0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

61 Aufrufe11 SeitenA new model in rail–vehicles dynamics considering nonlinear suspension

Mar 20, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

A new model in rail–vehicles dynamics considering nonlinear suspension

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

61 Aufrufe

A new model in rail–vehicles dynamics considering nonlinear suspension

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Fundamentals of Rail Vehicle Dynamics
- Multi-link Suspension System
- Carbody Rail Vehicle Dynamics
- Class 1 - Fibre Strength
- Biot (1962) Mechanics of Deformation and Acoustic Propagation in Porous Media
- Titan XD
- BTP_viscoelasticity pe
- Vehicle Dynamics
- RailEng Abstracts.pdf
- _Dynamic Analysis of Railway Vehicle-track Interaction Forces
- TI Sheet
- DME UNIT IV
- Model Complet Vehicul
- strength of materials question bank
- Suspension Design Rpt
- Marc 2005 Volume e
- BPW-NFZ-2010uk
- BD545_39.pdf
- IJETR033324
- Modeling of Tool-Tissue Interactions for Computer

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

components behavior

H. Sayyaadi

, N. Shokouhi

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 11 June 2008

Received in revised form

11 January 2009

Accepted 14 January 2009

Available online 21 January 2009

Keywords:

Rail vehicle dynamics

Air spring model

Track geometrical irregularities

a b s t r a c t

In this paper, a complete four axle rail vehicle model is addressed with 70 degrees of freedom (DOFs)

including a carbody, two bogies, and four axels. In order to include the effects of the track irregularities

in vehicle dynamics behavior, a simplied track model is proposed and it is validated by some

experimental data and test results. As the performance of the suspension components, especially for air

springs, have signicant effects on railvehicle dynamics and ride comfort of passengers, a complete

nonlinear thermo-dynamical air spring model, which is a combination of two different models, is

introduced and implemented in the complete railvehicle dynamics. By implementing Presthus

formulation [Derivation of air spring model parameters for train simulation. Master dissertation,

Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Division of Fluid Mechanics, LULEA

University, 2002], the thermo-dynamical parameters of air spring are estimated and then they are tuned

based on the experimental data. The results of the complete railvehicle eld tests, show remarkable

agreement between proposed model and test data.

& 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Nowadays, speed-up in technology and its new features bring

higher speed with reliable safety and better ride comfort in rail

transportation industries. Trafc jam in capital and big cities all

around the world, wasting passengers time at the air terminals,

huge mass transportation, and so on brings a good opportunity for

rail industries to attract more and more passengers and cargos

to their services. In addition to safety, the other important factor

for the passengers to decide about their transportation type is

ride comfort. And that is why accessing better ride comfort for

passengers during their trip is essential.

To serve better ride comfort to the passengers, the secondary

suspension of most new EMU and DMU railvehicles is equipped

with air springs. Air springs are very important isolation com-

ponent, which guarantee good ride comfort for the passengers

during their trip. In the most published railvehicle models,

developed by researches [212], the thermo-dynamical effects of

air springs in the railvehicle dynamics are ignored and the

secondary suspension of vehicle is modeled by some simple

springs and dampers models.

In this paper, complete dynamics of one IRICo DMU trailer car

with nonlinear components behavior is addressed. The dynamics

behaviors of all components are validated by some experimental

results. In the proposed model, track rails assumed to be rigid

with viscoelastic bed in vertical and lateral directions [13,14]. In

order to consider the effects of the track irregularities on the

vehicle behavior, track data measured by EM120 machine are

used. In the model of rail vehicle which moves along the straight

line, effects of ballast and sleepers masses on the vehicle

dynamics are ignored. Four contact parameters introduced by

Shabana and Zaazaa [15,16] are used to dene the contact point

between rail and wheel. In order to improve the simulation

performance, a feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is trained

and then it is used to compute the contact point parameters.

Contact forces are calculated based on the Polach theory [17].

Numerical and experimental results are summarized and com-

pared at the end of this article to verify the proposed model and

technique.

2. Vehicle description

IRICo DMU train has four cars; two motor cars at both ends and

two trailer cars in the middle. The schematic diagram for one

complete train is depicted in Fig. 1.

Each car is suspended by two bogies. The side view of two

axle IRICo DMU trailer bogie is shown in Fig. 2. To attain proper

stability and good ride comfort for the passengers, bogies are

equipped with primary and secondary suspension systems. The

secondary suspension has two air springs to suspend the vehicle

body, four vertical and lateral dampers, and two connection links

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences

0020-7403/$ - see front matter & 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2009.01.003

E-mail address: sayyaadi@sharif.edu (H. Sayyaadi).

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232

to connect the bogie frame to the carbody. The primary

suspension is made of two coil springs, two leaf springs and one

vertical damper at each side of wheel set.

