You are on page 1of 8

CHILD ABANDONMENT- PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM

Modern family since 1960, breaking traditional patterns, it is characterized by a tendency to restrict the number of members to a nuclear family. These changes reflect the behavior and relationships between parents and children. In contemporary society were new rules, principles and values in the relation between spouses: the acceptance of celibate, concubinage expansion, increased the number of divorces, single-parent families, mothers / fathers alone, merged marriage, increased homosexuality, increased instability in the family. This movement toward modern family is a sign of early decline, the deterioration of family life, through her unwanted and uncontrolled. Family to meet the growth of a child is subject to increasingly stronger level of financial effort. Here are two main results:

1.

Declining birth rates. Realizing more and more, that they have to grow, to educate, to ensure the future of their children, the parents want a lower numer of children. The model family with 1 or 2 children has expanded.

2.

Appearance and increased polarization of the population about the attitude towards children and the birth rate, historically standing out two family models:

a) one characterized by family planning and reduce the number of children , a model considered
as normal majority, and

b) the second characterized by indifference to children, these are the families at high risk of
teasing, model deviant, and then go to the abandonment is very short.. Semantically, the word "abandonment" means "surrender", is considered one of the words with the dark resonance, regardless of which language is expressed1. Abandonment is a word of French origin2 and designate the action, to abandon, to leave, to no longer deal, to leave something or someone at the discretion of persons.. The image of abandoned child is complex and shadowy multitude of issues that are intersecting, often following a double function: Cause and Effect 3. One is detached as the source of all events taking place either in social or psychological - to break the emotional link. Purpose: This paper aims to highlight the factors that early lead children in maternity Cuza Voda, prevention, measures and results. The ultimate goal is to develop measures for prevention of child abandonment in maternity based on knowledge of determinants or promoted factors.

1 2

Cojocaru tefan, Apreciative Methods in social assistance , Ed. Polirom, 2005, p. 6 Alexiu Teodor Mircea, Parents who abandon their children, Ed Mirton, Timioara 2001 3 Dumitrana M., Institutionalized Child, Ed Didactica and Pedagogica, RA Bucharest, 1997

Objectives - We performed a descriptive study on cases of abandonment of maternity in the period 2005-2008, to determine: - what is the magnitude of the phenomenon of child abandonment in maternity? -which are the factors that favored the early abandonment? Maternal abandonment is the greatest trauma that can bear a human being of his lifetime 4. In motherhood "Cuza Voda" in the period 2006-2008 were 165 abandoned children ( See table 1) Table 1.
C o p i ia b a n d o n a t i2 0 0 6 2 0 0 8

B o l ia l em a m e i 1 5 % B o l ia l ec o p i l u l u i 5 % C o p i lp r e m a t u r 3 % F a m .n u m e r o a s e 1 2 % M a m ea d o l e s c e n t e 1 2 %

A L T E C A U Z E 5 3 %

During the same period the statistics of mothers who have requested protective measures for children, in Cuza Voda Iasi Maternity is the following: 2006 Number of mother who requested protective measures for child Mother age 13-17 years old Mother age 18 34 years old Mother age 35 and over years old Urban Rural The risk of abandonment at the medical centers is more conclusive at the hospitalization of pregnant woman or parent-child couple of different reasons. None of the reasons leading to child abandonment not act independently, there is always a complex of factors that determine a parent / parents to abandon the child permanently or temporarily: 2007 2008

1.

Poverty is the main cause that leads to a situation of abandonment. Lack of income, a steady job and paid accordingly endanger stability, structure and function of a family. After 1989, poverty families was very much stressed. In such precarious conditions -

Treaty collectively developed under the coordination Axie III project "Preventing maternal early warning, early maternal, Ed Life medical Romania Bucharest , 2002

lack of housing, a massive dismissals, a progressive increase in the costs of maintenance, under the influence of stress caused by shortcomings, the possibility for parents to feel forced to abandon one of the children, sometimes even more, it becomes more relevant. The degradation of the economic factor has the greatest influence in the family imbalance. Most times it is invoked by the parents, even if it is combined with others: excessive consumption of alcohol, domestic violence, a low level of education of family members, and clich of influences from the family home of the parents. In Cuza Voda Iasi Maternity, the percentage of mothers / parents who claimed that the main factor inability to keep the child poverty has risen each year, compared with 2006. Thus, in 2006 70% of mothers who have requested protective measures for their children, said that the main motivation of abandonment temporary / permanent child, lack of material, financial and housing necessary for the maintenance of family and new born; in 2007 the percentage has increased from 78% in 2008 to 81.5%.

