W/~rme und Stoffiibertragung Bd. 1 (1968) S. 177184
Heat Transfer by HagenPoiseuille Flow in the Thermal Development Region with Axial Conduction
D. K. HEI~I~'ECI~E, Minneapolis, Minnesota,USA
Abstract. The heat transfer in the region of circular pipes close to the beginningof the heating section is investigated for lowP6cletnumberflows with fully developed laminar velocity profile. Axial heat conduction is included and its effect on the
temperature distribution is studied not only for the region
downstream of the start of heating but also for that upstream. The energy equation is solved numericallyby a finite difference method. Results are presented graphically for various P6elet numbers between i and 50. The boundary conditions are uniform wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux with step change at a certain crosssection. For the latter ease, also some results for the region near the end of the heating section are reported. The solutions are applicable for the correspond ing mass transfer situations where axial diffusion is important if the temperature is replaced by the concentration and Pe
by RoSe.
Zusammenfassung. Der W~.rme/ibergang im thermischen
Einlaufgebiet wird fiir den Fall der vo]lausgebildetenlamina
ten RohrstrSmung mit kleinen P6cletZahlen nntersueht. Axiale Wiirmeleitungwird beriicksichtigt, und ihr Einflug auf die Temperaturver~eilung nieht nur im Gebiet stromab veto
Quersehnitt des Heizbeginns,sondern auch in jenem stromauf, wird ermittelt. Die Energiegleiehnng wird numerisch mit einem Differenzenverfahren gelSst. Ergebnisse ftir verschie done P6cletZahlen zwischen 1 und 50 sind graphisch darge
stellt. Die
ratur und gleichf6rmiger Wgrmeflug mit sprunghaRer )[nde rung an einem bestimmten Rohrquerschnitt. Ffir den letzteren Fall werden aueh einige Ergebnisse ftir das Gebiet in der Nghe
des Heizendes prgsentiert. Die LSsungen sind ftir die ent sprechenden Stofftibertragungssituationen anwendbar, in denen axiale Diffusion nieht vernaehlgssigt werden kann, in dem man die Temperatur durch die Konzentration und Pe durch BeSc ersetzt.
Randbedingungen sind gMctffSrmige Wandtempe
A, B, C, D 
coefficients in Eq. (20) 
L 
length of heated pipe section 
Nu 
Nusselt number (2hrw/k) 
Pe 
P6clet number (2 Ur wq cp/k) 
Q 
heat flow 
T 
temperature 
U 
average velocity 
2p 
specific heat heat transfer coefficient 
k 
heat conductivity 
q 
heat flux 
r 
radial position 
t 
time variable 
x 
axial position 
u 
velocity 
Ar 
radial step size 
A x 
axial step size 
At 
time step 
o 
density 
Nomenclature 

Superscripts 

t 
dimensionless quantity (Eqs. (10, ll, 16)) 

Subscripts 

b 
bulk 

cond 
conducted 

cony 
conveeted 

d 
development 

fd 
fully developed 

i 
value at crosssection i 

?" 
value at radial position ?" 

i, ?' 
value at 
nodal point i, ] 