3. Dynamics model

3.1. Track model

In order to include effects due to the track geometrical

irregularities in the railvehicle dynamics, simplied version of

Jin and Wen [13,14] track model is in use here. In the proposed

model, four track irregularities are introduced as bed distur-

bances. As the vehicle is modeled while passing through straight

line, the effects of ballast and sleepers masses in the vehicle

dynamics and coupling effects between left and right ballast

masses are ignored. Track stiffness and damping rates are

according to the work of Jin and Wen [13]. Schematic diagram

of the track model, with four track irregularities, is shown in Fig. 3.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 1. Composition of IRICo DMU.

Fig. 2. Side view of IRICo DMU trailer bogie.

Fig. 3. Track model; parameters are based on the work of Jin and Wen [13]. Rail

disturbances: d

left,horizontal

, d

left,vertical

, d

right,horizontal

, and d

right,vertical

.

g(s

1

)

f(s

2

)

Y

rp

Y

w

S

1

Z

rp

Q

Z

w

X

w

S

1

S

2

Q

w

w

r

r

r

S

2

w

Fig. 4. Four contact parameters introduced by Shabana and Zaazaa [15].

Fig. 5. Effective parameters d

L

, d

V

, c

A

, and y

A

for contact point extraction.

Fig. 6. Feed-forward neural network.

Fig. 7. Contact point position in left rail.

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 223

3.2. Railwheel contact point and contact forces model

By using four geometrical contact parameters S

r

1

, S

r

2

, S

w

1

,

and S

w

2

, shown in Fig. 4, and the method proposed by Shabana

and Zaazaa [15], contact point between rail and wheel is deter-

mined. According to Shabana, S

r

1

is found out by integrating speed

component of point Q along the rail, shown in Fig. 4, and S

w

2

is

the angle between the Z-axis of coordinate system xed to

the axle and vertical line. The remaining two contact parameters

are calculated by a searching algorithm which guarantees the

perpendicularity of rail reaction force and tangent plane of the

wheel at the contact point. To do this, four geometrical

parameters d

L

, d

R

, y

A

, and c

A

, shown in Fig. 5, are investigated.

By these assumptions and using four contact parameters and

normal reaction force of the rails, creep forces are calculated

based on the Polach theory [17].

For improving the simulation capabilities and also decreasing

the simulation time, a feed-forward neural network is suggested

to compute these two contact parameters as shown in Fig. 6. This

neural network has four inputs d

L

, d

R

, y

A

, and c

A

, two outputs S

r

2

&

S

w

1

and 14 neurons in two hidden layers. The activation function

for hidden layers and output layer is tangent sigmoid and linear,

respectively. The network is trained based on the Levenberg

Marquardt back-propagation method.

Proposed network is trained according to the searching

algorithm results, generated during sinusoidal variations of axle

states. The lateral and vertical axle states changed with 0.01 and

0.003mm amplitude and 0.5 and 0.25Hz frequencies, respec-

tively. At the same time, yawand roll angle of axle varied with 0.41

and 0.21, amplitude and 0.334 and 0.1667Hz frequencies. The

simulation time is selected so that each input signal has at least

two periods in the simulation time. Results are shown in Figs. 7

and 8. Good agreement between network output and searching

algorithm results guarantees the performance of trained network.

Synaptic weights of the trained network are presented in

Appendix 1.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 8. Contact point position in left wheel.

4 Leaf Springs

4 Coil Springs

2 Vert. Dampers

CG

car

CG

frame

CG

Axle

4 Leaf Springs

4 Coil Springs

2 Vert. Dampers

CG

Axle

4 Leaf Springs

4 Coil Springs

2 Vert. Dampers

2 Lat Dampers+2 Lat Buffers

Z-Link

2 Air Springs+2 Vert. Dampers

CG

frame

CG

Axle

4 Leaf Springs

4 Coil Springs

2 Vert. Dampers

CG

Axle

2 Lat Dampers+2 Lat Buffers

Z-Link

2 Air Springs+2 Vert. Dampers

Traction Rods

Lat Dampers

Lat Buffers,

Z-Link

CG

car

CG

frame

CG

Axle

Air Spring

Vert. Damper

Air Spring

Vert. Damper

Leaf Springs

Coil Springs

Vert. Damper

Leaf Springs

Coil Springs

Vert. Damper

Fig. 9. Vehicle model with 42 DOFs.

Table 1

Masses and inertia properties of the railvehicle.

Parameters Values Parameters Values Parameters Values

m

axle

1747kg m

frame

2841.3kg m

carbody

33,142kg

I

xx,axle

1098kg m

2

I

xx,frame

1030kg m

2

I

xx,carbody

30,000 kg m

2

I

yy,axle

191kg m

2

I

yy,frame

1054kg m

2

I

yy,carbody

687,231kg m

2

I

zz,axle

1098kg m

2

I

zz,frame

2003kg m

2

I

zz,carbody

687,231kg m

2

K

ex

K

ez

C

z

z

2

2M

K

vx

C

x

x

2

K

ex

F

fx,max

F

fz,max K

vz

z

1 1

x

Fig. 10. Berg air spring model [27].

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 224

3.3. Vehicle model

This work proposes a new method for studying suspension

components effects on the vehicle dynamics performances.