2.

Health of the mother, chronic diseases, physiological, psychological problems, postpartum depression, TB, usually creates many failures in the family. Prolonged treatments imposed mother breastfeeding ban sometimes epidemiological risk, as are mothers and sick to temporarily or permanently abandon the child. For example, Maternity Cuza Voda in the past three years (2006-2008), due to mental problems of mothers, a number of 25 children have received a measure of protection. Only 4 out of 25 mothers had another diagnosis, and active TB.

3.

The health of the child. A high risk of abandonment submits that certain deficiencies in children. Birth defects, especially those deformed and disability, are perceived by parents and family as a disgrace and seeks to place the child at a hospital or in a placement center for children with special needs. The life-threatening malformations of the child is a factor of abandonment, parents considering that they have jurisdiction and / or financial possibilities to appropriate child care and, often, abandon him in a specialized institution. According to statistics of the above, during 2006-2008, a mother of 8 children were asked in a specialized institution, because malformations congenital, of insufficient medical and social services specialist for the care and recovery of the child and the material and financial families.

4.

New-born prematurely pose a risk of abandonment. With a little hard to rise, it remains some time in the hospital alone. The mother of the child go home from maternity, without the usual child attachment decreased lactation often lost, and when she go out from hospital child is perceived as an effort material, financial and emotional time, effort mother sometimes is not willing to make. Lack or inability of parents to take the child home, sometimes leading to abandonment. On Cuza Voda

Maternity

in the past three years, 5 children have come forward in a form of

protection. However, the premature not represent a key factor leading to child abandonment. Premature is associated with low living standards of parents, lack of income and prospects for a better life and an increased number of children (more than 3) in the family.

5.

The high number of births increase the risk of abandonment. A child born in a numerous family already is an effort that in many cases, some families do not and can not afford. Child abandonment, most of the last born, is determined by other factors associated: poverty, unemployment, alcohol consumption, tense relations and / or damaged by other family members. Between 2006-2008, a total of 20 families who had more than 4 children, and resources are insufficient and unsteady, housing problems, and have temporarily abandoned / born last forever.

6.

Lack of knowledge and information related to the use of family planning is a key generator and associated abandonment of children. The abortion is often seen as one of the solutions, sometimes the only form of "family planning". Some segments of the population have access to means of contraception dropped because the high costs, poor access to information and organization . 95% of mothers and fathers who have abandoned baby maternity means not using contraception. While many of them have theoretical knowledge, none of teenage mothers has not used a contraceptive means for various reasons (shame, I do not know where to purchase them, are afraid to impose partner condom use, etc.). Mothers from rural non explained by means of contraception that are expensive, often have to go into town to buy, the administration is difficult for them, etc..

7.

Low maternal age (adolescence), parents in some cases explain the lack of responsibility towards their children, The immaturity psyho- emotional often lead to economic and financial dependency of young parents from relatives. Age than parents, although it can be considered a perfect indicator, is a sign of risk " 5. Many parents of children at the age of adolescence, is going to be neglected, and to be cared and educated in a superficial and wrong way, or even excluded from the family home abandoned. On Cuza Voda Iasi Maternity, in 2005 were born to 240 young women aged 13 - 17 years, in 2006 the number was 221, and in 2007 were 245 teenage mothers. A more than 76% of these mothers are from rural areas and 70% of teenage mothers are unmarried (73% in 2005, 70.6% in 2006 and 68.6% in 2007). In 2006 only 4 mothers aged between 13-17 years and were abandoned children, in 2007, 10 mothers have requested protective measures for child and in 2008 their number was 6 mothers. The status of the parent assumes the existence of their income to enable the

