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Supplementary Report #2
Report to the AGM on a one-member, one-vote system for EC electionsreferral from the 2012 Spring RA
1. Background The 2012 Spring Representative Assembly carried the following: That the following motion be referred to the Executive Committee for further discussion with a report and recommendations to the 2013 AGM: That the BCTF investigate the feasibility of moving to a one-member, one-vote system for all executive positions and that this investigation include, but not be restricted to, the pros and cons of various one-member, one-vote systems used to elect executive members of other unions. This investigation would include a non-binding referendum of members, and would report back to the 2012 fall Representative Assembly. Similar local resolutions on this topic had been submitted to this meeting of the Representative Assembly by the Abbotsford District Teachers Association, Coquitlam Teachers Association, and Prince George District Teachers Association. Subsequently, the June 79, 2012 Executive Committee meeting passed the following motion: That the following be referred to staff with a report and recommendations back to a future Executive Committee meeting: That the following motion be referred to the Executive Committee for further discussion with a report and recommendations to the 2013 AGM: That the BCTF investigate the feasibility of moving to a one-member, one-vote system for all executive positions and that this investigation include, but not be restricted to, the pros and cons of various one-member, one-vote systems used to elect executive members of other unions. Previously, the following resolutions had been submitted to the 2012 Annual General Meeting, but were not dealt with and were among the unfinished items of business referred to the RA at the end of the meeting: Resolution 102Cowichan District Teachers Association That the BCTF investigate the use of online voting for Executive Committee elections and for select AGM motions, with a report back to the 2013 AGM on its potential impact and implementation.

Resolution 104Comox District Teachers Association That the BCTF investigate the use of online voting, accessible by all BCTF members, for Executive elections and for select AGM motions with a report to the 2012 Fall Representative Assembly on its potential impact and implementation. These resolutions, among many other AGM referrals to the RA, were carried forward through the Spring 2012, Fall 2012, and Winter 2013 meetings of the Representative Assembly, but were not dealt with by the assembly. 2. History of the election of BCTF Executive Committee and related governance decisions The BCTF Annual General Meeting has always been a delegated meeting based on proportional representation and has always had as a duty the election of Executive Committee members. The original formula for determining the representation at the AGM was 1 delegate for every 10 members in a local. Persons who did not belong to a local could still be represented in that 10 people in this category could join together and receive 1 vote. Locals funded the attendance of their delegates prior to 1983 when the Annual General Meeting determined that the cost of the attendance of all delegates to the AGM would be funded from general Federation funds. The composition of the Executive Committee, and designated roles, has changed somewhat over the history of the organization; some examples of the Executive Committee positions and election formats in the earlier history of the BCTF are listed below. The 1919 BCTF constitution named the officers of the Federation as the president, two vice-presidents, the junior past-president, a recording secretary, a corresponding secretary, and a treasurer, all of whom were elected at the Annual General Meeting. The 1920 BCTF constitution deemed that the Executive Committee was made up of the officers of the Federation (president, vice-president, junior past-president, and secretarytreasurer), geographical representatives, and three additional members elected by the officers and geographical representatives. The president was elected at the AGM; the vicepresident and secretary-treasurer were elected by the new executive from amongst their number, and the geographical representatives were elected at the AGM by the delegates from each region. From the 1920s to 1965 the BCTF Executive Committee consisted of 5 table officers elected at large by the local delegates to the Annual General Meeting plus representatives from 16 geographical regions. The policy was to allow 1 geographic representative for every 500 members within a district. In 1958, the general secretary of the day, C. D. Ovans, contacted other provincial teacher organizations to determine other ways to organize the Executive Committee as it was considered too large and unwieldy, having grown to 25 members. The 1965 AGM changed the composition of the Executive Committee to what exists today.

Governance reviews The Federation has undertaken a number of significant examinations of its governance and structures using the committee or task force model to conduct the reviews and including in the work the examination of the Executive Committee structures and election procedures.

Organization Committee, 196465 The 1964 AGM instructed the Executive Committee to set up an ad hoc committee on reorganization. The Executive Committee drafted the terms of reference keeping in mind three basic principles: To provide the greatest possible efficiency in handling the affairs of the Federation while at the same time retaining that broad base of interest and participation in the affairs of the Federation by the membership as a whole which has characterized the BCTF. To ensure that each of the bodies created has an important and vital function to play in the governing of the Federation. To remember that the Federation belongs to the members and that its organizational structure should reflect their wishes. The committee recommended that: The table officers be the president, first vice-president, second vice-president, and past president.carried by the 1965 AGM The Executive Committee consist of four table officers, elected for one-year terms, and seven members-at-large, elected for two-year terms (representing the province as a whole).carried by the 1965 AGM The establishment of the Representative Assembly as a two-way system of communication between the Executive Committee and the membership and designing a percentage based formula for representation for both the RA and AGM.carried by the 1965 AGM Establishing a percentage based formula for the Annual General Meeting.carried by the 1965 AGM Task Force on Reorganization, 197274 A Task Force on Reorganization was established by the Executive Committee in the fall of 1972 and a report was delivered to the 1974 AGM. The task force terms of reference are summarized as: To examine and assess the effectiveness of the organizational structures and procedures the BCTF has adopted in pursuing its goals. To analyze and assess how well the BCTFs organizational forms and procedures elicit both democratic participation and control on the part of the members. To prepare for consideration of the membership recommendations for change where change is deemed appropriate. Among the many aspects of Federation operations considered by the task force were the responsibilities of the Executive Committee and the election of members to this body. The task force recommended that: The Executive Committee continue with the same powers and responsibilities. The president, first vice-president, second vice-president, and members-at-large continue to be elected at the AGM. Commission on Governance of the BCTF, 198586 In the spring of 1984 the Executive Committee established a commission to examine governance of the Federation under the following terms of reference: To examine the existing structures and policies of the BCTF in order to determine their relevance and their capability of influencing education policy, teachers salaries, and working/learning conditions in the current structure of the education system.

To examine the governance of the BCTF, its structure and operations, in terms of efficiency of governance and the relevance of governing structures to democratic and effective decision-making. To solicit submissions from interested members. To prepare recommendations to the 1986 AGM.