Accordingly, real behaviors of all components are described in

this section. For this reason, and due to the complexity of

components behaviors, especially for air springs, it is almost

impossible to describe complete vehicle dynamics with a single

set of equations. So, the vehicle is modeled as modular type and

internal forces of each component are calculated, using nonlinear

description functions and system states. Newtonian approach is

implemented for dynamics modeling of different parts and the

interacting forces and moments between them are investigated.

The vehicle model with 7 lumped masses and 42 degrees of

freedom (DOFs) is shown in Fig. 9 and some of its important

specications are tabulated in Table 1.

3.3.1. Air spring model

Air springs, which are made of carbon black lled natural

rubber (CBFNR), have long lifetime and can isolate the vehicle

body from the unpredictable noise, vibration, and disturbances.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

F

X

1

X

1

X

2

F

elastic

F

viscoelastic C = c (|x

1

|+)

X

2

k

F

Fig. 12. Proposed modied model for air spring.

Table 2

Air spring parameters value.

Parameters Description Values

l

s

Connecting pipe length 3.2m

A

s

Connecting pipe cross section 0.001359m

2

A

e

Effective area of air spring 0.291m

2

P

0

Initial absolute air spring pressure 3.806bar

P

g

Gauge pressure

r Density of air at P

0

pressure 4.523kg/m

3

V

r0

Reservoir volume 0.04 m

2

V

b0

Air spring volume 0.064m

2

k

t

Total lost coefcient of connection pipes 3.4727

K

auxiliary

Auxiliary spring stiffness in air spring 8234kN/m

M Air mass in the pipes, air bag and air reservoir 198.385kg

Fig. 13. Test rig of air spring at ContiTech Company, Germany.

Fig. 14. Loss angle of air spring M 198.385kg, K

ez

461.629N/mm,

K

vz

351.185N/mm, C

z,1.8

11.508kNs/m

1.8

, k

haupt

96kN/m, and C

haupt

1.52

kNs/m, z 0.00063.

Fig. 15. Dynamic vertical stiffness of the air spring M 198.385kg, K

ez

461.629

N/mm, K

vz

351.185N/mm, C

z,1.8

11.508kNs/m

1.8

, k

haupt

96kN/m, C

haupt

1.52kNs/m, z 0.00063.

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 225

The air spring behaviors are so complicated that cannot be

modeled by simple equations. Air spring response is independent

of the excitation frequency [18] and it behaves such as stress

relaxation function [19]. In addition, it has asymmetric hysteresis

loop, which is independent of the excitation frequency [20]. These

behaviors bring difculties to use frictional or columbic descrip-

tion to approximate the air spring characteristics.

A lot of comprehensive researches have been done for real air

springs and CBFNR behaviors identication [2126]. In the latest

3D model, developed by Berg [27], the effects of elasticity, friction

and viscosity of air spring in vertical, lateral and longitudinal

directions are introduced. In this model, stress relaxation is not

represented. The complete explanation about Berg model, shown

in Fig. 10, is presented in [27]. Friction force in the Berg model

which is zero at turning points is

F

friction

/

x x

0

b x x

0

sign_ x (1)

In which, b is the constant, x the current displacement, and x

0

the displacement at the previous turning point. As it is clear from

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 16. Lateral hysteresis loop of the air spring K

ey

154kN/m, K

vy

82.26kN/m,

C

y

1.109kNs/m, k

haupt

96kN/m, C

haupt

1.52kNs/m, z 0.00063.

Fig. 17. Test results of IRICo DMU Dampers, done by SACHS Co., Germany.

Table 3

Dampers parameters.

Type of damper Condition a b

Primary vertical dampers

0pj

_

D

damper

jp0:1

40800 0

0:1o

_

D

damper

19163 2163.7

_

D

damper

o0:1

19025 2177.5

Secondary vertical/lateral dampers

0pj

_

D

damper

jp0:05

61375 0

0:05o

_

D

damper

18221 2157.7

_

D

damper

o0:05

14143 2361.6

Stopper

Lateral

(4.5) 171

401

(3.5)

Fig. 18. Lateral buffer position in bogie.

Fig. 19. Lateral buffer stiffness.

Table 4

Haupt and Sedlan model parameters and stiffness coefcients of bushes.

Parameters Values Parameters Values

k

haupt

9kN/mm K

radial

2222.2N/mm

C

haupt

3.8kNs/m K

torsionc

31.25Nm/1

z 0.00063 k

cardanic

45.525Nm/1

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 226

Eq. (1), in this model, displacement at turning points should be

detected and assigned to the x

0

variable, which is not a standard

procedure in the dynamic analysis and causes failure in solving

algorithm.

For simulation of CBFNR behaviors, a model was developed

by Haupt and Sedlan [19], which has elastic and viscoelastic

elements. The viscoelastic element naturally produces asym-

metric stressstrain response and is weakly time-dependent.

