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Assignment No 1

MB702 Class Date Name ID No : Critical Thinking for Management : SECTION A : 19/9/2011 : NAYAK URVI S. : 048

Q1. State, with reason(s), whether the following are statements or not. Justify your answer. 1) A managerial culture emphasizes rationality and control. Ans: yes, this is a statement. Justification: this is a controversial statement. 2) Leaders tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure in order to understand the issues more fully. Ans: yes. this is a statement.. Justification: Because this can be either proved as true or false 3) Can organizations develop leaders? Ans: no, this is not a statement. Because this is a question. 4) While apparently destined for mediocre careers, people who form one-to-one apprenticeship relationships often are able to accelerate and intensify their development. Ans: yes, this is a statement. Justification: this can be proved true or false. 5) Managers tend to adopt impersonal, if not passive, attitudes towards goals. Ans: yes, this is a statement. Justification: because it can be either true or false. 6) Human intelligence, imagination and intuition will continue in the foreseeable decades to be far more important than the machine. Ans: yes, this is a statement. Justification: it can be proved either true or false. 7) Industrialism broke society into thousands of interlocking parts-factories, churches, schools, trade unions, prisons, hospitals and the like. Ans: yes this is a statement. Justification: this is can be proved as true or false. 8) Do you want a readable guide to globalization? Ans: no, this is not a statement Justification: this is a question. 1

9) John F. Kennedy was shot by a single gunman on November 22, 1963. Ans: yes, this is a statement. Justification: it can be a controversial statement. May either true or false. 10) The teacher said, "If you are late for class again, I will give you a 0 for your next test grade." Ans: yes, this is a statement. Justification: because this can be proved either true or false. Q2. Identify Premise/s and Conclusion/s from the given passages. 1) As smoking is dangerous to health of an individual and community in large, some businesses now say that no one can smoke cigarettes in any of their offices. Some governments have banned smoking in all public places. Ans: premise : Smoking is dangerous to health of an individual and community in large Conclusion 1: some businesses now say that no one can smoke cigarettes in any of their offices. Conclusion 2: Some governments have banned smoking in all public places 2) Global currency markets alone involve the daily exchange of over two trillion dollars, and since these markets largely determine the value of any national currency, they contribute significantly to the inability of governments to control the economic policy. Ans: Premise 1: Global currency markets largely determine the value of any national currency. Premise 2: Global currency markets alone involve the daily exchange of over two trillion dollars Conclusion: Global currency markets contribute significantly to the inability of governments to control the economic policy. 3) There is no definitive way to prove any one set of religious beliefs to the exclusion of all others. For that reason religious freedom is a human right. Ans: Premise: There is no definitive way to prove any one set of religious beliefs to the exclusion of all others. Conclusion: Religious freedom is a human right: 4) No one under eighteen-years-old can vote. Sunil is under eighteen-yearsold. Therefore, Sunil cannot vote. Ans: premise: No one under eighteen-years-old can vote. Sunil is under eighteen-years-old Conclusion: Sunil cannot vote. 2

5) Human beings do not need to eat meat in order to maintain good health because they can get all their food needs from meatless products and meatless substances. Ans: Premise : Humans can get all their food needs from meatless products and meatless substances. Conclusion: Human beings do not need to eat meat in order to maintain good health 6) Nowadays doctors are becoming very rich, as they are focusing more on profitable activities such as plastic surgery or looking after rich patients. Ans: premise: they are focusing more on profitable activities such as plastic surgery or looking after rich patients. Conclusion: nowadays doctors are becoming very rich. 7) Computers can translate all kinds of languages well. Computers are the best translators. Ans: premise: Computers can translate all kinds of languages well. Conclusion: Computers are the best translators. 8) Because of destruction of forests, zoos are sometimes seen as necessary but not poor alternatives to a natural environment. Ans: premise: Because of destruction of forests, zoos. Conclusion: sometimes seen as necessary but not poor alternatives to a natural environment. 9) People attend college or university for many different reasons (new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Ans: premise: (new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Conclusion; People attend college or university for many different reasons. 10) If I want to be an employee of the year, my performance should be outstanding. I do want to be an employee of the year. Therefore, my performance should be outstanding. Ans: premise 1: If I want to be an employee of the year, my performance should be outstanding. Premise 2: I do want to be an employee of the year. Conclusion: . Therefore, my performance should be outstanding.

