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AN ACCOUNT OF THE

IN

BY

FRANCIS BUCHANAN
Printed from the Buchanan MSS. in the India I Office Library, with the permission of the Secretary of State for India in Council.

PATNA:
Published on behalf of the Bihar & Orissa Research Society by Rai Bahadur Radha Krishna Jalan, and Printed at the Patna Law Press, 1939.

PriceRs, 12/-

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1 72

FACTORS DETERMINING POPULAilON

biSEASES OF BHAGALPUR

endowments, and tliey cannot endure the restraints which European discipline requires. They fill up however the enormous police establishment which is here maintained, and, I believe, would be exceedingly willing to assist any party in a predatory warfare. The men serving in the regular police (Burukandaj) are superior both in knowledge and appearance to those commonly found in Bengal ; but those paid in lands for military service are very indifferent. It was reckoned that in the whole district there were 9210 men dedicated by birth to the use of arms and willing to be employed in this kind of service. Of these only 4045 had found regular employment at home, 1580 had gone to other places in quest of employment, and 1110 strangers were here in addition employed. The military service, therefore, makes very little drain on population. The civil service rather gives an increase of population. In the whole district it was estimated that 1107 men had gone to distant parts in quest of this employment, and that 1260 strangers had here found service. Commerce makes little change on the population. A few Bangalese traders are settled in the wilder parts, but most of the commerce is carried on by natives. The number of boats is very small, and even these are mostly manned by people from the Furaniya district. In fact the people are of a very domestic turn, exceedingly unwilling to go abroad, and at home make very little exertion ; but there is in this a good deal of difference. In the western parts near the Ganges, and in the eastern corner towards Murshedabad, the people are more industrious than they are about Rajmahal, Kahaigang, and through what is called the Janggaltari, The drains on population are very small, and in general the manners of both women and men are exceedingly strict. The number of prostitutes is trifling, and in most parts the women are watched with an uncommon care and severity, while they are so slovenly as in great measure to lose all personal attractions. Notwithstanding these circumstances, and an uninterrupted peace for a number of years, with a large extent of very fertile territory unoccupied, it would appear from the reports of the natives, that the population is in some place on the

diminution, and scarcely anywhere is advancing with that rapidity which might be expected. For this diminution or slow progression of population various reasons are assigned, and deserve especial notice. The system of premature marriages is carried to a very destructive length, and no doubt contributes to check population ; but not to a greater degree than in many parts, where the population has made a rapid increase. The widows, who adhere to the rigid rule of Hindu celibacy, are here more numerous than in Bengal. This however is probably not more than sufficient to counterbalance the superior strictness in the moral conduct of the wives of Bhagalpur. The practice of inoculation is almost universal ; but the few families that reject it, will in all probability continue obstinately to adhere to their refusal ; for it has become a rule of caste. Some of them are Moslems of rank, who adhere to their folly from a knowledge of the doctrine which their prophet taught. The greater prevalence of inoculation in this district than in some of those already surveyed ought to have produced an increase of population; but other diseases are no doubt common and it is to sickness that many attribute the decrease in the number of people. This I am persuaded is a mistake ; for in the first place, the diseases peculiar to India, especially the Koranda which chiefly affects propagation are not near so common as towards the east; and fevers, the most common destroyer of mankind, are not near so common as in Puraniya. In the next place, the most populous part of the district, near Murshedabad, is just that where these two diseases are the most severe. It is true, that in Rajmahal, Paingti and Fayezullahgungj fevers are stated to be more common, but they are not near so fatal. The western parts of the district are, for a warm climate, uncommonly healthy, yet many parts there are very thinly inhabited. Fevers'in general are not so dangerous as in Europe, and it is only in the Eastern corner of the district that a great proportion assume a bad form. This indeed is said to have been only the case for about 17 or 18 years; for until then the vicinity of Murshedabad was by the natives considered as rather salubrious ; but now a sad

