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W/~rme- und Stoffiibertragung Bd. 1 (1968) S. 177--184

Heat Transfer by Hagen-Poiseuille Flow in the Thermal Development Region with Axial Conduction

D. K. HEI~I~'ECI~E, Minneapolis, Minnesota,USA

Abstract. The heat transfer in the region of circular pipes close to the beginningof the heating section is investigated for low-P6clet-numberflows with fully developed laminar velocity profile. Axial heat conduction is included and its effect on the

temperature distribution is studied not only for the region

downstream of the start of heating but also for that upstream. The energy equation is solved numericallyby a finite difference method. Results are presented graphically for various P6elet numbers between i and 50. The boundary conditions are uniform wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux with step change at a certain cross-section. For the latter ease, also some results for the region near the end of the heating section are reported. The solutions are applicable for the correspond- ing mass transfer situations where axial diffusion is important if the temperature is replaced by the concentration and Pe

by RoSe.

Zusammenfassung. Der W~.rme/ibergang im thermischen

Einlaufgebiet wird fiir den Fall der vo]lausgebildetenlamina-

ten RohrstrSmung mit kleinen P6clet-Zahlen nntersueht. Axiale Wiirmeleitungwird beriicksichtigt, und ihr Einflug auf die Temperaturver~eilung nieht nur im Gebiet stromab veto

Quersehnitt des Heizbeginns,sondern auch in jenem stromauf, wird ermittelt. Die Energiegleiehnng wird numerisch mit einem Differenzenverfahren gelSst. Ergebnisse ftir verschie- done P6clet-Zahlen zwischen 1 und 50 sind graphisch darge-

stellt. Die

ratur und gleichf6rmiger Wgrmeflug mit sprunghaRer )[nde- rung an einem bestimmten Rohrquerschnitt. Ffir den letzteren Fall werden aueh einige Ergebnisse ftir das Gebiet in der Nghe

des Heizendes prgsentiert. Die LSsungen sind ftir die ent- sprechenden Stofftibertragungssituationen anwendbar, in denen axiale Diffusion nieht vernaehlgssigt werden kann, in- dem man die Temperatur durch die Konzentration und Pe durch BeSc ersetzt.

Randbedingungen sind gMctffSrmige Wandtempe-

A, B, C, D

coefficients in Eq. (20)

L

length of heated pipe section

Nu

Nusselt number (2hrw/k)

Pe

P6clet number (2 Ur wq cp/k)

Q

heat flow

T

temperature

U

average velocity

2p

specific heat heat transfer coefficient

k

heat conductivity

q

heat flux

r

radial position

t

time variable

x

axial position

u

velocity

Ar

radial step size

A x

axial step size

At

time step

o

density

Nomenclature

 

Superscripts

t

dimensionless quantity (Eqs. (10, ll, 16))

 

Subscripts

b

bulk

cond

conducted

 

cony

conveeted

d

development

fd

fully developed

i

value at cross-section i

?"

value at radial position ?"

i, ?'

value at

nodal point i, ]

m

mean value

 

t

total

w

wall

0

value at

x =

--oo

1

value at x =

+ c~

 

Abbreviations

UWT

uniform wall temperature

UHF

uniform heat flux

1. Introduction This paper is concerned with laminar heat transfer in fully developed pipe flow close to the start of heating sections. It may thus be added to the large number of publications related to the original well-known work by G~AETZ and NUSSELT on what one calls now the Graetz-Nusselt problem [1]. Most of the publications are extensions of the classical problem (constant wall temperature) to the cases of uniform or arbitrary wall heat flux or parallel plate geometry [2 through 5], turbulent flow [6, 7], etc., where just a few references are mentioned. Almost all papers have the assumption in common that the heat conducted in flow direction

13

is negligible as compared to the heat convected axially and conducted radially. This not only simplifies the mathematical treatment considerably but also is per- fectly justifiable for flow situations encountered in most engineering applications.