Mariana Spanu, Introduction to family welfare and child protection, Technical Ed, Chisinau

maintenance of the family autonomous system. Frequently economic independence that is difficult or impossible to achieve, the parents of adolescents depends entirely resources of families of origin, living together. The family consists of mother or both parents of adolescent and child attached extended family is a common situation in reality. Family-enlarged family must cover the source of its resources, the needs of her family and parents with adolescents. When extended family has many members and material resources, and insufficient housing, the risk of abandonment of children is high. Taking the role of parent requires psychological preparation, which hardly made for a teenager. Lack of emotional maturity, avoiding responsibilities, naive and immature behavior that parents do adolescents have the highest risk of giving birth to children who can not maintain and therefore abandon it. Communication blockage, fear, frequently leading to a situation in which their pregnant teenager hide unwanted burden of parents, colleagues, friends. When the family of the child, sometimes in or near the time of birth the child, refuses to receive him. In many cases, teenage mother refused to tell the name of the child's father or, even if it discloses, because the difficulties and complexity of the responsibilities that incumbent the father flees from responsibility. Parents condemn the fact that their daughter is pregnant, find guilty, refuses to assist and support the young mother often contrary to the will of its early adoption or child. Another case involving an increased risk of abandonment of a child is represented by tasks surprise to students. Frequently, these teenage come from families with material opportunities, but they raise as a shame that their daughter could have an illegitimate child, in an unexpected moment.6 . Mother's parents refuse to receive the child in the family because "his daughter hurts future" and often "support" or undertake to renounce the mother to child. This particular, when families have material and financial resources necessary to support a child, but the image and the future young mothers is more important than keeping the child in the family, were 15 mothers in the period 2006-2008.

8.

Excessive alcohol consumption creates huge difficulties in families, destructive behaviors that affect family structure and functioning, may in time lead to its dissolution or abandonment of children. The negative effects are found, both at the individual and dependent on the persons with whom he comes in contact: the increase of aggressiveness and increased violence against children, compared to the other partner, family abuse, depriving children of money for maintenance, that money is used to buy drinks (sometimes the amounts offered as welfare and benefits for children), professional failure, anxiety, social isolation tendency7. The danger for a child to be abandoned when one parent (most often the father) excessive alcohol consumption is achieved in the context of the family exist indigence and financial vicious and serious educational gaps. Alcoholism in both parents present, is a very serious situation in which children are at risk, neglected, physically and mentally

Treaty collectively developed under the coordination Axie III of the project "Preventing maternal early warning, early motherhood, medical Ed Life Romania Bucharest, 2002 7 Mariana Spanu, Introduction to family welfare and child protection, Technical Ed, Chisinau

abused and even abandoned. Alcohol abuse of a parent associated with poverty and poor education was the motivation of a percentage over 80% of mothers / parents who have abandoned children in maternity Cuza Voda Iasi, in the past three years. The problem must be addressed early in the light of several variables; age child care situation, the family and, not least the functionality of services that support the child.. Addressing drop from this perspective helps identify the most effective social services to prevent abandonment, guided by the needs of families. The problem must be addressed early in terms of age the child, the medical situation of the family and, not least by the functionality of services. Addressing drop from this perspective helps identify the most effective social services to prevent abandonment, guided by the needs of families from which children likely to be abandoned . Thus, a policy of prevention of early age than children will inevitably be different from a policy to prevent early child of school age. Identification "abandonment strategies, namely the procedures in calling parents who abandon their children (example: abandon them in hospitals, call for institutionalizing the committee for child protection or direction for child protection, they drive away from home, etc.). annihilation help these "strategies" by articulating the various links between institutions, local community, etc.. Identification " source institutions, the institutions where children are abandoned (particularly those with medical guidance) provides the basis for developing methods of good practice to avoid the dysfunctions who encourage the abandon. In the maternity in whole country are abandoned only part of the children who are leaving until the age of two years. Leave the rest are in other hospitals: pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards recovery, etc.. Modalities for prevention of child abandonment in maternity involve development of activities that encourage the establishment of close relations, attachment between mother and child and to ensure a permanent dialogue between the child protection unit and medical. During the stay of a mother in the maternity / hospital is limited. If this is intended to abandon the child, maternity / spiotalul must be for her and a child friendly environment and provide services designed to foster unity to maintain the parent-child couple. Motherhood should provide mothers / parents the following: Conditions hospital providing quality, uninterrupted presence of the mother along the child and reducing the period of hospitalization; Promote breastfeeding. Information and guidance to mothers of staff on the importance and benefits of breastfeeding new For example, maternity "Cuza Voda" Iasi has been designated "Friend of Children Hospital" in 1995. Health goal is to provide the best care possible to new born and mother and to promote the exclusive breastfeeding until the age of 6 months and continued breastfeeding after adequate diversification of food up to 2 years. Rooming-in system- In line with achieving this goal, the operating system maternity rooming-in measures to foster close of newborn and mother, which will have the effect of establishing a secure