The commission examined a wide range of aspects of Federation operations and governance. With regard to election of the Executive Committee, the commission was unanimous in its opposition to mail ballots, stating, This process is often presented as a democratic panacea, yet is also the traditional way in which entrenched machines maintain power in many unions. It is extremely difficult to overcome the power of incumbency, the use of the offices of the organization to prepare for re-election, in the absence of funding for opposing candidates to give them an equal hearing before the voters. Even if the Federation funded all candidates at the same level, which would be an extremely expensive proposition, name recognition rather than policy determination would tend to be the dominant factor in elections. The commission believes that the delegates to the AGM, who have the opportunity to meet, hear, and question candidates are the best group to make the decision about who should constitute the Executive Committee. The commission also examined election of Executive Committee members by regional representatives to the AGM, so that regions would have their member on the Executive Committee. There was no consensus on this point among the members of the commission. The commission also discussed the possibility of formal recognition of parties within the BCTF and the institutionalization of the concept of an opposition, but were concerned that, unless some form of proportional representation was tied to this recognition, it would not guarantee the election of an opposition. Governance Review 19992003 Between 1999 and 2003, the Federation undertook a comprehensive governance review process, emanating from a motion adopted by the 1999 AGM and guided by an appointed Governance Review Steering Committee of members and Executive Committee reps. The review was very broad, involved extensive consultation and member polling, and concerned many aspects of the Federations operations and led to recommendations being adopted at the 2001, 2002, and 2003 AGMs as well as at the Executive Committee and Representative Assembly levels. In relation to the topic of election of the Executive Committee, the Governance Review Steering Committee considered the following: The size of the Executive Committee. The GRSC decided against recommending any change from the existing 11 member Executive Committee. The committees report stated, Eleven members appear to serve the organization well. A larger body would present increased costs and longer meetings. A smaller body would allow for fewer voices in our diverse province. Electing members of the Executive Committee on a regional basis. The committee rejected this concept. The report stated, Members felt that Executive Committee members should represent provincial, not local/regional interests so as to avoid balkanization. Conducting a referendum for the election of the president. The committee rejected this concept. The report stated, Elements considered in this regard included the need for a budget for zonal and regional meetings by candidates, the loss to the Federation of the services of the incumbent during campaign periods, potential loss of campaign equity, and the fact that very few comments were made in this regard suggesting this is not an issue of 4

high priority for BCTF members. The current system of election permits delegates to examine past involvement and leadership displayed by candidates in all areas of the Federation on behalf of members. Establishing two-year terms for the president and vice-presidents and an increase in release time for Executive Committee members. The GRSC recommended an increase in Executive Committee release but did not achieve consensus on the length of term for the president and vice-presidents, so put forward two options, status quo and two-year terms. The status quo prevailed.

The 2001 AGM had previously defeated a motion put forward by two members stating: That the Annual General Meeting request the Executive Committee include in the mandate of the Governance Review Committee, an investigation of an at-large BCTF presidential election. The movers had presented alternate wording from the resolution originally submitted, which was: That the possibility of an at-large BCTF presidential election be studied by the BCTF Governance Review Steering Committee within its recommendations to the 2002 AGM, and that: a. This study examine jurisdictions already having successful models of at-large elections, and b. This possibility includes a two-year term for the BCTF president. 3. Additional local resolutions submitted to the AGM (200212) Outlined below are the local resolutions related to the election of the Executive Committee that were submitted to the Annual General Meeting between 2002 and 2012. 2003 Resolution 113Submitted by Al Bailey (Kamloops Thompson)/Brad Epp (Kamloops Thompson) That the election for the president of the BCTF be elected: 1. For a two-year term. 2. By a province wide vote of the BCTF membership at the work site and mail for TOCs and members on leave. This resolution was not moved at the 2003 Annual General Meeting 2004 Resolution 104West Vancouver Teachers Association That the BCTF Executive Committee develop procedures for the election of executive members by the entire membership, and that these recommendations be adopted on an interim basis by the fall 2004 Representative Assembly, subject to review by the 2005 AGM. This resolution was not moved at the 2004 AGM. 2007 Resolution 149Surrey Teachers Association That the BCTF investigate the feasibility of conducting province-wide votes electronically.

Resolution 148North Vancouver Teachers' Association That the BCTF establish a task force to investigate the feasibility of electronic balloting at both the local and provincial levels to encourage a greater opportunity for membership involvement, and that a report and recommendations be published in the Teacher prior to being presented at the 2008 AGM. Both resolutions were referred to the RA, however neither were dealt with by the end of the Winter RA, 2008. 2008 Resolution 175North Vancouver Teachers Association That the BCTF establish a task force to investigate the feasibility of electronic balloting at both the local and provincial levels to encourage a greater opportunity for membership involvement. This resolution was referred to the RA, however was not dealt with by the end of the Winter RA, 2009. 2009 Resolution 169North Vancouver Teachers Association That the AGM recommend to the Executive Committee that it establish a task force to investigate the feasibility of electronic balloting at both the local and provincial levels to encourage a greater opportunity for membership involvement. This resolution was not moved at the meeting. Resolution 103Comox District Teachers Association (also submitted by North Vancouver Teachers Association) That the BCTF investigate the use of online voting for Executive Committee elections and for select AGM motions, with a report to the 2010 AGM on its potential impact and implementation. This resolution was not moved at the 2009 AGM. 4. Local voting procedures for leadership positions Outlined below are the procedures used by locals of the BCTF in electing their executive committee leadership positions.
Total members 190 Positions Pres, VP, past president, local negotiating chair, sec-treas., LR, ProD, SJ, H&S, Ab Ed, LEC M@L (2), TTOC Election procedures General meeting, empty spots can be filled by EC by appointment pending the next GM where candidates appointed must formally stand. Provision for school-based voting for time sensitive issues but SB voting must not be used for elections. AGM, secret ballot, 50% +1.

Local Fernie District Teachers Association

Cranbrook District Teachers Association


Pres, VP, past president, secretary, treasurer, LR, and alternate

Local Kimberley Teachers Association

Total members 77

Positions Pres, Past pres, VP, Secretary, treasurer, H&S, WLC/Barg, SJ, Ab Ed, ProD, PD Fund Coordinator, school staff reps Pres, VP, LRs (2), Barg/WLC, Ab Ed, SJ, H&S, treasurer, PD, TTOC President, VP, secretary, treasurer, Barg, SJ, ProD, Ab Ed, H&S, TTOC

Windermere Teachers Association Nelson District Teachers Association


Election procedures Staff reps elected by school staff by secret ballot. All other positions filled at elections at AGM, secret ballot, 50% + 1. AGM, secret ballot, 50% + 1.