In some modern fields, however, like nuclear reac- tors and small space power plants, the use of liquid metals has become more popular. For these, due to their good oonducti~ty, the assumption of negligible axial conduction may not be valid. In that case, the solutions of the classical problem are not applicable and new solutions that include axial heat conduction have to be found. That is the purpose of this work.

178

D. K. HENNECKI~

Wgrme- and Stoff- ]~bertragtmg

2. Literature Review

In spite of a careful study of the literature, only a limited number of publications on the Graetz-Nusselt- type problem including axial heat conduction could be unearthed. They are listed as Refs. [8 through 23] in chronological order. The following eases were treated:

(a) uniform velocity profile [8, 9, 13, 20, 23],

parabolic velocity profile [10 through 12, 14 through 19, 21], developing velocity profile [22],

(b) flow between parallel plates [8 through 10, 13, 17

through 20], flow in circular pipe [9 through 16, 21, 22], general concentric annulus [23],

(c) uniform wall temperature [8 through I9],

uniform ambient temperature [13], uniform wall heat flux [20 through 23], arbitrary wall heat flux [23]. In [19] only a rough estimate on the effect of axial heat conduction is made by assuming that the axial conduction is /c times the radial conduction. And in

transfer only for large x is

considered. There, the axial conduction has obviously no effect in the ease of uniform wall heat flux since the temperature rises linearly. It is demonstrated, how- ever, that under the uniform wall temperature condi- tion the fully developed Nusselt number is affected, that is Nfa = /(Pc). But the change of Nu is only small. All other authors computed temperature profiles in the development region. The difficulty of this problem

[12, 16, and 18], the heat

lies in the fact that

an analysis assuming

a fully

developed parabolic velocity profile leads to a Whitt- aeker-type differentia] equation [t0, 13] which does not fall into the class of Sturm-Liouville problems; thus, its eigenfnnetions are not orthogonal and the usual Fourier analysis is not applicable. This difficulty can be avoided, however, if a uniform velocity distribution (slug flow) is introduced. Then the eigenfunetions be- come orthogonal and, in fact, are already known from the problem neglecting axial conduction [13]. The results should indicate quite well the-relative magni- tude of the axial conduction effect for laminar flow and be a fair approximation of turbulent liquid metal flow with Pe < 100, that is, if turbulent convection is negligible as compared to molecular conduction [20]. The problem for the case of fully developed laminar flow has been attacked in various ways. BODNA- lCESOU [10] wrote the solution of the energy equation as a series of the confluent hypergeometrie function but did not determine the coefficients. Then MILLS- APS and POttLHAUSE~ [11] and SI~GI~ [14, 15] ex- panded the eigenfunctions as infinite series of Bessel functions for pipe flow. The same idea was utilized by A6m~WAI~ [17] for the parMlel-plate geometry. He represented the eigenfunetions by infinite Fourier-sine series. With these methods, however, the evaluation of the eigenvalues is very involved and laborious since

the exact results would require the solving of deter- minants of infinite order, and the difficulty of com- puting the nth eigenva]ue increases considerably as n becomes larger. Therefore, only the first five eigen- values have been reported so far.

But this dilemma may be avoided altogether. With the availability of modern high-speed computers, it is very convenient and efficient to compute the eigen- values numerically by directlyintegrating Whittaeker's differential equation using the Runge-Kutta method. This was done recently by Hsu [2t] for pipe flow with uniform heating.

Most investigators considered duets of semi-infinite length with uniform inlet temperature. The present author feels that this boundary condition at x = 0 is physically not realistic, especially in the ease of the laminar velocity profile where a long hydrodynamic- development entrance section is required. H axial conduction is important, then a sizeable amount of heat is conducted upstream and goes beyond the entrance cross-section (x = 0) into the hydrodynamic development region (x < 0). Therefore, a temperature distribution is built up there which affects the tem- perature values downstream. The assumption of a uniform temperature at x ~ 0 is not consistent with the inclusion of axial heat conduction and may lead to considerable error. To demonstrate this is one of the purposes of the present study.

