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Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering

TUTORIAL I
Page 1 of 4



1. What are the applications of Geology in the oil and gas industry that depicts its meaning
- Petroleum Geology
- The Study of the Geological Processes Resulting in the Formation and Entrapment of
Petroleum
- The changes resulting from the Interaction between earth physical, chemical, and
biological systems.

2. What are the main processes involved in the formation of petroleum? Describe each and
sketch a block diagram illustrating the formation in a sequential manner.
a. AQUATIC LIFE died and sank to sea bed and got Buried Under Layers of
Accumulating Sediment.
b. Chemically Transformation of Organic Materials into Hydrocarbons due to High
Temperature & Overburden Pressure Combined with Bacteria Taking Off
c. Petroleum Migration
d. Petroleum Segregation
e. Petroleum Accumulation

3. Give a definition of reservoir that is applicable to exploration and production of petroleum
Porous and permeable Portion of Underground Trap Which Contains Oil and/or Gas as a Single
Hydraulically-Connected System

4. Reservoir property responsible for compensation of energy depletion by production process is
referred to as
a. Reservoir processing mechanism
b. Reservoir drive mechanism
c. Reservoir artificial lift mechanism
d. Reservoir depletion process

5. Describe the possible geological processes that can result in the presence of petroleum in
igneous rock.
Geological processes leading to cracks and fractures in igneous rocks that are exposed to a
mature source bed

6. Do pure substances exist beyond their critical point temperatures and pressures? Explain!
Yes BUT in form of dense fluid not visible to physical eyes

7. Define rock effective porosity and describe how it is applied to determined amount of
hydrocarbon subjection to production

8. What is a trap? Describe the three main type of reservoir traps
Geological condition resulting in the retention of hydrocarbon
i. Structural trap
ii. Stratigraphic trap
iii. Combination trap



Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering
TUTORIAL I
Page 2 of 4


9. A typical Darcy radial flow equation in a porous medium is represented by
In the table below, fill in column B the parameter that represents the description in column A
No. Description Equation Parameter
1 Distance travelled by the fluid w e r r / ln
2 Force required to move the fluid through the distance Pe - Pw
3 Resistance of the fluid to this force
4 The porous medium contribution to moving the fluid k
5 The cross sectional area through which this fluid is moved h
6 Representation of unit conversion to field unit 0.00708

10. What is API? Determine the API of wet natural gas having specific gravity of 0.81 at 60
0
F
A measure of crude oil quality and gravity
API is NOT applicable to natural gas

11. How is wobbe Index related to API?
It measures the quality of fuel gas just as API measures the quality of crude oil

12. Identify and label the diagram below with respect to content and structural mechanisms
being depicted






















( )
w e
wf e
o
r r
P P
B
kh
q
/ ln
00708 . 0

=

Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering


TUTORIAL I
Page 3 of 4

13. What is expected capillary pressure to be exerted in rock pores of 0.124 cm diameter if the
wetting liquid(water) were to have a contact angle of 60
0
with the rock. What height will the
water be pulled into an oil column if both fluid columns were to be in contact in the same rock
maintain the same capillary pressure. The oil has specific gravity of 0.29 and the surface tension
is 98.5 dynes/cm (In order to express surface tension in field units (lbf/ft), multiply the surface tension
in (dynes/cm) by 6.852177x10
-3
) 1 dyne/cm
2
= 0.00014503 psi

= 2 x 98.5 x cos 60
0
= 794.36 dynes/cm
2

0.124

Now, Pc = 794.36 dynes/cm
2
x 0.000014504 = 0.01152 psi

and,
h = 144 Pc
(
1
-
2
)
(
1
-
2
) = (1-0.29)62.4 = 44.304 density of water = 62.4 lb/ft
3


h = 144 Pc = 144 x 0.01142 = 0.0375 ft = 0.5in
(
1
-
2
) 44.304

14. Sketch and label with appropriate positioning of reservoir and separating conditions the five
main types of reservoirs as par the fluid they contain
15. Explain and describe what accounts mostly for the change in the volume of hydrocarbon
liquid in leaving the reservoir to the surface during production

16. Compute the formation volume factor of 0.816 specific gravity crude oil which has its
surface separated natural gas C5
+
molecular weight to be 118.6. Its reservoir temperature is
109
0
F at the crude oil bubble point pressure of 2005 psi and gas solubility of 650 scf/stb.
The surface separated natural gas composition and mole fractions are as follows: C1(75% ),
C2(6.2%), C3(7.1%), C4(5.8%) and C5
+
(5.9%),

o
= 0.816, R
s
= 650 scf/stb, T
R
= 109
0
F P
R
= 2005 psi
Component Molecular Weight(Mi) Mole Fraction(Yi) MiYi
C1 16 0.75 12
C2 30 0.062 1.86
C3 44 0.071 3.124
C4 58 0.058 3.364
C5
+
118.6 0.059 6.997
MiYi = 27.3631

o
= MiYi = 27.3454 = 0.944
Ma 28.96
At the bubble point,




= 0.972 + 1.47 x 2711.5032 = 0.972 + 0.3986 = 1.371 res/stb
10
4

175 . 1
4
25 . 1
10
47 . 1
972 . 0
(
(

+ + =
R
o
g
s o
T R B

175 . 1
4
109 25 . 1
816 . 0
944 . 0
650
10
47 . 1
972 . 0
(

+ + = x
r
P
c
u o cos 2
=
( )
2 1
144
=
h
P
c
Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering
TUTORIAL I
Page 4 of 4

17. Sketch and Label the drilling circulating system.

18. Which of the three main rotating systems drills faster with drillstring rotation? describe its
operation

19. Differentiate between a wild cat and appraisal well and list their respective functions

20. Name the various processes employed to discover oil and state the one that is known to be
definitive

21. Describe the main functions of the drilling fluid in the drilling process

22. Calculate the dynamic and the static load on the dead line of a rig whose travelling block
pulley system carries 12 lines when it suspends a drill stem made up of 37 lengths of 30 ft
drill collars of 22 lbs/ft, 93 lengths of 29.5 ft drill pipes of 9.23 lbs/ft, 48 ft Kelley of 345 lbs, 4
stabilizers weighing 17.65 lb each and tricone bit weighing 11.626 lbs? The travelling
block/hook weighs 63.2 lbs.
Drill Collars = 37 x 30 x 22 = 24,420 lb
Drill pipes = 93 x 29.5 x 9.23 = 25,322.505 lb
Kelly = = 345 lb
Stabilizers = 4 x 17.65 = 70.6 lb
Bit = = 11.626 lb
Travelling block + hook = 63.2 lb

Total Hook Load W = 50,232.931 lb

Under static condition, Fs = Ff = Ft = W = 50,323.931 = 4,186.08 lb
n 12

Under Dynamic condition F
SD
= Fs x Dynamic deadline factor
From table, with n = 12, Dynamic deadline factor = 0.799
F
SD
= Fs x Dynamic deadline factor = 4,186.08 x 0.799 = 3,344.68 lb

23. Identify the drilling equipment provided below










a.._Swamp Barge Rig __ b.__ Power Tongs _ c._ Drill pipe Slip _ d.__ Je Bit __