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EL FILIBUSTERISMO I.

Synopsis Simoun, a mysterious and powerful jeweler who is in good graces with the Captain General plots a coup d etat against the Spanish colonial government. He secretly abets the abuses committed against the natives in the hope of stirring them to rise up in revolt. To weaken the regime, he encourages corruption, using his immense wealth to foment injustice and provoke massive unrest. Unknown to all, Simoun is Juan Crisostomo Ibarra, a man who had been wrongfully accused of rebellion and condemned in a plot instigated by his enemies including a friar who had unchaste feelings for his fiance, Maria Clara. Everybody thought Ibarra had been killed as a fugitive, but in truth he had escaped, enriched himself abroad and has returned to the Islands to avenge himself. He plans to take Maria Clara who, believing Ibarra is dead, had entered the convent. In the course of his plans, Simoun comes into contact with young idealistic Filipinos whom he wants to enlist to his cause. One of these is Basilio, one of the few who know his secret. He had been adopted by Kapitan Tiyago, a wealthy landowner and father of Maria Clara. Basilio is about to graduate as doctor of medicine and plans to marry Huli, his childhood sweetheart. Huli is the daughter of Kabesang Tales, a homesteader who had been dispossessed of his lands by the friars. Turned outlaw, Kabesang Tales and other victims of injustice have been enlisted by Simoun in his plan to overthrow the government. Another student, Isagani, dreams of a progressive future for his country but his fiance, Paulita, who shares his aunt Dona Victorinas prejudices against the natives, is not interested in them. Simouns plot is aborted when he learns that Maria Clara had died at the convent. Student leaders who have been advocating the opening of an academy for the teaching of the Spanish language hold a party where they lampoon the friars. The next day, posters are found encouraging sedition, and those suspected of involvement are arrested, including Basilio. His foster father having died, nobody intercedes for him, while the rich and influential are released. Meanwhile, Huli is killed in the church after she had sought the help of the parish priest for the release of Basilio. Due to this tragedy, her grandfather, Tandang Selo, joins the outlaws. Embittered by Maria Claras death, Simoun plans another coup to be staged at the wedding reception for Paulita, who has been engaged to another man: top government officials including the Captain general who are to attend would be blown away, the house being planted with explosives which will be detonated by a a device hidden in the lamp given as gift by Simoun to the newlyweds. Basilio, who has been released and now wants to take revenge is ordered by Simoun to lead in the uprising. At the appointed hour, the guests are terrified upon reading a note signed by Juan Crisostomo Ibarra; his signature is recognized by Father Salvi, the friar who lusted after Maria Clara. Before the lamp could explode, Isagani, who has been warned by Basilio about the plot, barges in and throws the lamp into the river. Isagani escapes. The uprising again fails to take off, and the armed followersof Simoun, deprived of leadership or devoid of vision, resort to banditry. The lawlessness that reigns in the countrysides leads to harsh measures by the government in its efforts to show it is in control. The plot at the wedding is finally traced to Simoun who escapes into