More realistic solutions are obtained by assuming an infinitely long duct where a certain wall boundary condition is assigned to one "half" and a different one to the other "half" so that a step change occurs at the "middle" (x = 0). Then the temperature distributions in both parts have to be computed and matched at

x = 0. This "complete" problem has been solved by

some authors [8, 9, 13, 17, 23]. But only AGRAWaL [17] considers the ease of a parabolic velocity profile and finds a solution for the parallel-plate geometry and uniform wall temperature with Pe = 1. All others assume slug flow. As shown by WII~so~- [8] and SCH~EI~)E~ [13], one can then write the solutions for

x

< 0 and x > 0 in such a form that the matching at

x

= 0 is achieved automatically. Moreover, the solu-

tions of both parts have the same eigenfnnetions, eigenvalues and coefficients as in the problem neglect- ing axial conduction (with T ~ eonst, at x = 0). Thus, the complete problem for slug flow may be solved with only little additional difficulty. However, in the ease of a parabolic velocity profile, it seems not possible to find a solution with this "built-in" match- ing property. That means that one has to achieve the matching point by point by a numerical procedure. But the main difficulty is the slow convergence of the series near x = 0 as experience from the classical Graetz-Nusselt problem shows. Therefore, with rea- sonable effort, one can only obtain limited accuracy which, in turn, justifies the use of a finite difference method employed in the present work.

Band 1 (1968) Heft 3

Heat Transfer by I-Iagen-PoiseuilleFlow

179

Concluding the literature survey, it may be stated that, to the author's knowledge, no results of the complete problem for laminar pipe flow are available in literature.

are kept. at a different temperature T I (or are uniformly heated) (Fig. 1).

3. Energy Equation

and Boundary

Conditions

of

the fluid are constant and viscous dissipation is negh- gible (if it is important, the dissipation term can easily be eliminated by a linear transformation of the tem-

perature [11]). Then the steady state energy equation for hydrodynamically developed flow may be written

We assume that

the thermodynamic properties

(

)

@

1

r

~

5r

~T

r~r

~T

@xe --

~c~

k

u

°"

~x

.

(1)

For

the

velocity profile we introduce the Hagen-

Poiseuille profile

u

=

2

u

[i

-

(~/r~)~].

(2)

This is an assumption which has to be investigated more carefully. Although the solutions of this work

are valid for any Newtonian fluid, they have practical importance only for low Prandtl-number fluids, i.e., liquid metals. Previous experimental results on lami- nar liquid metal heat transfer with constant wall heat flux, however, show considerable deviation from theo-

retical predictions (see, for instance, Jot~?csoy% I-IAI~T- ~ETT, and CLA~A~Y~}~ [24]). Instead of a Nusselt number of 48/11 (which should not be affected by axial conduction) values as low as 1 were obtained, sug- gesting, for example, the presence of thermal contact resistance or the behavior of a non-Newtonian fluid. [-Iowever, a study of the recent literature revealed that some experimenters who used mercury flow [25, 26] and sodium potassium flow [27, 28] in a steel pipe were able to achieve good agreement with the fully developed heat transfer prediction. This proves conclusively that at least these liquid metals behave like ordinary fluids

if painstaking care in regard to cleanliness is taken.

That evidence, in turn, justifies the use of the velocity distribution according to Eq. (2) and ensures that the results have practical meaning.

Solutions of Eq. (1) have been found for two sets of boundary conditions, the uuiform wall temperature (UWT) case and the uniform heat flux (UHF) ease.

x = --oo

x=

+oo

UWT

UHF

T

=

T O

T

=

T=

T I

T

r

=0

~T

--=0 ~r

r

=rw,

x<0

T=

TO

r

-:rw,

x~0

T=

T I

5x

8T

Sr

~T

Or

%T

Or

--0

--0

_

T O

2qw

~cp Ur w

qw

k

Physically, this means that the walls of the negative "half" of the infinite tube are kept at the temperature

T 0 (or are insulated) and those of the positive "half"

13"

f/o~

A.

