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Flexible Electronics

Name Roll No

Fall 2011
Date .

Assignment Quiz (1 absolute)

Q1: Explain the following processes in the light of diode fabrication by mentioning working process, material use, thickness achieve and temperature use. 1. Electron Beam Evaporator (2) Deposit 100 Aluminum to create p-type region on substrate, then anneal at 650C for 60 sec. Ohmic contact of (50/400/1500) chrome, nickel, gold, respectively, for probing n-type region, then anneal at 650C for sec. Transparent layer of (50/100) chrome, gold for p-type region. Metallization contact of (50/400/1500) chrome, nickel, gold for probing p-type. 2. Lithography Process (2) (To be done under yellow light): Turn on spinner and place sample. Turn on vacuum pump, then apply a few drops of photoresist (Shipley 1818 4:1) to sample surface. Cover spinner and spin sample on a 1.4 m thick layer in 30 sec. at 6000 rpm. Remove sample from spinner and place in the pre -bake oven for 30 min. at 105C. Turn on maskaligner lamp and main power. Remove sample from pre-bake, let cool, then expose to UV light for 18 sec. Use fume hood to develop. Dip sample in toluene for 60 sec. (this hardens the surface), rinse & dry with nitrogen. Dip sample in developer (gently agitating) for 60 sec, rinse & dry with nitrogen gas. Repeat process for each layer. 3. What are benefits of silicon diodes or germanium diodes? (3) Though germanium diodes were the first ones fabricated, several factors make silicon the choice vs. germanium diodes. Silicon diodes have a greater ease of processing, lower cost, greater power handling, less leakage and more stable temperature characteristics than germanium diodes. Germanium diodes' lower forward drop (.2V to .3V versus .7V to 1.0V) make them better at small signal detection and rectification. But small signal diodes can be damaged by heat when soldering, but the risk is small unless you are using a germanium diode (codes beginning OA...) in which case you should use a heat sink clipped to the lead between the joint and the diode body. A standard crocodile clip can be used as a heat sink. 4. What is direct write to wafer methods and what is minimum scale which can be achieved.(3) An alternative to using a mask, is to directly expose the resist using an excimer laser, electron beam or ion beam. These systems do not require a mask. Such methods are known as Direct Write to Wafer methods (DWW). With the density of features steadily increasing keeping up with Moores law, finer lithographic techniques will be required. Examples are: UV Photolithography, Laser DWW, Electron Beam, Ion Beam and X-Ray Lithography. Optical lithography will not be able to be used with wavelengths less than 193 nm. because at these wavelengths, conventional quartz lenses used in optical lithography absorb rather than bend the light [Bairstow, 1997]. But recently researcher are able to produce features in silicon wafers as small as 17 nm by using X-Ray Lithography.