Arrow Lakes Teachers Association


Princeton District Teachers Union


Pres, VP, LR, Barg. ProD, public relations, SJ (2, 1 position covers Ab Ed), treasurer, secretary, H&S, W/LC Pres, VP, treasurer, secretary, ProD, staff reps

All elected at AGM except president who is elected in school-based voting prior to the AGM. Secret ballot. All positions elected at AGM by secret ballot.

General meeting, secret ballot, 50% + 1. Staff reps elected at school sites. General meeting, secret ballot, 50% + 1. All elected at AGM, staff reps from each school are elected in each school in Sept., secret ballot. AGM, secret ballot. Staff reps elected at school sites.

Golden Teachers Association Revelstoke Teachers Association


Pres, VP, Sec., Treas., 1 staff rep per school, H&S, PD Pres, VP, Sec., Treas., Barg, PD, SJ, H&S, LR, Ab Ed, TTOC, staff reps Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, LRs (2), alternate LR, Barg., SJ, Ab Ed, ProD, H&S, Social Committee chair, TTOC reps (2), LEC, staff reps Pres, past pres (as applicable), 1st and 2nd vice, secretary, treasurer, local assoc. rep, barg, PD, SJ (2), TTOC, Communications/PR, H&S, Ab Ed, Mat L (3), president may appoint other active members in non-voting capacity


Kootenay Columbia Teachers Union


Vernon Teachers Association


All positions except president and TTOC rep elected for oneyear term at AGM, secret ballot. School-based, secret ballot vote for president held two weeks prior to the AGM. Poll also set up at local office. TTOC rep elected by OCTAV (On Call Teachers Association of Vernon).

Central Okanagan Teachers Association


Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, PD, Ab Ed, Barg/WLC, H&S, SJ (2), TTOC, treasurer, LRs (3), MatL (6)

General meeting, secret ballot, 50% plus 1.

Local Cariboo-Chilcotin Teachers Association

Total members 422

Quesnel District Teachers Association


Nicola Valley Teachers Union


Positions Pres, VP, secretary, LR, ProD, Membership, Regional rep (3 south, north, west), collective agreement, education, communication, SJ, H&S, Ab Ed Pres, VP/alternate LR, LR, secretary, treasurer, public relations, PD, Barg., Social, SJ/multicultural, H&S, Wellness, Labour Council rep, AbEd, TTOC, LEC. Pres, VP, LR, secretary, treasurer, ProD, SJ, H&S, Special Ed, Ab Ed, public relations, staff reps, TTOC Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, treasurer, recording secretary, assistant treasurer, ProD, TTOC, LRs (2), MatL (5), SJ, Barg., past president Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, Ab Ed, TTOC, SJ, middle school rep, elem rep, sec. rep, treas., H&S, MatL (2)

Election procedures AGM, secret ballot, 50%+1 (unless motion from floor and vote determines otherwise. Proxy voting permitted for members in rural areas. AGM.

Chilliwack Teachers Association


President is elected at an April general meeting. Even if there is only one candidate there is a secret ballot held. All other positions elected at AGM in June. Annual meeting, secret ballot, 50%+1.

Abbotsford District Teachers Association


Langley Teachers Association


Surrey Teachers Association


Delta Teachers Association


President, 1 month before AGM, school-based election (2 yr. term), 1st VP, 2 weeks before AGM, school-based election; all others at general meeting, secret ballot, 50 + 1 Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, secretary, AGM, secret ballot, 50% + 1 LRs(3), H&S, SJ, Ab issues, Ed change, WLC, M@L (3), TTOC, communications Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, Sec.AGM, secret ballot, 50+1, oneTreas, Griev Officer (2), H&S, year terms except Grievance Prof Issues, LRs (all), TTOC, Officers and H&S are two-year MatL (3) terms. (no more than 15 unless a greater number set from time to time by GM) Pres/LR,1st VP/Barg Chair, AGM, secret ballot, 50% +1. 2nd VP, past president (as applicable), treasurer, exec. Secretary, PD, SJ, Public Ed, H&S, TTOC, Adult, itinerant, non-enrolling (1 position), Mat L (2), LRs (2)

Richmond Teachers Association


Vancouver Elementary School Teachers Association


Vancouver Secondary Teachers Association


Pres, VP, working conditions, secretary-treasurer, ProD, communications, staff rep officer, staff collegial council officer, LRs (3), MatL (4primary, intermediate, upper intermediate, graduation) Pres, 1st/2nd/3rd VPs, Grievance/IHTO support, sectreas, past pres. (as applicable), LRs(4), MatL (5), Ab Ed, Anti poverty, Antiracism, Communications, H&S, Pride, Prof Issues, S/W Sustainability, TTOC, WLC/Barg., Adult Ed sublocal president Pres, 1st vice, 2nd vice, treasurer, MatL (7, 8 if no past pres), past pres (as applicable), H&S, PD, Social and Eco Justice, Technology, WLC/Barg, TTOC Pres, VP, Barg/Grievance, Secretary, Treas., PD, H&S, SJ, Ab Ed, LEC, Political Action, Bargaining/Grievance Advisory Cttee (5), LRs (2), Alternate LR (1) Pres, VP, Secondary Rep, Elementary Rep, secretary, treasurer, LRs, Elementary Mat L, Secondary Mat L, past president, PD, Political Action/PR, SJ, Grievance Coordinator, Bargaining, H&S, District labour Council Rep., WLC, Adult Educator, TTOC, Officer at Large

AGM. (Note: Some areas of responsibility are folded into other positions, for example, TTOC and H&S are in the Working Conditions portfolio.) AGM, secret ballot.

AGM, secret ballot.

New Westminster Teachers Union


AGM, secret ballot, 50%+1.

Burnaby Teachers Association


Executive Council: AGM, secret ballot. President, VP, Officer at Large, Sec. Rep, Elem. Rep, treasurer, Grievance Co-ordinator, LRs and District Labour Council Rep., one-year terms, elected by AGM. Chairs of following Committees: Barg. H&S, WLC, PD, Political Action/PR, Adult Educators, SJ and TTOC shall be chosen by the members of their respective committees at AGM, one-year terms. Members at Large, two-year terms, elected by AGM.