L~-27

Fig. 1. Geometry of the Problem.

It is convenient to write the equations in non-dimen-

sional terms.

Then, Eqs. (1) and (2) become

1

8

[ , ST' ~

+

1

~2T'

1

 

~'

-

2(1

-/2)

%'

~T'

and the boundary conditions

(3)

(4)

 

UWT

 

UHF

x'

=

--oc

T' =

0

T' =

0

(5)

x'

=

+c~

T'

:

1

~x'

--

4

(6)

 

ST'

~T'

r'

=

0

~r'

--

0

~r'

-- 0

(7)

r'

=

1, x'<0

T'=0

~r'

--0

(8)

r'

=

1. x'

>0

T':I

~T'--1

 

(9)

 

:

Or'

where

T'

~'-

To (UWT),

~"

--

 

--

T-1 :

To

and

T-- T O

q,,Trw/k

(UHF)

(10)

x'

~- x/rw Pe

r'

:

r/rw

(11)

u'

=

u/U

Besides the temperature distribution, the conducted and convected axial heat fluxes, the bulk temperature and the Nusselt number are of engineering interest. They may be computed from

where

q'

--

and

'

q~

=

q;ond = ~

2

f

0

1

q'¢o,~ :

Pe fr'

o

ST'

r' ~

dr'

u' T' dr'

t

Tb o

Nu

--

1

f

r' u" T" dr'

1

--

f r"u" dr"

0

2 qwrw

k(T~ -- Tb)

2

Pe qeonv

,

t

2 qw

T;~- T'

b

Q/~

(T1 --~o)~/r~

(UWT),

q'--

Q/~r2w (UI-IF)

qw

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

--

[°f'.l

k Or

]w

(UWT),

q~ = 1 (UHF, x > o) (17)

180

D.

~-. ~-~ENN~ECKE

W/irme- und Stoff- fJ-bertragung

Furthermore, in the uniform wall temperature case one should compute the total heat transferred through the wall between x --~ 0 and x,

or

Qwt =

f

2~r~q~ dx

0

x"

0

It is also useful for practical applications to compute

a mean Nusselt number NUm with which Qwt can be

obtained. For simplicity, an average heat transfer coefficient hm was defined with the temperature jump

T 1 --

T O:

Qwt= 2xrwhm(T1 --

To)x =

2xrw f

h(T~

--

Tb) dx

0

That leads to

 

x

Num ~

Nu

T~

T o

x" Pe

 

0

4. Finite Difference Equations

A finite difference method was chosen to solve

Eq. (3). It is described in great detail in [32] and shall be outlined only briefly here. Since we include the axial heat conduction term, the energy equation is not parabolic but elliptic. Therefore, we cannot employ the convenient and fast method that was used, for instance, by KAs:s [29] or, more recently, by G~I- GULL [30]. They described only three boundary condi- tions and marched from x = 0 downstream until fully developed heat transfer was reached. With the ellip-. tic equation, however, we have to assign the boundary conditions around the whole region of computation and find the solution iteratively. For a rectangular numerical grid with a mesh size of At' by A x', we write Eq. (3) in finite difference form using the so-called central differencing method (cf. Ref. [31]). Solving it for the temperature at the nodal point i, ~, one obtains

T~,j = Aj Tij+~ + Bj T~.~_~÷ Cj T~+I,j@Dj T~_Li (20)

where

Aj

Bj

Cj

~-

=

=

At'(r~

At'

@ 1 Ar')/r~

½ Ar')/r}

(r} --

Ar '~ ~ Ar '~ ]

At'

1

Ax,~Pe2

u~

4Ax'

)

j

=

=

=

Dj=At'(

1

Ax,~Pe 2 @ ~

u~

)

~ =

2

n

2,

,

n

2

, n

2

n

in which

At

the

At'

