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Content Chapter 1 : Leadership Chapter 2 : Leadership Theories and Styles Chapter 3 : Leadership Leadership Skills Chapter 4 : Leadership Lessons through Literature Chapter 5 : Team Work and Team Building Chapter 6 : Interpersonal Skills Conversation, Feedback, Feed forward Chapter 7 : Interpersonal Skills Delegation, Humor, Trust, Expectations, Values, Status Chapter 8 : Conflict Management Types of Conflicts Chapter 9 : Conflict Management Coping Strategies Chapter 10 : Conflict Management Conflict Management Styles Chapter 11 : Positive Thinking Attitude, Beliefs Chapter 12 : Positive Thinking Martin Seligmans theory of Learn Helplessness

Chapter 1 Leadership

From ancient times, the topic of leadership has generated excitement and interest. When people think about leadership, images come to mind of powerful dynamic individuals who command victorious armies (Alexander, Napolean, Shivaji), shape the events of nations ( Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Abraham Lincoln), develop religions (Gautam Buddha, Guru Nanak) or direct corporate empire ( Bill Gates, Jack Welch, JRD Tata, Dhirubhai Ambani). How did these leaders build such great armies, countries, religions, and companies? Why do certain leaders have dedicated followers, while others do not? It wasnt until the twentieth century that researchers attempted to scientifically answer such questions, using many different definitions. Defining Leadership In his survey of leadership theories and research, Ralph M. Stogdill pointed out that, there are almost as many different definitions of leadership, as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept. Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement (Stogdill, 1950, p. 3)

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Three key components to this definition: - an interpersonal process between one person and a group - cant have leaders without followers - criterion for effective leadership = goal achievement Some working definitions of leadership and related concepts: While management works in the system, Leadership works on the system. . The genius of leadership lies in the manner in which leaders see and act on their own and their followers values and motivations. Leadership is an affair of heart, not of the head. Leadership is the process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leadership or shared by the leader and his or her followers. Leadership is what gives an organization its vision and its ability to translate that vision into reality. Leadership is an art, something to be learned over time, not simply by reading books. Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation. Leadership is a privilege to have the responsibility to direct the action of others. Power is the ability to get others to do what you want them to do. Leadership, as distinct from power, consists of three components: The ability to influence others The willingness to do so The ability to influence in such a way those others responds willingly.

Often these definitions are like the blind mans description of an elephant. When touching the elephant, the blind men determined an elephant was four pillars and wall with a rope on one end and a hosed on the other. He was able to discern the parts but unable to see the whole. Leadership may be one of those things that are easier caught than taught. Despite our best efforts to the contrary, attempts at defining leadership tends to focus on the parts rather than the whole. Various leadership definitions tend to focus in four areas. Some definitions describe leadership in the context of the person who is leader. Others describe the process by which leader lead. Still others tend to focus on the leaders persuade to follow. Then there are those who describe leader in the context of the people being led. Comprehensive Definition of Leadership : Leadership is influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change. Leadership Definition Key Elements

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Leader-Follower : In the above definition of Leadership the influencing process is between leaders and followers, not just a leader influencing followers; its a two way process. Knowing how to lead and developing leadership skills will make you a better leader and follower. Influence : Influencing is the process of a leader communicating ideas, gaining acceptance of them, and motivating followers to support and implement the ideas through change. Influence is the essence of leadership. Influencing includes power, politics and negotiating. Organizational Objectives : High performance leaders influence followers to think not only of their own interests, but the interest of the organization. Leadership occurs when followers are influenced to do what is ethical and beneficial for the organization and themselves. Leaders need to provide direction; with the input of the followers, they set challenging objectives and lead the charge ahead to achieve them. Change : Influencing and setting objectives is about change. Organizations need to continually change, in adapting to the rapidly changing global environment. People : Although the term people is not specifically mentioned in the above definition of Leadership, after reading about the other elements, one can realize that leadership is about leading people. Effective Leadership : Leaders with the power and personal traits to be effective in a leadership situation can lead by taking four sets of actions: Providing a vision. Thinking like a leader. Using the right leadership style. Using organizational behavior leadership skills.