a house near the ocean. After taking poison, he confesses to father Florentino, a Filipino priest, who tells him: What is the use of independence if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow? After the death of Simoun, Father Florentino throws his treasure into the sea. II. Elements Characters Simoun - Crisostomo Ibarra in disguise, left for dead at the end of Noli Me Tangere, has resurfaced as the wealthy jeweler, Simoun, sporting a beard, bluetinted glasses, and a revolver. Basilio - Son of Sisa, Medical Student befriended Simoun. Isagani Villamor - Isang kaibigan ni Basilio, dating katipan ni Paulita Gomez at ang lalaking kumuha ng dinamita sa isang okasyon. Kabesang Tales - Cabeza Telesforo Juan de Dios, a former cabeza de barangay (barangay head) of Sagpang, a barangay in San Diego's neighboring town Tiani, who resurfaced as the feared Luzn bandit Matanglawin Don Custodio - Custodio de Salazar y Snchez de Monteredondo, a famous "journalist" who was asked by the students about his decision for the Academia de Castellano. In reality, he is quite an ordinary fellow who married a rich woman in order to be a member of Manila's high society. Paulita Gomez - The girlfriend of Isagani and the niece of Doa Victorina, the old Indio who passes herself off as a Peninsular, who is the wife of the quack doctor Tiburcio de Espadaa. In the end, she and Juanito Pelez are wed, and she dumps Isagani, believing that she will have no future if she marries him. Macaraig - One of Isagani's classmates at the University of Santo Tomas. He is a rich student and serves as the leader of the students yearning to build the Academia de Castellano. Father Florentino - Isagani's godfather, and a secular priest; was engaged to be married, but chose to be a priest after being pressured by his mother, the story hinting at the ambivalence of his decision as he chooses an assignment to a remote place, living in solitude near the sea. Juli San Jose - Juliana de Dios, the girlfriend of Basilio, and the youngest daughter of Kabesang Tales. To claim her father from the bandits, she had to work as a maid under the supervision of Hermana Penchang. Eventually, she was freed but committed suicide after Father Camorra attempted to rape her. Juanito Pelaez Doa Victorina - Victorina delos Reyes de Espadaa, known in Noli Me Tangere as Tiburcio de Espadaa's cruel wife. She is the aunt of Paulita Gomez, and favors Juanito Pelaez than Isagani. Although of Indio ideology, she considers herself as one of the Peninsular.

Father Camorra - The parish priest of Tiani, San Diego's adjacent town. He has been desiring young women ever since. He nearly raped Juli causing the latter to commit suicide. Ben-Zayb - The pseudonym of Abraham Ibaez, a journalist who believes he is the "only" one thinking in the Philippines. Ben-Zayb is an anagram of Ybanez, an alternate spelling of his name. Placido Penitente - A student of the University of Santo Tomas who was very intelligent and wise but did not want, if not only by his mother's plea, to pursue his studies. He also controls his temper against Padre Millon, his physics teacher. Hermana Penchang - Sagpang's rich pusakal (gambler). She offers Huli to be her maid so the latter can obtain money to free Kabesang Tales. Disbelieving of Huli and her close friends, she considers herself as an ally of the friars. Tiburcio de Espadaa - Don Tiburcio is Victorina de Espadaa's lame husband. He is currently on hiding with Father Florentino. Father rene - Captain Tiago's spiritual adviser. Although reluctant, he helped the students to establish the Academia de Castellano after being convinced by giving him a chestnut. The only witness to Captain Tiago's death, he forged the last will and testament of the latter so Basilio will obtain nothing from the inheritance. Quiroga - A Chinese businessman who dreamed of being a consul for his country in the Philippines. He hid Simoun's weapons inside his house. Don Timoteo Pelaez - Juanito's father. He is a rich businessmen and arranges a wedding for his son and Paulita. He and Simoun became business partners. Tandang Selo - Father of Kabesang Tales. He raised the sick and young Basilio after he left their house in Noli me Tangere. He died in an encounter on the mountains with his son Tales. Father Fernndez - The priest-friend of Isagani. He promised to Isagani that he and the other priests will give in to the students' demands. Sandoval - The vice-leader of Macaraig's gang. A Spanish classmate of Isagani, he coerces his classmates to lead alongside him the opening of the Spanish language academy. Hermana Bli - Another gambler in Tiani. She became Huli's mother-figure and counselor; helped to release Kabesang Tales from the hands of bandits. Father Millon - The Physics teacher of the University of Santo Tomas. He always becomes vindictive with Placido and always taunts him during class. Tadeo - Macaraig's classmate. He, along with the other three members of their gang, supposedly posted the posters that "thanked" Don Custodio and Father Irene for the opening of the Academia de Castellano. Leeds - An American who holds stage plays starring decapitated heads; he is good friends with Simoun.