m 
mean value 

t 
total 

w 
wall 

0 
value at 
x = 
oo 
1 
value at x = 
+ c~ 

Abbreviations 

UWT 
uniform wall temperature 

UHF 
uniform heat flux 
1. Introduction This paper is concerned with laminar heat transfer in fully developed pipe flow close to the start of heating sections. It may thus be added to the large number of publications related to the original wellknown work by G~AETZ and NUSSELT on what one calls now the GraetzNusselt problem [1]. Most of the publications are extensions of the classical problem (constant wall temperature) to the cases of uniform or arbitrary wall heat flux or parallel plate geometry [2 through 5], turbulent flow [6, 7], etc., where just a few references are mentioned. Almost all papers have the assumption in common that the heat conducted in flow direction
13
is negligible as compared to the heat convected axially and conducted radially. This not only simplifies the mathematical treatment considerably but also is per fectly justifiable for flow situations encountered in most engineering applications.
In some modern fields, however, like nuclear reac tors and small space power plants, the use of liquid metals has become more popular. For these, due to their good oonducti~ty, the assumption of negligible axial conduction may not be valid. In that case, the solutions of the classical problem are not applicable and new solutions that include axial heat conduction have to be found. That is the purpose of this work.
_{1}_{7}_{8}
_{D}_{.} _{K}_{.} _{H}_{E}_{N}_{N}_{E}_{C}_{K}_{I}_{~}
Wgrme and Stoff ]~bertragtmg
2. Literature Review
In spite of a careful study of the literature, only a limited number of publications on the GraetzNusselt type problem including axial heat conduction could be unearthed. They are listed as Refs. [8 through 23] in chronological order. The following eases were treated:
(a) uniform velocity profile [8, 9, 13, 20, 23],
parabolic velocity profile [10 through 12, 14 through 19, 21], developing velocity profile [22],
(b) flow between parallel plates [8 through 10, 13, 17
through 20], flow in circular pipe [9 through 16, 21, 22], general concentric annulus [23],
(c) uniform wall temperature [8 through I9],
uniform ambient temperature [13], uniform wall heat flux [20 through 23], arbitrary wall heat flux [23]. In [19] only a rough estimate on the effect of axial heat conduction is made by assuming that the axial conduction is /c times the radial conduction. And in
transfer only for large x is
considered. There, the axial conduction has obviously no effect in the ease of uniform wall heat flux since the temperature rises linearly. It is demonstrated, how ever, that under the uniform wall temperature condi tion the fully developed Nusselt number is affected, that is Nfa = /(Pc). But the change of Nu is only small. All other authors computed temperature profiles in the development region. The difficulty of this problem
[12, 16, and 18], the heat
lies in the fact that
an analysis assuming
a fully
developed parabolic velocity profile leads to a Whitt aekertype differentia] equation [t0, 13] which does not fall into the class of SturmLiouville problems; thus, its eigenfnnetions are not orthogonal and the usual Fourier analysis is not applicable. This difficulty can be avoided, however, if a uniform velocity distribution (slug flow) is introduced. Then the eigenfunetions be come orthogonal and, in fact, are already known from the problem neglecting axial conduction [13]. The results should indicate quite well therelative magni tude of the axial conduction effect for laminar flow and be a fair approximation of turbulent liquid metal flow with Pe < 100, that is, if turbulent convection is negligible as compared to molecular conduction [20]. The problem for the case of fully developed laminar flow has been attacked in various ways. BODNA lCESOU [10] wrote the solution of the energy equation as a series of the confluent hypergeometrie function but did not determine the coefficients. Then MILLS APS and POttLHAUSE~ [11] and SI~GI~ [14, 15] ex panded the eigenfunctions as infinite series of Bessel functions for pipe flow. The same idea was utilized by A6m~WAI~ [17] for the parMlelplate geometry. He represented the eigenfunetions by infinite Fouriersine series. With these methods, however, the evaluation of the eigenvalues is very involved and laborious since
