Sie sind auf Seite 1von 31

# CONVENTIONAL CALIBRATION

VPG TRANSDUCERS The conventional method of rationalising load cell outputs creates problems when load cells are connected in parallel. Multiple load cell systems normally require the individual adjustment of each load cell output to ensure that weight measurements are within tolerance for weight placements within prescribed areas. The individual load cell adjustments are very time-consuming, particularly Application VPG-05 Load Cells for high-capacity systems or in hostile environments where containers may need to Note be emptied and filled several times during calibration.

Current Calibration Traditionally, load cell specification sheets quote the rated output of each load cell in voltage, usually mV/V, with a "rationalised" tolerance of 0.1% ( 2 0.002 mV/V ). However when connected in parallel, each load cell will be loaded with the output impedance of the other load cells. As a result the system needs further adjustment in the field to be accurate. Conventional Calibration
The conventional method of rationalizing load cell The figure opposite shows the electrical outputs creates problems when load cells are connected in diagram of load four cells, connected in parallel. Multiple cellload systems normally require the parallel. Each load cell load can be as a individual adjustment of each cell represented output to ensure thatvoltage weight measurements are within for weight source "U" with tolerance resistance "Ro" placements within prescribed areas. The individual load (output resistance). cell adjustments are very time-consuming, particularly for high-capacity systems or in hostile environments where containers may need to be emptied and filled several times Calculations are better understandable when during thecalibration. Norton equivalent circuit is used. The load

2 3
LC 4
1

1000 1000

2.001 2.000

20.01 20.00

352.00 351.50

0.0569 0.0569

Capacity 1000

Rout () 351.00

## Current (mA) 0.0570

Total

4000

1000

2.0011)

2.001

20.011)

20.01

87.812)

350.50

0.2279

0.0571

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

2)
3 4 Total

1) 2

The combined load cell output equals the arithmetic 20.01 mean value of the individual 1000 2.001 352.00load cell outputs. 0.0569 2) 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + 1/R4
1000 1000 4000 2.000 2.002 2.001(1) 20.00 20.02 20.01(1) 351.50 351.00 87.81(2) 0.0569 0.0570 0.2279

1) The combined load cell output equals the arithmetic mean value of the individual load cell outputs 2) 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + 1/R4

## Document Number: 11860 Revision 12-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 1

VPG-05
VPG Transducers Current Calibration
The combined output can also be calculated by multiplying the total current with the combined resistance: U = It * Rt = 0.2279 * 87.81 = 20.012 20.01 mV These calculations show clearly that the system needs further "corner" adjustment to be accurate. This is usually done in a junction box (signal- or excitation trim), using fixed or variable resistors. But this method has major disadvantages: Additional temperature-sensitive resistors are being introduced into the system. Selection of these resistors can be very time-consuming and require the use of deadweights. The process of adjustment must be repeated each time a load cell is exchanged. A solution used by some load cell manufacturers to improve the overall result is to supply separate resistors with each load cell for use in the output lines to balance up the output resistances. However this does not solve the problem of fitting extra resistors and again these must be changed when any load cell is exchanged.

500-0-0-0 0-500-0-0 0-0-500-0 0-0-0-500

## Total Total Current It Output Uo

0.028545 0.028423 0.028450 0.028519 2.5056 2.4958 2.4982 2.5043

501.05 498.91 499.39 500.61

where: It=T*S*E / Ro*E max Uo=It*Rt M=Uo*N*E max / Uoc It T S E Ro U o Rt M N Total current (mA) Test load (kg) Rated output LCx (mV/V) Excitation voltage (V) Output resistance LCx () Total output (mV) Combined resistance () Reading (kg) Number of load cells =4 = 20.01 = 87.81 = 10 = 500

In General
Typical conventional calibration specifications are: Tolerance on rated output: 0.1% (absolute error 0.2%) Tolerance on output resistance: 1.0% (absolute error 2.0%) By combining the three formulas above, it can be recognized that the maximum corner difference is based only on the tolerance on rated output and output resistance: M=(T*E*Rt*N / Uoc)*(S / Ro)=Const*(S / Rt) Hence, the maximum corner difference will be:

## (0.22 + 2.02) = 2.01%

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

## Uoc Combined output (mV)

Current Calibration makes external balancing resistors unnecessary; allows much quicker on-site set up and calibration; and enables load cells to be replaced in the field without any need to readjust the system. Current calibrated load cells are rationalized in terms of current output, rather than in terms of voltage output. During production of load cell "LCx", the output resistance "R x" is measured. The desired output is then calculated by: Ux = Iref * R x After this calculation the required value for "Ux" is obtained by means of the internal calibration resistors to an accuracy of 0.05%, resulting in identical output current tolerances for each load cell.

www.vpgtransducers.com 2

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

## Document Number: 11860 Revision 12-Dec-2011

VPG-05
VPG Transducers Current Calibration
Example, the following four current calibrated load cells are connected in parallel and supplied with an excitation voltage of 10 Vdc: LC
1 2 3 4 Total

Capacity
1000 1000 1000 1000 4000

## Rated Output (mV/V)

1.9943 2.0029 2.0000 1.9972 1.9986

Output (mV)
19.943 20.029 20.000 19.972 19.986

Rout ()
350.50 352.00 351.50 351.00 87.81

Current (mA)
0.0569 0.0569 0.0569 0.0569 0.2276

The total output can be calculated by multiplying the total current with the combined resistance: U = It * Rt = 0.2276 * 87.81 = 19.986 mV The total output when applying a test load of 500 kg on each individual load cell will be: Load Applied on LC 1-2-3-4
500-0-0-0 0-500-0-0 0-0-500-0 0-0-0-500

All load cells should be placed on the same horizontal level (corrections can be made by placing thin plates underneath the load cell with minor output). The load should be transmitted vertically through the load cell (2 out of the perpendicular is already causing an error of approximately 0.061%).

## Total Total Current It Output Uo

0.028450 0.028450 0.028450 0.028450 2.4982 2.4982 2.4982 2.4982

499.99 499.99 499.99 499.99

Although current calibrated load cells remove the need for corner adjustment, calibration should always be checked after replacing a load cell. If the load cell as a current source is considered to be a constant factor, it can be recognized that the calibration change is directly related to the change of combined resistance; Uo=It*Rt=Const*Rt Hence, the change of calibration can be calculated by: M (M / N)*a (%) Number of load cells to be replaced Number of load cells in the system Resistance change in percentages: ((mR new - mRold) / mRold) * 100% Where: N a

The above calculations show clearly that the system needs NO further "corner" adjustment to be accurate.

In General
Typical current calibration specifications are: Tolerance on rated output: 1.0% Tolerance on output resistance: 1.0% Tolerance on output current, Iref : 0.05% (absolute error 0.1%) This results in a maximum corner difference of 0.1% , approximately 20 times better than conventional calibrated load cells. The manner in which the load is transmitted through the load cell has a major impact on the accuracy and repeatability. Current calibrated load cells only perform without corner load differences in a multiple cell system when they are correctly installed:
Document Number: 11860 Revision 12-Dec-2011

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Example, a load cell with an output resistance of 350.5 will be replaced by a load cell with an output resistance of 353.0. The application has a total of four load cells. The resistance change will be: (353.0-350.5 / 350.5)*100% = 0.71% (M/N)*0.71% = (1/4)*0.71% = 0.18% The calibration change will be:

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 3

VPG TRANSDUCERS

## Application Note VPG-08

Scope

In General
Carefully check the system integrity before evaluating the load cells: Check for force shunts (might be caused by dirt, mechanical misalignment or accompanying components such as stay- or check rods). Check for damage, corrosion or significant wear in the areas of load introduction. Check cable connections to junction box and indicator. Check the measuring device or indicator with an accurate load cell simulator.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

## Document Number: 11867 Revision 14-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 1

OK

VPG-08
Wrong

## Test #2 Insulation Resistance

OK

Te Br Inte

Wrong

Sudden change in Zero point Unstable readings, random change in Zero point Scale reads overload, incorrect or not at all Erratic readings when load is applied or removed Short circuit

## TEST PROCEDURES AND ANALYSIS Mechanical

Electrica or in shor

to housing / screen

Brok or com

OK

OK

OK

OK

## Test #1: Zero Balance

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Measure the voltage across the cell's output leads with a millivoltmeter and divide this value by the input or The load cell should be connected to aload stable power supply, excitation voltage to obtainwith the Zero Balance in mV/V. Compare the Zero balance to the original load cell calibration preferably a load cell indicator an excitation voltage ( if available ) or to the other data sheet. of at certificate least 10 volts. Disconnect any load cell for Output multiple load cell systems. V
Measure the voltage across the load cell's output leads Input with a millivoltmeter and divide this value by the input ~ or excitation voltage to obtain the Zero Balance in mV/V. Compare the Zero balance to the original load cell calibration certificate ( if available ) orANALYSIS to the data sheet.
V

in the strain gauge resistance Changes in Zero undergoing Balancea change usually occur if the loadbecause cell has been Analysis Output of chemical or moisture intrusion. However, in this case excessive shocks.the Load cells that experience progressive zero ou insulation resistance and/or the bridge integrity will Changes in Zero Balance usually occur if the load cell also be has been permanently deformed by overloading and/or undergoing a change incompromised. the strain gauge resistance because of chem excessive shocks. Load cells that experience progressive the insulation resistance and/or the bridge integrity will also be comp ANALYSIS

## zero output changes per time period are most likely

Changes in Zero Balance usually occur if the load cell has been permanently deformed by overloading and/or the insulation resistance and/or the bridge integrity will also be compromised.

For technical support, contact in Americas www.vpgtransducers.com Document Number: 11867 excessive shocks. Load cells that experience progressive zero lc.usa@vishaypg.com, output changes per time period are most likely in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, 2 Revision undergoing a change in the strain gauge resistance because of chemical or moisture intrusion. However, in14-Dec-2011 this case in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

The insulation resistance is measured between the load cell circuit a VPG Transducers cell from the junction box or indicator and connect all input, output a Input Measure the insulation resistance with a megohmmeter between the the measurement between the same 4 or 6 leads and Load body. Cell Repeat Troubleshooting resistance between the load cell body and cable shield. Never use a megohmmeter to measure the input or output resistan Outputvoltage by far! Test #2: Insulation Resistance exceeds the maximum excitation
The insulation resistance is measured between the load cell circuit and element or cable shield. Disconnect the load cell from the junction box or indicator and connect all input, output and sense (if applicable) leads together.

body. Repeat the measurement between the same 4 or 6 leads and the resistance between the load cell body and cable shield. Never use a megohmmeter to measure the input or output resistance, TEST #2: INSULATION RESISTANCE exceeds the maximum excitation voltage by far! VPG-08

Input

ANALYSIS Measure the insulation resistance with a megohmmeter between these four or six connected leads and the load cell The insulation resistance of all load cells should be 5000 M or more fo body. Repeat the measurement between the same 4 or 6 cable screen and housing to cable screen. leads and the cable shield. Finally measure the insulation Output A lower value indicates electrical leakage, which is usually caused by mo resistance between the load cell body and cable shield.
Never use a megohmmeter to measure the input or output Electrical leakage resistance, as it normally operates at a voltage which exceeds temperature. the maximum excitation voltage by far!

the load cell or cable. Extremely low values ( 1k ) indicate a short cir results usually in unstable load cell or scale reading ou

Analysis

load cell or cable. low values (1k 5000 ) indicate a or mor The insulation resistance of all load cells should be The insulation resistance of Extremely all load cells should be M short circuit rather than moisture ingress. 5000 M or more for bridge circuit to housing, bridge cable screen and housing to cable screen. circuit to cable screen and housing to cable screen. TEST #3: BRIDGE INTEGRITY Electrical leakage results usually which in unstable load cell A lower value indicates electrical leakage, is usually caused b or scale reading output. The stability might vary with A lower value indicates electrical leakage, which is usually the load cell or cable. Extremely low values ( 1k ) indicate a shor bridge is verified by measuring the input and output resistan temperature. caused by moisture or chemical contaminations The within the integrity

ANALYSIS

## Test #3: Bridge Integrity

Electrical leakage usually in unstable load cell or scale readin Disconnect the load results cell from the junction box or measuring device. The input and output resistance is measured with an ohmmeter across eac temperature. the input and output resistance to the original calibration certificate (if av The bridge balance is obtained by comparing the resistance from -output difference between both values should be smaller than, or equal to 1 .

The bridge integrity is verified by measuring the input and TEST #3: output resistance as well as the bridge balance. Disconnect the load cell from the junction box or measuring device.

BRIDGE INTEGRITY
Input

The bridge integrity is verified by measuring the input and output res The input and output resistance is measured with an Disconnect the load cell from the junction box or measuring device. ohmmeter across each pair of input and output leads. The input and output resistance is measured with an ohmmeter acros Compare the input and output resistance to the original calibration certificate (if available) or to the data sheet and output resistance to the original calibration certificate ( the input specifications. The bridge balance is obtained by comparing the resistance from -ou Output The bridge balance is obtained by comparing the between both values difference should be smaller than, or equal to 1
A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E
resistance from -output to -input, and -output to +input. The difference between both values should be smaller than, or equal to 1.

Analysis

Input

ANALYSIS result from over-voltage (lightning or welding), physical Changes in bridge resistance or bridge balance are most resistance or bridge balance most excessive often caused by damage from shock, vibration or are fatigue, often caused by a broken or burned wire, anChanges electrical in bridge temperature, or from production inconsistencies. component failure or internal short circuit. This might failure component or internal short circuit. This might result fromover-v damage from shock, vibration or fatigue, excessive temperature, or from
Output

## Document Number: 11867 Revision 14-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, ANALYSIS in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 3

VPG-08
VPG Transducers

## Test #4: Shock Resistance

Input

Output
V

Analysis

Erratic readings may indicate a failed electrical connection Erratic readings may indicate a failed electrical or a damaged glue layer between strain gauge and element element as a result of an electrical transient. as a result of an electrical transient.

ANALYSIS

connection or a dama

The following load cell evaluation form should be used as a guide for the testing and evaluation of load cells. We recommend that this form be included in the customer dossier and used as the basis to discuss the test results and diagnostics with third parties.

A load cell evaluation form is included in this application for testing and cells. We recommend this If a load cell is returned to VPG Transducers, the Evaluation Form will evaluating assist our repair load department in further diagnostics and repair of the cell. and its use as a basis to discuss the test results and diagnost If a load cell is returned to Vishay Revere Transducers, th department in further diagnostics and repairing the cell.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Customer support:

The Vishay Revere Transducers combines sixty years of lo application know how. For further information, please con one of our regional sales offices.

www.vpgtransducers.com 4

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

## Document Number: 11867 Revision 14-Dec-2011

VPG-08
Company:________________________________________________ Contact person:___________________________________ Address:___________________________________________________ City / Country:___________________________________ Tel. / Fax.:__________________________________________________ Repair order:__________ Date:____________________ Load cell type:______________________________________________ Serial number:___________________________________ Capacity:_________________________________________________ Accuracy grade:___________________________________ Short description of system failure and application:______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Visual Inspection
Label Condition Corroded parts Affected by chemicals OK Like new Broken welds Weld(s) Housing/element No Unreadable Cable cut Visual mechanical overload J-box/cable entry Top/bottom plate Unknown Missing J-box damage Dents/cracks in parts Diaphragm Bellow/tube/cubs Yes: _______________

Electrical Inspection
Bridge Measurements
Zero balance Input resistance Output resistance Output to input Out put to input +

Actual
mV/V

Specification
1% of rated span 1% 1% difference 1%

Conclusion
OK OK OK OK OK

## Wrong Wrong Wrong Wrong Wrong Wrong Wrong Wrong

Insulation Resistance
Bridge to housing Bridge to shield Shield to housing

Actual
M M M

Specification
5000 M 5000 M 5000 M

Conclusion
OK OK OK

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

## Expected Reason for Failure

Moisture ingress Electrical transients Short circuit Mechanical overload Broken wire/component Excessive corrosion Excessive heat Broken cable

Other: ____________________________________________

Recommendation
Return load cell to supplier for further evaluation and repair (if possible) Return load cell to supplier for warranty Load cell beyond (economic) repair ________________________________________________________________________________
For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com www.vpgtransducers.com 5

VPG TRANSDUCERS

## Application Note VPG-04

Environmental Conditions
Scope

Classification Standards
No area of load cell operation causes more confusion and contention than that of environmental protection and sealing standards. Although the weighing and load cell industries have in-depth standards and test procedures to define load cell and weighing system performance, no standards have been developed to cover product suitability for specific environmental conditions. In the absence of such standards, most manufacturers have adopted the IP classification (Ingress Protection by IEC/EN60.529 or DIN 40.050) or National Electrical Ma nu fa c t u r e r s A s s o c i at ion St a nd a rd s ( N EM A) Publication 250 classifications to define the level of sealing for their products. Both standards are good test procedures for environmental sealing when applied to the products for which they were intended - those being electrical enclosures, but they are not very well suited to load cells.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

IP Classification

## Document Number: 11861 Revision 04-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 1

VPG-04
VPG Transducers Environmental Conditions

## IP First Number Protection Against Solid Objects

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 No protection Protected against solid objects up to 50 mm e.g. accidental touch by hands Protected against solid objects up to 12 mm e.g. fingers Protected against solid objects more than 2.5 mm e.g. tools and small wires Protected against solid objects more than 1 mm e.g. small wires Protected against dust-limited entrance (no harmful deposit) Totally protected against dust 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

## IP Second Number Protection Against Liquids

No protection Protected against vertically falling drops of water (e.g. condensation) Protected against direct sprays of water up to 15 from the vertical Protected against direct sprays of water up to 60 from the vertical Protected against water sprayed from all directions, limited entrance allowed Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions, limited entrance allowed Protected against strong jets of water e.g. for use on ship decks , limited entrance allowed Protected against the effects of immersion between 15 cm and 1 m Protected against long periods of immersion under pressure

As with IP66 and IP67, IP68 conditions are set by the manufacturer of the product, but must be at minimum more severe than for IP67 (i.e. longer duration or greater depth of immersion). The requirements for IP67 are that the enclosure can withstand immersion to a maximum depth of 1 meter for 30 minutes. While the IP standard is an acceptable starting point there are shortcomings: The IP definition of enclosure is too loose to be meaningful for load cells. The IP system only relates to water entrance and ignores moisture, chemicals etc. The IP system can not differentiate between load cells with different constructions with the same IP rating. No definition is given for the term "harmful effects", so the effect on load cell performance is open to interpretation.

use, and provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, and hose directed water. However, no consideration is given for the effects of internal condensation. NEMA 4X enclosures meet the same standards as NEMA 4 and are constructed of 304 stainless steel or other material offering equal corrosion resistance. NEMA 6 enclosures are used where there is a chance of temporary immersion. The standard calls for the highest part of the enclosure to remain submerged in water, with its highest point 1.83 metres below the surface for 30 minutes. NEMA 6P enclosures are used where prolonged immersion may occur and resistance to corrosion is needed. While it may seem that NEMA standards offer some advantages over the IP system for corrosion resistance, they only relate to external corrosion of enclosures. This is very limited when applied to the more complex load cell construction and the different effects of corrosion or water. Also, neither system concerns itself with internal condensation or the subject of cable entry into the enclosures.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

NEMA Classification
Classifications in the NEMA system run from NEMA 1 to NEMA 12, but load cell manufacturers concern themselves with NEMA 4 and NEMA 6. Unlike the IP system, NEMA does concern itself with environmental conditions such as corrosion, rust, icing, oil and coolants. NEMA 4 enclosures are intended for indoor and outdoor
www.vpgtransducers.com 2

## Damp Heat Cycling

The IP standard clearly states that it does not deal with internal condensation or moisture within the enclosure, saying that this is the responsibility of the relevant product
Document Number: 11861 Revision 04-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

VPG-04
VPG Transducers Environmental Conditions

Relative humidity %

## 100 90 80 70 Time ( hr ) 0 3 12 13.5 18 24

Ambient temperature C

+ 50

+ 25

standard. However, moisture or condensation is of vital importance in load cell operation. Moisture may enter the inside of the load cell over a long period and have a catastrophic effect, especially when acids or alkalis are present. One test used to determine a load cells ability to withstand moisture or condensation is the Damp Heat Cycling Test. Although there are several versions of the test, the one most universally accepted is(IEC) 68-2-30. The object of the IEC standard is "To determine the suitability of components, equipment, or other articles for use and storage under conditions of high humidity when combined with cyclical temperature changes". It is obvious that this standard is a much more useful classification than the IP rating when it comes to defining load cell environmental suitability.
1 2 3 4 5 6 Open Potted Enclosed Enclosed Enclosed Hermetically Sealed IP64 IP65 IP67 IP66/IP67 IP66/IP68 IP66/IP68

Load cells certified to OIML R-60 are tested to withstand 12 damp heat cycles of 24 hours each. Load cells which are not suited to withstand this test should be marked with "NH"(non-humidity) behind the appropriate accuracy grade.

Besides a given IP-rating or NEMA-classification load cells should also be classified according to their design in terms of cable entry, material of construction and gages sealing method. Load cells can be divided into six main groups in terms of sealing:

The gages have a minimum basic coating, but no formal potting Critical areas are covered with potting compound, but no mechanical protection Critical areas are fully potted and mechanically protected with rubber bellows or side plates; have standard cable entry Critical areas (are potted) and protected with welded covers (bellows, cups, etc.); have standard cable entry Critical areas (are potted) and protected with welded covers and have water block cable entry Critical areas (are potted) and protected with welded covers and have glass to metal sealed cable entry

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

## Document Number: 11861 Revision 04-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 3

VPG-04
VPG Transducers Environmental Conditions
Whether or not the products 4 to 5 in the above listing meet the IP66 classification may depend upon how the load cells are used and whether additional mechanical protection is provided. In parallel with these six classifications, different load cells are constructed from different materials. The main ones are aluminium; copper beryllium; tool steelpainted;tool steel-nickel plated or stainless steel. Certain products may be a combination of these e.g. tool steelnickel plated body with stainless steel bellows or cups. Surface finish Weld areas around seals, bellows and cups Thickness of seals Varying construction materials High stress levels at loading points

## The Cable Entry

Whilst it is relatively common to weld-seal critical areas on a load cell body, one potential problem area is the cable entry. A variety of methods are used to make sure cells are properly sealed at this point. 1) In some load cells the main cable enters through a conventional cable gland directly into the gage area. Regardless of how well the gage area is sealed, however moisture and solvents can penetrate either around the gland or through the centre of the cable itself. Often, temperature changes cause a pumping action to occur, pushing moisture down the inside of the cable. Entry also can be via a leaking junction box or through a damaged part of the cable. This can take some time to reach critical areas, but once there it will become sealed in place to do its damage. 2) An improvement on the cable gland is a water block at the point of cable entry. Here, the main cable terminates at for example a small circuit board with on-going wires leading tot he gage area. The block is fully potted to prevent moisture or other contaminants from reaching the critical areas. 3) The best solution is the use of a glass-to-metal cable entrance. This prevents any contamination from reaching the gage or other critical areas. In addition, the manufacturing process used must keep the load cell free from residue contaminations. The problem of residuals is usually solved by purging the internal cavity with helium. VPG Transducers model RLC is first filled with helium, which allows leaks to be found with conventional leak detection equipment and just before closing the load cell the helium will be replace by argon.

The environment itself plays a large part in how a particular load cell type behaves in practice. Salt water, for example,has different corrosion effects depending on the local circumstances. Stainless steel in stagnant salt water is subject to crevice corrosion and a regular wash down is necessary to avoid degradation. Unfortunately the term stainless steel has become synonymous with "no corrosion, no problem and no maintenance". While stainless steel load cells usually of fer opti mu m protection in most env iron ments, other factors should be taken into account. In certain applications,painted or plated load cells may offer better long-term protection.

Protective coatings are the oldest and most widely used method of corrosion control. Special paints are often used after installation to protect load cells and mounting hardware. However, the effectiveness of these is dependant upon initial surface preparation as well as the specific environment (care should be exercised when preparing the surface to prevent any damage to the load cell itself; if in doubt, please contact our manufacturing operation): One that provides an inert barrier against attack (paint) One that provides reactive (galvanic) protection, such as cadmium plating An alternative is wrap-around protective covers. These can provide good environmental protection, but can be selfdestructive if corrosive material is trapped inside the cover. Paint or plating can not always protect the load application point on certain load cell designs. The suitability of any paint-like protective coating should be checked with the end-user of the load cell as well as the supplier of the coating. The influence on accuracy after coating is usually negligible small, but the coating must be"f lexible" enough to withstand the def lection of the load cell. Very suitable flexible coatings with an excellent resistance to most harsh environments can often be found at a car-shop.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Corrosion Resistance
The corrosion resistance of load cells is a very complex subject, one that is further complicated by the variety of available configurations. As a result it is only possible to use standard corrosion charts as guidance for load cells. In addition, the following factors must be considered:

www.vpgtransducers.com 4

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

## Document Number: 11861 Revision 04-Dec-2011

VPG-04
VPG Transducers Environmental Conditions
Preventative Maintenance

Corrosion Chart
con (%)
0.0 1 2 5 10 20 20 25 40 >40 0.2

T (C)
60 20 60 35 20 20 35 25 20 >20 20 50 20 20 >20 65 20 Boil Boil Boil 102 108 Boil 20 Boil 20 Boil 20 Boil 20 Boil 20 Boil 65 <Boil

1.4542 1.4301
0 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 3 0 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 0 3 1 3 0 1 0 2 1 2 2 0

1.4403 1.4568
0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 1 3 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 1 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

## H3PO4 (phosphoric acid)

50 60 60 80 80 10 10 80 80 10 10 40 <100

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

## Document Number: 11861 Revision 04-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 5

VPG-04
VPG Transducers Environmental Conditions
Corrosion Chart (cont.)
con (%)
25 30

Conclusion
1.4403 1.4568
0 0 0 2 1 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 3 0 0

T (C)
Boil Boil 20 Boil 20 Boil <Boil <Boil <Boil 20 820 30 >30 20 Boil 20 Boil 20 20 Boil 25 20 20 65 <Boil <Boil

1.4542 1.4301
0 2 0 2 1 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 0 2 3 0 3 0 0

34 34 50 60

NH4CI

## (NH4)2SO4 (ammonium sulfate) FeCI2 FeCI3 K 2CO3 HBr/HF Acetone Ether

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

www.vpgtransducers.com 6

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

VPG TRANSDUCERS

## Application Note VPG-06

Vessel Weighing
Scope
Load cells may be used to weigh vessels in various installation configurations. The installation of load cells into a practical field application requires following several basic rules as well as careful design attention if the system has to be accurate and provide a long, maintenance free span of operation. This application note describes the options and external influences, applicable for the design of a weighing vessel, such as type and number of load cells to use, mode of operation, overall accuracy required and piping. the deflection and output of each load cell should be equal for equal loading. The general considerations to design a weighing vessel are: Use a rigid foundation for maximum accuracy. Avoid force shunts between the foundation and the vessel as much as possible. Keep clearance around the vessel and sufficient clearance between the foundation and vessel. Try to incorporate a calibration facility on to the vessel. Avoid sloshing of liquids, by dividing the vessel into compartments. Pay attention to material entry and exit; avoid impact forces due to material flow. Realize the air flow and air pressure due to material flow. Pipe connections and other external equipment to the vessel should be as flexible as possible. For outdoor installation; realize the wind influence. System integrity is virtually important; use safety systems if necessary. Realize the influence of temperature differences of the vessel and its connections.

Accuracy
Accuracy requirements for load cells used in scales for trade are clearly defined by Weights and Measures Authorities. For process weighing applications it is more difficult to define accuracy and usually it is requested for a system "to be as accurate as possible". Calculating true system accuracy is possible by adding the individual errors of the external influences and should be done in the very early stage of design. Determined by the application, weighing systems can be divided into the following categories:
High accuracy Low accuracy 0.02% to 0.10% Scales for trade 0.50% to 5.00% Level detection

Mode of Operation
Load cells measure force in one of two directions; tension or compression. In the tensile mode the vessel is suspended from one or more load cells. In the compressive mode a vessel is supported by load cells.

## Medium accuracy 0.10% to 0.50% General purpose

The maximum achievable system accuracy equals approximately 5000 divisions, i.e. 1 kg divisions for a weighing system with a capacity of 5 tons. However the accuracy of most process weighing applications is limited to approximately 750 divisions due to external influences.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Mechanical Considerations
It is a common misconception that a load cell can be considered as a solid piece of metal on which vessels, silos or hoppers can be supported. The performance of a load cell depends primarily on its ability to deflect under highly repeatable conditions when load is applied or removed. More importantly, if more than one load cell is used then

The use of a tension or compression system depends upon the mechanical structure around the vessel and the ease of making the system. If a vessel must be placed on an open concrete pad, compression will be a logical way to operate, because a tension system would require an expensive additional overhead supporting structure. As a general rule, if a suitable structure for a tension application is available, it is usually easier, more acceptable and less costly to suspend the vessel from one or more load cells up to a vessel capacity of 15 tons. When the vessel capacity exceeds this value, the physical size of the load cells and the tension rods become large, installation

## Document Number: 11873 Revision 07-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 1

VPG-06

VPG Transducers

assemblies. Furthermore, a large tension system has a low natural frequency, which might cause the indicator to bounce up and down objectionable. Stiff, low deflection supporting members are therefore desirable. In theory, suspension of a vessel by a single load cell may be the ideal solution, but such tension installations are not usually feasible. Three of four point supports are the most commonly used configurations.

## THE NUMBER OF LOAD CELLS

The number of load cells to support a vessel is usually fixed by the design of the vessel, especially for an existing system. The most ideal situation is to support a vessel by three load cells. If a weighing vessel is supported by four or more load cells and the stiffness of the vessel is to high, the construction might be statically undefined. becomes more difficult and there is more cost involved in In hardware this case than threeproviding or in the an worse case only making the required adequate base for compression assemblies. Furthermore, a weight. large A two load cells will bear the total tension system has a low natural frequency, which might high vertical vessel, especially with a cause the indicator to bounce up andstiff. down objectionable. closed top is very Stiff, low deflection supporting members are bear therefore When only two load cells the total desirable. weight, an overload situation on these cells might occur. measuring In theory, suspension of a vessel By by a single loadthe celloutput may of be the ideal solution, but individual such tension installations are not every load cell ( before filling usually feasible. Three four point supports are the most the of vessel ), such a situation can be commonly used configurations. recognized and corrected by placing shim plates underneath the cells with minor Theoutput. Number of Load Cells

Vessel Weighing

1/2 b 1/2 b 1/2 b 1/2 b 1/2 l 1/2 l 1/2 l 1/2 l

vessel), such a situation can be recognized and corrected by placing shim plates underneath the cells with minor output.

C of G C of G

## 1/2 b 1/2 1/2 b b 1/2 b

1/2 l 1/2 l

1/2 l 1/2 l

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Horizontal and vertical vessel, supported by four load cells. Horizontal and vertical vessel, supported by four load cells Horizontal and vertical vessel, supported by four load cells.

1/2 b 1/2 b 1/2 1/2 b b 1/2 b 2/3 l 2/3 l 1/3 l 1/3 l 2/3 l 2/3 l 1/3 l 1/3 l 1/2 b 1/2 b 1/2 b

www.vpgtransducers.com 2

Horizontal and vertical vessel, supported by three load cells. Horizontal and vertical vessel, supported by three load cells.

## Horizontal and vertical vessel, supported by three load cells

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, PIVOT WEIGHING in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, PIVOT WEIGHING in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

## Document Number: 11873 Revision 07-Dec-2011

1/2 b 1/2 b

1/2 b 1/2 b

VPG-06
VPG Transducers Vessel Weighing

1/2 l

1/2 l

Pivot Weighing

1/2 b 1/2 b

In certain applications it is possible to weigh only half the vessel, the other half is supported on dummy load cells Excessive bending of the pivoting beams, dur ing or flexure beams acting as pivots. Such a system can only Besides dummy load cells, flexure beams are often used to provide the vessel to pivot with the load installation should be avoided. be used when weighing a symmetrical vessel containing 1/2 b cell deflection. It is essential to align the beam webs very carefully for maximum accuracy. liquids. Solid materials will pile-up on the sides and will The main advantage of flexure beams cause a shift of the center of gravity. The accuracy that can is their ability to take up horizontal be obtained with these systems is less than with an entire forces. Therefore constrainers 1/2 b supported vessel. In side practice, accuracies ofno 0.5% can be are necessary to get achieved. Pivot weighing provides an excellent, a low stable cost construction. level detection system.
2/3 l weight, 1/3 l but the force is measured by the In fact not the The selection of the flexure beam load cell(s). The force on the load cell(s) can be calculated must be based on the ability of the by: cells.

The selection of the flexure beam must be based on the ability of the beam to bear the weight of the vessel without bending of the web (buckling effect).

## beam to bear the weight of the vessel

effect). Excessive bending of the The distance "l " between the live and dummy cells pivoting should beams, during installation should be be as long as possible to achieve maximum accuracy. avoided. gh only half the vessel, the other half is supported on

## Flc = (d*Ftot)/l without bending of the web (buckling

Horizontal forces on the vessel out of the plane of the pivots. Such a system can only be used when weighing pivots must be avoided (wind forces on vertical outdoor Load Cell and Mount Selection id materialsvessel!). will pile-up on the sides and will cause a LOAD CELL AND MOUNT SELECTION VPG Transducers offers a wide range of industrial load cells hat can and mounts, with a capacity from 6 kg to approximately with an 200 t. The load cell elements are made of nickel-plated tool Vishay Revere Transducers offers a wide range of industrial load cells and mounts, with a capacity cies of C of G steel orelements (more suitable for of thenickel-plated process industry) stainless from 6 kg to approximately 200 t. The load cell are made tool steel or ides an steel. steel. The table below is representing a part of the (more suitable for the process industry) stainless
Dummy cell offered d l Live cell product families.

9102

9103

9363

SSB

SHBxR

C(S)P-M

ACB

my cells ximum

lane of vertical

Rated load : 5 kg 50 kg 100 200 kg 500 1000 kg 2t 5t 10 t 25 100 t Stainless steel Yes Yes Yes IP grade IP66/ IP66/ IP66/ EN IEC 60529 IP68 IP68 IP68 Besides dummy load cells, flexure 0,3 beams are often used Deflection 0,8 0,5 to provide the vessel(mm) to pivot with the load cell deflection. It is essential to align the beam carefully for Operation mode webs B very B SC

Determine the maximum weight of the applied load, or "Live Load". Calculate the weight, "tare", of the construction, or "Dead Load ". Determine the number of load cells to be used in the structure (N ). Check the possible presence of unequal loading conditions ( factor fa ). This factor is an allowance for low tare estimates and unequal load distribution. Standard: fa = 1,3. Check on extra factors as vibration, shock etc ( factor Yes fb ). This Yes factor Yes is a dynamic Yes Yesfactor; Yes Yes load for static IP66/ weighing IP67 fb IP66/ IP66/ IP66/ IP67 IP66/ = 1. IP68 IP68 IP68 IP68 IP68 For outdoor vessels, calculate the windforce F w 0,3 0,9 0,4 0.5 0,3 0,4 0,1 (application note 09/3-01/01).
SC DS C minimum C B/SC Ccan be The individual loadS cell capacity

ASC

RLC

BSP

ured by can be

The selection of which capacity to use in a weighing application should be based on the following factors :

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

maximum accuracy.

The main advantage of flexure beams is their ability to take B : Beam type load cell. up horizontal side forces. Therefore no constrainers are APPLICATION NOTE 07/07-06/03 Page 3 SC construction. : Shear beam necessary to get a stable

## DB C Document Number: 11873 Revision 07-Dec-2011 S

: Double ended beam type load cell. : Compression type load contact cell. in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, For technical support, : S-shape tension type load cell. in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com,
in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 3

following effects to the load cell: Lateral forces Bending moments Torsion moments VPG-06 Off centre loading to the load cell VPG Transducers These effects may be caused by expansion of the vessel due to temperature decrease or deflection of the vessel's construction due to loading. Further, for high outdoor vessel, an overturn protection has to be incorporated within the mount. All mounts/load cells must be placed on the same Vessel Weighing horizontal level.

## SSB load cell + mount

CSP load cell + mount removed then disconnect each individual loadcell cell cable 5(9)103 load + from the indicator or measuring instrument. Place the mount

## DESB load cell + mount

of the weld to avoid a current path through the load cells. Further, connect flexible cupper leadshould of From an accuracy point ofa view, a weighing system Lateral forces 2 free from its surroundings. foundation over each load However cell. in most industrial at least 16 mm cross section between the vessel and be Bending moments
Torsion moments Off center loading to the load cell applications a contact between the weighing object and its surroundings is present. Examples are; pipes, tubes, pneumatic/hydraulic hoses, electrical cables, bellows and constrainers.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS

## www.vpgtransducers.com When one of these 4

For technical support, in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, Document Number: 11873 situations is likely to contact be present, it is recommended first to calculate the error in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, Revision 07-Dec-2011 and to relate this to the required system's accuracy, before any ( expensive ) solutions are in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

VPG-06
VPG Transducers Vessel Weighing
0.2 l 8.0

## 1. The Stiffness of Pipes

The influence on span (e) can now 0.5 be lcalculated by: 6.0 e=(Ct /Cs)*100%
l
1.0 l 5.0 l 4.8 3.4

The stiffness of the pipes in relation to the stiffness of the weighing system plays an important role in theAerror development. The stiffness of the 1 weighing system (Cs ) can be calculated by: Cs =(n*E max*g) / f n E max f g The number of load cells

The error which is caused by the stiffness of the pipes is a 0.2 l calibration 7.1 2 typical span-error and can be reduced by the procedure. However, no stable values B stiffness of the pipes are 0.5 l 4.3 and can change during operation. 1.0 l 1.8 Example:
5.0 l 0.06

A vessel is supported by four load cells, with a capacity of The individual load cell capacity 2 t and The influence on span (e) can now be calculated by:a deflection of 0.5 mm.
2

## Two pipes are connected to the vessel, one bend in the

The are made steel with an inner diameter The error which is caused by the stiffness ofpipes the pipes is a of typical span-error and can be of The stiffness of the pipes Ct can be calculated by the sum 30 mm and an outer diameter of 40 mm. reduced by the calibration procedure. However, stiffness of the pipes are no stable values and of the stiffness of each individual pipe Ca: K D d l E Ca=(0.05*K*E*(D4 -d 4)) / l3

## vessel is supported by four load cells ClampingA factor

Outer diameter of pipe

type SSB, with a capacity of 2 t and a deflection of 0.5 mm. Inner diameter pipeare connected to the vessel, Two of pipes Length ofone pipebend in the vertical plane as in the opposite drawing. Elasticity The modulus, pipes are made of steel with an inner 2 diameter ofE 30 andN/mm an outer diameter for steel: = mm 210.000 2 of 40 for copper: mm. E = 110.000 N/mm
for aluminium:

The stiffness Cs of the weighing system equals: The stiffness Cs of the weighing system equals:

E = 70.000 N/mm2

Cs=(4*2000*9.8) / 0.5=156800N/mm Cs=(4*2000*9.8) / 0.5=156800N/mm The clamping factor K equals K=12 for a pipe clamped rigidly at both ends. The following K-values below are The stiffness C a1 of the pipe, bend in the vertical plane valid for a pipe with constant diameter, bend in the vertical The stiffness Ca1 of the pipe, bend in the vertical plane equals: equals: plane (1) and in the horizontal plane (2) clamped rigidly at 4 4 =(0.05*8*210000*(40 Ca1 -304)) / 40003=2.30N/mm both ends. C =(0.05*8*210000*(40 -304)) / 40003=2.30N/mm
a1

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

## The stiffness Ca2 of the straight pipe equals:

l
0.2 l Ca2=(0.05*12*210000*(404-304)) / 15003=65.33N/mm A B 0.21 0.5 l 8.0

be calculated:
1

6.0 8.0 The total stiffness Ct of the pipes equals Ca1 + Ca2 = 67.33 N/mm. The influence on span (e) can now 1.0 l 4.8 0.51 6.0

A 2

1.01 5.0 l

## 3.4 4.8 0.2 l 0.21 0.5 l 3.4 7.1 7.1 4.3

e=(67.63/156800)*100%=0.043% 5.01
B

0.51 4.3 1.0 l 1.8 1.01 1.8 5.0 l 0.06 5.01 temperature 0.06 The height of the clamping point of the pipe can change with any change in ambient by

2. THERMAL EXPANSION

## The influence onnon-reproducibility. span (e) can now be calculated by:

Document Number: 11873 Revision 07-Dec-2011

expansion of the vessel. Stiff pipes will try to counteract this movement, causing a zero-shift and
For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, L=Lo+T* in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com e=(C t/C s)*100% www.vpgtransducers.com 5

## The error to the system can be calculated by:

The error which is caused by thermal expansion is a typical zero-error. Weighing systems without VPG Transducers connections to the outer world are not affected by temperature effects, provided that a well designed mounting system is used. Load cells are manufactured to operate within a certain temperature range, normally from -40 to Vessel Weighing +80 C. A load cell is compensated for a part of this temperature range to operate within specifications, normally -10 to +40 C. Shields or insulation paths must be established to keep the load cell within the operating range and for high accuracy systems within the compensated The stiffness Ca2 of the straight pipe equals: temperature range. Example: The total stiffness C t of the pipes equals C a1 + C a2 = 67.33 N/mm. The inf luence oncells, span ( e) can now be A vessel is supported on four load by a supporting structure made calculated: of steel. The scale capacity equals 10 tons. The vessel is made e=(67.63/156800)*100%=0.043% of aluminium. A pipe with a stiffness Ca of 75N/mm is connected to the vessel. The critical dimensions are indicated in the figure2. opposite. During the day the ambient temperature decreases Thermal Expansion from 15 to 25 C. The height of the clamping point of the pipe can change The
with any change in ambient tempera ture by expansion of the vessel. Stiff pipes will try to counteract movement, height of the supporting structure will this decrease with: causing a zero-shift and non-reproduc ibility. -5 L=Lo+T* L Lo Ca2=(0.05*12*210000*(404 -304)) / 15003=65.33N/mm

VPG-06

e=(F/scale capacity*g)*100%

L=3000*(25-15)*1.2*10 =0.35mm

The height of the will decrease with: The change in vessel height can be calculated by: L=3000*(25-15)*2.4*10-5=0.72mm The height of the clamping point of the pipe will change with 0.35 T in ambient temperature: T To (K) of the pipe The vessel is made of aluminium. A pipe with a stiffness + 0.72 = 1.07Change mm. This will cause a reaction force of:
Original length (mm) C a of 75N/mm is connected to the vessel. The critical dimensions are indicated in the figure opposite. During the -5 F=1.07*75=80.25N for steel = 1.2*10 day the ambi ent temperature decreases from 15 to 25C. for copper = 1.7*10 -5 The height of the supporting structure will decrease with: -5 aluminium = the 2.4*10 error to thefor system, caused by temperature decrease will be: L=3000*(25-15)*1.2*10 -5=0.35mm The reaction force of the pipe can be calculated by: The height of the vessel will decrease with: e=((80.25/(10000*9.8)*100%=0.08% F=L*Ca L=3000*(25-15)*2.4*10 -5=0.72mm F Reaction force of the pipe The height of the clamping point of the pipe will change Change in length (mm)

## Linear expansion (K-1),

The

Ca Stiffness of the pipe 3. FRICTION-EFFECTS The error to the system can be calculated by:

with 0.35 + 0.72 = 1.07 mm. This will cause a reaction force of the pipe of: F=1.07*75=80.25N

Friction-effects created in the clamping points are leading to an undefined error, causing non e=(F/scale capacity*g)*100% The error to the system, caused by the temperature repeatability and hysteresis. Pipe supports, especially the first supports away from the vessel should A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E
The error which is caused by thermal expansion is a typical zero-error. Weighing systems without connections to the outer world are not affected by temperature effects, provided that a well designed mounting system is used. decrease will be: e=((80.25/(10000*9.8)*100%=0.08%

Load cells are manufactured to operate within a certain temperature range, normally from -40 to +80C. A load cell is compensated for a part of this temperature range to operate within specifications, normally -10 to +40C. Shields or insulation paths must be established to keep the load cell within the operating range and for high accuracy systems within the compensated temperature range. Example: A vessel is supported on four load cells, by a supporting struc ture made of steel. The scale capacity equals 10 tons.
www.vpgtransducers.com 6

3. Friction-Effects
Friction-effects created in the clamping points are leading to an undefined error, causing non-repeatability and hysteresis. Pipe supports, especially the first supports away from the vessel should be attached to the same structure as to which the vessel is supported.

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

## Document Number: 11873 Revision 07-Dec-2011

Care should be paid to less obvious sources of deflection which are often ignored, such as be attached to the same structure as to which the vessel is supported. deflection of the floor or roof and

VPG-06
VPG Transducers

COMPENSATORS

two weighing vessels with pipe connections. When theless influence of pipes Care should be paid to obvious sources of exceed the allowed error ch the vessel is supported. deflection which are often ignored, such as considered: deflection of the floor or roof and

