Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

VOLATILE OILS RESINS

POST-LAB DISCUSSION (EXPERIMENT 6, 7, & 8)

Experiment 6 & 7: Volatile Oils


2

What is a volatile oil? Also known as Essential Oils and Ethereal Oils Represents the essences and odoriferous substances in various plants.

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Physical Properties of Volatile Oils


3

Yellowish to clear oily liquid Strong characteristic odor Immiscible with water but imparts a characteristic odor and taste when mixed. Soluble in ethyl alcohol and other organic solvents.

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Chemical Properties of Volatile Oils


4

TERPENES

UNOXYGENATED
OXYGENATED

AROMATIC PHENYLPROANOID DERIVATIVES


Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Methods of Extraction
6

Ecuelle
Enfleurage Expression

Distillation
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Ecuelle Method
7

DESCRIPTION: Puncturing the oil glands by rolling the fruit over a trough lined with sharp projections that are long enough to penetrate the epidermis and pierce the oil glands located in the outer portion of the peel.
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Enfleurage Method
8

The

flower petals are placed on the fat for few hours then repeatedly, the old petals are removed and new layers of petals are introduced. After the fat has absorbed as much fragrance as possible, the oil may be removed by extraction with alcohol
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Expression Method
9

Simplest laboratory extraction for volatile oils Without proper equipments and measures, may not assure any success on obtaining the volatile oil content.
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Distillation Method
10

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

11

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

12

Volatile-Containing Plants
Experiments 6 & 7

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Rutaceae Family
13

Buchu Barosma betulina/Agathosma betulina Synonym: Round Leaf Buchu Main Constituent: Diosphenol Uses: Diuretic Lemon Citrus limon Synonym: Bush Lemon tree Main Constituent: (+) limonene Uses: Stimulant, Carminative Pomelo Citrus grandis/Citrus maxima Synonym: Chinese grapefruit, Lusho fruit Main Constituent: Tannins, Volatile Oil Uses: Major source of Vitamin C
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Umbeliferae Family
14

Anise Pimpinella anisum Synonym: Aniseed Main Constituent: Trans-anethole, estragole Uses: Carminative, Flavorant Caraway Carum carvi Synonym: Meridian Fennel, Persian cumin Main Constituent: Volatile Oil Uses: Flavorant Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Synonym: Florence fennel, Finocchio Main Constituent: Trans-anethole Uses:Carminative, Flavorant
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Labiatae Family
15

Spearmint Menthe spicata/Mentha spicata Synonym: Spear mint Main Constituent: (-) Carvone Uses: Flavorant Lavender Lavandula angustifolia Synonym: English lavender, true lavender Main Constituent: (-) linalyl acetate Uses: Perfumery Thyme Thymus vulgaris Synonym: Thymus Main Constituent: Thymol Uses: Antiseptic
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

16

Answers to Questions
Volatile Oils (Experiment 6 & 7)

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Experiment 6: Ecuelle, Enfleurage, Extraction


17

1. What are the different chemical compositions of a volatile oil? ( Check slide number 4)

2. What are the different types of expression method? (Check the next slides)
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

EXPRESSION METHOD #1
Soxhlet Apparatus Franz Von Soxhlet (1979) Used when the desired compound has a limited solubility in a solvent, and the impurity is insoluble in that solvent. The advantage of this system is that instead of many portions of warm solvent being passed through the sample, just one batch of solvent is recycled.
18

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

EXPRESSION METHOD #2
USE OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS Why? - Since based on the physical properties of volatile oils, they are soluble in most organic solvents. Process of extraction - Maceration - Percolation

19

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Experiment 6: Ecuelle, Enfleurage, Extraction


20

3. Differentiate expression, ecuelle, and enfluerage method. Which is the best method for extraction of volatile oil and why? (Go to slide 6-11)
Which is which???? It would depend on several things: - Type of constituent to be extracted - Specific plants (Plant parts, fresh/dried, etc.)
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

EXPERIMENT 8 RESINS

What are resins?


22

A term applied to amorphous substances with complex chemical structure.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Hard, transparent or translucent Insoluble in water but dissolve in alcohol and other organic solvents When resins are separated and purified, usually brittle, amorphous solids that fuse readily when heated On evaporation, deposit the resin as a varnish like film They burn with characteristic smoky flame
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Classification of Resins
23

Oleoresin

combination of resins with volatile oils; i.e. turpentine and copaiba combination of oleoresin with gum; i.e. myrrh asafetida resinous mixtures containing cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, or both, or esters of these acids i.e. benzoin, peru balsam, tolu balsam and storax

Oleo-gum-resin

Balsams

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

METHOD OF EXTRACTION
24

Extraction

with alcohol and subsequent precipitation of resin in water of oil from oleoresin by distillation (i.e. rosin and turpentine) of natural product exuded as oleoresin through artificial punctures

Separation

Collection

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

25

Answers to Questions
Experiment 8 - Resins

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

26

1. Enumerate and Differentiate Resinous substances (Check Slide Number 23)

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

2. Medicinal applications of resins from cayenne pepper.


27

Ability to stop a heart attack in progress Lowering blood pressure while strengthening heart performance Safe and natural stimulant action Improves circulation through vasodilatation Effective topical pain reliever for arthritis and joint pain Useful for relieving gastrointestinal problems such as stomach aches, cramping and gas Relieving headache pain Thinning the blood helping prevent blood clots Relieving pain due to diabetic neuropathy, shingles, psoriasis, and fibromyalgia
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

3. Percolation Set-up
28

Percolation Set-up Percolator Iron Stand Iron Ring Colleting beaker Plant Material Menstrum Filter Paper
Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

Maceration Set-up
29

MACERATION Beaker/Erlenmeyer Flask Plant material Solvent/Menstrum Stopper

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh

30

Godbless and Study hard


-------------- E N D--------------

Pharmacognosy with Plant Chemistry Laboratory - M.Laurente, RPh