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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout


Po s t e d OCT 1 20 12 by S P RA B A K A R 2 2 in H I G H V OLTA G E , P OW E R S U BS TA TION , TRAN SMISSION AN D DIS T R I B UT ION w it h 7 C OMME N T S

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http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/designing-of-hv-power-substation-and-layout#content[21-03-2013 18:44:55]

Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

Content
1. Introduction 2. Earthing and Bonding 3. Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology( Earthing Materials) 4. Layout of Substation 5. Different Layouts for Substations (single busbar, mesh, 1 1/2 cb) 6. Principle of Substation Layouts (spatial separation, maintenance zones) 7. Components of a Substation (cbs, cts, isolators, insulation, transformers etc.)

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Introduction
Substations are the points in the power network where transmission lines and distribution feeders are connected together through circuit breakers or switches via busbars and transformers. This allows for the control of power flows in the network and general switching operations for maintenance purposes. The first step in designing a power substation is to design an earthing and bonding system. Go to Content

Earthing and Bonding


The function of an earthing and bonding system is to provide an earthing system connection to which transformer neutrals or earthing impedances may be connected in order to pass the maximum fault current. The earthing system also ensures that no thermal or mechanical damage occurs on the equipmentwithin the power substation, thereby resulting in safety too peration and maintenance personnel. The earthing system also guarantees equipotential bonding such that there are no dangerous potential gradients developed in the substation.

In designing the substation, three voltage have to be considered: 1. Touch Voltage: This is the difference in potential between the surf ace potential and the potential at anEarthed equipment whilst a man is standing and touching the earthed structure. 2. Step Voltage: This is the potential difference developed when a man bridges a distance of 1m with hisFeet while not touching any other earthed equipment. 3. Mesh Voltage: This is the maximum touch voltage that is developed inthe mesh of the earthing grid.

Go to Content

Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/designing-of-hv-power-substation-and-layout#content[21-03-2013 18:44:55]

Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

Calculations for earth impedances and touch and step potentials are based on site measurements of ground resistivity and system fault levels. A grid layout with particular conductors is then analyzed to determine the effective substation earthing resistance, from which the earthing voltage is calculated. In practice, it is normal to take the highest fault level for substation earth grid calculation purposes. Additionally, it is necessary to ensure a sufficient margin such that expansion of the system is catered for. To determine the earth resistivity, probe tests are carried out on the site. These tests are best performed in dry weather such that conservative resistivity readings are obtained.

Earthing Materials
1. Conductors
Bare copper conductor is usually used for the substation earthing grid. The copper bars Themselves usually have a cross-sectional area of 95 square millimeters, and they are laid at a shallow Depth of 0.25-0.5m, in 3-7m squares. In addition to the buried potential earth grid, a separate above ground earthing ring is usually provided, to which all metallic substation plant is bonded.

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2. Connections:
Connections to the grid and other earthing joints should not be soldered because the heat generated during fault conditions could cause a soldered joint to fail. Joints are usually bolted and in this case, the face of the joints should be tinned.

3. Earthing Rods
The earthing grid must be supplemented by earthing rods to assist in the dissipation of earth fault currents and further reduce the overall substation earthing resistance. These rods are usually made of solid copper , or copper clad steel.

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4. Switchyard Fence
Earthing: The switchyard fence earthing practices are possibleand are used by different utilities. These are: 1. Extend the substation earth grid 0.5m-1.5m beyond the fence perimeter. The fence is thenbonded to the grid at regular intervals. 2. Place the fence beyond the perimeter of the switchyard earthing grid and bond the fence to its own earthing rod system. This earthing rod system is not coupled to the main substation earthing grid. Go to Content

Layout of Substation
The layout of the substation is very important since there should be a security of supply. In an idealsubstation all circuits and equipment would be duplicated such that following a fault, or

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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

during maintenance, a connection remains available. Practically this is not feasible since the cost of implementingsuch a design is very high. Methods have been adopted to achieve a compromise between completesecurity of supply and capital investment. There are four categories of substation that give varyingsecurities of supply: Category 1 - No outage is necessary within the substation for either maintenance or fault conditions. Category 2 - Short outage is necessary to transfer the load to an alternative circuit for maintenance or fault conditions. Category 3 - Loss of a circuit or section of the substation due to fault or maintenance. Category 4 - Loss of the entire substation due to fault or maintenance. Go to Content

Different Layouts for Substations


Single Busbar
The general schematic for such a substation is shown in the figure below.

Single- busbar substation layout

With this design, there is an ease of operation of the substation. This design also places minimumreliance on signalling for satisfactory operation of protection. Additionally there is the facility to support the economical operation of future feeder bays. Such a substation has the following characteristics: 1. Each circuit is protected by its own circuit breaker and hence plant outage does not necessarily result in loss of supply. 2. A fault on the feeder or transformer circuit breaker causes loss of the transformer and feedercircuit, one of which may be restored after isolating the faulty circuit breaker. 3. A fault on the bus section circuit breaker causes complete shutdown of the substation. All circuits may be restored after isolating the faulty circuit breaker. A busbar fault causes loss of one transformer and one feeder. 4. Maintenance of one busbar section or isolator will cause the temporary outage of two circuits. 5. Maintenance of a feeder or transformer circuit breaker involves loss of the circuit. 6. Introduction of bypass isolators between busbar and circuit isolator allows circuit breaker maintenance facilities without loss of that circuit.