=

2

1

1

1

(-A~7~ 4- Ax,2Pe ~ )

centerline

(] =

1),

we

have

(Eq. (7)), which leads to

symmetry

Al B 1 =

= 2/Ar'2( ~-~Tr~.q---

0

A xl~pe~)

Ax~Pe 2

4Ax'2

~

@ ~A

~A x'2Pe

@ ~

~

'

A x"'Pe2]

The numerical grid was laid out in the following way. First the length of the region of computation, limited radially by the wall and the eenterline, was determined

by preliminary computations using a coarse uniform rectangular grid. For various Peeler numbers different lengths were obtained for which the boundary condi- tion at x = q-co and --oo were approached reasonably

well. The resulting regions were divided into four axial parts, two small inner parts that have the ordinate

x = 0 as common boundary and two large outer parts.

Then a 20 × 20 grid was imposed onto each part so that

a uniform radial and a variable axial stepsize was ob-

tained.

The boundary conditions were satisfied according to Eqs. (5) to (9). Derivatives were again written in finite difference form and solved for the boundary value. Integrations in Eqs. (12), (13), (14), and (18) were carried out nmnerically using Simpson's rule. The local wall heat flux (Eq. 17, UWT) was obtained by putting a third order parabola through the tempera- ture values at the wall and three interior points and evaluating its slope at the wall.

The solution of the set of linear algebraic equations, Eq. (20), was obtained iteratively by starting from a guess solution and allowing it to relax to the final result. The calculations were carried out for various Pdclet numbers between 1 and 50 on the University

of Minnesota CDC 6600 digital computer. It required

about 5.4 see per 100 iterations. The rate of conver- gence proved to be quite rapid. It could be accelerated by a factor of about three, using the overrelaxation method (of. Rots. [31] and [32]). Numerical experi- mentation indicated that overrelaxation factors no larger than about 1.3 should be taken to avoid fluctu- ations or even divergence. Then, the solutions reached their final values within about 0.01°/o after 150 to 250 iterations (depending on the P6clet number) in the uniform wall temperature and after 1000 to 1500 itera-

tions in the uniform heat flux ease. The convergence

in the latter ease is so much slower due to the weaker

slope boundary conditions.

The accuracy of this numerical scheme was tested

in various ways. At each cross-section i, a heat balance was made which was satisfied within the accuracy of the numerical integration in Eqs. (12) and (13). A cal-

culation using a 50 × 50 grid in each part of the region

of computation yielded a result that was indistinguish-

able from that using a 20 × 20 grid. Then

velocity profile was assumed and excellent agreement

with results in the literature could be found. Thus, the author is confident that the accuracy of the results

is well above 1% except possibly in the immediate

vicinity of x = 0.

a uniform

Band

I

Heft 3

The

(1968)

results

through 16.

l

2

I

~z

are

5. Results

presented

Heat Transfer by Hagen-Poiseuille Flow

181

graphically

in

Figs. 2

function of Pe is compared with that obtained in l%fs. [12] and [16]. The local heat flux according to Eq. (17) is shown in Fig. 3. In both the negative and the positive portion of the tube, the flux is increased with decreasing Pc.

Fig. 2. Nusselt Number (UWT)

oe

o:

o;

~,~

o

o~

o~

Fig. 5. Bulk Temperature

o:

(UWT).

oe

~o

~

ilX\\- I .///II J -70-3W3 ~ g 70-z 2 # g 70-Tf ~, $1 2
ilX\\-
I
.///II
J
-70-3W3
~ g
70-z 2
# g 70-Tf
~, $1
2
20
0$
0
05
~0
r/r~
-
Fig. 3. Local
Wall
Heat
FhLx (UWT).
Fig. 6. Ternperatm'e
Profiles
at
the
Entrance
(x
=
0)
(U~VT).
---
-- Bulk
Temperat~u'es.
i
I
2
1
_
I
:n=o
'
i
,
I"
C
~x
~_
~ae
,,>
a2
0Y
10
0
~5"
7.0
~I~
,
,-
r/r~
Fig.~. Mean N~mselt Number and Total ~eat Flux (UWT).
Fig. 7. Temperature
Dis£ribution for Pe
=
5 (UWT).