Q3. Determine whether the following passage is an argument or not. Justify your answer. 1) True success always starts with an inner vision, however incomplete it might be. Thats why most of the books on success by famous coaches, business stars, motivational consultants and psychologists begin with chapters on goal setting. Ans: this is not an argument. Because this is an opinion. The word most suggest that this is an opinion. So this is a type of unsupported assertion. 2) In a certain mythical community, politicians never tell the truth and non politicians always tell the truth. A stranger meets three natives and asks the first of them, Are you a politician? The first native answers the question. The second native then says, The first native denied being a politician. The third native says that the first native is a politician. How many of these three natives are politicians? Ans: this is not an argument. Because in this passage The question is there, which cannot be a statement. So, this passage can also not an argument. 3) Great teachers take risks. They bet initially on talent they perceive in younger people. And they risk emotional involvement in working closely with their juniors. The risks do not always pay off, but the willingness to take them appears to be crucial in developing leaders. Ans: yes, this is an argument because this passage is having premises & conclusion. 4) Global currency markets alone involve the daily exchange of over two trillion dollars, and since these markets largely determine the value of any national currency, they contribute significantly to the inability of governments to control economic policy. Ans: yes, this is an argument. Because this passage have a both premises & conclusions. 5) In my opinion, the time-minded intuition of Eastern mysticism is one of the main reasons why its views of nature seem to correspond, in general, much better to modern scientific views than do those of most Greek philosophers. Ans: This is not an argument because this is a type of unsupported assertion. 6) So what exactly is wrong with strategy and planning? The charge sheet is a long one, but essentially divides itself into two complaints: practical difficulties and theoretical impossibilities. Top of the list of difficulties is the fact that strategic planning never really amounts to strategic thinking. Instead, it

becomes an annual ritual in which representatives of each department try to grab whatever resources are being doled out. That not only leads to fights (the marketing strategy contradicts the manufacturing strategy); it also means that the companys strategy often takes no account of the inter-departmental connections that can lead the way to the markets of the future. Ans: This is not an argument. Because in this passage the question is there which tells that this is not a statement. Thats why this is not an argument. 7) More than any other time in history, mankind faces a crossroads. One path leads to despair and utter hopelessness, the other, to total extinction. Let us pray that we have the wisdom to choose correctly. Ans: This is an argument because this passage is having with premises & conclusion both are present. 8) To install the program, you must first put the CD in the player. Open up the File Manager, click on "Run" and type in "D: Install." After the program is loaded, you will need to restart the computer to use the program. Ans: This is not an argument because this is a type of explanation. 9) Fayetteville, North Carolina is a great place to live. The city has many great restaurants and movie theaters, the schools are good, and the weather is never terribly bad. Ans: This is an argument because this passage is having with the both premises & conclusion. 10) The United States, as the most powerful nation in the world, has a moral obligation to give assistance to people who are subjected to inhumane treatment. The ethnic Albanians were being persecuted in Kosovo. It was proper for the U.S. to become involved in the air campaign against Kosovo. Ans: this is a type of report. So, this passage cannot be an argument. Q4. Study each of the following passages and identify the type of reasoning (deductive or inductive) in them. Justify your answer. 1) If you set the performance bar high for yourself, you will do the same for the organization when you are in a position to do so. Likewise, a drive to surpass goals and an interest in keeping score can be contagious. Leaders with these traits can often build a team of managers around them with the same traits. Ans: This is a deductive argument. Because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is hypothetical syllogism.