Maple Ridge Teachers Association


Coquitlam Teachers Association North Vancouver Teachers Association


Pres, 1st VP/LR, 2nd VP/LR, H&S, LEC (as applicable), LR/ProD, M@L (2), membership, secretary, treasurer, communications, TTOC, SJ, past president (as applicable) Pres, immediate past president, 1st VP, 2nd VP, LRs, M@L (5) Pres./LR, 1st VP/LR, 2nd VP/ LR Secretary (alternate LR), treasurer, M@L (5) Past president (as applicable)

The VPs who are also LRs are elected to both positions. All positions elected at AGM, secret ballot, highest number of votes.


West Vancouver Teachers Association


Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, M@L (4), ProD (2), LRs (2), SJ (2), TTOC

AGM, except LRs elected per BCTF by-laws 2 and 6. Secret ballot. AGM, secret ballot, 50% + 1. All positions one-year terms except M@L are 2year terms Constitutionally the president is elected as an LR. 1st VP is also an LR this year but that is not required by the constitution. AGM, secret ballot, 50%+1.

Sunshine Coast Teachers Association


Powell River District Teachers Association


Pres, VP, ProD, SJ, secretary, treasurer, H&S, Ab Ed, staff reps, TTOC, communications officer Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, LR, MatL (3, 1 of whom should be a TTOC), SJ, Barg., ProD Pres, VP, secretary-treasurer, LR, past president, ProD, SJ, Barg/Grievance, H&S, Ab Ed, TTOC Pres, VP, AbEd, SJ, ProD, H&S

Staff reps elected in schools, all other positions at AGM, secret ballot, highest number of votes AGM, secret ballot. Except the ProD chair who is appointed rather than elected. AGM.

Sea to Sky Teachers Association


Central Coast Teachers Association


President elected at a general or special meeting, secret ballot. Ballots can be sent to the outer schools and an electoral officer appointed to report the results. Also a provision for an advance poll that would be set up at a particular school. All other positions are elected at AGM. All voting by secret ballot. President elected at general meeting in February. All other positions elected at general meeting in May. Elections by secret ballot.

Haida Gwaii Teachers Association


Pres, VP, treasurer, SJ, Ab Ed, PD, LR, TTOC, LEC H&S, Barg.


Boundary District Teachers Association


Pres, VP, treasurer, secretary, LR (2), Alternate LR, Barg, Grievance, PD (2), H&S, Ab Ed, SJ, TTOC, LEC/Political Action, staff reps (11) Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, PD, SJ, Collective Barg, Ab Ed, LR, Labour Liaison, TTOC

AGM elections, secret ballot. 50% + 1 Staff reps elected by school staff. Many staff reps also hold other EC positions. AGM. All positions, except president, can run from the floor of AGM. Presidential nominations require nominations at least 10 days prior to AGM. First ballotcandidate receiving a simple majority of ballots cast declared elected; if no candidates receive a simple majority the candidate receiving the fewest number is eliminated from the slate, procedure continues until two candidates remain, candidate receiving a simple majority is declared elected. AGM, secret ballot. Staff reps are elected by staffs at the school sites.

Prince Rupert District Teachers Union


South Okanagan Similkameen Teachers Union


Bulkley Valley Teachers Union


Pres, 2 VPs (one of which is also Bargaining Chair), secretary, communication officer, SJ, ProD, H&S, TTOC, political action, LR, staff reps Pres, VP/Barg Chair, secretary, treasurer, LR, ProD, H&S, Ab Ed, SJ, TTOC, staff reps Pres/alternate LR, VP/LR, Secretary/treasurer, Ab Ed, Barg, H&S, LEC M at L (staff reps), PD, SJ, TTOC

Burns Lake District Teachers Union


Nechako Teachers Union


Pres, VP, treasurer, secretary, all standing committee chairs, LR, staff reps, TTOC First Nations contact, H&S, SJ

All positions except staff reps elected at general meeting. Staff reps elected at each school site. AGM, one year terms. All EC members (except Pres) are also staff reps at their schools. Each school (who doesnt have an EC member on staff) elect a staff rep. AGM, secret ballot.

Prince George District Teachers Association


Mackenzie Teachers Association McBride-Valemount Teachers Association



Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, General meeting, one-year Secretary, treasurer, SJ, ProD, terms. TTOC, Barg, MatL (4), past pres. (as applicable) Pres/Barg, VP, ProD, SJ, Social General meeting, secret ballot. rep, secretary, treasurer, TTOC, Ab Ed, staff reps Info to come


Peace River South Teachers Association


Pres. and VP PRSTA Pres and VP of 3 units Chetwynd & area, Dawson Creek and area, Tumbler Ridge & area, past president, treasurer, LR, Barg, WLC, ProD, SJ, H&S, TTOC, Ab Ed

Election for PRSTA president and VP done by referendum ballot at polling places determine by the EC. Two-year terms. Treasurer appointed by the president, approved by Executive Council and ratified by the AGM. One-year term. All other positions elected by AGM.

Chetwynd Teachers Association


Tumbler Ridge Teachers Association Peace River North Teachers Association

25 489

Pres./LR, VP, Barg., ProD, SJ, Ab Ed, Foundation rep (for local special association), treasurer Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, ProD, Barg, SJ, H&S Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, W/LC, LR, alternate LR, SJ, Barg, staff rep, ProD

AGM, except treasurer is appointed and ratified by AGM

AGM AGM, secret ballot for all positions except: staff rep elected in June or prior to first EC meeting in Sept.; ProD rep elected by Professional Development Committee (committee is elected at AGM). AGM, secret ballot.

Greater Victoria Teachers Association


Sooke Teachers Association


Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, secretary-treasurer contract chair, ProD, SJ, TTOC/new teacher, LR (3), Ab Ed, MatL (2) Pres, VP, past president, secretary, treasurer, LRs, alternate LR, Ab Ed, Agreements, SJ, PD, Joint Ed Change, Public Relations, Scholarship, Membership, Joint Integration Implementation, H&S, TTOC

AGM, one-year terms, secret ballot. Number of ballots necessary to be elected shall be determined by the meeting. Standing Committee chairs who sit on the EC are elected by the members of their respective committees.

