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Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition IMECE2012 November 9-15, 2012, Houston

IMECE 2012-93028
Alternative Fuel to promising future for transportation Industry: A review
Vibhor Jajoo* Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University *Corresponding author (email: vibhor.jajoo.bhu@gmail.com) Abstract

With the fast depleting fossil fuel reserve and increasing environmental hazards due to their burning, alternative energy sources are being highly debated and researched from last decade. The beginning of 21 st century has brought high investment in this area by various governments around the world due to it being centre of worlds politics, resulting in lot of alternative are available in research division and market. It is necessary to inspect whether these fuels are really promising for future or just a false note in regards to availability, production, safety, cost, emission and sustainability. According to hubberts peak theory petroleum reserves will last till 2050, so we need to switch from petroleum to some renewable now. Unfortunately petroleum reserve is concentrated in very few region and most of them are politically unstable. That make much more sense for not to be dependent on only fossil fuels. This paper aim to review and examine various fuels in todays scenario showing promising sustainable future. Past study shows that nuclear energy is most promising for future but current crisis in Japan enforce us to rethink on this. Due to hazards created by man over nature, it tries to restore itself by such natural disaster. On other hand Blend of petroleum or artificial oil with alcohols and vegetable oil performs do best in regards to

combustion and emission characteristics. Against reported by some authors about unavailability of land in production of biodiesel, it should be considered that around 29% of total government land has no use. Only in India 36 million hectare land of government is not currently in use, out of which 28 million litre of biodiesel can be obtained on basis of model of Brazil. Secondly Increasing world population would make reduce of land available for these flues. It should also be remembered that these alternatives may be used in current engines without making any big changes. Another promising future shown by solar energy as it is safe, sustainable and comparable to price of petroleum economy but the problem with this source is that its availability does not remain same in all part of world and efficiency vary over whole year depend on weather. Another problem with this energy system is that solar equipments cannot be movable and too heavy in regards to transportation vehicle. A statically study is done evaluating these fuels in various categories with different credit allotted to each category depended on scenario in future and suggest government to invest wisely. It is also necessary to suggest transportation industry about their research division should be focussed on reducing fuel consumption and developing new propulsion based on unconventional fuel sources.