2) Every argument is either deductive or inductive. Because this argument is not deductive, it must be inductive. Ans: This is a deductive argument because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is argument by elimination. 3) If you are used to looking for sources of informal knowledge inside your company, you can do it outside too. The head of a team at Matsushita trying to develop an automatic bread-maker reasoned that the best bread came from the Osaka International Hotel. So she apprenticed herself to the head baker and watched the way he worked. After weeks of study, she realized that the secret of making perfect bread was not just kneading the dough, but also twisting it. She made certain that her machine could imitate this combination of movements. Ans: this is kind of inductive argument because it follows the inductive pattern of reasoning which is predictive argument. 4) The point about tacit knowledge is that it is always there: a company does not have to create it but rather remove barriers to it flowing around the place. Ans: : this is kind of inductive argument because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning which is argument by elimination. 5) If it rains, todays game will be postponed to next Saturday. According to the Indian Meteorological Department, there is a high probability of light showers today. Therefore, probably the game will be postponed to next Saturday. Ans: this is kind of inductive argument because it follows the inductive pattern of reasoning that is causal arguments. 6) Hershey Park has a thrilling roller-coaster ride. Dorney park, like Hershey Park, is a great amusement park.Therefore, probably Dorney Park also has a thrilling roller-coaster ride. Ans: this passage follows the inductive pattern of reasoning. Which follows the industrial generalization. Therefore this passage is of an inductive arguments. 7) Whenever Iron is exposed to Oxygen, it rusts. The Iron pipe has been exposed to oxygen. Therefore, it will rust. Ans: this is kind of inductive argument because it follows the inductive pattern of reasoning that is causal arguments. 8) The Encyclopedia Britannica says that parts of Virginia are farther west than Detroit. In general, the Encyclopedia Britannica is a highly reliable source of information. Therefore, its probably true that parts of Virginia are farther west than Detroit. Ans: this passage follows the inductive pattern of reasoning. Which follows the industrial generalization. Therefore this passage is of an inductive arguments. 6

9) If were on Neptune, then were in the solar system.Were in the solar system. Therefore, were on the Neptune. Ans: This is a deductive argument. Because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is hypothetical syllogism. 10) If we dont stop for gas soon, then well run out of gas. If we run out of gas, then well be late for the wedding. Therefore, if we dont stop for gas soon, well be late for the wedding. Ans: : This is a deductive argument. Because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is hypothetical syllogism.

Q5. Identify whether the following Deductive Arguments are Valid or Invalid. 1) If pain exists then God does not exists. Pain exists. God does not exists. Ans: This argument is not a valid argument because this is not logically reliable pattern of reasoning. 2) If it rains then Mary carries an umbrella. Mary is carrying an umbrella now. It is raining. Ans: this is valid deductive argument because it follows the logical pattern of reasoning that is affirming consequent. 3) If it rains, then Mary carries an umbrella. Marry is not carrying an umbrella. It is not raining. Ans: : This argument is a valid argument because this is logically reliable pattern of reasoning. it follows the modus-tollens.

4) All mosquitoes are insects. All insects are animals. So, all mosquitoes are animals. Ans: yes, this is valid deductive argument because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is categorical syllogism. 5) If Rome is in Italy, then Rome is in Europe. Rome is in Italy. So, Rome is in Europe.

Ans: yes, this is valid deductive argument because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is modus-ponens. 6) If Bill Gates is a Billionaire, then he is rich. Bill Gates is rich. So, hes a billionaire. Ans: this is valid deductive argument because it follows the logical pattern of reasoning that is affirming consequent. . 7) Some apples are red. Some apples are delicious. So, some apples are red and delicious. Ans: yes, this is valid deductive argument because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is categorical syllogism.

8) Halloween is always on a Friday. Atlanta is east of Chicago because Atlanta is east of Los Angeles. Ans: this is not a valid deductive argument because it does not follows the deductive pattern of reasoning. 9) California has a larger population than Ohio. Ohio has a larger population than Vermont. So, California has a larger population than Vermont. Ans: : this is a valid deductive argument because this follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is chain argument. 10)No presidents are rap stars. George W Bush is president. So, George W Bush is not a rap star. Ans: yes, this is valid deductive argument because it follows the deductive pattern of reasoning that is categorical syllogism.