These features are not presented in the other models and made it

very powerful to simulate the CBFNR behaviors. The simplied

one-dimensional Haupt and Sedlan model with constant coef-

cients is shown in Fig. 11.

The viscoelastic force in this simplied model is

F

viscoelastic

c_ x

2

j_ x

1

j z

(2)

in which c and z are constant coefcients.

In this research work, the Berg model which is validated by

some experimental data up to 16Hz frequencies [27], is used to

simulate the air spring dynamics. However, because of difculties

comprises from assigning previous turning point displacement

to the variable, the frictional part of this model is replaced by

the simplied viscoelastic model dened by Haupt and Sedlan.

Schematic diagrams of the proposed modied models in vertical

and lateral directions are shown in Fig. 12.

According to Berg and by taking into account of the Haupt and

Sedlan model, differential equations of air spring in vertical,

lateral, and longitudinal directions are proposed as

Vertical direction:

M w

s

K

vz

z w

s

C

zb

j _ w

s

j

b

sign _ w

s

; b 1:8

F

z

p

0

p

a

A

e

K

ez

z K

vz

z w

s

c_ x

2

j_ zj z

(3)

Lateral and longitudinal directions:

F

w

K

ew

wK

eww

y F

visco-elastic;w

K

vw

wu

C

w

_ u K

vw

wu (4)

F

visco-elastic;w

c_ x

2

j _ w

1

j z

w x; y (5)

The parameters in the above equations are estimated according to

the Presthus formulation as given in Eq. (6) [1]:

M l

s

A

s

r

A

e

A

s

V

r0

V

b0

V

r0

_ _

2

K

ez

1

p

0

A

2

e

n=V

b0

V

r0

p

g

dA

e

=dz

1

K

auxiliary

_ _

1

K

vz

1

p

0

A

2

e

n=V

b0

p

g

dA

e

=dz

1

K

auxiliary

_ _

1

K

ez

C

z;b

1

2

rk

t

A

s

A

e

A

s

V

r0

V

b0

V

r0

_ _

1b

; b 2 (6)

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Bogie frame

Axle Box

Axle

Box

Leaf Spring

Bush

k

z,leaf

k

x,leaf

k

x,bush

k

z,bush

k

ty,bush

Fig. 20. Leaf spring schematic diagram in the xz plane.

Table 5

Primary suspension system, mechanical specications.

Parameters Values (N/mm) Parameters Values

K

x,bush

, K

z,bush

45000 K

ty,bush

32Nm/1

K

y,bush

2118 K

tx,bush

, K

tz,bush

1659Nm/1

K

x,leaf spring

44145 K

x,coil spring

365.69N/mm

K

y,leaf spring

2118 K

y,coil spring

365.69N/mm

K

z,leaf spring

71.9618 K

z,coil spring

682.77N/mm

Table 6

Suspension components of rail vehicle model (28 internal DOFs).

Components No. Identier equations Internal DOF

Secondary Vert. damper 2 per bogie

Bi-linear function

Secondary Lat. damper 2 per bogie

Primary Vert. damper 2 per bogie

Air spring 4 per car

Vertical Nonlinear, Berg and Sedlan model x

2

,w

s

Lateral Nonlinear, Berg and Sedlan model x

2

,u

Longitudinal Nonlinear, Berg and Sedlan model x

2

,u

Lateral buffer 4 per car Nonlinear-polynomial, order 4

Bushlink 2 pairs per bogie Nonlinear, Sedlan model x

2

Coil spring 4 per bogie linear in space, based on experimental data

Leaf spring 4 per bogie linear in space, based on analytical calculations

Table 7

Accelerometers specications.

KS77C.100 AS-2TG

Manufacturer Manfred Weber, Germany Kyowa, Japan

Type ICP

s

compatible Strain gauge

Range (g) 760 72

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 227

The exact C

z,1.8

value is calculated based on the Presthus method

and the stiffness K

exw

is approximated by K

exw

0.7(K

ex

h+load) [1].

Numerical values of the above parameters are tabulated in Table 2.

To determine the exact values of the air spring parameters, one

IRICo DMU air spring was tested at ContiTech Company, Germany.

Fig. 13 depicts the air spring test.

Based on the method introduced by Docquier et al. [30] and

according to the test data and simulation results, the loss angle

and vertical dynamics stiffness of air spring were investigated

which are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. As it can be concluded from

these diagrams, good agreement between real test and simulation

results is achieved.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

KS77C.100 KS77C.100

KS77C.100

AS-2TG

KS77C.100 AS-2TG AS-2TG

KS77C.100 KS77C.100

KS77C.100

AS-2TG

Axle 2 Axle 4 Axle 3 Axle 1

Fig. 21. Accelerometers installation position: (a) front bogie, axle 2 and (b) rear bogie, axle 3.

Accelerometers

on rear bogie

Accelerometers

on front bogie

GPS Antenna installed over the roof

Fig. 22. Sensors installation position on the trailer car.

Fig. 23. Tehran-Ghazvin route data: (a) cant variation of Tehran-Ghazvin route and (b) speed and height prole, Tehran-Ghazvin route.