the exact results would require the solving of deter minants of infinite order, and the difficulty of com puting the nth eigenva]ue increases considerably as n becomes larger. Therefore, only the first five eigen values have been reported so far.
But this dilemma may be avoided altogether. With the availability of modern highspeed computers, it is very convenient and efficient to compute the eigen values numerically by directlyintegrating Whittaeker's differential equation using the RungeKutta method. This was done recently by Hsu [2t] for pipe flow with uniform heating.
Most investigators considered duets of semiinfinite length with uniform inlet temperature. The present author feels that this boundary condition at x = 0 is physically not realistic, especially in the ease of the laminar velocity profile where a long hydrodynamic development entrance section is required. H axial conduction is important, then a sizeable amount of heat is conducted upstream and goes beyond the entrance crosssection (x = 0) into the hydrodynamic development region (x < 0). Therefore, a temperature distribution is built up there which affects the tem perature values downstream. The assumption of a uniform temperature at x ~ 0 is not consistent with the inclusion of axial heat conduction and may lead to considerable error. To demonstrate this is one of the purposes of the present study.
More realistic solutions are obtained by assuming an infinitely long duct where a certain wall boundary condition is assigned to one "half" and a different one to the other "half" so that a step change occurs at the "middle" (x = 0). Then the temperature distributions in both parts have to be computed and matched at
x = 0. This "complete" problem has been solved by
some authors [8, 9, 13, 17, 23]. But only AGRAWaL [17] considers the ease of a parabolic velocity profile and finds a solution for the parallelplate geometry and uniform wall temperature with Pe = 1. All others assume slug flow. As shown by WII~so~ [8] and SCH~EI~)E~ [13], one can then write the solutions for
x 
< 0 and x > 0 in such a form that the matching at 
x 
= 0 is achieved automatically. Moreover, the solu 
tions of both parts have the same eigenfnnetions, eigenvalues and coefficients as in the problem neglect ing axial conduction (with T ~ eonst, at x = 0). Thus, the complete problem for slug flow may be solved with only little additional difficulty. However, in the ease of a parabolic velocity profile, it seems not possible to find a solution with this "builtin" match ing property. That means that one has to achieve the matching point by point by a numerical procedure. But the main difficulty is the slow convergence of the series near x = 0 as experience from the classical GraetzNusselt problem shows. Therefore, with rea sonable effort, one can only obtain limited accuracy which, in turn, justifies the use of a finite difference method employed in the present work.
Band 1 (1968) Heft 3
Heat Transfer by IIagenPoiseuilleFlow
179
Concluding the literature survey, it may be stated that, to the author's knowledge, no results of the complete problem for laminar pipe flow are available in literature.
are kept. at a different temperature T I (or are uniformly heated) (Fig. 1).
3. Energy Equation
and Boundary
Conditions
of
the fluid are constant and viscous dissipation is negh gible (if it is important, the dissipation term can easily be eliminated by a linear transformation of the tem
perature [11]). Then the steady state energy equation for hydrodynamically developed flow may be written
We assume that
the thermodynamic properties
(
)
@
1
r
~
5r
~T
r~r
~T
@xe 
~c~
k
u
°"
~x
.
(1)
For
the
velocity profile we introduce the Hagen
Poiseuille profile
u
=
2
u
[i