174

DISEASES OF BHAGALPUR

CAUSES OF THE WANT OF POPULATION

175

reverse has taken place, and almost every year there is in that part of the country a severe autumnal epidemic. Everywhere in the vicinity of the hills and woods the vernal epidemic is more severe than in cultivated plains; but I no where heard that it equalled in severity the epidemic of autumn. Fluxes, pituitous and bilious (Aong and shekumjari) are more common in spring than autumn ; but are neither very frequent nor destructive. Choleras are far from common. The people afflicted with both kinds of leprosy are viewed here with the same injustice that follows them in Puraniya. The most terrible in the Hindi dialect is most commonly called Ivor but is not near so common as towards the S. E. That in which the skin becomes white, on the contrary, is more frequent, and is most commonly called Charka. In general it is only partial, but I saw several instances of complete albinos, with weak blue eyes, and white hair. Two of them were children born of parents quite black and apparently in good health ; but the children were weakly At Tarapur in this district I saw two dwarfs, both adult men : one of them was 3 feet 9'< inches high, and tolerably well made ; the other was somewhat smaller, but he was rather distorted. The different chronical swellings are here much rarer than in the districts hitherto surveyed. Persons who reside on the right bank of the Ganges seem little subject to the swelling which affects the throat, and most of those in the divisions south from the great river who have this disease have been affected during a residence, of considerable length on the opposite bank. The people who live on the bank of the Man river are considered as peculiarly liable to this disease. It is said that Haradatta Singha, a neighbouring Zemindar, dug there a fine well (Inclara,) which was lined with brick. While this well continued in repair the disease is said to have appeared in the vicinity less frequently ; but since the water has become bad, the disorder has become as common as ever. These circumstances would seem to point out a certain condition of the water used as the cause of the disease; and it may be supposed, that the water of the Ganges is

purified by a long course, from the quality that produces this disease, and which seems to be peculiar to the water of Alpine regions. I am however told that the people of the Northern Kill tribe are subject to this complaint, and their hills have nothing approaching to an Alpine elevation. On passing the boundary of the Mogul province of Bengal the Sarcocele becomes a more rare.disease ; and seems to diminish more and more towards the west. In this district the fever, accompanied by an enlargement in the glands of the neck, is very rare; but that attributed to a diseased state of the nose is now exceedingly common and troublesome ; for it usually attracks those who are liable to it almost every month, and lasts two or three days at a time. Formerly, as it is said, this disease was not common, and it is for only five or six years that it has become so prevalent. The people of this district, and those of the hill tribes more particularly, are much subject to rheumatism, which seems to be owing to a want of sufficient clothing and to their supplying the want in cold weather by hanging much over a fire. To return to a consideration of the causes of the want of people, in some parts of the district, as from Rajmahal to Kahalgang, it is by many attributed to the frequent marching of troops and to the passage of travellers, especially Europeans, and it is alleged that both have so shamefully plundered the country that it has been deserted. Although instances of plunder by troops and by the servants of Europeans travelling through the country have undoubtedly occurred, yet I am persuaded that both parties have in general taken very great precautions to avoid injury, and that the complaints, which the natives of these parts are in the habit of making, are not only in general false but are done for the purpose of enhancing the price of everything that they sell, and for the purpose of supporting a base system of mendicity into which they have fallen. They find, that these complaints of injustice induce travellers, from a laudable desire of supporting the natural character, to overlook imposition, and to open their purses. From the attention to military discipline, and from the honourable disposition, which I am persuaded

204

PANDITS AND BRAHMANS


rs?