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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

Go to Content

Mesh Substation
The general layout for a full mesh substation is shown in the schematic below.

Full mesh substation layout

The characteristics of such a substation are as follows. Operation of two circuit breakers is required to connect or disconnect a circuit , and disconnection involves opening of a mesh. Circuit breakers may be maintained without loss of supply or protection, and no additional bypass facilities are required. Busbar faults will only cause the loss of one circuit breaker. Breaker faults will involve the loss of amaximum of two circuits. generally, not more than twice as many outgoing circuits as in feeds are used in order to rationalize circuit equipment load capabilities and ratings. Go to Content

One and a half Circuit Breaker layout


The layout of a 1 1/2 circuit breaker substation is shown in the schematic below.

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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

One and a half Circuit Breaker layout

The reason that such a layout is known as a 1 1/2 circuit breaker is due to the fact that in the design, thereare 9 circuit breakers that are used to protect the 6 feeders. Thus, 1 1/2 circuit breakers protect 1 feeder. Some characteristics of this design are: 1. There is the additional cost of the circuit breakers together with the complex arrangement. 2. It is possible to operate any one pair of circuits, or groups of pairs of circuits. 3. There is a very high security against the loss of supply. Go to Content

Principle of Substation Layouts


Substation layout consists essentially in arranging a number of switchgear components in an orderedpattern governed by their function and rules of spatial separation.

Spatial Separation
1. Earth Clearance - this is the clearance between live parts and earthed structures, walls, screens andground. 2. Phase Clearanc- this is the clearance between live parts of different phases. 3. Isolating Distance - this is the clearance between the terminals of an isolator and the connections There to. 4. Section Clearance - this is the clearance between live parts and the terminals of a work section. Thelimits of this work section, or maintenance zone, may be the ground or a platform from which theman works. Go to Content

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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

Separation of Maintenance Zones


Two methods are available for separating equipment in a maintenance zone that has been isolated andmade dead: 1. The provision of a section clearance 2. Use of an intervening earthed barrier The choice between the two methods depends on the voltage and whether horizontal or verticalclearances are involved.A section clearance is composed of a the reach of a man, taken as 8 feet, plus an earth clearance.For the voltage at which the earth clearance is 8 feet, the space required will be the same whether asection clearance or an earthed barrier is used. HENCE: Separation by earthed barrier = Earth Clearance + 50mm for barrier + Earth Clearance Separation by section clearance = 2.44m + Earth clearance For vertical clearances it is necessary to take into account the space occupied by the equipment andthe need for an access platform at higher voltages.The height of the platform is taken as 1.37m below the highest point of work. Go to Content

Establishing Maintenance Zones


Some maintenance zones are easily defined and the need for them is self evident as is the case of a circuitbreaker. There should be a means of isolation on each side of the circuit breaker, and to separate it fromadjacent live parts, when isolated, either by section clearances or earth barriers. Go to Content

Electrical Separations
Together with maintenance zoning, the separation, by isolating distance and phase clearances, ofthe substation components and of the conductors interconnecting them constitute the main basis ofsubstation layouts. There are at least three such electrical separations per phase that are needed in a circuit: 1. Between the terminals of the bus bar isolator and their connections. 2. Between the terminals of the circuit breaker and their connections. 3. Between the terminals of the feeder isolator and their connections. Go to Content

Components of a Substation
The substation components will only be considered to the extent where they influence substation layout.

Circuit Breakers
There are two forms of open circuit breakers: 1. Dead Tank circuit breaker compartment is at earth potential.

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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

2. Live Tank circuit breaker compartment is at line potential. The form of circuit breaker influences the way in which the circuit breaker is accommodated. This may be one of four ways.

1. Ground Mounting and Plinth Mounting


The main advantages of this type of mounting are its simplicity, ease of erection , ease of maintenance and elimination of support structures. An added advantage is that in indoor substations, there is the reduction in the height of the building. A disadvantage however is that to prevent danger to personnel, the circuit breaker has to be surrounded by an earthed barrier, which increases the area required.

Retractable Circuit Breakers


These have the advantage of being space saving due to the fact that isolators can be accommodated in the same area of clearance that has to be allowed between the retractable circuit breaker and the live fixed contacts. Another advantage is that there is the ease and safety of maintenance. Additionally such a mounting is economical since at least two insulators per phase are still needed to support the fixed circuit breaker plug contacts.