(~/r~)~].
(2)
This is an assumption which has to be investigated more carefully. Although the solutions of this work
are valid for any Newtonian fluid, they have practical importance only for low Prandtlnumber fluids, i.e., liquid metals. Previous experimental results on lami nar liquid metal heat transfer with constant wall heat flux, however, show considerable deviation from theo
retical predictions (see, for instance, Jot~?csoy% IIAI~T ~ETT, and CLA~A~Y~}~ [24]). Instead of a Nusselt number of 48/11 (which should not be affected by axial conduction) values as low as 1 were obtained, sug gesting, for example, the presence of thermal contact resistance or the behavior of a nonNewtonian fluid. [Iowever, a study of the recent literature revealed that some experimenters who used mercury flow [25, 26] and sodium potassium flow [27, 28] in a steel pipe were able to achieve good agreement with the fully developed heat transfer prediction. This proves conclusively that at least these liquid metals behave like ordinary fluids
if painstaking care in regard to cleanliness is taken.
That evidence, in turn, justifies the use of the velocity distribution according to Eq. (2) and ensures that the results have practical meaning.
Solutions of Eq. (1) have been found for two sets of boundary conditions, the uuiform wall temperature (UWT) case and the uniform heat flux (UHF) ease.
x = oo
x=
+oo
UWT 
UHF 

