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GENDER AND QUALIFICATION DIFFERENTIALS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT (CA) AMONGST PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS.

BY ICHIPI-IFUKOR, Patrick Chukwuyenum1 +2347038268448 And AKPOKINIOVO, Samuel Rukevwe1 +2347061182490 1. Patychyky Research Consultancy 16 College Road Abraka, Delta State Nigeria. Correspondence: patychykyresearch@hotmail.com Abstract Differences in the level of implementation of continuous assessment by Male and female; trained and untrained primary school teachers were carried out. It employed the descriptive survey, sampling the opinion of 200 teachers from a population of 1357 primary school teachers in Ethiope East LGA of Delta State. The study used an instrument labeled the Continuous Assessment Evaluation Questionnaire (CAEQ) to elicit responses from the respondents. From the study, it was discovered that there was a significant difference in the level of implementation of continuous assessment by male and female teachers (P<0.05) with female teachers having a higher mean score of 76.81. There is a significant difference on the level of implementation of continuous assessment by trained and untrained primary school teachers (P<0.05) with untrained teachers having a higher mean score of 72.49. The study suggests that female and untrained teachers are keener to implementing continuous assessment than their counterparts. Key Words: Teacher, Gender, Qualification, Differentials, Continuous Assessment.

Introduction Continuous assessment is a classroom strategy implemented by teachers to ascertain the knowledge, understanding, and skills attained by pupils. Teachers administer assessments in a variety of ways over time to allow them to observe multiple tasks and to collect information about what pupils know, understand, and can do. These assessments are curriculum-based tasks previously taught in class. Continuous assessment occurs frequently during the school year and is part of regular teacher-pupil interactions. Pupils receive feedback from teachers based on their performance that allows them to focus on topics they have not yet mastered. Teachers learn which students need review and remediation and which pupils are ready to move on to more complex work. Thus, the results of the assessments help to ensure that all pupils make learning progress throughout the school cycle thereby increasing their academic achievement (Mkpa, 2003). In another development, one of the functions of a school is the certification of the individual learner under its embrace. To effectively carry out this role, assessment of one kind or the other is a prerequisite. Assessment is a means whereby the teacher obtains information about knowledge gains, behavioral changes and other aspects of the development of learners (Oguneye, 2002). It involves the deliberate effort of the teacher to measure the effect of the

instructional process as well as the overall effect of school learning on the behaviour of students. Assessment covers all aspects of school experience both within and outside the classroom. It covers the cognitive as well as the affective and psychomotor aspects of learning. This classificatory system covering all aspects of school learning originated from the work of Bloom, Hastings, and Madaus (1971). Bloom and his associates categorized the cognitive domain into six levels of thinking. These are knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The affective domain covers such social and personality characteristics as values, attitudes, interest, adjustment, habits, perception, social relations and beliefs. Psychomotor domain involves skills acquired by learners in manipulation, following specified procedures and body movements. It ranges from simple handwriting to drawing, handling of implements, apparatus, vehicles and equipment, playing of instruments and using keyboards, stage performance and dance, games/sporting skills. These three domains are interrelated and interdependent (Oyesola, 1986). It is worthy of note that the National policy on Education (2004) stipulates that school based assessment should be part of the school curriculum as it helps to determine the extent to which the learning objectives have been achieved. It is against this backdrop that this study investigated the level of

implementation of continuous assessment by primary school teachers in Ethiope East LGA of Delta state and sought to answer this question. To what extent has gender and teacher qualification influenced the implementation of Continuous assessment in primary schools? Research Hypotheses The following Null hypotheses were tested during the study. Ho1 There is no significant difference in the implementation of continuous assessment of by male and female primary school teachers. Ho2 There is no significant difference in the implementation of continuous assessment of trained and untrained primary school teachers. Research Method The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. Survey research is a method of collecting information by asking questions, Sometimes interviews are done face-to-face with people at home, in school, or at work. Other times questions are sent in the mail for people to answer and mail back. Increasingly, surveys are conducted by telephone. However, the present study employed the face to face contact with the respondents.