Saanich Teachers Association


Gulf Islands Teachers Association


Scholarship chairperson elected at January GM every two years. Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, secretary, AGM. Secret ballot. treasurer, LRs (2), Pro D, Program Chair, Prof Communications, SJ, TTOC, H&S, First Nations, past president (as applicable) Pres, VP, past Pres, LR, General meeting. Secretary, treasurer, SJ, TTOC, H&S, Barg. PD, Ab Ed, PD Fund Admin, Hospitality Rep


Cowichan District Teachers Association


Lake Cowichan Teachers Association


Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, past president (as applicable), SJ, Agreements, W/LC, ProD, Ab contact, LRs, TTOC, LEC, H&S Pres, VP, treasurer, secretary PD, SJ, TTOC, LR, alternate LR, H&S, Ab Ed, LEC Pres, 1st VP/Barg, 2nd VP, treasurer, secretary, LRs (3 + 1 alternate), MatL (2), ProD, H&S, TTOC, SJ, Ab Ed, Social Events Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, secretary, treasurer, past president (as applicable), Ab Ed, Barg/WLC, H&S, Public Ed Advocacy, ProD, Social, SJ, TTOC, LRs, Mat L (2 elem. And 2 sec.) Pres, VP, 2nd VP, treasurer, LR, In District ProD, Personal ProD, SJ, H&S, TTOC, Ab Ed Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP (pres of Ucluelet-Tofino sublocal), LR, secretary-treasurer, Barg, ProD, TTOC, SJ (2), MatL (except where there is a past president) Info to come Pres, VP, secretary-treasurer, PD, TTOC, SJ, H&S, Ab Ed, LR (2), MatL (2) Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, recording secretary, treasurer, past president, LR, standing committee chairs

General meeting.

Okanagan Skaha Teachers Union


General meeting in May, secret ballot. Any unfilled positions elected at GM in September. AGM, secret ballot.

Nanaimo District Teachers Association


AGM, secret ballot, 50% + 1.

Mount Arrowsmith Teachers Association Alberni District Teachers Union


AGM, secret ballot, 50%+ 1.


AGM, Port Alberni main site, Ucluelet via Skype and Tofino connected by telephone.

Ucluelet-Tofino Teachers Association Comox District Teachers Association Campbell River District Teachers Association

38 678

AGM, secret ballot


AGM, secret ballot, 50% + 1. Advance ballot permitted for Sayward and Cortes Island Schools and any other rural school designated by the table officers. If more than 2 candidates ballots can be marked in preferential manner, i.e., 1st choice, 2nd choice, etc. President elected by secret ballot of entire membership (March). VPs elected by separate ballots of entire membership after election of the president. M@L (ward system of representation1 rep elected from Barriere, Chase, Logan

Kamloops Thompson Teachers Association


Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, immediate past president, M@L (6 except if no past pres. than 7), LRs, chairpersons of standing committee, treasurer


Kamloops Thompson Teachers Association


Gold Trail Teachers Association


Mission Teachers Union


Fraser-Cascade Teachers Association


Kitimat District Teachers Association


Fort Nelson District Teachers Association


Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, LRs(2), Barg/WLC, PD, Ab Ed, SJ, H&S, TTOC, MatL (4 from geographic areas), past president (as applicable) Pres, VP, secretary/treasurer, past president (or MatL as applicable), MatL (3), communications, Economic Welfare, Working Conditions, ProD, TTOC, SJ, Barg (normally the Pres.) Pres, past Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, LR, treasurer, recording secretary, Barg., ProD, SJ, Ab Ed, H&S, Social Convenor, M@L (2) Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, Barg, Communications, LR, ProD, Social Co-ord., SJ, W/LC, H&S, TTOC, labour Council rep, LEC President, VP, treasurer, secretary, LR, alternate LR Bargaining, Pro-D, Social Justice, Health & Safety, TTOC, Liason, Ab Ed Staff Reps (1 from each school); for this year only: Local Election Contact

Lake and N. Thompson, 2 reps from Kamloops) M@L, LRs, chairpersons of standing committees and treasurer elected at AGM. AGM.

President elected in April, one member one vote, polls at MTU office over two days, 50% +1. All other positions elected at AGM.

AGM, secret ballot.

AGM, secret ballot. Staff reps elected in each school.

President is elected in April at the general meeting all other positions are elected at our AGM in May.

North OkanaganShuswap Teachers Association


Vancouver Island West Teachers Union Vancouver Island North Teachers Association



Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, secretary, treasurer, LR, Ab Ed, Barg, Communications, H&S, Member Involvement, ProD, SJ, TTOC, immediate past president Pres, Barg/LR, ProD, Working Relations, Ab Ed, SJ, school staff reps Pres, VP, LR, past president, secretary-treasurer, Barg., ProD, H&S, SJ, TTOC, Ab Ed, M@L

AGM, secret ballot.


AGM, secret ballot. Number of ballots necessary for election is determined by the membership.


Creston Valley Teachers Association


Kootenay Lake Teachers Association Stikine Teachers Association



Terrace District Teachers Union


Upper Skeena Teachers


Nisgaa Teachers Union


Syndicate enseignantes et enseignants du programme francophone de la Colombie-Britannique


Pres, VP, secretary, treasurer, immediate past president, LR, alternate LR, ProD, Ab Ed, SJ, EFAP, Social, LEC, staff reps Pres., LR, secretary, treasurer, ProD, all other positions are informal. Pres, treasurer, VP/LR, PD, secretary, Barg, Housing, Ab Ed, SJ, TTOC, H&S, alternate LR Pres, Sec. VP, Elem. VP, secretary, treasurer, LR, Barg Chair, Sec. Barg. Rep, Elem. Barg rep, Labour Council rep, H&S, TTOC, ProD, SJ, W/LC, Ab Ed, Social chair, Community relations, LEC (as needed) Pres., VP, LR, treasurer, H&S, secretary, ProD, SJ, Ab Ed, social rep, staff reps Pres., VP, secretary, treasurer, ProD, SJ (2), Ab Ed, H&S, Barg., housing, LEC, TTOC, AGM delegate, OR, staff reps Pres, 1st VP, 2nd VP, secretary, treasurer, TTOC, LR, past president (as applicable)

AGM, secret ballot.

General meeting.

AGM. Secret ballot, 50 + 1 After 1st ballot if no winner, candidate with lowest votes is dropped, second ballot, etc. AGM.


AGM, secret ballot, 50% +1. Staff reps elected at school sites.

Voting at school sites by secret ballot. Results reported out at AGM.