T 
= 
T O 
T 
= 
T= 
T I 
T 
r 
=0 
~T =0 ~r 

r 
=rw, 
x<0 
T= 
TO 
r 
:rw, 
x~0 
T= 
T I 
5x
^{8}^{T}
Sr
~T
Or
%T
Or
0
0
_
T O
2qw
~cp Ur w
qw
k
Physically, this means that the walls of the negative "half" of the infinite tube are kept at the temperature
T 0 (or are insulated) and those of the positive "half"
13"
f/o~
A.
L~27
Fig. 1. Geometry of the Problem.
It is convenient to write the equations in nondimen
sional terms.
Then, Eqs. (1) and (2) become
1 
8 
[ , ST' ~ 
+ 
1 
~2T' 
1 
~' 
 
2(1 
/2) 
%'
~T'
and the boundary conditions
(3)
(4)
UWT 
UHF 

x' 
= 
oc 
T' = 
0 
T' = 
0 
(5) 

x' 
= 
+c~ 
T' 
: 
1 
~x' 
 
4 
(6) 

ST' 
~T' 

r' 
= 
0 
~r' 
 
0 
~r' 
 0 
(7) 

r' 
= 
1, x'<0 
T'=0 
~r' 
0 
(8) 

r' 
= 
1. x' 
>0 
T':I 
~T'1 
(9) 

• 
: 
Or' 
where
T' 
~' 
To (UWT), 
~" 
 

 
T1 : 
To 
and
T T O
q,,Trw/k
(UHF)
(10)
x' 
~ x/rw Pe 

r' 
: 
r/rw 
(11) 
u' 
= 
u/U 
Besides the temperature distribution, the conducted and convected axial heat fluxes, the bulk temperature and the Nusselt number are of engineering interest. They may be computed from
where
q'

and
'
q~
=
q;ond = ~
2
f
0
1
q'¢o,~ :
Pe fr'
o
ST'
r' ~
dr'
u' T' dr'
t
Tb o
Nu

1
f
r' u" T" dr'
1

f r"u" dr"
0
2 qwrw
k(T~  Tb)
2
Pe qeonv
,
t
2 qw
T;~ T'
b
Q/~
(T1 ~o)~/r~
(UWT),
q'
Q/~r2w (UIIF)
qw
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)

[°f'.l
k Or
]w
(UWT),
q~ = 1 (UHF, x > o) (17)
180
D.
~. ~~ENN~ECKE
W/irme und Stoff fJbertragung
Furthermore, in the uniform wall temperature case one should compute the total heat transferred through the wall between x ~ 0 and x,
or
Qwt = 
f 
2~r~q~ dx 
0 
x"
0
It is also useful for practical applications to compute
a mean Nusselt number NUm with which Qwt can be
obtained. For simplicity, an average heat transfer coefficient hm was defined with the temperature jump
T 1 
T O:
Qwt= 2xrwhm(T1  To)x = 
2xrw f 
h(T~ 
 
Tb) dx 

0 

That leads to 

x 

Num ~ 
Nu 
T~ 
T o 
x" Pe 
0
4. Finite Difference Equations
A finite difference method was chosen to solve
Eq. (3). It is described in great detail in [32] and shall be outlined only briefly here. Since we include the axial heat conduction term, the energy equation is not parabolic but elliptic. Therefore, we cannot employ the convenient and fast method that was used, for instance, by KAs:s [29] or, more recently, by G~I GULL [30]. They described only three boundary condi tions and marched from x = 0 downstream until fully developed heat transfer was reached. With the ellip. tic equation, however, we have to assign the boundary conditions around the whole region of computation and find the solution iteratively. For a rectangular numerical grid with a mesh size of At' by A x', we write Eq. (3) in finite difference form using the socalled central differencing method (cf. Ref. [31]). Solving it for the temperature at the nodal point i, ~, one obtains
T~,j = Aj Tij+~ + Bj T~.~_~÷ Cj T~+I,j@Dj T~_Li (20)
where
Aj
Bj
Cj
~
=
=
At'(r~
At'
@ 1 Ar')/r~
½ Ar')/r}
(r} 
Ar '~ ~ Ar '~ ]
At'
1
Ax,~Pe2
u~
4Ax'
)
j
=
=
=
Dj=At'(
1
Ax,~Pe 2 @ ~
u~
)
~ =
2 
n 