5.1. Uniform

Wall Temperature

as defined

by Eq. (15). It is increased considerably as axial con-

duction becomes

heat transfer in the negative portion of the tube, the

It de-

be

creases sharply with the P~clet number

symmetrical with Nu

as a

in Fig. 2, the fully developed

Since there is also

Fig. 2 shows

the local Nusselt number

more important.

can be computed

for x ~

0 if Pe

Nusselt number

there, too.

~

and would

O. In the insert

Nusselt number

From the curves in Figs. 2 and 3 one may compute (with Eqs. (19) and (18))the mean Nusselt number and the total heat flux between x = 0 and x (Fig. 4). Fig. 5 shows the bulk temperature for various P~clet numbers. It can be seen very clearly that for small Pe the temperature field in the negative portion of the tube is very strongly affected by axial conduc- tion. For Pe = 50, the bulk temperature is indistin- guishable from that neglecting axial conduction.

182

D. K. JzIENNECKtg

Warme- und

Stoff-

l~bertragung

The effect of axial conduction on the temperature

in Fig. 6. The tem-

perature deviates considerably from a constant, ex- cept for Pe > 50.

As an illustration, the temperature field for Pe =

is presented in Fig. 7. Finally, Fig. 8 shows various development lengths as

a function of Pc. The full lines represent the axial

distance where the local Nusselt number reaches its fully developed value within 5%. The dashed curves depict the distance where the bulk temperature ap- proaches the wall temperature within 5~o. The im- portant result is the fact that the development lengths are substantially increased with decreasing Pdclet number. From Figs. 2 through 8, it may be concluded that the assumption of negligible axial conduction is reason- ably well satisfied if Pe > 50. This is in essential agree- ment with the results for slug flow (gel. [13]).

5

distribution at x = 0 is indicated

creased for smaller Pc. But one may notice that it is less influenced by axial conduction than in the case of uniform wall temperature. If one is not interested in the immediate neighborhood of x = 0, axial conduc- tion may be neglected if Pe > 10. This is also true for the development length (distance where Nu/Nufd = 1.05) which is shown in the insert. While the value of the Nusselt number at x ----0 is infinite in the case of uniform wall temperature, it has now a finite value which decreases with Pe (see insert in Fig. 9). Fig. 10 depicts the bulk temperatures. They are strikingly affected by axial conduction. If axial con- duction is neglected, the bulk temperature increases linearly. But axial conduction raises the bulk tempera- ture. Since the hydrodynamic development section is insulated, all the heat conducted upstream is eventual-

2

!

7

y~. v

z

e

e,

eo/~-

2

8

--~

where

--=.

Zo5

-

z

/

I

~

I

~

I

g

~

I

87g

 

/I

,im

0

5

-ZO

-08

-Og

-04

-02

0

02

Ps~

Fig. 8. Development Lengths (UWT).

x/%fe .

~ig. 10. Bulk Te~cnI)erature (U/IF),

 

,

i

]

I

~--

 

hz(~e~oo)L

 
 

~1

\

/

I

 

01

I

I~

 

-

/

f

~

~g70

 

2

~5

g

~0"3

Z

~

G

8 /0 "z

Z

¢

G

070 -I

 

g

~

~

8

~o

as

05

Z0

 

r/r~-

-

Fig. 9. Nusselt Number

and Development Length (U/IF).

Fig. 11. Temperature

Profiles at the

E~xtr~ce

(x

=

0) (UttF).

 

5.2 Uniform

Heat

Flux

 

ly convected downstream. This causes the fully de-

The next set of figures shows the corresponding results for the uniform heat flux case. Fig. 9 indicates the Nusselt number. Now the Nusselt number is de-

veloped dimensionless bulk temperature to be increased above the values neglecting axial conduction by an

The bulk temperature follows very

amount of 8/Pe ~.

