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Lecture 36 Concrete Design Continuous Beams & Slabs, Columns

Continuous Beams & Slabs Concrete structural members are typically poured integrally together. Beams and slabs often span multiple supports and are not simplysupported as steel and wood framed beams are. As discussed in Lecture 15, these concrete beams and slabs are continuous and have both positive moments and negative moments. The location of tension bars in the members is related to the location of moment: Tension bars are located in the BOTTOM for Mpos Tension bars are located in the TOP for Mneg

2-Span Condition: w

Bars at top

R1 L


R3 L

M pos =

9 ( wL2 ) 128

M pos =

9 ( wL2 ) 128


Moment Diagram

1 M neg = ( wL2 ) 8

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3-Span Condition: Bars at top w





Mpos = 0.08(wL2)

Mpos = 0.025(wL )

Mpos = 0.08(wL2)


0.4L 0.5L Mneg = -0.1(wL2) 0.5L Mneg = -0.1(wL2)

Rebar Placement: At the transition between the Mpos and Mneg zones, a minimum overlap of bars is required per ACI 318. These overlaps are required for developing the full bar strength in tension. The friction developed between the concrete and the ribs of the rebar must equal the tensile strength of the bar. The necessary length of the bar embedment to achieve this friction force is called the Development Length, Ld, and is specified as a multiple of bar diameters. For example, the Ld for a Grade 60 rebar and concrete fc = 4000 PSI = 38 x bar diameter. Tensile Strength

Rebar Tensile strength = Friction force Ld

Friction force

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Below are schematic cross-sections of required overlap dimensions for bar placement in continuous slabs (beams are similar):

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Concrete Columns: As discussed in the previous lecture, concrete is good at resisting compression but poor in resisting tension. So, it might make sense that concrete would be the material of choice for columns. It is true that concrete IS used for compression members such as columns, piers, bearing walls and pedestals. Members under pure compression could then (theoretically) be unreinforced. These members are often subject to additional forces such as moment that would put some tensile forces into the member and would thus necessitate the addition of tension reinforcement. Most columns have combined compression and bending. They are essentially a beam-column. The compression capacity of a reinforced column is reduced by the bending stresses on the column and vice-versa. A graph of the axial load capacity of a column vs. the moment capacity of a typical column is shown below:

Pure compression Axial compression capacity

Pure bending Bending moment capacity

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Types of Concrete Columns: There are two types of reinforced concrete columns tied and spiral and refer to the type of confining bars used to contain the interior core of concrete. It has been shown that unconfined concrete core will carry MUCH LESS load than a confined core as shown below: Load Load

Concrete & vert. bars explode outward

Unconfined core

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A confined concrete core will carry substantially more load and will NOT explode outward like the unconfined concrete section will. Load Load

Minor concrete spalling, core remains intact

Confined core Tied Column: A Tied concrete column is one in which individual rebar ties are used to wrap completely around the vertical bars to confine the interior core. These ties are usually #3 or #4 bars spaced per ACI requirements: Least column dimension Tie Spacing = smaller of 16 x Vert. Bar Dia. 48 x Tie Bar Dia.

Additionally, the ACI dictates that there must be a minimum of 4 vertical bars having a minimum area of 1% of the column cross-sectional area and a maximum of 8% of the column cross-sectional area. From a constructability standpoint, 4% is the upper maximum that can be readily achieved because of rebar congestion.

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A typical tied concrete column looks like the following:

Vertical bars (4 minimum)

Tie bars


Spiral Column: A spiral column has a single rebar wrapped around the vertical bars in a spiral and is stronger than a comparable tied column. It is more laborintensive to build than a tied column. The ACI requires a minimum of 6 vertical bars, with the same minimum and maximum areas as a tied column.

Concrete Pitch = 2 6 Spiral rebar

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Column Load Capacity: Columns are rarely under pure axial compression only. Typically they experience moment in conjunction with axial loads and are under combined compressive and bending stresses. For this reason, the numeric calculations involved with determining the combined axial capacity and bending capacity are daunting. Design aids are used to quickly analyze and design columns under combined axial load and bending. An example of a graphical design aid is shown below for the following: Tied concrete column Concrete fc = 4000 PSI Steel rebar grade = 60 KSI

The design aid shown on the next page is based on the assumption that it is a short column, and slenderness effects need not be considered. A column not braced against sidesway is considered short if: Short column if

kL < 22 r

where: k = 1.0 for pinned-pinned end connection = 2.10 for flagpole type column L = maximum unbraced length, inches r = radius of gyration, inches = 0.30h where h = least column dimension for rect. cols. = 0.25D where D = column diameter for circular cols.

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Column Interaction Diagram for tied square Short Column, fc = 4000 PSI, Grade 60 bars

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Example 1 GIVEN: A square tied column using fc = 4000 PSI and Grade 60 bars has an applied axial service load = 120 kips and an applied service moment = 40 kip-feet. Assume the column is short. Use # 3 ties. REQUIRED: Design the column using the interaction diagram above. Step 1 Determine Load Eccentricity e: Load Eccentricity e =


40kip ft (12" / ft ) 120 Kips

= 4 Step 2 Determine the curve from graph above: Using P = 120 kips e = 4 Use curve 9 16 side dims 4 - #8 bars

Step 3 Design ties: Least col. dimension Spacing of ties = smaller of 16 x vert. bar diameter 48 x tie bar diameter

16 Spacing of ties = smaller of 16 x (8/8) = 16 48 x (3/8) = 18

#3 Tie Spacing = 16

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Step 4 Draw column cross-section:


#3 Grade 60 ties @ 16 o.c.


fc = 4000 PSI concrete

4 - #8 Grade 60 bars

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