attachment to mother-child pair and also to minimize cases of anxiety and of post-partum. The rooming-in system promote and develop the parents abilities to care the new born. Establishment and development of social service as part of integrated services which provides maternity to the patients. This service aims at early detection of women at risk and to abort the child, information, guidance and refer mothers to various social services depending on individual needs, mothers achievement in various administrative steps, dealing with cases and referring to the establishment of a protection for the child to specialized services (DGASPC NGOs) and providing advice and mothers family to maintain family unity. Assistant social maternity hospital Cuza Voda Iasi is an employee of the hospital in 2006. Before, it was covered by various NGOs and social workers employed DGASPC, who came to the hospital requests. Presence, and assuming that the maternity service has been to increase adresabilitatea beneficiaries and to diversify social palette case. Thus in 2006 a total of 152 families have received services from the Cabinet of maternity Welfare, in 2007 their number increased considerably, from 237 families, and in 2008 reached 257 families. This reflects the fact that it is necessary and has been integrated medical staff and patients as part of hospital services. Establishment and development of a Cabinet of Psychology in the maternity, the role of providing psychological counseling patients in difficult situations, to provide emotional support for surpass the situations of crisis mothers, to mediate the relation between person at risk and family and to evaluate in terms of psychological patient. Maternity hospital Cuza Voda Iasi, is one of the medical units who realized the need and the need for a psychologist, so in 2007 was created a Room of psychology in the hospital. Activities of education and information in the maternity for example, The Maternity "Cuza Voda" Iasi unfurll since 2007 a program of development of parental skills - degree courses and mothers and the 2008 work "The Center for Fathers," where parents can receive information and counseling on growth and childcare. The family planning services in Maternity which provides information, advice and free assistance for women with low income, rural students in order to reduce the incidence of abortion. In the XXI century, millions of children living in different corners of the world in economic, social, psychological, conditions who put their life in danger and late their growth. Family abandonment is an act to pursue the outstanding personality abandoned child. To prevent and reduce child abandonment effort must be made by all institutions and all the factors involved in the care, raising and educating children: parents, local community, state.

References:

Stefan Cojocaru, Apreciative Methods in social assistance, Ed Polirom, 2005, p. 6 (1) Alexiu Teodor-Mircea, Parents who abandon their children, Editura Mirton, Timisoara, 2001, p. 6, (2) Iolanda Mitrofan, Nicolae Mitrofan, Psychology, nr.1/1994, pg 17, (3) Treaty collectively developed under the coordination Axie III project Preventing maternal early warning, early maternal, Ed Life medical Romania Bucharest, 2002, pg 11 , (4) Maria Dumitrana, Institutionalized child, Ed Didactica and Pedagogica, RA Bucharest, 1997, pg.9, (5). Mariana Spanu, Introduction to family welfare and child protection,Technical Ed.Chisinau,1998, pg 63, (6). Dumitrana Maria, Institutionalized child, Ed. Didactica and Pedagogica, RA Bucharest, 1997, pg 16, (7).