MEDICtNE AND SURGERY

205

Besides the teachers, there are in the whole district about 50 persons called Pandits, who have been educated regularly in grammar and law ; none of them, have studied metaphysics ; but most of them, if not all, have a smattering of Jyotish, so as to be able at least to calculate nativities and fortunate times. One of them, Gauridatta Pathak of Mungger, the most sensible man that I. have been able to find in that vicinity as an assistant, constructs almanacks. Sambhunath Ghosh, a Bengalese Kayastha of Champanagar, and one or two Baidyas in the S. E. part of the district, have studied Grammar, but in general this and the higher sciences have been entirely reserved to the sacred order. The Brahmans in the western parts of the district have reserved to themselves the exclusive privileges of acting as astrologers, soothsayers, and wise men (Jyotish). In the eastern parts the Daivaggnas of Bengal have made some intrusion on this valuable branch of science, which is here by far the most profitable. Among the 50 Pandits above mentioned, 40 may practise this art, and perhaps 15 more are practitioners, without having received an education that entitles them to the degree of Pandit. The common Dasakarma Brahmans can tell fortunate days for marriages, building houses, cultivating land, or such trifles. These men can read, but do not understand any composition in Sangskrita. The Daivaggnas of the east possess nearly a similar state of knowledge. Medicine is in rather a more creditable state than towards the east. About 270 Sakadwipi Brahmans and a few Maithilas practise medicine. They in general knov*- more or less of Sangskrita, and have some books treating on diseases and remedies, and written in that language. A great part is committed to memory, and a Slok or couplet is on all [occasions] quoted as of divine authority to remove all doubts, and to astonish the multitude, who do not understand a word of it. In fact, what I have said concerning those in Puraniya is applicable to those here. At Bhagalpur, Mimgger, Rajmahal, and Pratapgunj, are men who have regular practice._ In other parts they are hired as servants, and receive monthly wages, amounting to from 10 to 20

rupees, partly given in land. In this district I did not hear of any other practitioners ol medicine, who possessed anything like science, except eight men in Rajmahal, partly Brahmans, partly Kayasthas of Bengal, and partly Muhammedans. The Baidyas here have entirely relinquished the profession of medicine. The practitioners who exhibit medicine without having books, and in general without being able to read, are called by various names as in Puraniya. In the whole district there may be of such 600, some of whom are old women. In the three chief towns are about 20 Jurrahs, who evacuate the water of hydrocele, treat sores, and draw blood both by cutting a vein, and by a kind of imperfect cupping. They are by birth barbers. The midwives are the women of the lowest castes, and merely cut the umbilical cord. The low people, who cast out devils, cure diseases and the bites of serpents, and oppose the influence of witchcraft by incantation, are exceedingly numerous. In some parts the same person pursues all branches of this profession, in others he confines himself entirely to some one. On the whole, there may be about 15 or 16 hundred persons who pretend to a knowledge of this mummery. The low castes, that eat pork and drink spirits, are supposed to have most skill in devils. A branch of these wiseacres practise inoculation for the small-pox, and with the utmost success. The number stated to belong to this district is about 30, but many practitioners come from adjacent districts. It is not here the custom for the inoculator to repeat prayers. Some Brahmans and makers of garlands perform this office. I am informed that of those who are seized with the spontaneous disease, not above one in twenty dies. The operation is managed exactly in the same manner as in the districts already surveyed, and is attended with the most complete success, very few indeed dying. This success and the general adoption of the practice render the introduction of the vaccine of very little importance. Mr. Hogg at Mungger employed as subordinate vaccinator, cannot procure one person to bring a child without a bribe. It is true that bribe is not high, being one ana or not quite

206

WITCHCRAFT

WITCHES

207

two pence, or about a clay's wages for a common labourer. One from this might be led to suppose that parents here are little interested in their children, when such a trifle can induce them to submit their offspring to a practice which they consider in any degree objectionable. I do not however see any other mark of such want of affection ; on the contrary, the parents of this district seem fully as fond of their children as anywhere else, and to the amount of the bribe we must add the saving of the fee, that would be given to the inocuiator. In this district witchcraft (Jadu) is supposed to be exceedingly common. The people in the parts hitherto surveyed did not mention it so much as here, but whether from believing in it more or less I cannot say. My native assistants seem to think that they concealed their belief from an extraordinary fear ; for not one of themselves seems to have the least doubt of the frequent practice or reality of the art. I suspect however, that in reality the people there are not so much afraid of the art as here ; for they seemed much more communicative than the people of this district, and the only talk that I heard of it was in Kamrup, especially at Goyalpara, where the women were accused of using witchcraft for deluding their lovers. Much more desperate and unjustifiable views are here attributed to the witches, and occasion very great alarm lo most parents. The witches (Dain) here also are supposed to be women, some young and some old. Their supposed practices would appear to be from pure malice. It is thought, whenever one of these witches sees a fine child, by means of imprecations addressed to some unknown gods, who are pleased with such worship, that she destroys its health, so that it pines away, and is deprived of reason, or dies. Unless the witch knows the real name of the child, her imprecations do no harm. On this account children are usually called by some nickname, and their proper one is concealed ; and, as most parents think their children fine, almost every one is alarmed, when in play his children go out of sight. The children however are generally fortified by hanging on them something that is considered as a charm against spells. At lihagalpur it was stated to me, that about 25 children are supposed

