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CHECKLISTFORLEARNINGDISABILITIES

TakenfromthebookLearningDisabilitiesAtoZwrittenbySmithandStrick Therearetwotypesoflearningdisabilities:(1)NonverbalLearningDisabilities(NLD)and(2)Languagebased LearningDisabilities.LearningDisabilitiessharemanysymptomswiththeautismspectrumdisorders.Inorderto beconsideredatruelearningdisability,thesymptom(s)mustnotbebetteraccountedforbythepersonsprimary diagnosissuchasautism,PDDNOS,orAspergersSyndrome.Manystudentswithlearningdisabilitieshave difficultywithsocialskills,sensoryprocessing,andlanguageprocessing. NonverbalLearningDisabilitiesaredisordersthatinterferewithtraditionallearningandcansometimesmimic partsoftheautismspectrumdisorders.Someoftheseinclude:AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder,visual perceptiondisabilities(suchasreadingordyslexia,writingordysgraphia,andmathematicalordyscaluca),and motordisabilities(fineorgrossmotorcoordination).IntheirbookLearningDisabilitiesAtoZ,SmithandStrick createdthebelowchecklistsforlearningdisabilities. VisualPerceptionDisabilityChecklist Itisnormalforchildrentodisplayafewofthesymptomsonthislist.Alearningdisabilitymayberesponsibleif manyofthesebehaviorsarepresent,andiftheypersistbeyondtheagewheresucherrorsaretypical Writing

Dislikesandavoidswriting Delaysinlearningtowrite Papersaremessyandincomplete;manycrossoutsanderasures Difficultyrememberingshapesoflettersandnumbers Frequentletterandnumberreversals Unevenspacingbetweenlettersandwords Omitslettersfromwordsandwordsfromsentences Inaccuratecopying Poorspelling(spellsphonetically) Cannotspoterrorsinownwork Difficultypreparingoutlinesandorganizingwrittenwork

Reading Confusessimilarlookingletters(bandd,pandq) Difficultyrecognizingandrememberingsightwords(butcansoundswordsoutphonetically) Frequentlylosesplacewhenreading Confusessimilarlookingwords(breadandbeard) Reverseswords(readswasforsaw) Hastroublefindinglettersinwordsorwordsinsentences Poormemoryforprintedwords(alsonumbersequences,diagrams,illustrations,andsoon) Poorcomprehensionofmainideasandthemes

Math

Pooralignmentofproblemsresultsincomputationerrors,difficultymemorizingmathfacts,multiplication
tables,formulas,andequations

Troubleinterpretinggraphs,charts,anddiagrams Difficultywithhigherlevelmathconcepts
RelatedProblems:

Confusesleftandright Difficultyestimatingtime,beingontime Poorsenseofdirection;slowtolearnhisorherwayaroundanewplace Difficultyjudgingspeedanddistance(interfereswithmanygames;canbeaproblemwhendrivingacar) Hastroublegettingtothepoint;becomesboggeddownindetails Doesnotpickuponotherpeoplesmoodsandfeelings(resultsinoftensayingthewrongthingsatthewrong time) Poorplanningandorganizationalskills Oftenlosesthings;cannotspotobjectsinplainsight Distasteforpuzzles,mazes,orotheractivitieswithastrongvisualelement Difficultyperceivingstrategiesforbeingsuccessfulingames(maynotunderstandthegoal)

FineMotor: Athome:

Appearsawkwardandclumsy;oftendropsthings,spillsthings,knocksthingsover HasdifficultypickingupandusingsmallobjectssuchaspuzzlepiecesorLegos Hastroublewithbuttons,hooks,andzipperswhendressing;findsitverydifficulttotieshoes Unsuccessfulingamesandactivitiesthatinvolvehandskills(catscradle,pianolessons,basketball) Poorcoloringability;cannotkeepwithinlines Artworklooksimmatureforage(drawingsfromimaginationareusuallybetterthaneffortsatcopying designs) Difficultyusingscissors Awkwardpencilgrip(mayholdpenciltoolooselyortootightly) Delaysinlearningtowrite;writingislargeandimmature,lettersandnumbersarepoorlyformed Maybedelayedinlearningtospeakorhavearticulatingproblems

Atschool:

Poorhandwriting(sloppy,illegible,poorspacing,inconsistentlettersize,noconsistentstyle,straysfromlines
onpaper) Papersaremessy(tornandcrumpledwithmanycrossouts,smudges,andincompleteerasures) Markedslowness,exceptionaleffort,andfrustrationnotedduringwritingtasks Dislikeandavoidanceofwritingordrawing Content/styleofwrittenassignmentsIpoorprimaryfocusisonalignednumerals) Inseverecases,difficultylearningkeyboardskills

