You are on page 1of 7

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 2

Effects Of Stress On Job Performance

Fouzia Ali,Hailey College of Commerce Faculty of Commerce Ayesha Farooqui, Fatima Amin, Kawkab Yahya, Nabeela Idrees, Mehmooda Amjad, Maiam Ikhlaq, Sadia Noreen, Asma Irfan , M.Com Scholars (Session 2009-11)

ISSN 2249-9962

November|2011

www.ijbmt.com

Page | 1

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 2

Abstract
The study intends to examine the nature of stress that many employees face and also evaluates its consequent effect upon job performance. The study included a survey of 80 employees of different banks of manager level cadre. Out of these 47 responses was useable indicating a 58.75% response rate. The results revealed stress has a positive impact upon the performance of employees, that is to say, performance is better under stress situations. Correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the data, results showed that there is a positive and highly significant relationship between stress and job performance. It is also concluded that all the dimensions of performance have a positive direct relation with the presence of stress at workplace. Key words: Job Stress, Job Performance, Eustress

Introduction
Stress has nowadays become a prevalent state in everyday human life especially among different employees at various levels of job. On the one hand stress is the motivational force and on the other side it is the cause of depression. In fact the lack of stress is the end of life, as there is no enthusiasm towards the accomplishment of goals. When an employee is at the work place there are different stressors that are having a direct impact upon the performance of employees. In contrast, stress can also be a cause of inspiration for an employee that helps them to efficiently perform their job. Moreover, stress is a universal factor that continuously disturbs the life of an individual either directly or indirectly. Every individual of the society is facing stress with its different forms and impacts. Stress causes the imbalance in ones life; it may improve the efficiency of the individual or badly affect the health, attitude and performance of the individuals. Stress is considered as the external stimulus that initiates the strain within the person (Kazmi, Amjad, and Khan, 2008) and such a stimulus may bring a positive or negative effect upon the performance of an employee on the job.

Literature Review
A number of researchers have defined stress in different words such as, Kazmi, Amjad, and Khan, 2008 have defined stress as a change in ones physical or mental state, in other words disturbance or imbalance from normal state. Stress is caused disturbed events in work environment, social environment, and in routine life (work, family and social life) and also caused by emotional, psychological, mental and physical illness. Moreover, Stress comes from any situation or circumstance that require behavioral adjustment any change either good or bad is stressful or whether its positive or negative change, the physiological response is same (W. Colligan and M. Higgins, 2010). As far as, stress on the job is concerned, several researchers have defined job stress in different perspectives. For example, job stress is defined as the interaction between the individuals and the sources of demand within their work environment, it results when demand exceeds from resources, (Long, 1995). Many other researchers found that work stress arises when an individual experiences a demand that exceeds his/her real or perceived abilities to successfully cope with the requirement of the job, resulting in disorder to his/her emotional and physiological balance. Dewe, Cox, and Ferguson, (1993) argued that stress is not the internal attitude of person or his surroundings but it is the interaction between them, it can also be called as ongoing transaction i.e. the relationship of person and the surroundings, (Cooper, O'Driscoll, and J. Dewe, 2001). Furthermore, job stress is the product of disturbance in environmental needs and persons competencies ( Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). Additionally, the literature highlights some of the indicators of the job stress that affects the life of the employees; it includes job relationships, job-life equilibrium, overload, work security, control, possessions and
ISSN 2249-9962 November|2011 www.ijbmt.com
Page | 2

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 2

communication. Job stress can be categorized as: mental, physical and psychological stress. In work place, mental stress is viewed as poor concentration, short attention spam, mental blocks and inability to make decisions whereas psychological stress can be seen as feeling hopeless, worthless, anxious and depressed muscular disorders or dermatological disturbance and physiological effects of stress are increase in heart and pulse rate, high blood pressure, dryness of throat excessive swelling. The ability to perform effectively in ones routine life can be decline due to excessive stress. Stress is not always negative. According to the Kazmi, Amjad, and Khan (2008), the absence of stress is death. Stress comes from any event that needs behavioral adjustments. Any modification superior or awful, positive or negative the physiological response is same (Lazarus, 2000). Stress is differentiated into eustress (positive stress) and distress (negative stress). Eustress is derived from the Greek word Eu that means good or positive (Selye, 1980).Positive stress motivates the people to achieve their goal and enable them to meet the challenges. Stress may be a positive stimulator that helps to positively motivate the employee in doing their job, it enthuses the employee to perform their job more productively. Some of the examples of eustress are birth of baby, job promotion, making investment, purchasing land etc. Distress is a negative stimulator that unfavorably affects the employees cerebral and corporeal health that has a negative or poor impact on employees performance (Salami, Ojokuku, and Ilesanmi, 2010). Such type of stress reduces the performance of the employees, reduces their level of motivation and resultantly there is decline in performance of the organization. W. Colligan and M. Higgins (2010), discussed these forms of stress there is motivation for the employees and increase in productivity due to better job performance is reported on the other hand there is also a negative impact of the stress that results in employees mental and physical sickness that results in the poor performance of employees. Researchers connoted that the stress affects the life of employees in different ways; mostly it affects the efficiency of employees while they are on their jobs. Employees efficiency is reported in terms of ones performance at workplace. Job performance is the individual productivity in both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the job. It shows that how well a person is doing his job and the extent to which the employee is meeting the job duties and the policies and standards of his organization while doing his job. Job performance depends upon the atmosphere of office, work settings and the social interactions (Coetzer and Rothmann, 2006). In an organization, employees are suffering different stressors such as working environment, stress from socia l group workload etc. Such stressors are the causes of poor performances of employees. Job performance can be measured by the collaboration of three factors: skills, struggle and work environment. Skills include ones education, know-how and the specialties towards his job, struggle includes level of enthusiasm toward achieving his goal, and work environment is the extent to which the working atmosphere facilitates the employee in performing their job up to the standards (Kazmi, Amjad, and Khan, 2008). There are some relationships between variables: (Stress and Job Performance) 1) Curvilinear / U-Shaped 2) Negative linear 3) Positive linear 4) No relationship between stress & job performance Many researchers supported that there is a primarily negative linear relationship between job stress and measures of job performance. Limited support is seen for curvilinear or no relationship. No support is found for the positive. 1. At moderate levels stress can improve individual performance; Yerkes and Dodson (1908), were the first to stumble upon the inverted U relationship b/w stress & performance.
November|2011 www.ijbmt.com
Page | 3

ISSN 2249-9962

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 2

2.

A negative linear relationship is also reported. Stress at any level reduces task performance by draining or decreasing individuals energy, concentration and time. Physiological responses caused by stressors also damage performance. At low level of stress, challenge is absent & performance is poor. Most favorable performance is the result of high level of stress (Salami, Ojokuku, and Ilesanmi, 2010). Positive linear relationship shows that as the level of stress increases the job performance is increasing at the same rate. There is positive impact of stress on job performance.

3.

4.

It is also reported by the literature that there may be no relationship between stress and job performance. It means that the performance of the employees is not affected due to stress.

Objectives of the Research Study:


To elaborate the stress and job performance To show relationship between these variables

Hypothesis : Stress does not affect the job performance : Stress affects the job performance

Methodology
Research Design
A structured questionnaire was administered to receive the responses of the employees of different manager level bankers on the variables of research study.

Sampling Procedure
Random sampling was used to gather the responses of employees from various organizations.

Instrument
Work-Stress Questionnaire by Gerard Hargreaves was adapted to collect data. It included 19 questions. Section A included questions pertaining to the demographic features whilst section B contained the stress related questions and section C comprised of the questions that measure the performance level relative to its three dimensions i.e. skills, efforts and working conditions. 5-point Likert scale was used in the questionnaire ranging from Never (1) to nearly all the time (5) to take the ratings of the employees.

Data of research study


80 questionnaires were conducted; out of 80 questionnaires 47 respondents returned fully filled and useable questionnaires thus showing a response rate of 58.75%. The remaining 33 questionnaires were not returned.

