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National Conference on Advancements and Futuristic Trends in Mechanical and Materials Engineering (February 19-20, 2010)

IMPROVEMENT IN ABRASIVE WEAR RESISTANCE BY HARDFACING: A REVIEW


A.K.Mangla , Sehijpal Singh , J.S. Grewal , Vikas Chawla
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Mechanical Engineering Department, L.L.R.I.E.T., Moga-1442001, India. Mechanical Engineering Department, G.N.D.E.C., Ludhiana-141003,India * Corresponding author. Phone: +91-9417341292 Fax: +91-1636-265319 Email: arun_mangla@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Wear is the major problem leading to replacement of engineering components in the industry. For many years, welding technology has supplied an effective means of protecting the surface of components. Surfacing is used to produce a composite material i.e. base material that has good mechanical properties such as strength and toughness and a surface coating that can withstand abrasion, corrosion and impact. Surfacing is a process of depositing a material layer over a base metal or substrate either to improve surface characteristics like corrosion resistance, wear resistance, etc. or to get the required size or dimension. If a hard wear resistant material is deposited over a soft, ductile material to improve wears resistance then it is called as hardfacing. It is a modern procedure, which nowadays is mainly applied for bigger construction parts, in order to extend the lifetime, instead of using massive solutions, such as castings. Thisadded value makes the parts more valuable. The economic success of the process depends on selective application of hardfacing material and its chemical composition for a particular application. Many studies revealed that Carbon and chromium are the majar elements which are used in hardfacing alloys. The formation of chromium carbide enhance the wear resistance and hardness. The varying percentage of C and Cr has different effects. It is found that carbon less than 0.3% and high percentage of chromium will enhance corrosion resistance but the high C and high chromium will increase wear resistance as well as hardness.

1. Introduction
The surface characteristics of engineering materials have a significant effect on the serviceability and life of a component thus cannot be neglected in design. Surface engineering can be defined as the branch of science that deals with methods for achieving the desired surface requirements and their behaviour in service for engineering components. The surface of any component may be selected on the basis of texture and colour, but engineering components generally demand a lot more than this. Engineering components must perform certain functions completely and effectively, under various conditions in aggressive environments. Engineering environments are normally complex, combining loading with chemical and physical degradation to the surface of the component. Surface wear is a

phenomenon, which effects how a component will last in service. An example of a component working in an aggressive environment is a cutting tool used in machining processes. The tool experiences high loads, high speeds and friction and, as a consequence, high temperatures. These factors lead to surface wear of the component. Surface coatings can help to deal with these circumstances. Improving the tool surface, not only improves the life of the tool, but also improves the surface finish of the machined part. In wear resistant components, as their surface must perform many engineering functions in a variety of complex environments. The behaviour of a material is therefore greatly dependent on the surface of a material and the environment under which the material must operate. The surface of these components may require treatment, to enhance the surface characteristics.

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National Conference on Advancements and Futuristic Trends in Mechanical and Materials Engineering (February 19-20, 2010)

2. Wear
The deterioration of surfaces is a very real problem in many industries. Wear is the result of impact, erosion, metal-to-metal contact, abrasion, oxidation, and corrosion, or a combination of these. The effects of wear, which are extremely expensive, can be repaired by means of welding. Surfacing with specialized welding filler metals using the normal welding processes is used to replace worn metal with metal that can provide more satisfactory wear than the original. Hardfacing applies a coating for the purpose of reducing wear or loss of material by abrasion, impact, erosion, oxidation, The various types of wear can be categorized and defined as follows:

cavitations, etc. In order to properly select a hard facing alloy for a specific requirement it is necessary to understand the wear that has occurred and what caused the metal deterioration.

2.1 Abrasion
Abrasion is the wearing away of surfaces by rubbing, grinding, or other types of friction. It usually occurs when a hard material is used on a softer material. It is a scraping or grinding wear that rubs away metal surfaces. It is usually caused by the scouring action of sand, gravel, slag, earth, and other gritty material.