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Leader Vs Manager Leadership can, however, be simply defined as the act of making an impact on others in a desired direction. In this sense leadership is a broader term than management. Leaders are people who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority. Managers can run organizations effectively, but only leaders can build them. Personality Dimension Attitudes toward goals Conceptions of work Relationships with others Sense of self Manager Impersonal, passive, functional; goals arise out of necessity, reality Combines people, ideas, things; seeks moderate risk Prefers to work with others; avoids close relationships and conflicts Accepts life as it is; unquestioning Leader Personal, active, goals arise from desire, imagination Looks for fresh approaches to old problems; seeks high risk Comfortable in solitary work; encourages close relationships, not averse to conflict Questions life; struggles for sense of order

Managers and leaders are entirely different: - leaders develop visions and drive changes while managers monitor progress and solve problems (Zalenik, 1977) - managers do things right, while leaders do the right thing (Bennis and Nanus, 1985) Leaders goals are to motivate others to accomplish work/class tasks and to feel that they are contributing to their own professionalism. Chapter 2 Leadership Theories and Styles From ancient times, scholars have propose theories of leadership to explain why certain leaders- that is kings, religious leaders, and military leaders-were effective and successful, where as others were not. Until the 20th century, these theories were largely trait theories. Such theories assumed that one or more specific temperament, character, or social trait, such as intelligence, speaking ability, energy level, or dominance, accounted for a leaders success or effectiveness. More recently, other leadership theories have been proposed that focus on the leaders behavior patterns, situational factors, and relational factors that ostensibly offer more potent and compelling explanations than do trait theories. Different approaches used to study leadership can be categorized as : (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Trait Theories Behavioural Theories Contingency Theories Situational Theory of Leadership Leadership Functions Theories Some Recent Theories

( A ) Trait Theories According to trait theories, people are born with certain inherited traits. The belief in earlier approaches was that some traits are particularly suited to leadership, and people who make good leaders possess the

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right (or sufficient) combination of these traits, which distinguish them from non-leader. Therefore, studies have tried to discover those special traits of great leaders. Some of these trait theories are : 1. Stogdills Trait Theory Stogdill reviewed more hundred such studies and concluded that while leaders were found to be superior to non-leaders in specific abilities such as intelligence and physical size, there were no specific traits that distinguished leaders from non-leaders. Stogdills study almost put an end to the trait approach to leadership. However, he did suggest the traits (inborn characteristics) and skills (competences) of successful leaders. Traits and Skills of Leaders Traits ( Inborn Characteristics) Adaptable Alert to social environment Achievement oriented Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility Skills ( Competences) Clever (Intelligent) Conceptually Skilled Creative Diplomatic and Tactful Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organized ( administrative ability) Persuasive Socially Skilled

2. McCall and Lombardos Trait Theory of Successes and Failures of Leaders


Based on a study of successes and failures of leaders, McCall and Lombardo identified four primary traits, by which leader could succeed or fail. These traits are :

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Emotional stability and composure Calm, confident and predictable, particularly during stressful situation. Admitting Errors Owning mistakes, rather than covering them up. Good interpersonal skills Ability to communicate and persuade others with restoring negative or coercive tactics. Intellectual breadth Ability to understand wide range of areas (open-minded), rather than having a narrow area of expertise (narrow-minded).

3. Bennis and Thomass Trait Theory of Effective Leaders Bennis and Thomas, based on in-depth interviews of more than forty leaders, both young and old, have suggested the following four characteristics of effective leaders.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Adaptive capacity Hardiness, keen observance, proactive seizing of opportunities and creativity. Engaging others by creating shared meaning encouraging dissent, empathy, and obsessive communication. Voice Purpose, self-awareness, self-confident, and emotional intelligence. Integrity ambition, competence, and moral compass.

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Weakness of Trait Theory Ignores the followers and the situation Does not differentiate regarding the specific value of each trait Correlation evidence only (not causal) (B) Behavioural Theories

There are two main assumptions underlying behavioural theories: (1) leaders are made, rather than born, and (2) successful leadership is based on definable, learnable behaviour. Instead of searching inborn traits or capabilities, behavioural theories look at what leaders actually do. According to these theories, if success can be defined in terms of describable behaviour, then it should be relatively easy for other people to learn to behave in the same way. The assumption that leadership capability can be learned provides great hope for leadership development. This approach studies the behaviour of successful leaders. Studies based on large samples can help in identifying statistically significant behaviours that differentiate successful leaders from ineffective leaders. The renewed interest in trait is based on such behavioural research.

1. Three Dimensional Theory


Kurt Lewin and colleagues carried out leadership-decision experiments in 1939, and identified the following three different styles of leadership, in particular, regarding decision making.

(i)

Autocratic : Autocratic leaders take decisions on their own, without consulting others. From the experiments of Lewin et al it was found that this style resulted in very high level of discontent. Autocratic leaders are effective when there is no need for others contribution to the decision making, and where the motivation of the people to implement the decision would not be affected whether they were or were not involved in decision making. Democratic : Democratic leaders involve their people in decision making. People usually like democratic decision making. Democratic leadership, however, may be difficult when options differ widely and it is difficult to arrive at an equitable final decision. Lassez-faire : Lassez-faire leaders have minimum involvement in decision making. They allow people to make their own decisions. The employees are responsible for the outcome of their decisions. Lassez-faire leadership is successful when people are capable and motivated to make their own decisions, and where there is no requirement for a centralized coordination, for example, in sharing resources among autonomous regions in a country.

(ii)

(iii)

It was discovered by Lewin et al that democratic style was most effective style of leadership. Excessive autocratic styles led to revolution, while under a lassez-faire approach, people were not coherent in their work and did not put in enough energy in their work. 2. Michigan Studies While the trait approach met a setback with Stogdills research, the behaviours of leaders has always been a subject of observation and study. Early studies at the University of Michigan, under the leadership of Rensis Likert suggested that leadership behaviour could be described on a continuum ranging from authoritarian to participative style. Likert identified four main styles of leadership, in particular, around decision making and the degree to which people are involved in the process.

High Performance Leadership (i) (ii)


Exploitive Authoritative : Exploitive Authoritative leaders have low concern for people, and use threats and other coercive ways for compliance of decisions. Communication is usually top-down, and managers are least concerned with peoples concerns. Benevolent Authoritative : Benevolent Authoritative leaders are authoritarian, but pay attention to peoples concerns. They attend to peoples problems and use rewards to encourage appropriate performance. Even though there may be some delegations of decisions, almost all major decisions are still made by the leader. Consultative : Consultative leaders make major decision, which remains centralized, although they make genuine efforts to listen to their peoples ideas. Participative : Participative leaders involve people at all levels, including lower levels in the decision making process. People across the organizations are psychologically closer together and work well together at all levels.

(iii) (iv)

3.

LBDQ Theory

The Ohio State University, using the famous Leadership Behaviour Description Questionnaire ( LBDQ), conducted landmark research. In this approach, group members describe the behaviour of the leader, or leaders, in any type of group or organization. It is assumed that the followers have had an opportunity to observe the leader in action as a leader of their group. Based on extensive research, 40 items were developed. However, only 30 are scored, 15 for each of the two dimensions, initiating structure and consideration. These two dimensions accounted for approximately 34 to 50 percent of the common variance. Initiating structure refers to the leaders behaviour in delineating the relationship between himself or herself and the members of his or her group, and in endeavouring to establish well-defined patterns of organization, channel of communication and ways of getting the job done. Consideration refers to behaviour indicative of friendship, mutual trust, respect, and warmth in relationship between the leader and the members of the group. 4. Continuum of Leader Behaviour

The two contrasting styles of boss-centred leadership, defined by emphasis on the task to be done and subordinate-centred leadership, defined by the attention to the person doing the task (people-oriented style), were later seen as a continuum from high task orientation. The manager makes the decision and announces it (telling) by convincing people about what should be done. The manager sells a decision (selling) and by discussing the task and its strategy with subordinates, he/she presents ideas and invites questions (consulting). The manager provides the employees the responsibility to plan and achieve result. Thus, by providing enough support, the manger permits his/her subordinates to function within defined limits (delegating).

5. Managerial Grid
The treatment of task orientation and people orientation as two independent dimensions was a major step in leadership studies. Blake and Mouton proposed the famous managerial grid with these two dimensions, each dimension ranging from low (1) to high (9). This section describes the five styles of the managerial grid, or the leadership grid as it came to be known later.

The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton)

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(i)

Impoverished Management : It is characterized by low-low (style 1,1), low task, and low people orientation. Minimum effort is exercised toward getting the work done. It refers to lazy approach that avoids work as much as possible.

(ii)

Authority-Compliance : It is characterized by high-low (style 9,1), high task, and low people orientation. There is strong focus on task, but little concern for people. The focus is on efficiency, including the elimination of people wherever possible.

(iii)

Country-club Management : It is characterized by low-high (style 1,9), low task, and high people orientation, care and concern for the people, a comfortable and friendly environment and collegial style. However, a low focus on task may lead to questionable result.

(iv)

Middle of the road Management : This style of leadership is characterized by medium-medium (style 5,5), medium task and medium people orientation. There is a lack of focus on both people and the work. The leader concentrates only on getting the work done and does not push the boundaries of achievements.

(v)

Team Management : It refers to leadership style characterized by high-high (style 9,9), high on task, and high on people orientation. Highly motivated subordinates are committed to the task, and the leader is committed to his/her people and the task.

( C ) Contingency Theories Contingency theories are based on the assumption that the leaders ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors such as the leaders preferred style, the capabilities and behaviours of followers, etc. Contingency theories contend that there is no one best way of leading and that is leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be always successful in others. 1. Fiedlers Theory

Another milestone in leadership research was Fiedlers theory of contingency. Fiedler demonstrated that the effectiveness of task orientation and people orientation depends on the situation. According to Fiedler, relationships, power, and task structure are the three key factors that drive effective leadership styles. He identified the least preferred coworker (LPC) scoring for leaders by asking them first to think of a person with whom they have worked and would now least prefer

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to work with again. The manager then scores the person on a range of scales between positive factors (friendly, helpful, cheerful, etc.) and negative factors (unfriendly, unhelpful, gloomy, etc.). A high LPC leader generally scores the other person as positive and a low LPC leader scores the other person as negative. High LPC leaders tend to have close and positive relationships, and act in a supportive way. They even prioritize the relationship before the task. Low LPC leaders put the task first and turn to relationships only when they are satisfied with the progress of the work. The following three aspects determine the effectiveness of the two leadership styles (high or low LPC): Leader-member relations : The extent to which the leader has the support and loyalties of followers. The relations with them are friendly and cooperative. Task structure : The extent to which tasks are standardized, documented, and controlled. Leader's position power : The extent to which the leader has authority to assess follower performance and give reward or punishment. As shown in the following table, effectiveness of a leader's style (low or high LPC) will depend on the combination of the three aspects.

Leadership Effectiveness Model Leader-Member relations Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Task structure Structured Structured Unstructured Unstructured Structured Structured Unstructured Unstructured Leaders Position Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Most Effective Leader Low LPC Low LPC Low LPC High LPC High LPC High LPC High LPC Low LPC

This approach tries to assess respondents' beliefs about people, whether they see others as positive (high LPC) or negative (low LPC).

2. Cognitive Resource Theory


Cognitive resource theory is another contingency theory. It predicts that : (1) a leader's cognitive ability contributes to the performance of the team only when the