~and

1 (1968)

Heat Transfer by Hagen-Poiseuille Flow

183

Heft 3

nearly the

dependence

given

by

(exact

solution

for

72

slug flow)

 

Tb =

T~,

=

~exp

4 x'

+

8

Pe~

x'

x'

x'

<

>0

=

0

The insert shows the distance upstream of the entrance cross-section where (Tb -- To)/(qwrw/k) = 0.05. Fig. 11 demonstrates the influence of axial conduc- tion on the temperature profile at x = 0. Again the

~c

O4

-10a c ~

z

-7o

g

9

z

-018 C ~

(m-D)/r~om

2

-007 C

~,

z

7O I

8~

4

-0001

Fig. 13. Nusselt Number Near tile End of the Heating Section (UItF).

-ZO

-08

-0~

-04

-02

0

OZ

F~.

12. Temperature

Distribution for Pe

=

5 (UHF).

assumption of a uniform temperature is not justified except for Pe ~ 50, possibly Pe ~ 20.

As an example of the temperature fieldT' is plotted

in Fig.

12 for Pe

z

5.

5.3. Heat Transfer

in Outlet Region

In addition to the heat transfer at the thermal starting region, the end of the heated region was also considered for the case of uniform heating (for uniform wall temperature, the inlet results may be used). Now the Nusselt number is increased (Fig. 13) above the value of 48/11 neglecting axial conduction. The insert of Fig. 13 shows again the development length where 2qu/Nu~d ~ 1.05. It may be noticed that the develop- ment length can be much larger in the outlet than in the inlet. This is important to know for heat transfer calculations of a tube with a short heated section. The bulk temperature (Fig. 14) follows closely

Fig. 14. Bulk Temperature

Near

the End

(UHF).

of the Heating" Section

 

I

j

L~

-ZO

-05

0

05

10

Fig, 15. Temperature

rlr~o

Profiles at the

Exit

(x

=

D) (UHF),

Tb=~

1--exp

--x'

+4x'

x'<0

#

Tb=0

x' =>0

.

Fig. 15 shows the temperature profiles at the exit cross-section (x = L). Figs. 13 through 15 indicate that axial conduction in the outlet region may be neglected if Pe ~ 20. In Fig. 16 the temperature field is again demonstrat-

.ed for Pe

=

5.

~2s

-ozo

-oTs

-oso

-0o5

Fig. 16.

TeniPeratu~e

Distribution

Section for Pe

o

oos

Near

the

End

=

5 (UHF).

[

070

of

i

I

o)s

ozo

the

Heating

184

D. K. HENNECKE

Warme- und Stoff- ~bertragung

6. Conclusions

In summing up the results, the following statements can be made:

1. The starting region heat transfer to Hagen- Poiseuille flows is strongly affected by axial conduction for small P@clet numbers.

2. The influence of axial conduction is more pro-

nounced in the case of uniform wall temperature than

in the case of uniform heat flux. In the former case axial conduction may be neglected if Pe > 50 and in the latter if Pe > 10.

3. Axial conduction can cause a considerable increase

of the thermal development lengths.

4. If axial conduction is important, the temperature

field in the hydrodynamic development section is markedly affected and the assumption of a uniform temperature profile at the entrance cross-section can- not be justified.

5. For the end of the region with uniform heating,

axial conduction may be neglected if Pe > 20. The development length there can be much larger than in the starting region.

Acknowledgements

The author is indebted to Professor E. R. G. ECKEI~T for many helpful discussions and his guidance through- out the course of this work. The author also wishes to thank the Shell Foundation for fellowship support. The computer time was provided by a grant from the University of Minnesota Computer Center.

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Dipl.-Ing. DIETMARK. HENNECKE Research Fellow Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455

Manuskript eingegangen am 6. Mai 1968