Election of provincial executive positions in other provincial teacher organizations across Canada a. Alberta Teachers Association Membership: over 40,000. Executive Committee: the executive is made up of 5 table officers and 15 district representatives from 11 geographical districts. Voting system: president and vice-presidentsone member, one vote province-wide. District Representativesone member, one vote by locals comprising the geographic district. History/other: this system has been in place for over 40 years. The ballots are mailed in to a PO Box for the association and must be received by a specific date in order to be counted. The association believes the advantages of this system to be that it adds to the credibility of the council members, especially the president, election politics are not part of the AGM, candidates can see all members, and all members can participate. The platforms of all candidates are published in an issue of the ATA publication. The participation rate is reported as 3252 % in years when there is a presidential election and 3340% in years when there is no presidential election. 15

b. Saskatchewan Teachers Federation Membership: over 12,000 members. Executive Committee: comprised of 10 members, the president, vice-president, and additional members to total 10 (past-president included in that number in years when there is a past president). Voting system: the executive is elected at the Annual General Meeting of the STF Council. Locals elect councillors to attend the AGM on a proportional representation system. Polling stations are set up on the second day of the meeting, with the candidate who received the greatest number of votes for each position being declared elected. History/other: this system has been in place since the 1940s. In the 1930s a constitutional committee was appointed to deal with the ambiguities and concerns in procedures. The committee recommended that the organization move away from a one-member, one-vote system for electing the president. The federation believes the current system to be democratic, flexible, and efficient. The organization does not assist candidates in campaigning other than to publish bio, picture, and statement, if received by six weeks before the opening day of the Council AGM. Since 2007, a mail-in system of balloting has been used for ratification of collective agreement. Ballots are sent directly to an outside audit firm that tabulates the ballots and makes a report to the STF. c. Manitoba Teachers Society Membership: approximately 15,000 members. Executive committee: president, vice-president, and 11 members-at-large. Voting system: vote for president is by mail-in ballot of all members. Vote for vicepresident and members-at-large is held at the Annual General Meeting of the Provincial Council. The president is eligible for a maximum of 2 2-year terms. The members-at-large are eligible for a maximum of 3 3-year terms. History/other: this system has been in place for approximately 8 years and MTS feels it is working well. The nominations close on February 15 and ballots are to be mailed no later than March 13. Ballots are mailed to staff reps with a school voters list. Members can opt to mail their ballot back to MTS (post office box is set up) or return it to the staff rep. There are plans to move to an electronic system sometime in the future. MTS pays 50% of the first $2,000 in allowable campaign expenses and 25% of the next $2,000, to a maximum of $1,500. Locals send delegates to the Provincial Council meeting on a proportional representation basis. Locals are represented on the basis of 1 delegate for every 50 members, but no local has fewer than 2 representatives. d. Ontario English Catholic Teachers Association Membership: approximately 45,000. Executive: president (2-year term), past-president, first vice-president, second vicepresident, 2 councillors, table officer (2-year term, to serve as rep to OTF). Voting system: executive positions are all elected by the delegates to the Annual General meeting (approximately 639 delegates), except past-president. All have 1-year terms except the president and table officer.


History/other: have been using this system for a long time and are not considering any different system. OECTA is investigating a system of e-mail voting for ratifying a memorandum of agreement, but are experiencing challenges (access to e-mail addresses, etc.).

e. Elementary Teachers Federation of Ontario Membership: approximately 76,000 members. Executive: president, first vice-president, two vice-presidents, one table officer, and nine other executive committee members. Voting system: all positions on the executive are elected at Annual General Meeting by registered delegates, secret ballot with voting procedures governed by constitution and by-laws. History/other: have used this system for 14 years. The organization was created in 1998 through amalgamation of Federation of Women Teachers Associations of Ontario (FWTAO), and the Ontario Public School Teachers Federation (OPSTF). f. Ontario Secondary School Teachers Federation Membership: over 60,000 members including teachers, educational assistants, continuing education teachers, and instructors, psychologists, secretaries, speechlanguage pathologists, social workers, plant support personnel, attendance counselors, and many other education professionals. Executive Committee: consists of the president, 2 vice-presidents, 3 executive officers and the treasurer. Non-voting members of the Executive Committee are the general secretary and 3 associate general secretaries. Voting system: the executive is elected at the Annual General meeting. History/other: This system has been in place for over 40 years. The organization believes the activists who are most familiar with the organization should choose the Executive Committee, and have not considered moving to any other system. g. Association des Enseignantes et des Enseignants Franco-Ontariens Membership: approximately 10,000 members. Executive Committee: consists of the president, first vice-president, second vicepresident, 3 councillors, and the director general. Voting system: the Executive Committee is elected by the delegates to the Annual General Meeting. History/other: the organization was founded in 1939 and is one of the affiliates of the Ontario Teachers Federation. The AEFO voting system has always been in place. The organization reports that it has not been re-evaluated and is considered to be working well. h. Quebec Provincial Association of Teachers Membership: approximately 8,000 (teachers in English school boards). Executive Committee: consists of the president, general chairperson, treasurer, secretary, and 3 members-at-large. Board of directors: officers plus representatives of the membership based on 1 rep for every 300 members or fraction, for locals over 300, 1 rep for every additional 300 or fraction. Voting system: voting for Executive Committee members is school/worksite based, supervised by union rep. 17

History/other: candidates may choose to have a first and second statement published with a photo in a special edition of the newsletter.

i. Nova Scotia Teachers Union Membership: approximately 11,000 members (includes K-12, faculty, and staff at NS Community College). Executive Committee: the executive is made up of 4 table officers (president, first-vice president, second vice-president, secretary-treasurer) and 21 members elected by region. Voting system: president elected by one-member, one-vote, first vice-president elected by the AGM, other executive members elected by members in specific geographic regions. History/other: for first-vice president, this has been the case since the delegates hear from the person first hand. Moving to one-member, one-vote universally was done for the president as it was seen as more democratic but for the first vice-president, since the term is only 1 year, the AGM has wanted to maintain its authority as this position is seen as a stepping stone to become president. NSTU feels that voting by one-member, one-vote in the geographic regions has allowed more small locals to have representatives on the Executive Committee. Since 2008, online voting has been used for both the president and the other executive committee members. The NSTU sees the advantage of the system being quick, convenient, and having no spoiled ballots. The union identified the overall participation as having dropped with electronic voting, despite the convenience. The returns on the presidential ballot have been in the range of 65%. The union is very satisfied with the online voting system it has developed and the cost savings. For the presidential race, the union pays for up to 20 substitute days and pays for other costs up to a maximum of $2,000 for travel, printing, etc. Union also pays for a limited number of posters and distributes these and other campaign materials to school representatives. j. New Brunswick Teachers Federation In 1970, three teachers organizations were formed to serve the needs of teachers in New Brunswick, where one had previously existed, the New Brunswick Teachers Association. However, in 1970, a new organization was formed, the New Brunswick Teachers Federation, with two autonomous, constituent organizations, New Brunswick Teachers Association (NBTA), the English language section, and lAssociation des enseignantes et des enseignants francophones du Nouveau-Brunswick (AEFNB), the French language section. The presidents of AEFNB and NBTA are co-presidents of the NBTF. The NBTF Executive Committee and board of directors are comprised of some members of the executive and board of directors of both the NBTA and AEFNB. i. New Brunswick Teachers Association Membership: approximately 6,500 members. Executive: president, past president, vice-president, executive director (nonvoting), plus 5 members elected by the board of directors at the boards Annual General meeting. Board: the board of directors is made up of 1 director per district with an additional director where the district membership is over 750 plus the executive. There are 30 directors all with 3-year terms. The directors have a proportional representation system for voting at board meetings. 18