Figure1.2, Abrasion . Figure 1.1, Flow chart of various wear mechanisms

2.2 Erosion It is the wearing away or destruction of metals and other materials by the abrasive action of water, steam or slurries that carry abrasive materials. Pump parts are subject to this type of wear. The impingement of solid particles, or small drops of liquid or gas often cause what is known as erosion of materials and components. As shown in figure 1.3 the erosion mechanism is simple. Solid particle erosion is a result of the impact of a solid particle A, with the solid surface B, resulting in part of the surface B been removed. Cavitation erosion occurs when a solid and a fluid are in relative motion, due to the fluid becoming unstable and bubbling up and imploding against the surface of the solid.

2.3 Adhesive wear It is often called galling or scuffing, where interfacial adhesive junctions lock together as two surfaces slide across each other under pressure. As normal pressure is applied, local pressure at the asperities become extremely high. Often the yield stress is exceeded, and the asperities deform plastically until the real area of contact has increased sufficiently to support the applied load, as shown in figure 1.4. In the absence of lubricants, asperities cold-weld together or else junctions shear and form new junctions. This wear mechanism not only destroys the sliding surfaces, but the generation of wear particles which cause cavitation and can lead to the failure of the component. An adequate supply of lubricant resolves the adhesive wear problem occurring between two sliding surfaces.

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National Conference on Advancements and Futuristic Trends in Mechanical and Materials Engineering (February 19-20, 2010)

2.4 Surface Fatigue When mechanical machinery move in periodical motion, stresses to the metal surfaces occur, often leading to the fatigue of a material. All repeating stresses in a rolling or sliding contact can give rise to fatigue failure. These effects are mainly based on the action of stresses in or below the surfaces, without the

need of direct physical contact of the surfaces under consideration. When two surfaces slide across each other, the maximum shear stress lies some distance below the surface, causing microcracks, which lead to failure of the component. These cracks initiate from the point where the shear stress is maximum, and propagate to the surface as shown in figure 1.5.

Figure1.4, Schematic of generation of wear particle as a result of adhesive wear

Figure1.3, Schematic of erosive wear

2.5 Corrosion The dynamic interaction between the environment and mating material surfaces play a significant role, whereas the wear due to abrasion, adhesion and fatigue can be explained in terms of stress interactions and deformation properties of the mating surfaces. In corrosive wear firstly the connecting surfaces react with the environment and reaction products are formed on the surface asperities. Attrition of the reaction products then occurs as a result of crack formation, and/or abrasion, in the contact interactions of the materials. This process results in increased reactivity of the asperities due to increased temperature and changes in the asperity mechanical properties.

Figure1.5, Schematic of fatigue wear

3. Surface Protection
Many of the above types of wear occur in combination with one another. It is wise to

consider not only one factor, but to look for a combination of factors that create the wear problem in order to best determine the type of hard facing material to apply. This is done by studying the worn part, the job it does, how it works with other parts of the equipment and the environment in which it works. With these factors in mind it is then possible to make a hardfacing alloy selection. A variety of bulk materials, (ferrous and non-ferrous metals, alloys, ceramics and cermets), can be modified by alloying, mixing, compositing, and coating to achieve adequate resistance to wear corrosion and friction. Hardfacing techniques is discussed in the current study.

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National Conference on Advancements and Futuristic Trends in Mechanical and Materials Engineering (February 19-20, 2010)

3.1 Hardfacing Surface modification techniques are used to enhance the service life of several engineering components. Surfacing is one of such technique, wherein a superior material is deposited over industrial components, by welding, to enhance surface characteristics. Material loss due to wear in various industries is significantly high. All these components face the problem of wear, before put into service, are given a surface hardening treatment or a protective coating with wear resistant materials of various types, depending upon its service conditions. After a period of service these components will get reduced in size because of wear and can no longer be used. So these components either have to be rebuild or rejected. Rebuilding of these components to the required size by welding can save the cost tremendously. Surfacing is a cost effective and proven method of depositing protective coating. The effect of surfacing on component life and performance will depend upon the surfacing material and the application process. Hardfacing is used to deposit a wear resistant material on either a worn component or a new component, which is to be subjected to wear in service. These coatings are also used to provide protection from corrosion by oxidation or sea water. Hard connotes durability rather than the denotation. Since added service life is the objective of hardfacing. The cost of replacing components which become worn or damaged during service has led to the development of a wide range of techniques known as hardfacing, which can restore the parts to a reusable condition. Many such repairs have a longer life than the original component because it is possible to deposit coatings more resistant to wear, impact, abrasion or corrosion than the original material. As a result, hardfacing is now widely used on many production components. Hardfacing deposits are usually fairly thick (2mm and upwards) and for some applications intermediate sub-layers must be used to inhibit metallurgical problems with the final deposit. Electrodes and filler wires are available to give varying degrees of wear, corrosion, or heat resistance and can be applied to small discrete areas such as valves and valve seats, or large areas such as shaft bearing surfaces or complete steel mill rolls. Hard facing is particularly associated with the earth moving equipment, cement ovens and rock crushing and processing industries. Hard facing technique is described in detail especially with regard to coating

