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Lect-6

Specific heat At constant pressure and constant volume Heat transfer Meaning of heat transfer Types of heat transfer Work Thermodynamic meaning of work Different types of work

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

2

Lect-6

Specific heats

It takes different amounts of energy to raise the temperature of identical masses of different substances by one degree. Therefore, it is desirable to have a property that will enable us to compare the energy storage capabilities of various substances. This property is the specific heat.

Lect-6

Specific heats

Specific heat is defined as the energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree. In general, this energy depends on how the process is executed. There are two kinds of specific heats: specific heat at constant volume, cv and specific heat at constant pressure, cp.

Lect-6

Specific heats

m = 1 kg T = 1oC Specific heat = 5 kJ/kgoC

5 kJ

Specific heat is the energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree in a specified way.

Lect-6

Consider a fixed mass in a stationary closed system undergoing a constantvolume process The conservation of energy principle for this process can be expressed in the differential form as

ein eout = du

Lect-6

The left-hand side of this equation represents the net amount of energy transferred to the system. Thus,

Lect-6

Similarly, an expression for the specific heat at constant pressure, cp can be obtained by considering a constant-pressure expansion or compression process. It yields,

8

Lect-6

Specific heats

cp and cv are properties of a system. Are valid for any processes cp is always > cv Because at constant pressure the system is allowed to expand and the energy for the expansion must also be supplied Specific heat of a substance change with temperature.

Lect-6

Specific heats

(2)

3.12 kJ

5.19 kJ

cp is always > cv

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

10

Lect-6

Specific heats

0.718 kJ

0.855 kJ

11

Lect-6

System boundary Heat

Work

Energy can cross the system boundaries of a closed system: heat and work

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

12

Lect-6

Heat: the form of energy that is transferred between two systems (or a system and its surroundings) by virtue of a temperature difference. Energy interaction is heat only if it takes place by virtue of temperature difference. Heat is energy in transition; it is recognised only as it crosses the system boundary.

13

Lect-6

Room air: 25oC

Heat No heat transfer 8 J/s 18 J/s Heat

25oC

15oC

5oC

Temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer. The larger the temperature difference, the higher is the rate of heat transfer.

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

14

Lect-6

In thermodynamics, heat refers to heat transfer. A process during which there is no heat transfer is called Adiabatic process. Heat transfer mechanisms: Conduction Convection Radiation

15

Lect-6

Surrounding air 5 kJ Heat System boundary 5 kJ thermal energy 5 kJ thermal energy Heat

16

Lect-6

Insulation

System boundary

Qn. Is there is any heat transfer during this burning process? Qn. Is there is any change in the internal energy of the system?

17

Lect-6

Any energy interaction of a closed system other than heat is work. An energy interaction that is not caused by a temperature difference between a system and its surroundings is work. Work is the energy transfer associated with a force acting through a distance.

18

Lect-6

Sign conventions

Surroundings

System

Heat transfer to a system and work done by a system are positive; heat transfer from a system and work done on a system are negative.

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

19

Lect-6

Both heat and work are boundary phenomena. Systems possess energy, but not heat or work. Both are associated with a process, not a state. Unlike properties, heat or work has no meaning at a state. Both are path functions (i.e., their magnitudes depend on the path followed during a process as well as the end states).

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

20

Lect-6

Path functions Have inexact differentials, sometimes designated by symbol, or Eg. Q or Q and W or W instead of dQ and dW Point functions Have exact differentials, designated by symbol, d Eg. dP, dV, dT

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

21

Lect-6

p

1 V=4m3; WA=10 kJ V=4m3; WB=15 kJ

Process B 2

dV = V

1

V1 but, W W2 W1

1

Process A

of a property is zero

V

1m

5m

Properties are point functions; but heat and work are path functions.

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

22

Lect-6

Work

Work done by a system on its surroundings during a process is defined as that interaction whose sole effect external to the system could be viewed as the raising of a mass through a distance against gravity.

23

Lect-6

Work

System boundary + _

Motor

Fan W

Battery

Surroundings

24

Lect-6

Work

System boundary + _

Motor

Pulley

Battery

Weight Surroundings

25

Lect-6

Examples:

Work

PdV: displacement work Electrical work: heating of a resistor Shaft work: rotation of a shaft Paddle wheel work Spring work Stretching of a liquid film

26

Lect-6

Work

Spring work

27

Lect-6

Displacement work

Moving boundary or displacement work is of significant interest to engineers. Many engineering systems generate useful work output by this mode. Examples: automobile engines, steam engines, pumps etc.

28

Lect-6

Displacement work

F

A gas does a differential amount of work Wb as it forces the piston to move by a differential amount ds

ds

A P

Wb = F ds = PA ds = P dV

Wb = PdV

1 2

(kJ )

29

Lect-6

Displacement work

P

1 Process path dA=P dV 2 V1 V2

Area = A = dA = PdV

1 1

dV

The area under the process curve on a P-V diagram is equal, in magnitude, to the work done during a quasiequilibrium expansion or compression process of a closed system.

30

Lect-6

Displacement work

P

1 WA = 12 kJ WB = 10 kJ WC = 7 kJ A B C 2 V2

V1

The boundary work done during a process depends on the path followed as well as the end states.

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

31

Lect-6

Displacement work

P

1

Wnet

B

2 V2

V1

The net work done during a cycle is the difference between the work done by the system and the work done on the system.

32

Lect-6

Displacement work

Displacement work during Various processes: Constant pressure process Constant volume process PV= contant Polytropic process, PVn = constant

33

Lect-6

P

1 2

W1-2

V1 V2

W1 2 =

V

V2

V1

pdV = p(V

V1 )

34

Lect-6

P

P1 1

W1 2 =

P2 2

V2

V1

pdV = p(V

V1 ) = 0

35

Lect-6

P

1 n=0 2

PVn =constant

n=

W1 2 = PdV = CV n dV

1 1

n n

W1 2

V

V2 n +1 V1 n +1 P2V2 P1V1 =C = n +1 1 n

36

Lect-6

Specific heat At constant pressure and constant volume Heat transfer Meaning of heat transfer Types of heat transfer Work Thermodynamic meaning of work Different types of work

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

37

Lect-6

Solve problems related to calculation of Work done (displacement work)

38

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