2, 
, 
n 
2 
, n 

2 
n 
in which
At
the
At'
=
_{2}
_{1}
1
_{1}
(A~7~ 4 Ax,2Pe ~ )
centerline
(] =
1),
we
have
(Eq. (7)), which leads to
symmetry
Al B 1 =
= 2/Ar'2( ~~Tr~.q
0
A xl~pe~)
Ax~Pe 2 
4Ax'2 
~ 
@ ~A 

~A x'2Pe 
@ ~ 
~ 
' 
A x"'Pe2] 
The numerical grid was laid out in the following way. First the length of the region of computation, limited radially by the wall and the eenterline, was determined
by preliminary computations using a coarse uniform rectangular grid. For various Peeler numbers different lengths were obtained for which the boundary condi tion at x = qco and oo were approached reasonably
well. The resulting regions were divided into four axial parts, two small inner parts that have the ordinate
x = 0 as common boundary and two large outer parts.
Then a 20 × 20 grid was imposed onto each part so that
a uniform radial and a variable axial stepsize was ob
tained.
The boundary conditions were satisfied according to Eqs. (5) to (9). Derivatives were again written in finite difference form and solved for the boundary value. Integrations in Eqs. (12), (13), (14), and (18) were carried out nmnerically using Simpson's rule. The local wall heat flux (Eq. 17, UWT) was obtained by putting a third order parabola through the tempera ture values at the wall and three interior points and evaluating its slope at the wall.
The solution of the set of linear algebraic equations, Eq. (20), was obtained iteratively by starting from a guess solution and allowing it to relax to the final result. The calculations were carried out for various Pdclet numbers between 1 and 50 on the University
of Minnesota CDC 6600 digital computer. It required
about 5.4 see per 100 iterations. The rate of conver gence proved to be quite rapid. It could be accelerated by a factor of about three, using the overrelaxation method (of. Rots. [31] and [32]). Numerical experi mentation indicated that overrelaxation factors no larger than about 1.3 should be taken to avoid fluctu ations or even divergence. Then, the solutions reached their final values within about 0.01°/o after 150 to 250 iterations (depending on the P6clet number) in the uniform wall temperature and after 1000 to 1500 itera
tions in the uniform heat flux ease. The convergence
in the latter ease is so much slower due to the weaker
slope boundary conditions.
The accuracy of this numerical scheme was tested
in various ways. At each crosssection i, a heat balance was made which was satisfied within the accuracy of the numerical integration in Eqs. (12) and (13). A cal
culation using a 50 × 50 grid in each part of the region
of computation yielded a result that was indistinguish
able from that using a 20 × 20 grid. Then
velocity profile was assumed and excellent agreement
with results in the literature could be found. Thus, the author is confident that the accuracy of the results
is well above 1% except possibly in the immediate
vicinity of x = 0.
a uniform
Band
I
Heft 3
The
(1968)
results
through 16.
l
2
I
~z
are
5. Results
presented
Heat Transfer by HagenPoiseuille Flow
181
graphically
in
Figs. 2
function of Pe is compared with that obtained in l%fs. [12] and [16]. The local heat flux according to Eq. (17) is shown in Fig. 3. In both the negative and the positive portion of the tube, the flux is increased with decreasing Pc.
Fig. 2. Nusselt Number (UWT)
oe
o:
o;
~,~
o
o~
o~
Fig. 5. Bulk Temperature
o:
(UWT).
oe
~o
~
5.1. Uniform
Wall Temperature
as defined
by Eq. (15). It is increased considerably as axial con
duction becomes
heat transfer in the negative portion of the tube, the
It de
be
creases sharply with the P~clet number
symmetrical with Nu
as a
in Fig. 2, the fully developed
Since there is also
Fig. 2 shows
the local Nusselt number
more important.
can be computed
for x ~
0 if Pe
Nusselt number
there, too.
~
and would
O. In the insert
Nusselt number
From the curves in Figs. 2 and 3 one may compute (with Eqs. (19) and (18))the mean Nusselt number and the total heat flux between x = 0 and x (Fig. 4). Fig. 5 shows the bulk temperature for various P~clet numbers. It can be seen very clearly that for small Pe the temperature field in the negative portion of the tube is very strongly affected by axial conduc tion. For Pe = 50, the bulk temperature is indistin guishable from that neglecting axial conduction.
182
D. K. JzIENNECKtg
Warme und
Stoff
l~bertragung
The effect of axial conduction on the temperature
in Fig. 6. The tem
perature deviates considerably from a constant, ex cept for Pe > 50.
As an illustration, the temperature field for Pe =
is presented in Fig. 7. Finally, Fig. 8 shows various development lengths as
a function of Pc. The full lines represent the axial
distance where the local Nusselt number reaches its fully developed value within 5%. The dashed curves depict the distance where the bulk temperature ap proaches the wall temperature within 5~o. The im portant result is the fact that the development lengths are substantially increased with decreasing Pdclet number. From Figs. 2 through 8, it may be concluded that the assumption of negligible axial conduction is reason ably well satisfied if Pe > 50. This is in essential agree ment with the results for slug flow (gel. [13]).
5
distribution at x = 0 is indicated
creased for smaller Pc. But one may notice that it is less influenced by axial conduction than in the case of uniform wall temperature. If one is not interested in the immediate neighborhood of x = 0, axial conduc tion may be neglected if Pe > 10. This is also true for the development length (distance where Nu/Nufd = 1.05) which is shown in the insert. While the value of the Nusselt number at x 0 is infinite in the case of uniform wall temperature, it has now a finite value which decreases with Pe (see insert in Fig. 9). Fig. 10 depicts the bulk temperatures. They are strikingly affected by axial conduction. If axial con duction is neglected, the bulk temperature increases linearly. But axial conduction raises the bulk tempera ture. Since the hydrodynamic development section is insulated, all the heat conducted upstream is eventual
2
!
7
y~. v
z
e
e,
eo/~
2
8
~
where
=.
Zo5

