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Introduction

Learning is a fundamental process and much of our behaviour consists of learned responses to simple signals. Some psychologists believe that behaviour is the sum of many simple stimulus-response connections. However there are other psychologists who think that stimulus-response is too simplistic and that even simple responses to stimuli require the processing of a vast amount of information. This is learning by association. A Russian physiologist called Ivan Pavlov, studied salivation in dogs as part of his research programme. Normally, dogs will salivate at the when food is presented, but Pavlov was interested why the dogs had started to salivate when the saw the people that usually fed them (they also responded to the sound of the dishes being used for their meals). Pavlov set up an experiment to find out if the dogs could be trained to salivate at other stimuli such as the sound of a bell or a light. At feeding times, Pavlov would ring a bell and the amount of saliva produced by the dog was measured. After several 'trials' Pavlov rang the bell without presenting the food and found that the dogs salivated in the same way as if food was being presented. You will note that the conditional response is the same as the unconditioned response, the only difference being that the response is evoked by a different stimulus.

The Classical Conditioning Procedure: In scientific terms, the procedure for this is as follows. 1 Food is the unconditioned stimulus or UCS. By this, Pavlov meant that the stimulus that elicited the response occurred naturally. 2 The salivation to the food is an unconditioned response (UCR) that is a response which occurs naturally. 3 The bell is the conditioned stimulus (CS) because it will only produce salivation on condition that it is presented with the food. 4 Salivation to the bell alone is the conditioned response (CR), a response to the conditioned stimulus. Classical Conditioning Definition: Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning and learning process in which something (conditioned stimulus) that had not previously produced a particular response becomes associated with something (unconditioned stimulus) that produces the response. As a result, the conditioned stimulus will elicit the response that the unconditioned stimulus produces.

For the conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus should occur before the unconditioned stimulus, not after. This is because, in classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus becomes a kind of signal for the unconditioned stimulus. The following are some of the important principles of classical conditioning: Extinction If a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, then the conditioned response will disappear. This is known as extinction. If a dog learns to associate the sound of a bell with food and then the bell is rung repeatedly, but no food is presented, the dog will soon stop salivating a the sound of the bell. Stimulus Generalisation A dog who has been conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell of one tone, may well salivate to a similar sounding bell or a buzzer. Stimulus generalisation is the extension of the conditioned response from the original stimulus to similar stimuli. Discrimination An animal or person can be taught to discriminate between different stimuli. For example, if a dog is shown a red circle every time he is fed, then he will salivate at the sight of the red circle alone. But initially, the dog may generalise and salivate at circles of any colour. If the dog is only fed when the red circle is presented and not when other colours are shown, he will learn to discriminate between red and the other colours.

Higher Order Conditioning This is where more than one stimulus is paired and presented; there can be a chain of events that are linked to the same stimulus. It is thought that words may acquire their emotional meaning through higher order conditioning, for example by pairing the words with something that causes emotion, eventually the word alone will have the emotional meaning. Examples:Imagine you went on a date at a restaurant where the food was very good. You really like the person and wish to go on another date with the person. It is possible that your liking for the person is partly a reflection of classical conditioning. The food at the restaurant can be considered an unconditioned stimulus that naturally produces a pleasant feeling. The person may become associated with the food, and consequently you have a pleasant feeling about the person

Questionnaire

1. How frequent do you consume chocolates? a. Once a week b. Daily c. Twice a week d. Occasionally 2. Which brand comes to your mind when you hear the word "Chocolate"? a. Cadbury (Dairy Milk) b. Nestle c. Amul d. Parle 3. When you think of Cadbury, which chocolate comes to your mind? a. Dairy milk range b. 5-star c. Temptations range d. Bournville range e. Perk 4. Which chocolate by Cadbury, do you feel, is advertised the best? a. Dairy milk range b. 5-star c. Temptations range d. Bournville range e. Perk 5. Can you give your favourite chocolate one adjective? a.Yummy b.Tasty c.Crunchy d.Nutty 6. Have you seen Cadbury Dairy milk advertising campaigns? a. Yes b. No 7. Which Cadbury dairy milk slogan/tagline comes to your mind first? a.________________________________________________________________________ b.________________________________________________________________________ c.________________________________________________________________________ d.________________________________________________________________________ 8. How can you remember these taglines? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 9. What according to you is the best feature of any Cadbury Dairy milk advertisement? a.________________________________________________________________________ b.________________________________________________________________________ c.________________________________________________________________________ d.________________________________________________________________________ 10. How can you remember these Features? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

1. How frequent do you consume chocolates? Once a Week Daily Twice a Week Occasionally 4 9 6 1
6

Once a Week Daily Twice a Week Occasionally

Interpretation:

2. Which brand comes to your mind when you hear the word "Chocolate"? Cadbury (Dairy Milk) Nestle Amul Parle

18 2 0 0

0 0 2 Cadbury (Dairy Milk) Nestle Amul Parle

18

Interpretation:

3. When you think of Cadbury, which chocolate comes to your mind? Dairy Milk Range 5-Star Temptation Bornville range 13 3 1 3
3 13

3 1

Dairy Milk Range 5-Star Temptation Bornville range

Interpretation:

4. Which chocolate by Cadbury, do you feel, is advertised the best? Cadbury Dairy milk range 5-star Temptations range Bournville range Perk Rank 14 2 0 4 2
2 4 0 2 14

Dairy milk range 5-star Temptations range Bournville range Perk

Interpretation: Out of 20 respondent 14 said Dairy milk,2 said (5-Star),4 said Bournville and 2 said Perk they feel its advertising is the best.

5. Can you give your favourite chocolate one adjective? Taste Yummy Tasty Crunchy Nutty Rank 12 6 2 0
6 12 Crunchy Nutty 2 0 Yummy Tasty

Interpretation: Out of 20 respondent 12 peoples favourite chocolate objective is Yummy,6 people said Tasty and 2 people said crunchy.

6. Have you seen Cadbury Dairy milk advertising campaigns? YES NO 15 5


5 YES NO

15

Interpretation: Out of 20 , 15 said yes they see Cadbury dairy milk advertising campaigns.

9. What according to you is the best feature of any Cadbury Dairymilk advertisement? Humour Celebrity Feelings Occasion Slogan Emotional No answer 3 5 3 5 2 4 2

No answe r, 2 Emotional ,4 Slogan, 2

Humour, 3

Celebrity, 5

Occasion, 5

Feelings, 3

Interpretation:

10. How can you remember these Features? Celebrity Repetition Festival Gingel Romantic situation Craziness of product Ad Presentation No answer 3 8 2 1 2 1 3 3

No answer, 3 Ad Presentati on, 3 Craziness of product, Romantic 1 situation, 2

Celebrity, 3

Repetition, 8

Gingel, 1 Festival, 2

Interpretation: