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DLR Ehemaligentreffen Braunschweig 17-Jun-05

Presented by

Daniel Reckzeh
Airbus Aero Design & Data Dept. Bremen / Germany

AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Aerodynamic Design of Airbus High-Lift Wings


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Overview
Zur Person Process & tools for high-lift design at Airbus
4The

high-lift wing design process 4CFD 4Windtunnel testing

Examples from High-lift Wing Design Tasks


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4Integrated

High-Speed / Low-Speed Design 4Aero optimisation & Systems constraints 4Multidisciplinary optimisation 4Configuration issues

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Zur Person
Stationen im DLR:
1998-2000

Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter im DLR Braunschweig (SM-EA) im Rahmen der DLR-DASA Nachwuchsinitiative, abgeordnet zu Airbus Bremen, Segment Produktaerodynamik, Fachgebiet: Aerodynamischer Entwurf von Hochauftriebssystemen

Stationen auerhalb des DLR:


1997-98

Daniel Reckzeh 34 Jahre


AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

2000-03

Selbstndige Ttigkeit (eigenes Ingenieurbro) im Unterauftrag von Airbus Bremen im Tragflgelentwurf Airbus Bremen - Entwurfsingenieur im aerodynamischen Entwurf in der Abteilung High-Lift devices

Meine jetzige Ttigkeit: Airbus Bremen Engineering / Flight-Physics Aerodynamic Design & Data Domain (EGA) Leitung der transnationalen Abteilung High-lift devices (Bremen & Filton) Leitung des Segments Configuration design (Bremen)

Seit 2003 Seit 2005

Was ich aus dem DLR mitgenommen habe:


Einstieg in die Luftfahrtbranche Erfahrungen in der akademischen & industriellen Aerodynamik Netzwerkbildung im Rahmen der NWI (Nachwuchsinitiative)
month 200X Page 3

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Zur Person
Welche Ttigkeitsbereiche habe ich durchlaufen ? Build up of a process chain for Geometry tools and CFD-Methods for high-lift wing design CFD-Tool development: Modelling of 3D separated flows on complete aircraft configurations Windtunnel model specification for high-lift wing development High-lift windtunnel testing and analysis for R&T and A380 In charge of A380 high-lift wing aerodynamic design Coordination of A400M Airbus high-lift wing aerodynamic design Transnational Lead of High-Lift Devices Group, responsible for all Airbus High-Lift Wing Design activities Capability Manager Configuration Design

AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

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Organisation Airbus Engineering


Research / Technology Architecture & Integration Flight Physics Systems and Integration Tests Powerplant Systems
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Structure Flight Safety Enhancement Product Integrity Flight Operations


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Organisation Airbus Flight Physics


Resources Management Policy and Development Aerodyn. Design & Data Aerodyn. Windtunnel Testing Loads & Aeroelasticity
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Flight Physics

Mass Properties Aircraft Performance Flight Dynamics Simulation College of Experts


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Organisation Aero Design & Data Domain Germany


Aerodynamic Design & Data Domain Germany

Config Design

Data Modelling

Support

Methods & Tools

High-lift Devices
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Aero Data for Performance

Far-field Impact

Methods, Tools & Processes

Ice Prdiction Fuselage/Tails Aero Data for Loads Complex CFD

Complete Aircraft

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Requirements to the High-Lift Configuration


Sufficient high lift performance Low take-off drag Acceptable handling quality Low system weight & complexity

a multidisciplinary design problem

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The High-Lift Wing Aero Design Process


Inputs
TLAR (requirements, performance & noise targets) General A/C layout Wing planform Cruise Wing surface

High Lift Devices Aero design & Master Geometry


Tools
CAD KBE aero design tools CFD Flow Analysis Windtunnel testing Aeroacoustic analysis

Outputs
High-lift configuration layout High-lift devices shapes Requirements for system design
(Target kinematics, Settings, etc)

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Clean

Take off Flap 16

Landing Flap 34

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Parametric Shape Design & Analysis Tools


Clean-Wing Component Design Geo-Analysis

2D-Setting 3D-Setting
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Planform Definition

2D CFD 3D CFD

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Parametric Shape Design & Analysis Tools


Examples from Droop Nose Device Design

Shape design incl kinematic constraints


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Aerodynamic analysis
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Target kinematics
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CFD-based High-Lift Wing Design

2D-Panel

Quasi-3D

2D-Navier-Stokes

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3D-Panel 3D-Euler
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3D-Navier-Stokes
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Windtunnels for Airbus High-Lift Development


A380 Model chain (1) Small Halfmodel X03 (Scale 1:32) A380 Model chain (3) Complete model X06 LSWT Filton (Re=1.5 Mio) F1 Toulose (Re=8 Mio) Q5m Farnborough (Re=6 Mio)

LSWT Bremen (Re=1.5 Mio) KKK Cologne (Re=7 Mio) ETW Cologne (Re=25 Mio)

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A380 Model chain (2) Large complete model X08 (Scale 1:17) DNW Emmeloord (Re=3.5 Mio) Large halfmodel X08H l LSWT Filton (Re=3.5 Mio) l F1 Toulouse (Re=12 Mio) l Q5m Farnborough (Re=10 Mio)
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Tools for design verification: CFD vs Windtunnel ?

Designers view (provocative) : CFD and Wintunnel are tools for design analysis.
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4 CFD

delivers fast pretty pictures but with partly questionable results 4 Windtunnel testing is extremely expensive and requires too much time

Way out ?
4 Despite

their discrepancies we can not live without the one or the other, the combination of both advantages makes it. 4 CFD to be used in far more intensive combination with Windtunneltesting 4 The major step ahead for design will be the close-coupled use of reliable (i.e. validated) complex CFD
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Integrated High-Speed / Low-Speed Design

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Thin outer wing profiles with small leading edge radius: high Slat-angle necessary, therefore long Slat-tracks with high weight and intregration problems Thin rear profile thickness (high rear-loading in cruise): low flap-thickness with high boundary layer loading, high flap structure weight, flexible structure gives difficulties in maintaining target flap gap
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The droop-nose device


Droop Nose Device
lower drag reduced maximum lift

Slat
higher maximum lift increased drag

Actuator link Lug 122


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Lever

Link Arm HL rotation axis

26

Selected for inboard wing of A380


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Kinematics system versus Aero target


Track mechanism fulfills Aero Target, but complex and heavy Dropped Hinge mechanism insuffiecient to Aero Target, but less complex and lighter

Overlap %

2,10
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14,00 Target Gap 27-87 FVF (track) Target Gap 27-87 FVF (dropped hinge) Target OL 27-87 FVF (track)

1,80

12,00

12 10

1,8 1,5

Gap [% of cleanwing]

1,50

Target OL 27-87 FVF (dropped hinge)

10,00

1,20

8,00

Gap

1,2

0,90

6,00

6 4 2

0,9 0,6 0,3

0,60

Overlap
2,00 0,00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

4,00

0,30

0,00

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Flap angle

Flap Angle
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Gap %

14

2,1

Multidisciplinary design optimisation


Aero dependancies
Coupled Sensitivities

Performance dependancies
Takeoff Performance MEGALINER

Megaliner Reference Megaliner Reference - delta CD =0,0025


Gross Weight [1000 kg]

Gap

Overlap

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Runway length [1000 m]

Startposition des Flaps fr die Optimierung


1,4

Starting point
1,2

Referenzposition des Flaps

Reference

Optimierte Flap-Position

Optimum

Systems dependancies
Gap
100,0% 90,0% 80,0%

0,8

100,0% 81,5% 75,0%

0,6

Systemgewicht

70,0% 60,0% 50,0% 40,0% 30,0% 20,0%

0,4

1,4

1,2

0,2

Result of coupled optimisation


6 5,5 5 4,5 4 3,5 Overlap O/L [% of chord]

0,8

0,6

Overlap

2,5

1,5

0,5

-0,5

-1

10,0% 0,0% Track-System Linkage-System Pivot-System

0,4

Pivot-Kinematics

Linkage-Kinematics

Track-Kinematics

0,2

0 6 5,5 5 4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 -0,5 -1 Overlap O/L [% of chord]

Pivot-Kinematics

Linkage-Kinematics

Track-Kinematics

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Wing Layout Studies

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Flexible wing structure with aileron reversal tendency: Application of an inboard All-Speed-Aileron with increased outer flap span, resp. application of an inboard Taberon
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Impact of the landing gear height

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Relatively short landing gear legs required to control aircraft weight to improve space allocation for I/B flap
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Impact of the landing gear height


fuselage close to ground rotation limit
CL

engine close to wing engine exhaust jet blowing on flaps

CL 0

rot
"rotati on

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challenges : prediction of aerodynamic nterference vibrations by turbulent engine exhaust temperatures on high lift elements material ?
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challenge : sufficient lift at = 8...10 but maximum lift can be somewhat compromised (without negative effect on T/O performance)

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Conclusions
High-Lift Design is a major driver for overall wing design Continuing adaptation of the high-lift wing layout to the current
aircraft requirements: aerodynamic design not better than necessary

Optimisation under multidisciplinary constraints:


small penalty for aerodynamics can cause large benefit for other disciplines
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Consequent design verification with high Reynolds-number testing


and CFD predictions is necessary to reduce (unwanted) margins for the aircraft as far as possible

Design decisions more and more based on CFD alone A closed multidisciplinary design loop is not possible due to the
complexity of the task

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Vielen Dank fr die Aufmerksamkeit ! Fragen ? Jetzt, gleich, oder: Daniel.Reckzeh@airbus.com

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AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. This document and all information contained herein is the sole property of AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH . No intellectual property rights are granted by the delivery of this document or the disclosure of its content. This document shall not be reproduced or disclosed to a third party without the express written consent of AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH . This document and its content shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied. The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They are based on the mentioned assumptions and are expressed in good faith. Where the supporting grounds for these statements are not shown, AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH will be pleased to explain the basis thereof. AIRBUS, its logo, A300, A310, A318, A319, A320, A321, A330, A340, A350, A380, A400M are registered trademarks.

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