z
/
I
~
I
~
I
g
~
I
87g
/I 

,im 
0 

5 
ZO 
08 
Og 
04 
02 
0 
02 
Ps~
Fig. 8. Development Lengths (UWT).
x/%fe .
~ig. 10. Bulk Te~cnI)erature (U/IF),
, 
i 
] 
I 
~ 

^{•} 

hz(~e~oo)L 

~1 
\ 
/ 
I 

01 
I 
I~ 

 
/ 
f 
~ 
~g70 
2 
~5 

g 

~0"3 
Z 
~ 
G 
8 /0 "z 
Z 
¢ 
G 
070 I 
g 
~ 
~ 
8 
~o 
as 
05 
Z0 

r/r~ 
 

Fig. 9. Nusselt Number 
and Development Length (U/IF). 
Fig. 11. Temperature 
Profiles at the 
E~xtr~ce 
(x 
= 
0) (UttF). 

5.2 Uniform 
Heat 
Flux 
ly convected downstream. This causes the fully de 
The next set of figures shows the corresponding results for the uniform heat flux case. Fig. 9 indicates the Nusselt number. Now the Nusselt number is de
veloped dimensionless bulk temperature to be increased above the values neglecting axial conduction by an
The bulk temperature follows very
amount of 8/Pe ~.
~and 
1 (1968) 
Heat Transfer by HagenPoiseuille Flow 
183 

Heft 3 

nearly the 
dependence 
given 
by 
(exact 
solution 
for 
72 

slug flow) 
Tb =
T~,
=
~exp
4 x'
+
8
Pe~
x'
x'
x'
<
>0
=
0
The insert shows the distance upstream of the entrance crosssection where (Tb  To)/(qwrw/k) = 0.05. Fig. 11 demonstrates the influence of axial conduc tion on the temperature profile at x = 0. Again the
~c
O4
10a c ~
z
7o
g
9
z
018 C ~
(mD)/r~om
2
007 C
~,
z
7O I
8~
4
0001
Fig. 13. Nusselt Number Near tile End of the Heating Section (UItF).
ZO
08
0~
04
02
0
OZ
F~.
12. Temperature
Distribution for Pe
=
5 (UHF).
assumption of a uniform temperature is not justified except for Pe ~ 50, possibly Pe ~ 20.
As an example of the temperature fieldT' is plotted
in Fig.
12 for Pe
z
5.
5.3. Heat Transfer
in Outlet Region
In addition to the heat transfer at the thermal starting region, the end of the heated region was also considered for the case of uniform heating (for uniform wall temperature, the inlet results may be used). Now the Nusselt number is increased (Fig. 13) above the value of 48/11 neglecting axial conduction. The insert of Fig. 13 shows again the development length where 2qu/Nu~d ~ 1.05. It may be noticed that the develop ment length can be much larger in the outlet than in the inlet. This is important to know for heat transfer calculations of a tube with a short heated section. The bulk temperature (Fig. 14) follows closely
Fig. 14. Bulk Temperature
Near
the End
(UHF).
of the Heating" Section
I 
j 

L~ 

ZO 
05 
0 
05 
10 
Fig, 15. Temperature
rlr~o
Profiles at the
Exit
(x
=
D) (UHF),
Tb=~ 
1exp 
x' 
+4x' 
x'<0 

# Tb=0 
x' =>0 
. 
Fig. 15 shows the temperature profiles at the exit crosssection (x = L). Figs. 13 through 15 indicate that axial conduction in the outlet region may be neglected if Pe ~ 20. In Fig. 16 the temperature field is again demonstrat
.ed for Pe
=
5.
~2s
ozo
oTs
oso
0o5
Fig. 16.
TeniPeratu~e
Distribution
Section for Pe
o
oos
Near
the
End
=
5 (UHF).
[
070
of
i
I
o)s
ozo
the
Heating
184
D. K. HENNECKE
Warme und Stoff ~bertragung
6. Conclusions
In summing up the results, the following statements can be made:
1. The starting region heat transfer to Hagen Poiseuille flows is strongly affected by axial conduction for small P@clet numbers.
2. The influence of axial conduction is more pro
nounced in the case of uniform wall temperature than
in the case of uniform heat flux. In the former case axial conduction may be neglected if Pe > 50 and in the latter if Pe > 10.
3. Axial conduction can cause a considerable increase
of the thermal development lengths.
4. If axial conduction is important, the temperature
field in the hydrodynamic development section is markedly affected and the assumption of a uniform temperature profile at the entrance crosssection can not be justified.
5. For the end of the region with uniform heating,
axial conduction may be neglected if Pe > 20. The development length there can be much larger than in the starting region.
Acknowledgements
The author is indebted to Professor E. R. G. ECKEI~T for many helpful discussions and his guidance through out the course of this work. The author also wishes to thank the Shell Foundation for fellowship support. The computer time was provided by a grant from the University of Minnesota Computer Center.
References
[1] ECKERT, E. R. G., and
1~. M. DRAKE: Heat and Mass
Transfer, 2nd ed. New York: McGrawHill Book Co.,
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Dipl.Ing. DIETMARK. HENNECKE Research Fellow Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455
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