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Ena Ryan 6th Year

The number of non-Irish nationals and present in Ireland at the time of Census 2011 was 544,357 (i.e. 12% of the population). This is an increase of 29.7% since 2006. Migration causes people from different cultures to mix; this mixing is not

always successful.
Tensions may arise between the immigrants and the resident population. Migrants may not be welcomed into new communities because they are judged by the people in the area based on stereotypes. Immigrants are put under pressure and stress trying to adjust to their new community, different culture, and perhaps even a new language.

*Race is the division of humanity into groups based on their physical features. *Racism is the belief that people are inferior because of their physical features or ethnic group. Irelands levels of racism are rising due to the increasing numbers of foreign nationals living in the country. Long-term residents in Ireland from ethnic minorities are experiencing more abuse and racism in recent years than they ever did in the past. Attitude surveys carried out across the country show that the Irish are not very tolerant with foreign nationals when compared to other European countries A survey on racism carried out in 2006 reported that 35% of immigrants have experienced abuse or discrimination in public areas (ESRI).

Below are the overall yearly totals of reported racism crimes

(office for the promotion of migrant integration: Year 2003 2004 68 2005 100 2006 173 2007 214 2008 172 2009 128 2010 127 2011 114

Crimes 64

Racism has many forms and affects a wide range of groups in Ireland such as 1. Racism experienced by travellers. The All-Ireland Health Study gives a figure of around 36,000 Travellers living in the Republic of Ireland, with about 4,000 more living in Northern Ireland. The Census 2011 suggests the number is slightly lower. 2. Racism experienced by recent migrants from Eastern Europe. The Polish community in Ireland amounts to 122,585 i.e. 22.5% of nonIrish national total. This makes it the largest group of non-nationals in the country, which is closely followed by the UK, Lithuanian and Latvian populations. 3. Racism experienced by African and other ethnic groups. The population of Nigerian immigrants in Ireland amounts to 17,642 i.e. 3.2% of non-Irish national total, making it the 6th largest group in Ireland. 4. Racism experienced by Jews and Muslims. Members of Irelands Muslim community now number 49,204, and Irelands declining Jewish community now amounts to 1,984.

5. Racism experienced by refugees and asylum seekers.

A Refugee is someone who leaves their country because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on their religion, race or politics, and who has been given refugee status in a country to which they have moved An Asylum seeker is a person who applies for a refugee status in a country to which they have moved.

Racism can have many different forms such as 1. Discrimination 2. Assaults, threatening behaviour, harassment etc. 3. Insults and Labelling 4. The combination of racism with other forms of discrimination such as disadvantages in housing, employment, wages and healthcare services. The 5 aims of the National Policy against racism: Everybody, regardless of nationality have the right to: 1 2 3 4 5 Participate fully in all areas of life Be recognised for who they are Be provided for in government services Be included in all areas of economic and social life Be protected by the same laws as everybody else.

Many migrants feel isolated when they enter their new host country because of problems with: Language Misunderstandings about religion Adapting to social interaction Adapting to a new culture

New migrants are attracted to living close to others when they first arrive. This can result in some areas being directly associated with their migrants, e.g.

The Polish community in Newbridge, Co. Kildare.

This can be a positive factor for society, e.g. Chinatown in New York. It can also lead to the creation of ghettos; these are areas of low income, poor quality housing associated with particular migrant groups, e.g. Irish ghettos in Boston in the 20th Century.