Vessel Weighing
then the following solutions should be

## COMPENSATORS Decrease the length of pipe(s).

by thermal

Design the clamping to be less rigid. WhenIntroduce the influence of pipes in exceed the allowed error then the following solutions should be compensators the pipe. considered: All piping tends to sag from its theoretical design position due to its own dead weight. This effect Decrease will decrease with the the length length of ofpipe(s). the pipe. It is therefore important to check all piping runs between T = F T6 F Design the clamping to be less rigid. the vessel and the first pipe support for adequate clearance. Large horizontal side forces may arise by thermal sources of compensators inof the pipe. two weighing vessels withIntroduce pipe connections. linear expansion rigidly clamped pipes. such as All piping tends to sag or from its theoretical design position due to its own dead weight. This effect Flexible piping devices compensators should be selected based on their flexibility and their will decrease with the length of the pipe. It is therefore important to check all piping runs between process chemistry suitability i.e. High or low pressure systems, temperature, aggressive chemicals. the vessel and the first pipe support for adequate clearance. Flexible devices of non-metallic materials offer more flexibility in less space and with less vibration Care should be paid to less obvious sources two weighing vessels horizontal side forces may transmission than the metal counterparts. These benefits plus, variously,Large increased wear, corrosion of deflection which are often ignored, such with pipe connections. arise by ther mal linear expansion Flexible piping devices or compensators should be selected based on their flexibility and and their and fatigue resistance makes non-metallic materials highly attractive when the process pressure as deflection of the floor or roof and... of rigidly clamped pipes. process chemistry suitability i.e.met. High or low pressure systems, temperature, aggressive chemicals. temperature requirements can be Flexible devices of non-metallic offerT more less space and with less vibration When large displacements must bematerials accommodated with low force,in consider using two compensators 6 Fflexibility ns. the length ofimportant the pipe. It is therefore important to check all Compensators Large horizontal side forces arise by metal thermal than the counterparts. These plus, variously, increased wear, systems corrosion intransmission series or may a bent U-shape flexible hose. This is benefits particularly for low capacity piping runs between the vessel and the first pipe support linear expansion of rigidly clamped pipes. forces and fatigue resistance makes non-metallic materials highly attractive when the process pressure and were even small piping will disturb weigh stability. When the influence of pipes exceed the allowed error then system for adequate clearance. temperature requirements can be compensators met. the following should be considered: Do not solutions stretch or compress excessively to compensate for initial piping Flexible piping devices or compensators should be selected When large displacements must be accommodated with low force, using two compensators at fitup, to prevent their stiffness characteristics from consider being altered. misalignments Decrease the length of pipe(s). based on their f lexibility and their process chemistry in series or a bent U-shape flexible hose. This is particularly low systems, capacity systems suitability i.e. important High or low for pressure temperature, Design the clamping to be less rigid. were even small piping forces will disturb weigh system stability. aggressive chemicals. Introduce compensators in the pipe. not stretch or its compress compensators excessively to compensate for initialoffer piping Flexible devices of non-metallic materials more All Do piping tends to sag from theoretical design position T 6 F misalignments at fitup, to prevent their stiffness characteristics from being altered. flexibility in less space and with less vibration transmission due to its own dead weight. This effect will decrease with

Elbow

Stub

## Flexible piping devices

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Elbow Stub Flexible piping devices Elbow Stub Flexible piping devices When multiple pipes are connected to a weighing vessel, then the connections should be made symmetrical if possible.

When multiple pipes are connected to a weighing vessel, then the connections should be made symmetrical if possible.

Avoid

Avoid

Avoid if possible

Avoid if possible

Correct installation
www.vpgtransducers.com 7

Correct installation

## Document Number: 11873 Revision 07-Dec-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

VPG-06
VPG Transducers Vessel Weighing
than the metal counterparts. These benefits plus, variously, increased wear, corrosion and fatigue resistance makes non-metallic materials highly attractive when the process pressure and temperature requirements can be met. When large displacements must be accommodated with low force, consider using two compensators in series or a bent U-shape flexible hose. This is particularly important for low capacity systems were even small piping forces will disturb weigh system stability. Do not stretch or compress compensators excessively to compensate for initial piping misalignments at fitup, to prevent their stiffness characteristics from being altered. When multiple pipes are connected to a weighing vessel, then the connections should be made symmetrical if possible. P D Over or under-pressure (N/m 2) Effective diameter of the bellow (m)

Example: A vessel is pressurized with 2 bar over-pressure and the pipe connection is made with a vertical bellow having an effective diameter of 150mm. The maximum disturbing force can be calculated by: F=(2*105**(150*10 -3)2 / 4=3534N The flexibility of the bellow will cause the indicator to bounce between the actual weight and the actual weight plus the maximum disturbing force. Gas pressure in a vertical pipe gives minor influence if the pipe is connected to the vessel with a stiff part as indicated in the last drawing of the previous page.

d the pipe connection is made with a vertical the compensators content of the vessel is under pressure n arise. If The should be gas located in and the pipe connection is made with a vertical compensator (bellow), a avoid these vertical thrust forces from varying vertical disturbance force can arise. The compensators processshould chemistry. A temporary over-pressure be located in horizontal piping runs adjacent to aterial. the weigh vessel to avoid these vertical thrust forces from
varying internal pressures associated with material flow and process chemistry. A temporary over-pressure can also be created by filling a vessel with a dusty material. The disturbing force can be calculated by: F=(P**D2) / 4

Pressurized Vessels

Restraining Devices
Load cells should be protected against side forces by the use of restraining devices. These assem blies are designed to allow ample vertical freedom for weight sensing, while simultaneously eliminating inaccuracies caused by side loading. Accuracy and reliability of systems not protected in this way would be greatly reduced in the presence of extraneous forces, which might even result in damaged to the load cell in extreme cases. Two types of restraining devices are used: Stay rods Limiting stops

D2) / 4

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

nd the ing an

D D

Most mounts offered by VPG Transducers are self-aligning with an in-build limiting stops. These mounts do not require further restraining devices in most applications. Stay rods must be used when a vibrator or mixer is used in the vessel!

Po + P P P o+

Po Po

Stay rods should not essentially transfer any forces to the container in the vertical direction, but have sufficient strength in the horizontal direction to be able to absorb the maximum horizontal forces arising. The length of the stay rods should be chosen as long as possible, as this has a favorable effect on reducing vertical forces. The arrangement of the stay rods depends on the plan view geometry of the structure. In most cases four stay rods give the best results. Figure 3 below represents a basic stay rod arrangement for a vessel under thermal expansion. More information about the arrangement of stay rods for specific applications is available on request.
Document Number: 11873 Revision 07-Dec-2011

ator to weight

e if the pipe is connected to the vessel with a us page. For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, www.vpgtransducers.com
8 in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

Stay rods should not essentially transfer any forces to the container in the vertical direction, but have sufficient strength in the horizontal direction to be able to absorb the maximum horizontal VPG-06 forces arising. The length of the stay rods should be chosen as long as possible, as this has a favourable effect on reducing vertical forces. VPG Transducers The arrangement of the stay rods depends on the plan view geometry of the structure. In most cases four stay rods give the best results. Figure 3 below represents a basic stay rod arrangement for a Vessel Weighing vessel under thermal expansion. More information about the arrangement of stay rods for specific applications is available on request. Note:

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Placing stay rods as represented in figure 1 will cause high stresses in the stay rods and should be avoided. The arrangement in figure 2 will cause a rotation of the vessel. This configuration should be avoided if there are stiff connections to the vessel. Stay rods should be placed in a exactly horizontal level.

Note: Placing stay rods as represented in figure 1 will cause high stresses in the stay rods and should be avoided. The arrangement in figure 2 will cause a rotation of the vessel. This configuration should be avoided if there are stiff connections to the vessel. Stay rods should be placed in a exactly horizontal level.

This application note is written as a short guide in understanding the considerations which must be taken into account for vessel weighing. For more information we specially refer to the following application notes: Windforces Load cell cabling Shunt diode barriers Potentially Explosive Atmospheres Environmental Conditions

## 10/06-01/01 10/06-02/02 10/06-03/02 10/06-04/02 10/06-07/02

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Customer support:

Vishay Revere Transducers combines sixty years of load cell manufacturing with sixty years of application know how. For any further question, please contact our manufacturing operation or any one of our regional sales offices.
Document Number: 11873 Revision 07-Dec-2011 For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com www.vpgtransducers.com 9

VPG TRANSDUCERS

## Application Note VPG-03

Legal Metrology
Scope
This application note is meant to provide the user with a reasonably quick reference to a fairly complex subject; the load cell requirements for legal-for-trade non automatic weighing instruments, according to section 4.12 of OIML Recommendation R76 (EN45501). Every effort has been made to include most of the important topics and to enable the user to select load cells for a particular approved non automatic weighing instrument. The type of weighing instruments covered are: single range instruments, multiple range instruments and multi-interval instruments. The first pages cover the metrological terms used to describe load cell features according to OIML Recommendation R60. These terms are implemented in section 4.12, and should therefore be explained. The aim of such harmonization is to facilitate free trade and commerce between countries not only for measuring instruments, but for all commodities and services whose value is determined by measurements. OIML Recommendations and Documents relate to specific measuring instruments and technology. International Recommendations (OIML R) are model regulations generally establishing the metrological characteristics required of the measuring instruments concerned and specifying methods and equipment for checking their confor mity. OIML member states are expected to implement these Recommendations as far as possible.

## Metrological Terms For Load Cells

The metrological terms most frequently used in the load cell field can be divided into two main categories; load related terms or accuracy related terms.