Voting system: voting for provincial office is conducted through the NBTA website with all members having the right to vote and with polls being open for a week. The president serves a two year term and is not eligible for re-election. In the first year of the presidents two-year term, there is an election for a vicepresident who will be declared the president-elect and will assume the presidency at the end of the presidents term. In the second year of the presidents term, there is an election for the position of vice-president. The board of directors votes by secret ballot to elect 5 additional members of the Executive Committee selected from amongst the members of the board. History/other: for provincial office, the NBTA publishes a special edition of their newsletter with each candidate having a full page and produces an election poster for staffrooms. Candidates are reimbursed up to $2,000 for election expenses, provided they receive at least 5% of the vote. One week prior to the board of directors Annual General Meeting, directors wishing to run for one of the 5 positions on the executive, may submit a short biographical sketch for publication to the meeting. The turnout with electronic voting has been lower than with the previous mail ballots.

ii. Association des Enseignantes et des Enseignants Francophones du NouveauBrunswick Membership: approximately 2,500 members plus 500 TToCs. Executive: the Conseil dadministration is made up of the president, vice-president, and 1 rep per local (19). The bureau direction is made up of the president, vicepresident and 2 members chosen by the president and vice-president. Voting system: one-member, one-vote through electronic voting. History/other: have been doing electronic voting for 4 years; previously used ballot mailing. Association believes the system is working very well. It is quick, simple, and inexpensive and does not involve additional staff time or costs. There has been higher participation since going to electronic, and no margin of error. k. Prince Edward Island Teachers Federation Membership: approximately 1,500 members. Executive Committee: the executive is made up of the president, elected for a two-year term, and two vice-presidents, elected for one-year terms, and 5 members-at-large. Voting system: the members of the executive committee, excluding the five membersat-large, are elected by the delegates to the Annual General Meeting as has always been the case. The 5 members-at-large are elected in local area association meetings. History/other: the Federation identifies the advantage of the AGM elections as being that the delegates have first-hand experience with who is being chosen. An ad hoc committee will be studying election systems this year. l. Newfoundland and Labrador Teachers Union Membership: approximately 6,000. Executive Committee: consists of president, vice-president, and 10 other elected Executive Committee members (5 alternates are also elected). Voting system: voting for all Executive Committee positions is done by secret ballot at the biennial convention. Branches qualify to send delegates based on 1 per every 100 members or fraction thereof. Photos and information on candidates is published in the NLTU bulletin at least 1 month prior to the date of the election. 19

History/other: branches and special interest groups may instruct delegates on who to vote for on the understanding that, after the first ballot, delegates are released from instructions and may vote as they see fit.

m. Yukon Teachers Association Membership: approximately 800 members. Executive Committee: consists of the president, vice-president, treasurer, past president and 5 members with specific portfolios (Professional Development, Constitution and Policy, Public Relations, Employment Relations, and Membership). Voting system: all Executive Committee positions are elected by the Annual General Meeting on a one-member, one-vote system. All members eligible to attend the AGM and vote, but typically 140150 do so. Teachers do not belong to locals, but are direct employees of the Department of Education. Proxy voting is allowed for leadership positions. Election for president is held the day before the AGM; the AGM itself is one day only. History/other: candidates may give a speech at the AGM and may choose to have a representative present at the ballot count. All YTA members have a government-issued e-mail address. n. Nunavut Teachers Association Membership: 826 members. Executive Committee: the central executive is made up of the president, vicepresident, secretary-treasurer, 1 Inuit member-at-large and 5 regional presidents. Voting system: president, vice-president, secretary-treasurer, and Inuit member-atlarge are all elected through a mail-in ballot of members. History/other: candidates for president must have had at least 2 years previous experience at the central, regional, or local executive level or staff rep. Candidate for vice-president must have had at least 1 year of experience at the same. Nominees for the central executive are free to contact the membership in any way they see fit, keeping the code of ethics in mind. The NTA will publish the vitae, photo, and campaign platform of all candidates in a special issue of the newsletter. The staff reps act as school-based returning officers. To be declared elected, candidates must receive 50% plus 1, or a subsequent election will take place. All central Executive Committee positions are two-year terms, with the president being limited to two terms. Regional presidents and other regional executive positions are elected by the members in the region through a mail-in ballot vote. Electronic voting is not an option at this time; technology is limited and Internet can be slow. NTA does have e-mail system for all members. Candidates can use the e-mail system to campaign. o. Northwest Territories Teachers Association Membership: over 800 members. Executive Committee: consists of the president, vice-president, secretary-treasurer, 1 member-at-large and 1 regional presidents representative. Voting system: elections are conducted by membership vote through school-based balloting with a returning officer at each school/worksite. The regional presidents rep is elected at the fall Regional Presidents Orientation. History/other: prior to 2000, all members of the Central Executive were elected at the annual spring meeting of the Central Council. The Central Council, which consists of 20

the regional presidents and 1 councillor for every 50 members, plus the central executive committee, is the governing body and final authority. Participation rates are high (89% in last election). Space provided to all candidates in Election Issue, one free mail-out per candidates and link to candidates webpages on NWTTA website. Members well informed, interested and involved. Election of executive committee positions in other unions Executive Union Membership Committee Elections BC Ferry over 4,500 president triennial and Marine 1st vice-president convention Workers 2nd vice-president nominates secretary-treasurer candidates for Ships Officers EC, elected for Component 3-year terms by president SOC referendum engineering rep, ballot SOC catering rep; SOC deck rep; convention elects 3 trustees, Deas Dock component president; returning officer, and deputy 11 unlicensed local presidents returning officer BC approximately president triennial Government 65,000 4 vice-presidents convention elects Employees treasurer president, Union chairperson of each treasurer, and 4 (BCGEU) component (currently vice-presidents 12 components) component chairs are elected from the component Executive Committees BC Nurses approximately Executive provincial Union 40,000 Committee consists executive and (BCNU) of president, viceregional chairs president, treasurer, are elected by and 2 executive the membership councillors in a ballot vote to be returned to council is made up of the BCNU by a 5 members of the specified date, Executive the elections for Committee and 20 each office are regional reps held every 3 (regional chairs and years as of 2012 co-chairs) 6.


