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# Electronic Properties

Conductivity/Resistivity material

## Factors influencing conductivity

Free charge -Mobility of free charge -Scattering --> mean free path - Bonding energy - energy gap

Temperature Effect

Temperature increasing: - more random motions ---> more scattering ---> smaller mean free path - gives energy to break the bonding energy - more lattice vibration

## Electric field effect E

Electron (-) moves toward opposite direction of electric field, leaves hole. The charge movement is constrained by other charges, defects, and impurity scattering ---> limited free mean path

Ohm law

J = E
E

## l J : current density (A/m2) --> J=I/A

: conductivity ( m )

=1 /

## E : electric field (N/C) ---> E=V/l (V/m)

Ohm's Law

V=R I
V : volt (V) R : ohm ( ) I : ampere (A) = dq/dt

## Resistance is dependent on material and temperature

l R= A
: resistivity,

ohm.meter ( . m )

## Mobilitas muatan and drift velocity

Describing the scattering process experiencing by electrons ----> scattering makes a material has resistance E

## Drift velocity: average electron velocity

v d =e E B : mobility (m2/Vs)
Conductivity

= ne e

Band Gap
Atomic view: Only electrons in outer level usually give contributions to conductivity. The one in inner shell are strongly bounded, requires more energy to break the bond. Solid state view: only electrons in conduction bands are free and give contributions to conductivity. It requires energy to excite electron from valence to conduction bands

1 atom

2 atoms

N atoms

solid

Eg

Energi, eV

pita konduksi pita konduksi pita konduksi Fermi Level Pita valensi Pita valensi

Pita valensi

## Insulator, Band gap-nya besar, diatas 10 eV

Material:

- conductor ( conductivity >107 S/m, metal bonding, electrons are delocalized/ relatively free to move, it does not locally bond to certain atom ) - semi conductor (conductivity: 10-6 104 S/m, weak covalent bonding, requires a bit low energy to excite electrons) - insulator (conductivity < 10-10 S/m, ionic and strong covalent bonding, requires a high energy to excite electrons )

## Electronic Properties of Metal

Factors influencing metal resistivity: - scattering by thermal, impurity, and lattice deformation Matthiessen's rule

=T +i +l
Temperature effect:

T =0+ aT
Impurity effect, for impurity concentration C

i = AC ( 1 C )
For alloys consists of two different phases

i = V + V