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 228

For validation of air spring lateral behavior, hysteresis loop

of air spring is investigated. Results are shown in Fig. 16. Good

agreement between test data and simulation results shows that

the proposed equations can simulate the real behavior of air

spring very well.

3.3.2. Dampers model

IRICo DMU primary and secondary suspension dampers were

tested in Sachs Co., Germany. Results are shown in Fig. 17.

According to the test results, damping rate of each damper is

described by bi-linear function:

F a

_

D

damper

b (7)

The coefcients in Eq. (7) are tabulated in Table 3 for different

conditions and installation locations of dampers.

3.3.3. Lateral buffer model

Lateral displacement of the carbody is restricted by four lateral

buffers, installed on the bogie frame as shown in Fig. 18. Each

lateral buffer has primary compression force equal to 100N.

Forcedisplacement diagram of the lateral buffer is shown in

Fig. 19. An air gap of 17mm between carbody and lateral buffer

lets the carbody moves freely in this range. Lateral displacement

of carbody is restricted over 740mm by two stoppers installed on

the bogie.

According to the experimental data, mechanical behavior of

the lateral buffer is formulated as

F 0; 0oxo17

F 5 10

5

x 17

4

0:0019x 17

3

0:0144x 17

2

; 1:1525x 17 0:100;

17pxp40

_

_

(8)

3.3.4. Connection link model

The carbody is linked to the bogie frame by two connection

links through center pivot device. Each link has a rubber bush

at each end. Static stiffness of the rubber bush in radial, torsional,

and cardanic movements are presented according to the tests

done by GMT Co., Germany. Because these rubber bushes are

made from CBFNR, for exact modeling of connection link behavior

in the vehicle dynamics, the simplied one-dimensional Haupt

and Sedlan model, described in Fig. 11, is used for radial

movement of the bushes with the following equation:

F

visco-elastic;radial

c_ x

2

j_ r

1

j z

(9)

The Haupt and Sedlan parameters, tabulated in Table 4, are

according to the Allen results [28].

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 24. Axles 2 and 3 accelerationsvalidation of track model: (a) FFT of lateral accelerationaxle 2; (b) FFT of vertical accelerationaxle 2; (c) FFT of lateral

accelerationaxle 3; and (d) FFT of vertical accelerationaxle 3.

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 229

3.3.5. Primary suspension, stiffness coefcients model

Four leaf springs in each axle, direct the wheel-set along the

curves. Each leaf spring has one rubber bush at each end.

Schematic diagram of the leaf spring in the xz plane is shown

in Fig. 20. The same conguration is developed for the other

planes.

Considering boundary condition of leaf spring at two ends, the

stiffness of leaf spring in bending is determined as follows:

k

1

leaf vertical

1

EI

L

4

k

ty;bush

4Lk

ty;bush

EI

L

3

3

_ _

(10)

Based on the manufacturer test results, coil spring stiffness is

approximated linearly. By using Eq. (10), stiffness coefcients

of the primary suspension are calculated. Numerical value of

primary suspension parameters are tabulated in Table 5.

3.4. Complete vehicle model

All components model used in the railvehicle dynamics with

related internal DOFs are listed in Table 6. It can be seen that

suspension components add up 28 additional internal DOFs to the

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 25. Validation of complete vehicle model: (a) FFT of carbody lateral acceleration; (b) FFT of carbody vertical acceleration; (c) FFT of front bogie frame lateral

acceleration; (d) FFT of front bogie frame vertical acceleration; (e) FFT of rear bogie frame lateral acceleration; and (f) FFT of rear bogie frame vertical acceleration.

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 230

model. Whereas the vehicle masses have totally 42 DOFs, the

complete railvehicle will be a model of 70 DOFs.

4. Model simulation and test results

Dynamics test of the IRICo DMU was performed in Tehran-

Ghazvin route to validate the performance of the proposed

dynamics model. VBOX III GPS, manufactured by Racelogic, UK,

is used to measure the exact position and speed of the train.

Measured speed is monitored and recorded by one of the 16

channels of CRONOS PL data acquisition system manufactured by

imc, Australia, which was connected to the portable computer.

The accelerations of the trailer car masses are recorded by 15

remaining channels by means of accelerometers with the

specications presented in Table 7. These accelerometers are

installed on two axles, two bogie frames and on the oor of the

carbody inside the car according to Figs. 21 and 22.

Cant variations of the track, recorded by EM120 machine,

vehicle speed and height prole of the line are shown in Fig. 23.

Referring to this gure, it is perceived that cant parameter in the

interval between 110 and 115km does not have any signicant

variation that means the track line is almost straight without

signicant curvature. Constant traveling speed and smooth height

prole make this section of the test route suitable for validation of

the proposed vehicle model.