## Standardized Metrology - OIML

The establishment of a worldwide standardized metrology or measurement system has two main functions. One related to scientif ic activities assuring world-wide consistency and repeatability of critical scientific units, while the other is concerned with legal metrology which is the name given to all applied metrology or measurement subjected to regulations by law or governmental degree. In most countries, legal metrology covers measurements in protection of individuals from a financial, health and environmental point of view. In order to harmonize and standardize on an international basis, a convention was held in Paris on October 12th, 1955, and the participating States (countries) agreed to set up an international organization of legal metrology - the OIML was born. Because the official language of the OIML was French, the name of the organization is Organisation Internationale de Metrologie Legale. The OIML is a worldwide inter-governmental organization whose main task is that of harmonizing the regulations and metrological controls applied by the Weights and Measures of its Member States. Because it is a Treaty Organization, membership of a country is subject to the signature of a convention through diplomatic channels. Once a member, a country has moral and ethical obligations to harmonize with the beliefs and output of the OIML.
Document Number: 11862 Revision 29-Nov-2011

Minimum dead load (Emin): The smallest value of a quantity (mass) which may be applied to a load cell without exceeding the maximum permissible error. Maximum capacity (Emax): The largest value of a quantity (mass) which may be applied to a load cell without exceeding the maximum permissible error. Load cell measuring range: The range of values of the measured quantity (mass) for which the result of measurement should not be affected by an error exceeding the maximum permissible error. Safe load limit: The maximum load that can be applied without producing a permanent shift in the performance characteristics beyond those specified. Ultimate load limit: The maximum load that can be applied without physical destruction of the load cell.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 1

VPG-03
VPG Transducers Legal Metrology

E min

## Maximum Measuring Range

E max

D min

Measuring Range

D max

The terms that appear above the central horizontal line are parameters that are fixed by the design of the load cell. The terms that appear below that line are parameters that are variable, depending on the conditions of use and the quality of the load cell as measured during tests.
0kg Maximum Measuring Range 500kg 750kg 1500kg

100kg

Measuring Range

400kg

As a specific example, an "S" type load cell with a capacity of 500 kg is used to weigh a hopper with a dead load of 100 kg (Dmin) and a live load of 300 kg (Dmax = Dmin + 300 = 400 kg). Emin =0% of Emax, the safe load limit is 150% of Emax and the ultimate load limit is 300% of Emax.

## 2. Accuracy Related Terms Load cell interval:

Part of the load cell measuring range into which that range is divided.

to 6000v. Class C load cells are suited for class weighing systems.

and

## Minimum verification interval (vmin):

The smallest value of a quantity (mass) which may be applied to a load cell without exceeding the maximum permissible error. Specified as E max/ or as a percentage of the measuring range. The minimum verification interval is inextricably linked to the utilization of the load cell. The utilization can be defined as the minimum measuring range (MMR) for a particular load cell over which full specification will be maintained. The following formulas can be applied: MMR(kg) = vmin * nmax or MMR(%) = nmax * 100 / For example a 1t load cell, with vmin= E max/10000 has a minimum measuring range of 1000 * 4000 / 10000 = 400 kg or 4000 * 100 / 10000 = 40% The minimum measuring range can apply over any part of the measuring range between E min and E max. In practice, certain accuracy parameters (linearity, hysteresis) will improve when a smaller part of the load cell rated capacity is utilized. However, temperature effect on zero load output is a fixed error percentage of the rated output, and

## Load cell verification interval (v):

The load cell interval, expressed in units of mass, used in the test of the load cell for accuracy classification

## Number of verification intervals (n):

The number of verification intervals, used in the test of the load cell for accuracy classification.

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Accuracy class:
A class of load cells which are subjected to the same conditions of accuracy. Load cells are ranked, according to their overall perfor mance capabilities, into four classes whose designations are "Class A", "Class B", "Class C" and "Class D". A load cell is classified by the alphabetical classification and the maximum number of load cell intervals stated in units of 1000; for example C3 represents class C, 3000v. The number of verification intervals (n) into which the measuring range of a class C load cell can be divided is fixed between 500 and 10000. VPG Transducers offers a wide range of class C industrial load cells from 1000v

www.vpgtransducers.com 2

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

## Document Number: 11862 Revision 29-Nov-2011

VPG-03
VPG Transducers Legal Metrology
must be tightly controlled to achieve lower vmin values for a particular grade of load cells. The effect of the utilization factor on creep will depend on which part of the load cell range is being used for the scale. For example, creep will be more significant in a scale where its working range is at the top end of the load cell's rated capacity than when it is at the bottom. Load cells having a small value for vmin are most suitable for applications with a relatively high dead load. The above calculation applies to a single load cell when used on its own. The requirements for multiple load cell weighing instruments are specified further on.

The change in minimum dead load output due to a change in ambient temperature.

## Temperature effect on sensitivity:

The change in sensitivity due to a change in ambient temperature.

Combined error:
The approach taken by R60 recognizes that several load cell errors must be considered together when fitting load cell performance characteristics to the error envelope permitted. It is possible to have low non-linearity and hysteresis and moderate temperature errors or, conversely, to have moderate non-linearity and hysteresis errors and low temperature errors. Thus, it is not considered appropriate to specify individual error limits for given characteristics (non-linearity, hysteresis and temperature effect on sensitivity), but rather to consider the total error envelope allowed for a load cell as the limiting factor. The use of an error envelope concept allows balancing individual contributions to the total error of measurement while still achieving the intended result.

Non-linearity:
The deviation of the increasing load cell calibration curve from a straight line which passes through minimum load output and the load cell output at 75% of the measuring range, at 20C.

Hysteresis error:

## Maximum permissible load cell errors

The maximum permissible load cell errors for each accuracy class, the indicated load cell output having been adjusted to zero at minimum dead load, are related to the maximum number of verif ication intervals. The table below shows the error limits as represented on the VPG Transducers datasheets. "Temperature effect on Sensitivity" and" Combined error" are combined in such a way that the load cells meet the OIML R60 tolerance envelope. S equals Rated Output and corresponds directly with E max. C2
0.0230 0.0100 0.0250 0.0245 0.0053 0.0060

Creep:
The change in load cell output occurring with time while under constant load (> 90% of the load cell capacity) and with all environmental conditions and other variables also remaining constant.

Combined Error Non-Repeatability Minimum Dead Load Output Return Creep Error (30 minutes) Creep Error (20-30 minutes) Temperature Effect on Sensitivity %S %S %S %S %S %S/5C

C1
0.0300 0.0200 0.0500 0.0490 0.0105 0.0085

C3
0.0200 0.0100 0.0167 0.0245 0.0053 0.0055

C4
0.0150 0.0090 0.0125 0.0184 0.0039 0.0045

C5
0.0100 0.0070 0.0100 0.0147 0.0032 0.0035

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Note: OIML recommendation R60 specifies the maximum permissible errors in terms of verification intervals or minimum verification intervals. The maximum permissible errors for combined error are similar to those of non automatic weighing instruments, when a factor of 0.7 (pi-factor) is used. A copy of the recommendation is available on request.

## Document Number: 11862 Revision 29-Nov-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 3

VPG-03
VPG Transducers Legal Metrology
EN 45501, Requirements For Load Cells
Section 4.12 of EN 45501 (OIML R76) requires that load cells have been tested in conformity with International Recommendation OIML R60. These load cells can be applied in three groups of weighing instruments: 1. Single interval instruments: Instrument having one weighing range. 2. Multiple range instruments: Instrument having two or more weighing ranges with different maximum capacities and different scale intervals for the same load receptor, each range extending from zero to its maximum capacity. 3. Multi-interval instruments: Instrument having one weighing range which is divided into partial weighing ranges, each with different scale intervals, with the weig h i ng range deter m i ned automatical ly according to the load applied, both on increasing and decreasing loads. The most important metrological terms for weighing instruments are:

## Number of verification scale intervals (n):

Quotient of the maximum capacity and the verification scale interval, for a single-interval instrument: n = Max / e

## 1. Requirements For Single Interval Instruments

1.1  The maximum capacity of the load cell shall satisfy the condition:
E max Q * Max * R / N

Reduction ratio:
The reduction ratio of a load transmitting device is given by: R=FM / FL Where:  FM is the load acting on the load measuring device (total number of load cells).  FL is the load acting on the load receptor (scale).

## Maximum capacity (Max):

Maximum weighing capacity, not taking into account the additive tare capacity.

## Minimum capacity (Min):

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

Value of the load below which the weighing results may be subject to an excessive relative error.

## Actual scale interval (d):

Value expressed in units of mass of: The difference between the values corresponding to two consecutive scale marks, for analogue indication,or The difference between two consecutive indicated values, for digital indication.

## Verification scale interval (e):

Value, expressed in units of mass, used for the classification and verification of an instrument.*
being a positive or negative whole number or equal to zero.

* Note: "e" equals "d" in the majority of digital weighing instruments. A scale interval should be numbered in the form 1 * 10k, 2 * 10k or 5 * 10k, k
www.vpgtransducers.com 4 For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com Document Number: 11862 Revision 29-Nov-2011

VPG-03
VPG Transducers Legal Metrology
 Zero-setting/tracking: (24% of 1500)/n = 360/4 = 90 kg  Hence, the load cell capacity (E max) should at least be 500 + 25 + 90 = 615 kg The SSB load cell has a rated output of 2mV/V. The output per verification scale interval at an excitation voltage of 10V for the example above will be: 10 * 2 * 1500 * 1000 / (4 * 1000 * 3000) =2.5 V The graph below represents the minimum value for e, in relation to the load cell capacity (E max) when the instrument is constructed with four load cells (Reduction ratio R = 1).
1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 e (kg) 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
= 20 00

1.2  The maximum number of load cell intervals shall satisfy the condition:
nlc n For each load cell, the maximum number of load cell intervals nlc shall not be less than the number of verification scale intervals n of the instrument, e.g. a 3000d class weighing instrument should have at least class C3 load cells.