Population of the Study The population of the study includes all primary school teachers under the services of the state universal basic education board (SUBEB) in Ethiope East Local government area of Delta State which is estimated at 1357 teachers as provided by the local education authority (LEA). Sample and Sampling Techniques A sample of 200 teachers which comprises of 18% of the total number of teachers was randomly selected within the LGA. Instrument of Data Collection To guide this research, an instrument labeled Continuous Assessment Evaluation Questionnaire (CAEQ) was developed and was used to elicit responses from the subjects of the study. The questionnaire was made up of two sections; the first section was the demographic variables which consist of items such as Name of school, gender, level of experience and qualification. The second section considered factors that dealt with teachers implementation of continuous assessment. The items were based on a four point Likert scale of Strongly Agree (SA) Agree (A) Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD). The respondents were free to indicate the extent to which they agreed to the statements in the questionnaire. Thus the scoring of the instrument was as follows: SA = 4; A =3; D = 2 and SD = 1.

Validity of Instrument
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In the development of the research instrument, ideas were retrieved from past research questionnaires and the researchers solicited the assistance of two lecturers in Measurement and Evaluation at the Institute of Education Delta state University, Abraka to validate the items constructed before the final instrument was made. Reliability of Instrument To determine the reliability of the instrument, a pilot study was carried out at Eke Model Primary School I and Owessei Primary School II Kwale in Ndokwa West L.G.A of Delta state. The Croumbach alpha was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. A Coefficient index of 0.78 showed that the instrument was reliable. Administration of Instrument A total of 200 questionnaires were administered personally by the researchers. The content of the questionnaires was explained to respondents while completed questionnaires were collected on the spot and their responses compiled and analyzed later. Method of Data Analysis The data generated was analyzed using the descriptive statistics for the demographic variables. In the determination of trained and untrained teachers, qualification of the teachers was used, differentiating those who have a teaching qualification of at least NCE, B.Sc.(Ed)., B. Ed. degrees or a Post Graduate Diploma Education as trained teachers, while those lacking in any of these were
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classified as untrained teachers. The Z-test statistics however, was used to test the hypothesis one and two respectively. Presentation of Result Hypothesis One There is no significant Difference in the implementation of continuous assessment by Male and female primary school teachers. Table 2 Test of Significant Differentials between male and female teachers Variable Mean Standard Calculated Critical PDecision deviation Z Z Value Male = 69.64 14.8 4.814 1.95 1.47EReject 90 06 Null Hypothesis Female 76.81 10.05 = 110 Table above shows that the Z calculated is greater than the Z-critical this shows therefore that the null hypothesis is rejected which implies that there is a significant difference between male and female teachers implementation of Continuous assessment.

Hypothesis Two

There is no significant difference in the implementation of continuous assessment by Trained and Untrained Teachers. Test of Significant Differentials between Trained and Untrained teachers Variable Mean Standard Calculated Critical PDecision deviation Z Z Value Trained 67.26 5.18 5.21 1.95 1.83EReject N = 140 07 Null Hypothesis Untrained 72.49 8.01 N= 60 . Table above shows that the Z calculated is greater than the Z-critical this shows therefore that the null hypothesis is rejected which implies that there is a significant difference between Trained and Untrained teachers implementation of Continuous assessment. Discussion The present study investigated Gender and qualification differentials in the implementation of continuous assessment. The finding of this study therefore represents the general perception of how primary school teachers have implemented continuous assessment as recommended by the national policy on education in Ethiope East LGA of Delta state. Hypothesis one sought to know if there are gender differences in the implementation of continuous assessment by primary school teachers, our result shows that the female teachers had a mean score of 76.81 against the 69.64 scored by the male teachers. The statistical analysis of mean variation also revealed that the Z-score was significant at 4.84
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Table 2

when compared to the critical Z-score of 1.95 at a probability level of 0.05 thus the null hypothesis which stated that there is no significant variation in the implementation of continuous assessment with respect to gender was rejected. The implication to this observation therefore is that in terms of implementation of continuous assessment, the female teachers put in more effort to this regard. This may have risen from the fact that women who are natural home keepers may have brought their God given attribute to play by properly monitoring the children who have been put under their care. Hypotheses two sought to know if there was any significant difference between trained and untrained teachers implementation of continuous assessment. The mean score of the trained teachers showed that they scored

67.26 while the untrained teachers scored 76.81. A statistical comparism of their mean score however, showed that there was a significant difference in the level of implementation leading to a rejection of the Null Hypothesis. From the foregoing therefore, it implies that untrained teachers implemented CA more than the trained teachers. This finding is not in agreement with the findings of Egwu, Elewa and Shintoho (2009) who observed that poor experience/ qualification of mathematics teachers in Benue and Ondo States adversely affected the implementation of some aspects of the new mathematics curriculum in which continuous assessment is part. Complementing this finding, Ipaye (2007) pointed out that most teachers do not have the right qualification and
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training in educational assessment in primary and post primary schools a situation that greeted the effective implementation of continuous assessment in our schools. A possible justification for this finding may be that the untrained teachers may have taken to heart all instructions given to them during the induction ceremony for their job, and may have as well learnt over time the rudiments involved in the implementation of Educational policies. Study Implication to the Attainment of a Functional Education in Nigeria Most research on gender and education to date has concentrated on the access, persistence, attainment and the financing of education. The role of teachers and the curriculum have not been adequately addressed. Numerous gender specific education projects have been tried by governments, donors and NGOs in a variety of combinations in many developing countries, which includes bringing schools closer to communities, improving textbooks, increasing the number of women teachers, scholarship programmes for secondary school girls etc. However, this study has been able to establish the level of gender differences that exists in the implementation of continuous assessment in primary schools and that which may occur in the implementation of other educational policies. The implication of this to the attainment of a functional education in Nigeria is that successful policy implementation in education lies in the hands of primary school teachers especially female teachers since they lay the foundation on which every other structure is built in
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education of the child. It is of paramount importance therefore to note that of all schools visited and from the data analyzed female teachers were greater in the teaching service at the primary school level. Functional education as defined by Zeilberger, (1961) is that education that comes from the child's needs, and uses the child's interest as a mechanism for activating him towards his desirable activities; Its purpose is to develop the life of the mind, that acts from the wholeness of organic life, with relation to practical life in the present and in the future. From the above definition therefore, one can infer that for a country like Nigeria, that has experienced nd is still experiencing series of security challenges and an increase in the number of unproductive graduates, the effective implementation of continuous assessment at the primary school level stands a chance of turning the hand of the clock because when this is done, the needs of the child is identified earlier and the Childs education is properly channeled to the development of skills and talents that will be beneficial to national development. Conclusion From the outcome the study we have been able to establish that the attainment of a functional education in Nigeria is in the hands of primary school teachers and successful implementation of continuous assessment while gender has a significant influence on the implementation of continuous assessment and other educational policies by teachers.
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Recommendations Based on the conclusions made above the following recommendations are made for further research and eventful implementation of continuous assessment.
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There should be training and retraining workshop for teachers with regards to the implementation of continuous assessment from time to time. When this is done, it will keep them at breast with latest and up to date information with regards to CA implementation.

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There should be effective supervision on the level of implementation of CA in schools by head teachers and education administrators at all levels but special attention should be paid to primary schools since this level lays the foundation which all other structures are built upon.

References Bloom, B.S., Hastings, J.T. and Madaus, G.F (1971). Handbook on the Formative and Summative Evaluation of Student Learning New York, McGraw-Hill Egwu, V.A., Elewa, J.M. and Shintoho A. (2009). Problems of Implementing the New Curriculum for Senior Secondary Schools in Nigeria with
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Particular reference to Benue Ondo States. Unpublished B.Sc. Ed Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education (4th ed.). Lagos: NERDC Press. Ipaye, B. (2007). Problems affecting implementation of continuous assessment in schools. Black publishers Ltd., 6(2): 35-40 Mkpa, M.A (2003). A study of the problems of implementing the continuous assessment programme of evaluation in primary schools. A paper presented at the International conference on primary education held at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Oguneye, W (2002). Continuous assessment: Practice and prospects. Lagos: Providence Publishers. Oyesola, G.O (1986). Continuous assessment: Some characteristics of a scheme and its organisational implications. Journal of Teacher Education, 2(1):177-191. Zeilberger, Yehudah (1961). Functional Education in Educational Encyclopedia (Vol.1 pp. 706-710). Jerusalem: The Israel Ministry of Education and Mossad Bialik Israel.

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