As track data and geometrical irregularities recorded by EM120

machine are not up-to-date and were recorded 25 months before

the test, by using track data, poor agreement between test and

simulation results is achieved. For this reason, the vehicle model

is studied in two different phases. In the rst phase, the model

was executed by considering old track irregularities and axle

accelerations are investigated to validate track model. In the

second phase, measured axle accelerations and their integrals in

time domain are used as reference states to validate complete

vehicle model.

As in the vehicletrack system, track has the highest stiffness,

the high-frequency responses of the vehicle are related to the

track behavior. To validate dynamic model of track system,

responses of the vehicle in frequency domain are investigated

[29]. Fig. 24 shows the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of measured

signals and simulation results for 100m track length. It can be

seen that in the frequency range between 20 and 60Hz, good

agreement between test and simulation results is achieved.

For validation of the proposed vehicle model, the measured

vertical and lateral acceleration of axles within 200m of the track

with their integrals are used as reference inputs. Whereas the

accelerometers are not installed on the axle nos. 1 and 4, the

accelerations of axles 2 and 3 are used for axles 1 and 4 with a

constant lead/lag equal to axle base. FFT of test and simulation

results are shown in Fig. 25. Because each car is equipped with an

auxiliary power unit (APU) which works with an internal

combustion engine, there is a peak response in carbody accelera-

tions signals at 50Hz frequency. To simulate the effect of APU on

the system, a sinusoidal force with relevant amplitude and

frequency is added to the vehicle model as a disturbance.

It can be seen that the vehicle test results and the proposed

vehicle model have almost the same behavior. Little deviations in

the diagrams can be judged by the following items:

1. The reference axle states only cover vertical and lateral

movement of the axles. During validation, other DOFs are

constrained constant.

2. Only accelerations of axle nos. 2 and 3 are recorded. The other

two axle states are generated based on the measured

accelerations.

3. Measured accelerations contain some sources of errors. By

integrating accelerations, errors of speed and position signals

have been accumulated.

5. Conclusion

This research work proposes a new model for studding

inuences of suspension system components behavior on rail

vehicle dynamics. For studding the behavior and performance of

suspension components, complete trackvehicle model with 70

DOFs is addressed as a modular type. In this new model, behavior

of each component is dened and validated using real test data

from eld experiments. Complete nonlinear air spring model, with

taking into consideration of thermo-dynamical effects, is devel-

oped and model coefcients are tuned based on the real test data.

This model can be easily used in dynamic modeling of air springs.

For validation of the proposed trackvehicle model, dynamics test

of the vehicle was carried out. Comparison of the results show

good agreement between proposed model and test results that

says this new model can be used for simulation of the vehicle

performances very well and then it is a good model for further

applications such as improvement in ride quality and comfort

index, passive and/or active control and so on.

Acknowledgments

Authors acknowledge Sharif University of Technology, grateful

for the excessive support from Irankhodro Rail Transport

Industries Co., and also like to express their sincere thanks to

Mr. M.S. Ghorashi for his help in managing eld tests.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 231

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Appendix 1. Neural network synaptic weights

y f W x b; f

hidden layers

x

2

1 e

2x

1; f

output layer

x x

W

1

0:4879 143:29 153:58 296:96

440:24 1618:3 922:66 1334:3

31:414 61:038 58:806 286:63

24:646 3:7075 68:557 168:59

90:293 204:3 141:32 326:46

25:573 141:03 86:023 164:47

74:14 5:2036 304:34 42:909

19:799 90:972 249:49 199:13

29:727 80:828 67:982 241:81

_

_

_

_

; b

1

1:7844

343:02

21:85

18:173

71:443

16:336

58:029

11:211

20:332

_

_

_

_

W

2

3:8078 0:34866 81:023 13:621 0:1302 28:59 1:6923 10:078 107:8

23:264 6:9369 340:7 27:582 6:3036 210:98 10:203 1:4993 556:53

3:8083 0:34666 80:939 13:612 0:12951 28:561 1:6881 10:077 107:69

1:464 0:20806 51:506 3:1561 2:0031 23:906 3:4124 3:1543 76:946

0:76366 0:01884 9:4441 0:49465 0:0555 6:2466 0:25575 0:15104 16:544

_

_

_

_

; b

2

4:2292

2:5291

4:2332

1:0352

0:5185

_

_

_

_

W

3

7:73 0:003244 7:7259 0:022746 0:00677

7:5261 0:003135 7:5231 0:021734 0:020275

_ _

; b

3

0:014172

0:00269

_ _

References

[1] Presthus M. Derivation of air spring model parameters for train simulation.

Master dissertation, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical En-

gineering, Division of Fluid Mechanics, LULEA University, 2002.

[2] Sun YQ, Dhanasekar M. A dynamic model for the vertical interaction of the

rail track and wagon system. International Journal of Solids and Structures

2002;39:133759.

[3] Lei X, Noda NA. Analyses of dynamic response of vehicle and track coupling

systemwith random irregularity of track vertical prole. Journal of Sound and

Vibration 2002;258:14765.

[4] Hou K, Kalousek J, Dong R. A dynamic model for an asymmetrical vehicle/

track system. Journal of Sound and Vibration 2003;267:591604.