\. ^ *^

annually to perish in that town from the malevolence of these witches. Some poor women, it may be suspected, are not unwilling to be considered as witches ; for, after they acquire this character, parents are alarmed whenever they approach; and.Jafter having concealed their children, give the Dain some present to induce her to go away.

416

THE GUNDLES

LEGUMINOUS PLANTS

417

varieties ; while in general the characters given to distinguish what the botanists consider asdistinct species are not very applicable to mark the kinds with which one meets in India. The people here, as well as in the adjacent part of Puraniya, talk of three kinds as distinct, Gehungya, Narkatiya, and Raksa, and for each kind have several synonyms. The Gehungya, I found, was also called Chauliya and Bara; the two former names are derived from its resemblance to wheat and rice ; the last name comes from its great size. This kind by the northern mountaineers is called Naltu. It agrees with the Holcus compaclus of the Encyclopedic, in having its spike recurred ; but the grain is not so closely compacted as is described in that work. The Narkatiya I have not seen. The Raksa is also called Sisuya, and may be the 4th variety of the Holcus Sorghum described in the Encyclopedie, having an erect spreading spike. Janera is fitted for the same kinds of land with maize; but seems a very inferior grain, especially as it is very difficult to preserve from birds. In this district it seems to be gradually giving way to the maize and will probably be soon altogether neglected. The Bajra or Holcus spicatus is to be found in a few gardens as a kind of curiosity, but in such small quantities that it cannot be included in the tables of produce. Next to Janera the most considerable of the culmiferous crops is the gundles but it is chiefly confined to the southern parts of the district, which in soil resemble Mysore and this grain is the same with the Shamay, which in my account of that country has been so often mentioned, and is the Panicum milian of the Encyclopedie. There is said to be another kind called Neuyagundli, but, as I did not see it, I cannot say whether it is a variety of the common Gundli or a distinct species. In this district the smallest of the culmiferous crops is the Kaun or Kangni which is the Panicum italicum of botanists, a grain much superior to most of those mentioned. The number of small birds that are most rapacious after its grain is assigned as the reason of its being neglected. It is chiefly reared by the hill tribes, the northern of which call it Petaga.

laJLour

PART 2ND.
OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS.

These here are very important, and, as in Puraniya, the most common is the Mash-Kalai, which in the Hindi dialect is most usually called Urid or Makh. It is a species of Phaseolus, which I cannot refer to the description given in any botanical author. There is a variety of it called Aghani Kalai, which differs in nothing almost from the Mash-kalai, but that its seed, instead of being green, is brown, and it ripens about a month earlier. Concerning this plant I have nothing to say in addition to what has been mentioned in my account of Puraniya, as it is used here exactly in the same manners. The pulse next in importance to the Urid is the A rahar or Cytisus Cajan, which grows with uncommon luxuriance. All that I have said concerning it in my account of Puraniya is entirely applicable to this district. The Vaisakhi is that most commonly reared, and is allowed the best soils. In fact I know of no finer crop that could be possibly encouraged than maize mixed with this pulse, and a very large proportion of the waste land is fit for producing such. The Vaisakhi kind by the northern tribe of mountaineers is named Gol-Lahari, the Maghi kind is named Mai Lahari. Great quantities of the Khesari or Lathy? us sativus, often already mentioned, are reared, especially among rice stubble. Next in importance to the Khesari are the two varieties of the Cicer arietinum. That with the red flower is calied But or Chana, and is by far the most common. That with the white flower here also is called Kabalibut. . . . Next to the But the most important pulse is the Kulthi mentioned in my account of Puraniya. Next again to that is the common-pea (Pisum) . A kind called Kabali or Kusi Matar has white seeds like the garden-pea af Europe (Pisitm sa/ivum), but I have not seen the plant growing and cannot say whether it belongs to this species or to thefieldpea (Pzsum arvense) to which the other varieties belong. The field-oea is of
53