Tano - Kabesang Tales's elder son after his older sister, Lucia died in childhood. He is currently one of the Guardia Civil. He then returned under the name Carolino after his exile in Caroline Islands. Pepay - Don Custodio's supposed "girlfriend". A dancer, she is always agitated of her "boyfriend"'s plans. She seems to be a close friend of Macaraig. Gobernador General - The highest-ranking official in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period, this unnamed character pretends that what he is doing is for the good of the Indios, the local citizens of the country, but in reality, he prioritizes the needs of his fellow Spaniards living in the country. Pecson - Basilio's classmate who had no idea on the happenings occurring around him. He suggested that they held the mock celebration at the panciteria. Father Hernando de la Sibyla- A Dominican friar introduced in Noli Me Tangere, now the vice-rector of the University of Santo Tomas. Father Bernardo Salvi- Former parish priest of San Diego, now the director and chaplain of the Santa Clara convent. Captain Tiago - Santiago delos Santos, although making a cameo appearance, Captain Tiago is Maria Clara's stepfather and the foster-father to Basilio. His health disintegrates gradually because of the opium he was forced to smoke given to him by Father Irene.

NOLI ME TANGERE I. Synopsis Fresh from his studies in Europe, young Crisostomo Ibarra returns to his hometown of San Diego, eager to introduce reforms such as a modern school after those he had seen in his sojourn abroad. He is met with fierce resistance from the friars, including one who lusted after Maria Clara, his childhood sweetheart. Looking after his fathers grave, Ibarra is told that his fathers remains had been unearthed upon the order of the parish priest and dumped into the lake. Elias, member of a company of outlaws who had escaped persecution by the government seeks Ibarras help in their cause, but Ibarra maintains his faith in instituting reforms through education and non-violent means. Ibarra is finally blamed as leader of a failed uprising, but he escapes through the help of Elias who sacrifices himself in a chase across the lake. This novel may pass for romance were it not for its savage portrayal of the friars, which amounted to blasphemy in nineteenth century Philippines. It tells the tragic story of Sisa and her children, one of whom dies in the hands of the sacristan mayor, falsely accused and flogged for thieving; Sisa would lose her mind while Basilio, the surviving son, would escape into the woods. Rizal goes on further to deplore the ignorance and superstition of the masses as among the roots of Philippine evils. Knowing that his ideas would be taken for those of a subversive, Rizal puts his words in the mouth of the village eccentric, known as Filosopo Tasyo, whom the townspeople take for a fool, but to whom Ibarra comes for advice. Other characters represent a cross-section of Philippine society: Dona Victorina, a typical social climber who abhors her indio origin; Kapitan Tiyago, a landowner who kowtows to the authorities in exchange for privileges, and whose wife gives birth to Maria Clara, sired by the Franciscan friar Padre Damaso; Sisas gambler of a husband; the school teacher whom Ibarra hires for his school project. Maria Clara is presumed to represent the Filipina maiden, but in my view, she is too naive and emotional; she retires to a convent upon hearing that Ibarra is dead. Sisa and her son Basilio are fated to meet on Christmas eve, but she dies upon recognizing her son. Elias appears, fatally wounded. Sending Basilio away, he makes his dying plea to his countrymen not to forget those who died without seeing the dawn. A bit melodramatic, but it had a powerful message, sufficient as such to rattle the Spanish government. Its sequel, the shorter but more incendiary El Filibusterismo, would ultimately pave the way to a revolution. II. Elements Characters Crisstomo Ibarra - also known in his full name as Juan Crisstomo Ibarra y Magsalin,[5] a Filipino who studied in Europe for 7 years, the love interest of Mara Clara. Son of the deceased Don Rafael Ibarra; Crisostomo changed his surname from Eibarramendia to Ibarra, from his ancestor's surname. He is announced deceased at the end of the novel.