deposition technologies, with MMAW process, that used in the current study. 3.2 Hardfacing Deposition Techniques: (i) - Thermal Spraying (ii) - Cladding (iii)- Welding

(i) Thermal spraying processes are preferred for applications requiring thin, hard coatings applied with minimal thermal distortion of the work piece and with good process control. These processes are most commonly use the coating material in the powder form, and almost any material capable of being melted without decomposition, vaporization, sublimation, or dissociation can be thermally sprayed. (ii) Cladding processes are used to bond bulk materials in foil, sheet or plate form to the substrate to provide triboligical properties. The cladding processes are used either where coatings by thermal spraying and welding can not be applied or for applications which require surfaces with bulk like properties. Since relatively thick sheets can be readily clad to substrate, increased wear protection may be possible compared to thermal spraying and welding. If the coating material is available in sheet form, then cladding maybe cheaper alternative to surface protection. It is difficult to clad parts having complex shapes and extremely large sizes. (iii) Welding on the other hand, are preferred for applications requiring dense relatively thick coatings ( due to extremely deposition rates) with high bond strength. Welding coatings can be applied to substrate which can withstand high temperatures (typically 7900 C). Welding processes most commonly use the coating material in the rod or wire form. Thus material that can be easily cast in rods or drawn into wire are commonly deposited. In Arc Welding the substrate and the coating material must be electrically conductive. Welding processes are most commonly used to deposit primarily various metals and alloys on metallic substrates. Hardfacing by arc welding is performed using all of the common processes and equipment. Of the arc welding group, SMAW, or stick welding, is the most common and versatile process, although it does not provide the highest deposition rate. The rate of dilution depends on materials and on the welders skill. Submerged Arc Welding can provide a much higher 93

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National Conference on Advancements and Futuristic Trends in Mechanical and Materials Engineering (February 19-20, 2010)

deposition rate if the conditions are correct for uninterrupted alloy deposition of hardfacing filler wire. The limitations are that dilution tends to be higher unless speed is kept as high as possible, and that the process is not readily adapted to field conditions. GMAW, or MIG, where shielding is provided only by inert gas, is readily applicable but only for those fillers supplied in wire form, and usefully complements the range of applications of the preceding process. 3.4 MMAW or SMAW Welding with stick electrodes is called Manual Metal Arc Welding(MMAW) or Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). It is the oldest and most versatile of the various arc welding processes.An electric arc is maintained between the end of a coated metal electrode and the work piece. As molten metal droplets from the electrode are transferred across the arc and into the molten weld puddle, they are shielded from the atmosphere by the gases produced from the decomposition of the flux coating. The molten slag floats to the top of the weld puddle where it protects the weld metal from the atmosphere during solidification. The slag must be removed after depositing each weld run. Hundreds of different varieties of electrodes are produced, often containing alloys to add durability, strength and ductility to the weld. The process is mostly used for ferrous alloys in the structural steelwork, shipbuilding and general fabrication industries.Repair and maintenance is another important application for MMA. Despite the relative slowness of the process, because of electrode changes and slag removal, it remains one of the most flexible techniques and has advantages in areas of restricted access. 3.4.1. Advantages of MMAW process used for hardfacing (i) Flexible (ii) Low cost (iii) Mobile (iv) Ideal for repairs In this process an arc is drawn between a coated consumable electrode and the workpiece. The metallic core-wire is melted by the arc and is