[5] Popp K, Kaiser I, Kruse H. System dynamics of railway vehicles and track.

Archive of Applied Mechanics 2003;72:94961.

[6] Tanabe M, et al. Computational model of a Shinkansen train running on the

railway structure and the industrial applications. Journal of Materials

Processing Technology 2003;140:70510.

[7] Durali M, Bahabadi MMJ. Investigation of train dynamics in passing through

curves using a full model. In: Rail conference, Proceedings of the 2004 ASME/

IEEE joint, p. 838.

[8] Li Y, Qiang Sh, et al. Dynamics of windrail vehiclebridge systems. Journal of

Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 2005;93:483507.

[9] Baeza L, Roda A, Nielsen JCO. Railway vehicle/track interaction analysis using

a modal substructuring approach. Journal of Sound and Vibration 2006;293:

11224.

[10] Li P, Goodall R, et al. Estimation of railway vehicle suspension parameters for

condition monitoring. Control Engineering Practice 2007;15:4355.

[11] Zhang N, Xia H, et al. Vehiclebridge interaction analysis under high-speed

trains. Journal of Sound and Vibration 2008;309:40725.

[12] Banerjee N, et al. Bond graph modeling of a railway truck on curved track.

Simulation Modeling Practice and Theory. Available online from 2008.

[13] Jin XS, Wen ZF. Effect of passenger car curving on rail corrugation at a curved

track. Journal of Wear 2006;260:61933.

[14] Jin XS, Wen ZF. Effect of discrete track support by sleepers on rail corrugation

at a curved track. Journal of Sound and Vibration. Available online from 2008.

[15] Shabana AA, Zaazaa KhE. Development of elastic force model for wheel/rail

contact problems. Journal of Sound and Vibration 2004;269:295325.

[16] Shabana AA, Zaazaa KhE. Railroad vehicle dynamics, a computational

approach. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.

[17] Polach O. A fast wheelrail forces calculation computer code. Journal of

Vehicle System Dynamics 1999(Suppl. 33):72839.

[18] Boast D, Fellows S, Hale M. Effects of temperature, frequency and amplitude

on the dynamic properties of elastomers. In: Conference paper, AVON

Automotive 2002; 03.

[19] Haupt P, Sedlan K. Viscoplasticity of elastomeric materials: experimental

facts and constitutive modeling. Archive of Applied Mechanics 2001;71:

89109.

[20] Berg M. A non-linear rubber spring model for rail vehicle dynamics analysis.

Journal of Vehicle System Dynamics 1998;30:197212.

[21] Turner DM. A triboelastic model for the mechanical behaviour of rubber.

Journal of Plastics and Rubber Processing and Applications 1988;9:197201.

[22] Coveney VA, Johnson DE, Turner DM. A triboelastic model for the cyclic

mechanical behaviour of lled vulcanizates. Journal of Rubber Chemistry and

Technology 1995;68:66070.

[23] Coveney VA, Johnson DE. Rate-dependent modelling of a highly lled

vucanizate. Journal of Rubber Chemistry and Technology 2000;73(4):56577.

[24] Bergstrom JS, Boyce MC. Large strain time-dependent behavior of lled

elastomers. Journal of Mechanics of Materials 2000;32:62744.

[25] Miehe C, Keck J. Superimposed nite elasticviscoelasticplastoelastic stress

response with damage in lled rubbery polymers. Experiments, modelling

and algorithmic implementation. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids

2000;48:32365.

[26] Lion A. A constitutive model for carbon black lled rubber: experimental

investigation and mathematical representation. Journal of Continuum

Mechanics and Thermodynamics 1996;8:15369.

[27] Berg M. A three-dimensional airspring model with friction and orice

damping. Journal of Vehicle System Dynamics 1999;33:52839.

[28] Allen P. Models for the dynamic simulation of tank track components. PhD

dissertation, Craneld University, Academic Year 20052006.

[29] Lombaert G, Degrande G, et al. The experimental validation of a numerical

model for the prediction of railway induced vibrations. Journal of Sound and

Vibration 2006;297:51235.

[30] Docquier N, Fisette P, Jeanmart H. Multiphysic modelling of railway vehicles

equipped with pneumatic suspensions. Journal of Vehicle System Dynamics

2007;45(6):50524.