LanguageBasedLearningDisabilitieseffecteitherverbaloutput(meaningspeech)orprocessing(meaningwords areunderstoodclearlybutthemeaningislost).Manystudentswithlanguagebasedlearningdisabilitiesmayhave difficultywithlanguageacquisitioncausingthemtospeaklaterindevelopmentorwithdelayedwordretrieval. Mostpeoplehaveexperiencedwordretrievalissuesatonepointoranotherthisoccurswhenyouaretryingto thinkoftheitemsnameorinthegrocerystoreyoujustcantrememberwhatyouvegoneinforbutforpeople withwordretrievalissuesthisisaneverydayoccurrenceand,forsome,occurseverytimetheyspeak. Otherstudentshavedifficultywithfluency,verbalmemory(suchasmemorizingastringofverbaldirections),or auditoryprocessing,meaningthestudentunderstandseachwordthatisbeingsaidtohim/her,buts/hecant interpretthemeaningfromasentence.IntheirbookLearningDisabilitiesAtoZ,SmithandStrickalsocreatedthe belowchecklistsforLanguageBasedlearningdisabilities. LanguageProcessingDisabilityChecklist Itisnormalforchildrentodisplayafewbehaviorsonthislist.Apersistentpatternofmanyofthesesymptoms, however,manyindicatealearningdisability. SpeechandLanguageComprehension

Delaysinlearningtospeak Doesnotmodulatetoneofvoiceappropriately;speaksinmonotone,ortooloud Hasproblemsnamingobjectsorpeople Usesvague,impreciselanguage;hasasmallvocabulary Speechissloworhalting;usesverbalstallingmechanism(uh,um,youknow) Usespoorgrammar Frequentlymispronounceswords Confuseswordswithsimilarsounds(suchasfrustrateandfluctuate;mayproducehybridssuchasflustrate) Oftenuseshandgesturesandbodylanguagetohelpconveymessage Avoidstalking(especiallyinfrontofstrangers,authorityfigures,orgroups) Insensitivetorhymes Littleinterestinbooksorstories Doesnotrespondappropriatelytoquestions(repliesMondaywhenaskedWheredoyougotoschool?) Frequentlydoesnotunderstandorrememberinstructions

Reading

Significantdelaysinlearningtoread Difficultynamingletters Problemsassociatingletterswithsounds,discriminatingbetweensoundsinwords,blendingsoundsinto


words

Difficultyanalyzingsoundsequences;frequentsequencingerrors(suchasreadingsnugforsung) Guessesatunfamiliarwordsratherthanusingwordanalysisskills Readsveryslowly;oralreadingdeteriorateswithinafewsentences(duetodecliningabilitytoretrievesounds


rapidlyfrommemory)

Comprehensionforwhathasbeenreadisconsistentlypoor,ordeteriorateswhensentencesbecomelonger
andmorecomplex

Poorretentionofnewvocabularywords Dislikesandavoidsreading
Writing Writtenassignmentsareshortorincomplete;oftencharacterizedbybriefsentences,limitedvocabulary Problemswithgrammarpersist Bizarrespellingerrors(notphonetic);studentsmaybeunabletodecipherownspelling Ideasinwrittenassignmentsarepoorlyorganized,notlogicallypresented Littlethemedevelopment;studentsaremorelikelytowritebarelistsofpointsoreventsthanprovidedetails ordevelopideas,characters,orplot Ontests,consistentlydoesbetterwithmultiplechoicequestionsthanessaysorfillinginblanks Math

Slowresponseduringmathfactdrillsduetoproblemswithnumberretrieval Difficultywithwordproblemsduetopoorlanguagecomprehension Problemswithhigherlevelmathduetodifficultieswithanalysisandlogicalreasoning


RelatedProblems

garblestelephonemessages;misunderstandswhatisheardonradioorTV difficultywithverbalreasoning;mayunderstandallthewordsintheproverbArollingstonegathersno
mossbutbeunabletoexplainwhatitmeans;mayfindithardtodrawlogicalconclusions problemsunderstandingpunsandjokes;maynotdetectteasing difficultymakingcomparisonsandclassifyingobjectsorideas difficultyrememberinginformationorproducingfactsorideasondemand difficultypresentingastoryordirectionsinlogicalorder typesofproblemsencounteredlearningEnglisharelikelytoberepeatedwhenstudyingaforeignlanguage difficultyjoiningormaintainingconversations