Q6. Identify whether the following Inductive Arguments are Strong or Weak. 1) Exercise is good for the vast majority of people. Therefore, it would be good for my ninety-five-year-old grandmother to run in next years Boston Marathon. Ans: this is weak inductive argument because it does not follows the pattern of inductive reasoning. 2) Cigarette smoking causes lung cancer. Therefore, if you have been a heavy cigarette smoker for many years, you will probably die of lung cancer.

Ans: : Its a Inductive Argument because It follows a inductive reasoning pattern called as Causal Argument 3) The vast majority of popes have been Americans. Therefore, the next pope will probably be an American. Ans: : Its a strong Inductive Argument because It follows a inductive reasoning pattern called as Predictive Argument. 4) Billions of men around the world shave daily. Therefore, somewhere in the world, someone must be shaving right now. Ans: : Its a strong Inductive Argument because It follows a inductive reasoning pattern called as Inductive Generalization 5) Shakespeare was English, and he was a great poet. Milton was English, and he was a great poet. Wordsworth was English, and he was a great poet. I guess most great poets were English. Ans: : Its a strong Inductive Argument because It follows a inductive reasoning pattern called as Argument from Generalization 6) Ninety percent to of Americana jog daily. Al Gore is an American. So, Al Gore probably jogs daily. Ans: : Its a strong Inductive Argument because It follows a inductive reasoning patterns called as Statistical Argument 7) Very few people in this country are named Obadiah. Therefore, the next person I meet is unlikely to be named Obadiah. Ans : Its a strong Inductive Argument because It follows a inductive reasoning pattern called as Inductive Generalization. 8) According to the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, philosopher Williams James was born in New York City in 1842. So, William James was born in New York City in 1842. Ans: it is weak inductive argument because the conclusions may probably false or false itself. 9) On Monday I drank ten rum-and-cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. On Wednesday I drank eight gin-and-cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. On Friday I drank nine bourbon-and-cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. Obviously, to prevent further headaches, I must give up Cokes. Ans: it is weak inductive argument because the conclusions may probably false or false itself.

10)All but two US presidents (Bill Clinton and George W Bush) were born before 1925. It stands to reason, therefore, that the next US president will have been prior to 1925. Ans: : it is weak inductive argument because the conclusions may probably false or false itself.

Q7. Write a critical essay on the topic Water Privatization which is reflected in the video shown to you. ANS :INTRODUCTION:Title:- water privatization Author :- there are so many authors who are in the video like Tony Clarke Koran Lao-tsze Kofi-annan Olivier barbaroax Genard payen Peter spillett Context to essay :The information about the water privatization. Also this video tells about the uses of water & scarcity of water. How the private companies are use water as business & provides the water to the different states by using new innovative technology. Critical evaluation:In this video we can see that how water is very necessary to the people & what is the effect on the persons if there is a scarcity of water. Also there are some arguments which are use for the water privatization. like Water is a basic human need. Because access to safe water is a fundamental human right. - kofi annam We bring new technology to sophisticated demands because in terms of water problems not just access to drinking water but sophisticated access to drinking water. . - Olivier barbaroax Water as a business is very effective because when we look at needs of the person they cannot leave without water.

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The growth of of the market is always high because water is a limited resource. -peter spillett. Argument summary:We can see in the video that the water privatization is made by some companies which try to find out the new technology because as water is scarce resource it is very beneficial to them. We can see that how water is wasted in some areas & on the other side there are some people who try to find out even drinking water. Some children are there who wash their hands in only two bath tubes due to the scarcity of water resources. So, the water privatization help to provide water in some rural areas by new technologies & methods like dams & borewells. so, the water privatization is very useful to the people who dont have a enough water even for drinking. By arguments given by authors we can say that this water resources are scares in nature so the company try to make profit by this business & try to provide water to them because it is first basic human need. Also, some companies are try to give water in a sophisticated manner means to provide water to people clean water & purified water. Some business concentrate on services which provides to the people but the cost is pay by society. Conclusion :There are some key points like water privatization helps to provide the water to the rural people. But sometimes it may possible that it is harmful to the society because it creates the situation of monopoly which can be a cost to the society.

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