H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 222232 232

- Fundamentals of Rail Vehicle DynamicsHochgeladen vonValentin Toncoglaz
- Multi-link Suspension SystemHochgeladen vonVijay Pawar
- Carbody Rail Vehicle DynamicsHochgeladen vonPrashantha Raju
- Class 1 - Fibre StrengthHochgeladen vonstevesmith19
- Biot (1962) Mechanics of Deformation and Acoustic Propagation in Porous MediaHochgeladen vonnovaone
- Titan XDHochgeladen vonForklift Systems Incorporated
- BTP_viscoelasticity peHochgeladen vonNavdeep Singh
- Vehicle DynamicsHochgeladen vonHima Sagar
- RailEng Abstracts.pdfHochgeladen vonAli Tavakoli Nia
- _Dynamic Analysis of Railway Vehicle-track Interaction ForcesHochgeladen vonrailroad700
- TI SheetHochgeladen vonHarshal A Shah
- DME UNIT IVHochgeladen vonSatheshkumar Dhamotharan
- Model Complet VehiculHochgeladen vonAlex Vlad
- strength of materials question bankHochgeladen vonAmal Mechanic
- Suspension Design RptHochgeladen vonPranjul Tyagi
- Marc 2005 Volume eHochgeladen vonanjaiah_19945
- BPW-NFZ-2010ukHochgeladen vonBadia Mudhish
- BD545_39.pdfHochgeladen vonabozaid19
- IJETR033324Hochgeladen vonerpublication
- Modeling of Tool-Tissue Interactions for ComputerHochgeladen vonHossein Najjarzade
- Design and analysis of a suspension coil spring.pdfHochgeladen vonCiobanu Mihai
- Power Generating Shock AbsorberHochgeladen vonMadhusudan Behera
- 11 SuspensionHochgeladen vonsong perez
- Land Rover Discovery Brochure 1L4621710CCSBXCEN01P Tcm297 413684Hochgeladen vonhk168
- fluid and viscoelastic mechanics of boneHochgeladen vonapi-316747408
- Question Number 4Hochgeladen vonfikeryk
- Suspension SystemHochgeladen vonRahul Verma
- Honda Goldwing PatentHochgeladen vonvlad19999
- AIR BRAKE SYSTEM FOR RAILWAY COACHESHochgeladen vonShashwat Samdekar
- Gen 2019 (v1.1)_Release NoteHochgeladen vonDhao

- PRESSURE REDUCING CUM DESUPERHEATING VALVEHochgeladen vonjp220288
- Jay SrivastavaHochgeladen vonjp220288
- CV of Dr.gajanan SahuHochgeladen vonjp220288
- JP ResumeHochgeladen vonjp220288
- Comb Gasi Processes Advantages DisadvantagesHochgeladen vonjp220288
- Jay Prakash_Srivastava Resume UpdatedHochgeladen vonjp220288
- Air RecieverHochgeladen vonjp220288
- Embosing Cover PageHochgeladen vonjp220288
- Ceti FicateHochgeladen vonjp220288

- DBR 2011 EPICHochgeladen vonJoão Marinho
- All Engine Manual (OCR) R32 - RB.pdfHochgeladen vonJimy Paul Julcarima Romero
- Metal BucketHochgeladen vonS Ade
- RepGroveTrafficUpdate080610Hochgeladen vonPAHouseGOP
- Flywheel and Clutch for Mini BMCHochgeladen vongermanos84
- Swanson Warehouse - Tenant Improvement Options For Leasing and Overall Site PlanHochgeladen vonDarrell Swanson
- cursoHochgeladen vonGeovane Barbosa
- Scope of Work for Mining Contractor & Coal Production Schedule_Rev.1Hochgeladen vonsetiawannm
- Latihan Sains Tingkatan 2 Bab 7-DynamicsHochgeladen vonsyukrie3
- Business Model Canvas PosterHochgeladen vonMgradtester
- 1141Hochgeladen vonjonatech
- Seattle OPCD - University District Draft OrdinanceHochgeladen vonThe Urbanist
- serp5171-08_cdmaster Manual partes R1600G 9YZ.pdfHochgeladen vonNilton Cesar Marcavillaca Quispe
- Transportation Costs and International Trade in the Second Era of GlobalisationHochgeladen von18847
- Starined Low CoStarined Low Cost thrat others problem CAL.docst Thrat Others Problem CALHochgeladen vonverzieverzie
- Beams_spreader.pdfHochgeladen vonravikumarang
- ASE SchoolBusHochgeladen vonalexandyta
- FPSO-FSO-FSU-FSRU-LNG.pdfHochgeladen vonlulut fala
- ccnp1-mod5-EIGRP.pptHochgeladen vonSourabh Mishra
- Self Stablizing TrackHochgeladen vonChetan Patil
- ANSI-ILTVA-Z130.1-2012-1Hochgeladen vonSanthoshbharathi MECH
- AcetyleneHochgeladen vonPacymo Dubelogy
- Henri Lefebvre, The Production of SpaceHochgeladen vonvelezm1
- Auto Maintenance Tools_2Hochgeladen voneber granados
- San Francisco Transportation Fact SheetHochgeladen vonReset San Francisco
- Ps2600 BrochureHochgeladen vonMochamad Hafidz
- A Solution for Cross-Docking Operations Planning for Cross-Docking Operations PlanningHochgeladen vonCem Yucelten
- Study Questions Specified Hydrotest Hold Time's Value - Oil & Gas JournalHochgeladen vonsanket
- Ford_E450_F550_Owners_Manual1445586157100Hochgeladen vonAnonymous mOWVNT0gwk
- 276-02-10-2016Hochgeladen vonIke Mastah

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.