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Diagram 1 shows the respiratory structure of an insect and a fish.



DIAGRAM 1 (a) (b) On diagram 1, name the respiratory system of P and Q. In a box below, draw a cross section through P, to show an important structure which involves in respiration


Diagram 2 shows the transport and exchange of respiratory gases between the alveolus, blood capillary and the body cells.

Diagram 2

(a) (i) Based on Diagram 2, name structure X:

(ii) State two adaptations of X in facilitating the diffusion of gases:

1) ....... 2) .......

(b) Explain why the concentration of oxygen in W is always lower than in X..
. . .. (c ) Describe one of the ways how carbon dioxide is transported in the blood: ....................... .


Diagram 3.1 shows an apparatus that can be used to explain the breathing mechanism.

Diagram 3.1

Diagram 3.2


(i) What does the rubber sheet represent ? ......

(ii) What will happen to the ballons when the rubber sheet is pulled downwards? ...

(iii) What phase of the breathing cycle is represented when the rubber sheet is allowed to return to its resting position ? . . (b) Based on Diagram 3.2, what parts of the human respiratory system do the labels J, K, L and M represent? P : Q : .. R: .. S :

(c )

Diagram 3.3 shows a worker in a cement factory wearing a mask.

DIAGRAM 3.3 What is the long term effect to the lungs if he neglects to wear the mask while working?


Figure 4 shows the various structures involved in the regulation of the carbon dioxide in the body fluid.

Changes in blood pH Cemoreceptor in medulla oblongata Chemoreceptor in medulla oblongata Drop / rise of carbon dioxide concentration Carotid body

Cemoreceptor in medulla oblongata

Describe the regulation of carbon dioxide in the blood during a vigorous exercise

Aortic bodies