount (ex. density,

PROPERTIES of MATTER

PROPERTIES of MATTER DEPENDENT on Chemical Reactivity 1. Chemical – dependent on the reactivity of matter

DEPENDENT on Chemical Reactivity

1. Chemical – dependent on the reactivity of matter (ex. ability to burn, to be oxidized or reduced, ability to form ions or precipitates)

2. Physical – independent of reactivity of matter (ex. mass, volume, density, appearance, texture, etc.)

precipitates) 2. Physical – independent of reactivity of matter (ex. mass, volume, density, appearance, texture, etc.)

Exercise on properties of matter

Exercise on properties of matter Classify if the property is extensive or intensive energy magnetic property

Classify if the property is extensive or intensive

energy

magnetic property

number of particles

boiling point

weight

hardness

extensive

intensive

extensive

intensive

extensive

intensive

property number of particles boiling point weight hardness extensive intensive extensive intensive extensive intensive

Exercise on properties of matter

Exercise on properties of matter Classify if the property is chemical or physical explosiveness magnetic property

Classify if the property is chemical or physical

explosiveness

magnetic property

ability to form oxides

boiling point

weight

ability to dissolve

chemical

physical

chemical

physical

physical

chemical

ability to form oxides boiling point weight ability to dissolve chemical physical chemical physical physical chemical

Transformation of MATTER

Transformation of MATTER 1. Chemical change – change in the composition of matter (therefore the chemical

1.

Chemical change – change in the composition of matter (therefore the chemical formula should change!)

ex. burning, rusting, explosions

3.

Physical change – no change in the composition of matter (the chemical formula does not change)

ex. change in shape, phase changes

– no change in the composition of matter (the chemical formula does not change) ex. change

Transformation of MATTER

Transformation of MATTER INDICATORS OF CHEMICAL CHANGES • Evolution of gas • Heat absorption or release

INDICATORS OF CHEMICAL CHANGES

• Evolution of gas

• Heat absorption or release

• Formation of a solid (precipitate)

• Color change

Chemical changes automatically changes the intensive properties of matter

of a solid (precipitate) • Color change Chemical changes automatically changes the intensive properties of matter

Phase Changes – physical change

Phase Changes – physical change SOLID melting freezing sublimation deposition condensation vaporization LIQUID GAS

SOLID

melting freezing sublimation deposition condensation vaporization
melting
freezing
sublimation
deposition
condensation
vaporization

LIQUID

GAS

Phase Changes – physical change SOLID melting freezing sublimation deposition condensation vaporization LIQUID GAS

Exercise on transformation of matter

Exercise on transformation of matter Classify if change is physical or chemical cutting of paper burning

Classify if change is physical or chemical

cutting of paper

burning of wood

spoiling of food

melting of butter

formation of ice in freezer

photosynthesis

physical

chemical

chemical

physical

physical

chemical

Please read the following:

Please read the following: CHAPTER 1 of WHITTEN 1-7 Measurement in Chemistry 1-8 Units of measurement

CHAPTER 1 of WHITTEN

1-7

Measurement in Chemistry

1-8

Units of measurement

1-9

Use of numbers

1-10 Unit factor method (or dimensional analysis) 1-11 Percentage 1-12 Density and Specific Gravity

1-9 Use of numbers 1-10 Unit factor method (or dimensional analysis) 1-11 Percentage 1-12 Density and

REMINDERS

• QUIZ next meeting at 7:05 am

• no make-up quiz for late comers!

• official checking of attendance starts next meeting

(late: - 2 pts

; absence: - 5pts)

no make-up quiz for late comers! • official checking of attendance starts next meeting (late: -