Suspended Circuit Breakers


At higher voltages tension insulators are cheaper than post or pedestal insulators. With this type of mounting the live tank circuit breaker is suspended by tension insulators from overhead structures , and held in a stable position by similar insulators tensioned to the ground. There is the claimed advantage of reduced costs and simplified foundations, and the structures used to suspend the circuit breakers may be used for other purposes. Go to Content

Current Transformers
CTs may be accommodated in one of six manners: 1. Over Circuit Breaker bushings or in pedestals. 2. In separate post type housings. 3. Over moving bushings of some types of insulators. 4. Over power transformers of reactor bushings. 5. Over wall or roof bushings. 6. Over cables. In all except the second of the list, the CTs occupy incidental space and do not affect the size of thelayout. The CTs become more remote from the circuit breaker in the order listed above. Accommodationof CTs over isolator bushings, or bushings through walls or roofs, is usually confined to indoorsubstations. Go to Content

Isolators
These are essentially off load devices although they are capable of dealing with small charging currents ofbusbars and connections. The design of isolators is closely related to the design of substations. Isolatordesign is considered in the following aspects: Space Factor Insulation Security Standardisation

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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

Ease of Maintenance Cost Some types of isolators include: Horizontal Isolation types Vertical Isolation types Moving Bushing types Go to Content

Conductor Systems
An ideal conductor should fulfil the following requirements: Should be capable of carrying the specified load currents and short time currents. Should be able to withstand forces on it due to its situation. These forces comprise self weight, and Weight of other conductors and equipment, short circuit forces and atmospheric forces such as wind and ice loading. Should be corona free at rated voltage. Should have the minimum number of joints. Should need the minimum number of supporting insulators. Should be economical. The most suitable material for the conductor system is copper or aluminium . Steel may be used but haslimitations of poor conductivity and high susceptibility to corrosion.In an effort to make the conductor ideal, three different types have been utilized, and these include: Flat surfaced Conductors Stranded Conductors Tubular Conductors Go to Content

Insulation
Insulation security has been rated very highly among the aims of good substation design. Extensiveresearch is done on improving flashover characteristics as well as combating pollution. Increased creepagelength, resistance glazing, insulation greasing and line washing have been used with varying degrees ofsuccess. Go to Content

Power Transformers
EHV power transformers are usually oil immersed with all three phases in one tank. Auto transformerscan offer advantage of smaller physical size and reduced losses. The different classes of powertransformers are: o.n.: Oil immersed, natural cooling o.b.: Oil immersed, air blast cooling o.f.n.: Oil immersed, oil circulation forced o.f.b.: Oil immersed, oil circulation forced, air blast cooling

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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

Power transformers are usually the largest single item in a substation. For economy of service roads, transformers are located on one side of a substation, and the connection to switchgear is by bare conductors. Because of the large quantity of oil, it is essential to take precaution against the spread of fire. Hence, the transformer is usually located around a sump used to collect the excess oil. Transformers that are located and a cell should be enclosed in a blast proof room. Go to Content

Overhead Line Terminations


Two methods are used to terminate overhead lines at a substation. 1. Tensioning conductors to substation structures or buildings 2. Tensioning conductors to ground winches. The choice is influenced by the height of towers and the proximity to the substation.The following clearances should be observed: Voltage Level Less than 66kV 66kV 110kV 110kV 165kV Greater than165kV Go to Content Resource: Mr Alvin Lutchman, Lecturer at University of West Indies Minimum Ground Clearance 6.1 m 6.4 m 6.7 m 7.0 m

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TAGS
circuit breaker, clearance, fault, live parts, maintenance, substation, substation earthing

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High Voltage Power Substation Transmission and Distribution

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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

sprabakar22 - Working as a Design Engineer - Electrical

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High Voltage Substations Overview (Part 1) | EEP


JAN 25, 2013

[...] High voltage substations are interconnection points within the power transmission and distribution systems between regions and countries. Different applications of substations lead to high voltage [...]
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@sprabakar22 Dear Sir , can you suggest me some good book so that I can get to know in detail and master the various calculations needed for equipment selection in a Mukultyagi
JAN 19, 2013

switch-yard (say 33/11 kv ) equipments like circuit breaker , PT , CT, Power Transformer ..and so on similarly the various calculations for the relay settings , protection , earthing . Thank you very much Mukul tyagi mx.j262@gmail.com
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hello please your pdf file Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout in the web site
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M_mis
NOV 13, 2012

Hi Prabakar, It is indeed a good effort. Expecting more articles from various interesting topics. Best of Luck. Anithin
OCT 03, 2012

All the Best. Thanks. A.Nithiyanandam


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Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout | EEP

Thanks sir, Prabakar. Sprabakar22


OCT 04, 2012

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Hi Prabhakar, A really nice article to have an idea about HV substation,there is a request do Jeet29
OCT 03, 2012

you anything which covers almost all of the part for a MV substation? Or else if possible for you then can you please help me out with that, actually i am looking for a guide which is having complete information about the Medium voltage substation including SLDs, equipment selection, commissioning and testing to have a thorough knowledge? Keep up the good work . Thanks and regards, Jitendra
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Hi Jitendra, Thanks for the comments and i dont have any complete packages that covers Sprabakar22
OCT 04, 2012

about MV substation. though i will update the article which covers the MV substation. And for the guide about MV check in EEP. and check the Schneider UK. Thanks, Prabakar
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