ISSN 2249-9962

November|2011

www.ijbmt.com

Page | 4

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 2

Data Analysis
Descriptives:
Demographic Features of Respondents Figure 1: Gender of Employees
40 35

30
Axis Title 25 20 15 10 5 0 Frequency Female 11 Male 36

Source: Authors Survey, 2011 The figure 1 shows that 36(76.6%) of them were males while 11(23.4%) were females. Figure 2: Salary of the Employees
25
20 15 10 5

Axis Title

0
Frequency

Rs.1000020000 21

Rs.2100030000 3

Rs.3100040000 14

Rs.4100050000 4

Rs.5100060000 3

Rs.6100070000 1

Source: Authors Survey, 2011 Figure 2 reflects the salary ranges of the employees, which shows 21 employees are between the range of Rs.10000-20000, while only 1 employee is between Rs.61000-70000.
ISSN 2249-9962 November|2011 www.ijbmt.com
Page | 5

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 2

Figure 3: Age of the Employees

Axis Title

16 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 42 45 46 52 55 Frequency 1 2 1 4 2 7 5 2 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1

Source:

Authors Survey, 2011 Figure 3 shows that most of the employees are age of 26, 27 and 29.

Table 1: Independent Sample t-test Variables Sig. Stress .296 Job Performance: Skills .879 Efforts .033* Working .011* Conditions *significant at .05 level t .272

-.954 -.158 -2.474

Table 2: Correlation between Stress and Job Performance (N=47) Pearson Correlation (r) Variables Stress *significant at .05 level Job Performance r = .315* sig.= 0.031

ISSN 2249-9962

November|2011

www.ijbmt.com

Page | 6

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 2

Research findings
Research finding of this research outcome states that there is highly significant positive relationship among the stress and the employee job performance. As the performance include three dimensions i.e. skills, efforts and working conditions. All of these dimensions are also having a positive direct relationship with the stress independent variable. Whereas on the other hand the demographics including the age, salary and gender. These factors are not showing any significant relationship between the employees performance and the stress.

Limitations of the Study:


Although the results reveal a positive relationship between job stress and performance but the current study cannot be generalized due to a limited sample size. Furthermore, in order to comprehend the factors that may put an effect upon job performance further studies should be initiated with larger sample size. Fouzia Ali,Hailey College of Commerce Faculty of Commerce University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan E-mail: fouziaalihcc@gmail.com Ayesha Farooqui, Fatima Amin, Kawkab Yahya, Nabeela Idrees, Mehmooda Amjad, Maiam Ikhlaq, Sadia Noreen, Asma Irfan M.Com Scholars (Session 2009-11) Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan

References
1. Coetzer, W., & Rothmann, S. (2006). Occupational stress of employees in an insurance company. South African Journal of Business Management, 37(3), 29-39. 2. Cooper, C. L., O'Driscoll, M. P., & Dawe, J. P. (2001). Organizational Stress: A Review and Critique of Theory, Research and Applications. 3. Dewe, P., Cox, T., & Ferguson, E. (1993). Individual strategies for coping with stress at work: A review, Work & Stress, 7 (1), 5-15. 4. Imtiaz, S., & Ahmad, S. (2010). Impact of Stress on Employee Productivity, Performance and Turnover; An Importanat Managerial Issue. 5. J. Gaumer, C., J. Shah, A., & Cotleur, C. A. (2006). Enhancing Organizational Competitiveness. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 21(2), 31-43. 6. Kazmi, R., Amjad, S., & Khan, D. (2008). Occupational Stress and its effect on Job Performance: A case study of medical house officers of district Abbotabad. Journal of Ayub Medical College, 20(3), 135-139. 7. Kolbell, R. M. (1995). When relaxation is not enough. Job Stress Interventions. 8. Lazarus, J. (2000). Stress Relief & Relaxation Techniques. 9. Long, B. C. (1995). Stress in the Work Place: ERIC Digest. ERIC Digest . 10. Lazarus, S. R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal and Coping. New York: Springer 11. Salami, A., Ojokuku, R., & Ilesanmi, O. (2010). Impact of Job Stress on Managers Performance. European Journal of Scientific Research, 45(2), 249-260. 12. Selye, H. (1980). The stress concept today. 13. W. Colligan, T., & M. Higgins, E. (2010). Workplace Stress: Etiology and Consequences. PERI Pakistan . 14. Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459-482.

ISSN 2249-9962

November|2011

www.ijbmt.com

Page | 7