transferred to the weld-pool as molten drops. The electrode coating also melts to form a gas shield around the arc and the weld pool as well as a slag on the surface of the weld-pool, thus protecting the cooling weld-pool from the atmosphere. The slag must be removed after each layer. Manual Metal Arc welding is still a widely-used hardfacing process. Due to the low cost of the equipment, the low operating costs of the process and the ease of transporting the equipment, this flexible process is ideally suited to repair work. 3.4.2 Disadvantages of MMAW process used for hardfacing (i) The major disadvantage of the process is the high degree of the skill required for the welder. (ii) Relatively low productivity in terms of rate of metal deposition. 3.4.3 Benefits of Hardfacing Hardfacing is a low cost method of depositing wear resistant surfaces on metal components to extend service life. Although used primarily to restore worn parts to usable condition, hardfacing is also applied to new components before being placed into service. In addition to extending the life of new and worn components, hardfacing provides the following benefits: (i)- Longer service life- Fewer replacement parts are needed when parts are hardfaced with MIG Tungsten Carbide. (ii)- Higher productivity- Upon improving wear life with MIG-TC, this contributes to the equipment working and producing more per hour. This increases the productivity and therefore your profits. (iii)- Less downtime- Greater availability of machine- a longer service life means that it will you will spend less time replacing the tips. This contributes to a reduction in total operating costs. (iv)- Reduced cost- As wear resistance and hardness are the required at surface , one can deposit the superior material on the substrate to enhance the surface characteristics at less cost.

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National Conference on Advancements and Futuristic Trends in Mechanical and Materials Engineering (February 19-20, 2010)

industries. Effort should be made for the right selection of surfacing materials and the process to achieve the full advantage of hardfacing.

References
1. William R. Oates, Alexander M. Saitta,, Materials and applications, Welding Handbook (8th edition), Volume 4, 420-435, American Welding Society, Miami, FL 33126. 2. Damian Kotecki, Hardfacing Benefits Maintenance and Repair Welding, Welding Journal, Nov 1992, p. 51-53.. 3. O.O. Zollinger, J.E. Beckham, What to Know Before Selecting Hardfacing Electrodes, Welding Journal, Feb 1998, p. 39-43.

Figure1.6,Principle of manual metal arc welding.

4. C.A.Mayer, How to Select Hardfacing Materials, Welding Design & Fabrication, Oct 1982, p. 61-67. 5. Ravi Menon, New Developments in Hardfacing Alloys, Welding Journal, Feb 1996, p. 43-49. 6. Arulmani.R, Pandey sunil, Surfacing through Plasma Enhanced Shielded Metal Arc Welding, International Welding Symposium, February 2003, Hyderabad, p. 61-68. 7. Ben Zahner, Hardfacing Alloys: Selection and Application, Welding Design & Fabrication, Dec 1995, p. 11-13. 8. K.G. Budinski, Hardfacing II- Consumables, Welding Design & Fabrication, Aug 1986, p. 42-46. 9. R.Arulmani, Pandey Sunil, Surfacing Applications a Review, National Workshop on Welding Technology, NWWT-2K3, April 25-26, SLIET, Longowal, p. 233-238.. 10. R.S. Chandel, Hardfacing Consumables and Their Characteristics for Mining and Mineral Processing Industry, Indian Welding Journal, Jan 2001, p. 26-34 11. D.N. Noble, Abrasive wear resistance of hardfacing weld deposits, Metal Construction, Sept 1985, p. 605-611 12. D.J. Kotecki, J.S. Ogborn, Abrasion Resistance of IronBased Hardfacing Alloys, Welding Journal, Aug 1995, p. 269s-278s. 13. http://steel.keytometals.com/Articles/Art157.htm 14. http://webpages.dcu.ie/~stokesjt/ThermalSpraying /Book/Chapter1.pd

3.4.4 Hardfacing Applications There are many different items that could potentially benefit from hardfacing on the farm. They can basically be put into three "wear" categories - abrasion, impact, and metal-tometal. Abrasion is one of the most common wears you will see on a farm, in this category falls all earth engaging implements such as tractor buckets, blades, teeth, grain handling products and feed mixers. Under the impact heading you will find equipment used to pound and smash such as crusher hammers. Metalto-metal refers to wear from steel parts rolling or sliding against each other. Metal-to-metal wear occurs on such items as crane wheels, pulleys, idlers on track-drives, gear teeth and shafts. Although farmers use welding and hardfacing techniques to rebuild old, worn-out components. By hardfacing something that is new, it may increase the overall life expectancy of that product.

4. Conclusion
It is proved that surfacing is economical tool which can be used to increase the service life of the components used in various types of

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