33

10 00 0

13

50

83

0
00 0

15

1.3  The minimum load cell verification interval shall satisfy the condition:
vmin e * R / N The minimum load cell verification interval vmin shall not be greater than the verification scale interval e multiplied by the reduction ratio R of the load transmitting device and divided by the square root of the number N of load cells. This formula can be rewritten as: e vmin * N / R For example, a platfor m scale with a capacity of 1500 kg is built with four load cells, type SSB-C3-1t, with vmin =E max/8333. 1) The load cell capacity is in agreement with point 1.1 (see calculation example). 2) The maximum number of scale intervals should be smaller or equal to the maximum number of load cell verification intervals. Hence, the maximum number of scale intervals is 3000. 3) By applying the formula given at point 1.3, the minimum value for e can be calculated: e vmin* N / R, e 1000 * 2 / 8333 * 1 e 0.240 => e = 0.5 kg It is important to verify the output per scale division with the required minimum signal level for the measuring device to ensure compatibility. The output per scale division (in V) can be calculated by: Where: UE: Excitation voltage S: Rated output load cell N: Number of load cells n: Number of scale divisions UE * S * Max * 1000 / (N * E max * n)

280

00

Emax (t)

## 2. Requirements for Multiple Range Instruments

On multiple range instruments, each range is treated basically as an instrument with one range. Switching while the instrument is loaded, from one weighing range to another is only allowed if the verification scale interval increases. Furthermore, it is not allowed to enter a lower range after a tare setting, or by using a preset tare value. An example of a multiple range instrument with three ranges is given in the diagram below:
0.5

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

400

800

1000 (kg)

e1 e2 e3

## Document Number: 11862 Revision 29-Nov-2011

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

www.vpgtransducers.com 5

VPG-03
VPG Transducers Legal Metrology
The requirements for load cells are: 2.1  The maximum capacity shall satisfy the condition: E max Q * Maxr * R / N 2.2  The maximum number of load cell intervals shall satisfy the condition: nlc n 2.3  The minimum load cell verification interval shall satisfy the condition: vmin e1 * R / N 2.4  The minimum dead load output return of the load cell shall satisfy the condition: DR e1 * R / N Or, where DR is not know (specifically specified on the R60-certificate) the following acceptable solution should be satisfied: nlc 0.4 * Maxr / e1 Where: ni: the number of verification scale intervals for range i (i= 1, 2, etc.) Maxr: the maximum capacity of the highest weighing range e1: the verification scale interval of the smallest weighing range For example, a platfor m scale with a capacity of 1000 kg is built with four load cells, 0.5t, with vmin = E max / 13500. 1) The eccentricity behavior will be tested with: Maxr / (n - 1) = (1/3) * 1000 325 kg This is well below the capacity of the load cell, hence, acceptable. 2) The number of scale verification intervals should be smaller than or equal to 4000. 3) The minimum scale verification interval can be calculated by: e1 vmin * N / R, e1 500 * 2 / 13500 e1 0.074 kg Hence, e1 will be 0.1 kg 4) As there is no value specified for the DR in the certificate, the use of the following formula is acceptable: nlc 0.4 * Maxr / e1, nlc 0.4 * 1000 / 0.1 nlc 4000 Hence, the following ranges are allowed to use:
e1 Max1 Max2 Max3

## Multiple range instruments shall satisfy the following conditions:

On a multiple range instrument the deviation on returning to zero from Max1 shall not exceed 0.5 e1. Furthermore, after returning to zero from any load greater than Max1 and immediately after switching to the lowest weighing range, the indication near zero shall not vary by more than e1 during the following 5 minutes. Zero setting in any weighing range shall be effective also in the greater weighing ranges, if switching to a greater weighing range is possible while the instrument is loaded. The tare operation shall be effective also in the greater weighing ranges, if switching to a greater weighing range is possible while the instrument is loaded. A preset tare value may only be transferred from one weighing range to another one with a larger verification scale interval but shall then be rounded to the latter.

Load cells suitable for multiple range instruments should preferably have a high value (E max / v min). VPG has distinguished special MR versions in the latest certificates.

## 3. Requirements for Multi-Interval Instruments

A multi-interval weighing instrument has one weighing range, which is divided into partial weighing ranges, each with different scale intervals. The weighing range is determined automatically according to the load applied, both on increasing and decreasing loads. A multi-interval instrument offers the end-user more flexibility with its partial weighing ranges in comparison to multiple range instruments. It is possible to enter a lower partial range after a tare setting or by using a preset tarevalue. An example of a multi-interval weighing instrument with two partial ranges is given in the following diagram:

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

0.5

## (kg) 0.2 0.1

400

800

1000 (kg)

0 - 400 kg with e = 0.1 kg (4000 divisions) 0 - 800 kg with e = 0.2 kg (4000 divisions) 0 - 1000 kg with e = 0.5 kg (2000 divisions)
www.vpgtransducers.com 6

e2 e3

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

## Document Number: 11862 Revision 29-Nov-2011

VPG-03
VPG Transducers Legal Metrology
The requirements for load cells are: 3.1 The maximum capacity shall satisfy the condition: E max Q * Maxr * R / N 3.2 The maximum number of load cell intervals shall satisfy the condition: nlc n 3.3 The minimum load cell verification interval shall satisfy the condition: vmin e1 * R / N 3.4 The minimum dead load output return of the load cell shall satisfy the condition: DR 0.5 * e1 * R / N Or, where DR is not know (specifically specified on the R60-certificate) the following acceptable solution should be satisfied: nlc Maxr / e1 Where: ni: the number of verification scale intervals for partial range i (i = 1, 2, etc.) Maxr: the maximum capacity of the highest partial weighing range e1: the verification scale interval of the smallest partial weighing range 2) The number of scale verification intervals for each partial range should be smaller or equal to 3000. 3) The minimum scale verification interval can be calculated by: e1 vmin * N / R, e1 3500 * 2 / 7000 e1 1 kg Hence, e1 should be greater or equal to 1.0 kg 4) DR is specified as 2E max /7 500, hence the following formula should be applied: DR 0.5 * e1*R / N, 1750 / 7500 0.5 * e1*1 / 4 e1 1.87 => e1 = 2 kg Hence, the following partial ranges are allowed to be used: 0 - 6000 kg with e1 = 2 kg (3000 divisions) 6000 - 10000 kg with e2 = 5 kg (2000 divisions) These values are used in the diagram on the previous page. The error envelope for the above mentioned scale will be: 0 e1 - 500 e1 ~ 0 - 1000 kg max. error, 0.5 e1 ~ 1 kg 500 e1 - 2000 e1 ~1000 - 4000 kg max. error, 1.0 e1 ~ 2 kg 2000 e1 - 3000 e1~ 4000 - 6000 kg max. error, 1.5 e1 ~ 3 kg 1200 e2 - 2000 e2 ~ 6000 - 10000 kg max. error, 1.0 e2 ~ 5 kg

VPG Transducers model RLC has two versions, specially certified for multi-interval instruments. These versions are coded RLC-C3MI6 or RLC-C3MI7.5. Specifications: C3MI6DR = 2E max / 6000vmin = E max / 7000 C3MI7.5DR = 2E max / 7500vmin = E max / 7000

## 5 (kg) 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 1000 4000 6000 10000 (kg)

For example, a platform scale with a capacity of 10t is built with four load cells type RLC-C3MI7.5-3.5t, with vmin = E max/ 7000 and DR = 2E max / 7500. 1) The eccentricity behavior will be tested with: Maxr / (n - 1) = 10000 / 3 3250 kg This is well below the capacity of the load cell, hence, acceptable. Load cell capacity Emax (kg)
500 1000 2000 3500 5000
Document Number: 11862 Revision 29-Nov-2011

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

-5

By applying formula 3.3 and 3.4, the following values for e1 can be obtained: Recommended capacity Maxr (kg) 3LD-hopper
1000 2500 5000 8000 12000

0.5 0.5 1 2 5

## type C3MI7.7; 2 EMAX/7500 e1 (kg) 3LC

0.2 0.5 1 2 2

e1 (kg) 4LC
0.5 1 2 5 5

e1 (kg) 4LC
0.5 1 2 2 5

4LC-platform
1000 2500 5000 10000 12500
www.vpgtransducers.com 7

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com

VPG-03
VPG Transducers Legal Metrology
As a second example, a hopper with a capacity of 5000 kg is built with three load cells type RLC-C3MI6-2t, with vmin =E max / 7000. The smallest verification scale interval (e1) can be obtained from the table above and equals 1 kg. Hence, the following ranges are allowed to be used: 0 - 3000 kg with e = 1 kg (3000 divisions) 3000 - 5000 kg with e = 2 kg (1000 divisions) shall be rounded to the scale interval of the instrument for the same net weight value. It should be realized that the field of application for multiinterval weighing instruments has become smaller by the introduction of more accurate load cells and more sensitive measuring devices (indicators). The hopper-application on the previous page could for example also be served with three load cells type RLCC5-2t. However the advantage of multi-interval instruments are a stronger signal per division (V/d) and larger error limits at the high end of the measuring range (of particular interest at applications with the presents of force-shunts, i.e. hoppers).

## Multi-interval instruments shall satisfy the following conditions:

On a multi-interval instrument, the deviation on returning to zero as soon as the indication has stabilized, after the removal of any load which has remained on the instrument for one half hour, shall not exceed 0.5 e1. The maximum preset tare value shall not be greater than Max1 and the indicated or printed calculated net value

A PPL I CAT I O N N OT E

www.vpgtransducers.com 8

For technical support, contact in Americas lc.usa@vishaypg.com, in Europe lc.eur@vishaypg.com, in China lc.prc@vishaypg.com, in Taiwan lc.roc@vishaypg.com