Elas - Ibarra's mysterious friend, a master boater, also a fugitive. He was referred to at one point as "the pilot." He wants to revolutionize his country. In the past, Ibarra's grandfather condemned his grandfather of burning a warehouse, making Elias the fugitive he is. Mara Clara - Mara Clara de los Santos, Ibarra's sweetheart; the illegitimate daughter of Father Dmaso and Doa Pa Alba Padre Dmaso - also known in his full name as Dmaso Verdolangas,[6] Franciscan friar and Mara Clara's biological father Don Filipo - A close relative of Ibarra, and a filibuster. Alfonso Linares - A distant nephew of Tiburcio de Espadaa, the would-be fiance of Mara Clara. Captain-General- The most powerful official in the Philippines, a hater of secular priests and corrupt officials, and a friend of Ibarra. Tandang Pablo - The leader of the tulisanes (bandits), whose family was destroyed because of the Spaniards. Tarcilo and Bruno - a pair of brothers whose father was killed by the Spaniards. Sisa - the mother of her two sons Basilio and Crispn, who went insane after losing them. Basilio - Sisa's eldest son. Crispn - Sisa's younger son. An altar boy, he was unjustly accused of stealing money from the church. He is placed under the custody of the Civil Guard, where he eventually dies. Padre Sibyla - Hernando de la Sibyla, a Dominican friar. He is described as short and has fair skin. Padre Martn - also known by his full name as Manuel Martn, he is the linguistic curate of a nearby town. Capitan Tiago - also known in his full name as Don Santiago de los Santos[7] the known father of Mara Clara (not the real one) who lives in Binondo. He is thought of as a good Catholic, mainly because he donates generously to the Church. Padre Salv - also known in his full name as Bernardo Salv,[6] a secret admirer of Mara Clara. He is described to be very thin and sickly. Pilosopo Tasyo - also known as Don Anastacio, portrayed in the novel as pessimistic, cynic, and mad by his neighbors. Pa Alba - wife of Captain Tiago and mother of Mara Clara. She died giving birth to Mara Clara. The truth is, she was raped by Dmaso so she could bear a child.

Lieutenant/Teniente Guevarra - a close friend of Don Rafael Ibarra. He reveals to Crisostomo the brutal framings of Dmaso against his father. The Alfrez - chief of the Guardia Civil ; mortal enemy of the priests for power in San Diego Don Tiburcio - Spanish husband of Doa Victorina who is limp and submissive to his wife; he also pretends to be a doctor. Doa Victorina - Victorina de los Reyes de Espadaa, a woman who passes herself off as a Peninsular. Doa Consolacin - wife of the alfrez, another woman who passes herself as a Peninsular; best remembered for her abusive treatment of Sisa. Pedro - the abusive husband of Sisa who loves cockfighting. Lucas - the brother of a man who attempted to kill Ibarra. Don Pedro Eibarramendia - the great-grandfather of Crisostomo. He is mentioned as the founder of the town of San Diego, and the very person who caused the misfortunes of Elias' family. Don Saturnino Ibarra - Don Rafael's father. He inherited all of his father's inheritance.

III.

References

El Filibusterismo January 14, 2008 retrieved August 21, 2012, from http://www.shvoong.com/humanities/1745792-el-filibusterismo/#ixzz24AKZBIqb NOLI ME TANGERE January 26, 2008 retrieved August 21, 2012, from http://www.shvoong.com/books/classic-literature/1754293-nolitangere/#ixzz24AkFUi00 NOLI ME TANGERE retrieved August 21, 2012, from http://kapitbisig.com/philippines/noli-me-tangere-ni-dr-jose-rizal-book-notessummary-in-tagalog_214.html El Filibusterismo retrieved August 21, 2012, from http://kapitbisig.com/philippines/elfilibusterismo-the-reign-of-greed-by-dr-jose-rizal-book-notes-summary-in-englishthe-characters-the-summary-of-el-filibusterismo_202.html