418

KINDS OF PULSES PLANTS GIVING OIL

two kinds called, from the seasons at which they ripen, the Maghi and Vaisakhi Matar or Kerao, these two latter words being synonymous, the former in the Bengalese and the latter in the Hindi dialect. Masur, or the Ervwn lens, or lentil, is the pulse of next importance, and has been already sufficiently mentioned. Next in importance to the lentil is the pulse which in this district is called Bora or Ghangra, and has been mentioned in my account of Puraniya. I had here an opportunity of examining it, and find that it is the Doliciws Caliang of modern botanists, that is the Phae.eolus minor of Rumphins (vol. V, page 383 plate 139). Among the mountaineers it is much cultivated, and in the language of the northern tribe is named Kusora. The Chhota Ghangra or Muthiya Bora of this district I had an opportunity of examining here, and found that, far from being the same with the Lubiya of Ronggopur, it seems to differ almost in nothing from the last, except in having its seed vastly smaller. It must however be observed that when reared among the stems of maize, where it finds a support, it climbs just as much as the other, and, except in the size of the seed, I can perceive little difference between the plants. Next to the Ghangras in importance is the pulse called Meth Kalai, which appears to be the same with the Khyeri of Ronggopur, but the flower appeared to me larger, and I did not see the plant in all its stages. I am now convinced that I followed Linnaeus too far in admitting the P/iaseohis minimus of Rumphius to belong to the Linnaean genus P/iaseolus, and that I was mistaken in considering it the same with the Khyeri of Ronggopur. I think it now probable that it belongs to the Linnaean genus Dolichos, and is the lesser Lachhrakali of that district, while the Phaseolus minor ruber of Rumphius is the greater Lachhrakali. Next in importance to the above are the pulses called Harimug, and Sehamug or Mahananda mentioned in my accounts of Puraniya. In this district I saw neither one or other in a state fit for examination. The latter is the most common. Among the Bengalese here it is called Krishnamug.

419

The Tulbuli mentioned in my account of Puraniya is the pulse of next importance. Next to that is the Bhetmash mentioned in the same account. The least important of the pulses is one called Sutrakalai, which I have not seen.
SECTION 3RD Of Plants (living oil.

The natives speak so confusedly concerning the cruciferous plants, which produce oil, that I cannot treat the subject with very great confidence, but so far as I could learn the following are the kinds cultivated in this district. The Sarisha, Turi, Lotni, Gota, and Maghuya or Maghi Rayi are in general considered as the same species, and it is the one most cultivated, but it must be observed, that among the southern. woods, where the name Lotni prevails for this species, another kind, the Sinapi amboiincum of Rumphius was brought to me as the Sarisha. The plant of which I am now treating as the most commonly cultivated for oil in this district, is the same with the Sorisha of Dinajpur, and with the Kajoli of Ronggopur. Next in quantity to this is the Rayi, or Reingchi, of most parts of the district, as well as of the others surveyed, which is the Sinapia?nboiuicum of Rumphius ; but, as I have said, among the southern woods this was called Sarisha, while at Paingti. a plant with compressed seed vessels much like the former only much larger, was called Rayi, and the Sinopi amboinicum was called Gang-rayi. T h e seeds of both have probably the same qualities, on which account they are inextricably confused by the farmers, although in a botanical view the two plants are abundantly different. It is not in my power to say which is meant in the tables of each division. Only I know that the Sinopi amboinicnm with the small quadrangular seed vessel was called Gangrayi at Paingti, Reingchi at Kodwar, Sarisha at Bangka, and Rayi at Suryagarha ; while the kind with the large compressed seed vessels was called Rayi at Paingti, In the tables, perhaps most

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