delegates to the convention are elected on a local and component proportional representation basis

those with highest vote counts are declared elected


Union BC Nurses Union (BCNU)



Executive Committee

Canadian Office and Professional Employees (Local 378)

approximately 14,000

Canadian Union of Public EmployeesBC (CUPEBC)

approximately 85,000

Elections previously these positions were 2year terms, regional councillors are elected in their regions by the membership of the region all positions are table officers: president, secretary- elected every 3 treasurer, and 3 vice- years; president and secretarypresidents treasurer are Executive Board: 20 elected at large by membership, members, including mail in ballot; reps elected by and from the membership 3 vice-presidents are chosen by in each employer bargaining unit, plus secret ballot of the executive the table officers board members, councillors and delegate job stewards at policy convention following triennial elections EC made up of 17 president members: secretarypresident treasurer secretary-treasurer general vice4 general vicepresidents are presidents elected at the 9 regional viceannual presidents convention, 2 diversity reps elections held 8 alternates are every 2 years elected 9 regional vicepresidents are elected from 6 regions 2 diversity reps are elected by the caucuses


candidates have access to union membership rolls and voters list candidates personal profiles and photos are published by union and sent to members home addresses


Union Federation of PostSecondary Educators (FPSE)

Membership over 10,000

Executive Committee president vice-president 2nd vice-president secretary-treasurer 2 officers elected at large

Elections president, 2 vicepresidents and secretarytreasurer are elected at the AGM 2 officers at large are elected by the Presidents Council, held right before and after the AGM, all are 1-year terms president is elected to a 2year term at annual convention (odd # years) board elects a vice-president and secretarytreasurer every year regional directors are elected by the members in the region through mail in ballots, take office at the end of the AGM

Other two officers at large come from the membership of the Presidents Council, are intended to provide regional and gender balance AGM is approximately 132 delegates with proportional representation considered electronic voting instead of mail-in but have not moved ahead with it

Health Sciences Association (HSA)

approximately 13,000

board of directors president 1 regional director from each of the 10 regions

Hospital Employees Unions (HEU)


President, SecretaryBusiness Manager, Financial Secretary, 3 vice-presidents, Senior Trustee, Trustee , Trusteeelect, 12 Regional vice-presidents

odd # regions in odd # years, even # in even years EC positions convention is elected at between 600670 biennial delegates convention for 2year terms regional vicepresidents are elected at the 23

Union Hospital Employees Unions (HEU)



Executive Committee

Elections convention in meetings of regional caucuses all positions are elected every 3 years at the Regional Convention; convention is attended by reps on a proportional representation system; regional EC vice-president, alternate EC vice-president, H/S rep are elected by the entire convention


Public Service Alliance, BC Region


Regional Council is made up of 23 members: regional executive, vice-president, alternate regional executive vicepresident, 12 regional reps, 6 regional equity coordinators, 1 H/S rep, 1 component rep, 1 charter local rep (representing small locals)

convention uses electronic voting system that reduces voting time considerably, outside media company is used


Other organizations a. BC Federation of Labour The president, secretary-treasurer, and executive council members representing labour councils are elected by majority vote at the convention, every two years. Vote conducted by secret ballot of delegates. b. BC NDPLeadership convention Delegates to convention are based on proportional representation by riding. Voting for the leadership is one-person, one-vote. Mail-in ballot (basically an advance poll) is done prior to convention. Eligible voters are asked to vote for candidates using a preferential ranking system, i.e., first choice, second choice, etc. Delegates at convention vote electronically and delegates not at convention vote electronically through a website. Authentication for electronic voting through the website is done with a member ID. The candidate with the lowest number of votes is knocked off the ballot (assuming no one candidate gets 50 +1) and balloting continues until one candidate gets 50 +1. BC Teachers Council Members in districts elect 5 reps to the Teachers Council for 3-year terms (other positions on the council are appointed). Election conducted through mail ballots to members' homes. Returns per district: - Fraser 22 % - Interior 27%



- Northern 28% - Vancouver Coastal 22% - Vancouver Island 21% d. BC Liberal Party Replaced one-member, one-vote system with preferential ballot of members with system that weights votes from party members in each riding so each riding has the same influence. Members rank at least 2 choices. Votes tallied on geographic lines with each constituency worth 100 points. First candidate to receive more than half of the points wins the leadership


Considerations The nature of democracy and engagement within a member-based organization such as a union has been widely studied and debated, as have ways to involve members, elect leadership, and manage the affairs of the collective. The Federation alone had 4 major reviews of its organization and structures in a 40-year period, each leading to debate and decision at the governance bodies. A commitment to a democratic union can engender quite different but equally emphatic views of democracy in action. Therefore, its important to begin a discussion of changes to governance structures and processes by examining fundamental questions. Such questions might include: a. What problem has been identified and how will the proposed change lead to the solution? b. Is there more than one solution? c. Are different or additional steps needed in order to achieve a solution? d. What else will need to be changed in order to implement a solution or solutions? e. What is the intended impact of the change on values, culture, and organization, and what might the incidental impact be? f. How would any change process need to be managed and how would it be assessed? When changes to the governance models are contemplated, its incumbent on the organization to do more than identify the practical steps to be taken; a deeper examination is required in order to ensure that all factors are carefully considered, the deliberations are well informed, and the determination is reasoned.


Conclusion This report is being presented to the Annual General Meeting by the Executive Committee, as directed by the RA. The Executive Committee considered the report fully, and is not bringing forward recommendations to the Annual General Meeting. Dependent on further consideration, any change to the current system of electing the positions on the Executive Committee would require a number of changes to the Federation by-laws, procedures, and AGM Standing Rules of Order. This would involve specific recommendations to a subsequent AGM, amending: By-laws 5.1 to 5.5, 8.4, and 8.6 Procedures 2.B.02, 2.B.0.8, 25.B.02.3, and 25.B.04 AGM Standing Rules of Order, Section 13.