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leader's approach is directive, (2) stress affects the relationship between intelligence and decision quality, and (3) experience is positively related to decision quality under high stress. Leader's cognitive ability : When leaders are better than their people at planning and decision making, in order to implement their plans and decisions, they need to tell people what to do. When they are not better than the people in the team, then a non-directive approach is more appropriate. For example, such leaders can facilitate an open discussion with the team, where ideas can be aired and the best approach identified and implemented. Effect of stress : Intelligence is fully functional and makes an optimal contribution in situations of low stress. However, during high stress, natural intelligence not only makes no positive difference, but it may have a negative effect. One reason for this may be that an intelligent person seeks rational solutions, which may not be available, and may be one of the causes of stress. In such situations, a leader who is inexperienced in 'gut feel' decisions is forced to rely on this unfamiliar approach. Another possibility is that the leader retreats within him or her, to think hard about the problem, leaving the group to their own devices. Experience and decision quality : When there is a high stress situation and the relationship between decision making and intelligence is impaired, experience of the same or similar situations enables the leader to react in the best possible way. The main implication of the cognitive resource theory is that a leader can be effective and powerful if he or she focuses on the strategic role, is an expert in problem solving, and possesses unique knowledge and skills that nobody else has. 3. Strategic Contingencies Theory The strategic contingencies theory, proposed by Fiedler, deals with the concept of organizational power. Intra-organizational power depends on three factors: problem skills, actor centrality, and uniqueness of skill. Fiedler linked the cognitive resource theory with his LPC theory, suggesting that high LPC scores are the main drivers of directive behaviour. An employee will be in demand if he or she has the skills and expertise to resolve important problems, works in a central part of the workflow of the organization, and is difficult to replace. For simple tasks, a leader's intelligence and experience are irrelevant. If people work on tasks that do not need direction or support, then it does not matter how good the leader is at making decisions. The manager need not provide any further support to the team. 4. VroomYetton Theory Vroom and Yetton, using a decision-making framework, contrasted the autocratic and consultative styles of leadership. They proposed two dimensions: decision quality and decision acceptance. Decision quality is the selection of the best alternative and is particularly important when there are many alternatives. It is also important when there are serious implications for selecting (or failing to select) the best alternative. Decision acceptance is the degree to which a follower accepts a decision made by a leader. Leaders focus more on decision acceptance when the quality of decision is more important. Vroom and Yetton defined five different decision procedures. Two of these procedures are autocratic (Al and A2), two are consultative (C1 and C2), and one is group based (G2). A1 : Leader takes known information and then decides alone. A2 : Leader gets information from followers and then decides alone. C1 : Leader shares problem with followers individually, listens to ideas, and then decides alone. C2 : Leader shares problems with followers as a group, listens to ideas, and then decides alone. G2 : Leader shares problems with followers as a group and then seeks and accepts consensus agreement. Situational factors that influence the method are relatively logical. These factors are illustrated here.

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1. When decision quality is important and followers possess useful information, then Al and A2 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
procedures are not the best methods. When the leader sees decision quality as important but followers do not, then G2 procedure is inappropriate. When decision quality is important, the problem is unstructured, and the leader lacks information or the skills to make the decision alone, then G2 procedure is best. When decision acceptance is important and followers are unlikely to accept an autocratic decision, then Al and A2 procedures are inappropriate. When decision acceptance is important but followers are likely to disagree with one another, then Al, A2, and CI procedures are not appropriate, because they do not give opportunity for differences to be resolved. When decision quality is not important but decision acceptance is critical, then G2 is the best method. When the whole team, including the leader, feels that decision quality is important, and the decision is not likely to result from an autocratic decision, then G2 procedure is the most appropriate.

5. Path-Goal Theory Path-goal leadership theory is a contingency theory developed by Martin Evans and expanded upon by Robert House. It integrates the expectancy theory of motivation. House has suggested four types of leaders: directive (directs subordinates), supportive (shows genuine concern for subordinates), participative (consults subordinates but decides himself or herself), and achievement oriented (sets challenging goals and shows confidence in subordinates). The path-goal theory proposes that the same leader uses all these styles, depending on the situation. The situation is characterized by two main factors: subordinates' characteristics (leader behaviour being accepted to the extent to which subordinates see the behaviour leading to present or future satisfaction) and environmental pressures on subordinates. The second factor is more important in the expectancy theory of motivation. Subordinates' motivation (increased effort) depends on two factors: the leaders making subordinates' needs contingent on effective performance, and the leader providing support for performance, including guidance and rewards. As proposed in the contingencyexpectancy framework, the leader by influencing subordinates' perceptions and motivationimproves their role clarity, expectancies, satisfaction, and performance. In other words, the leader attempts to make the subordinates' paths to their goals smooth. The leader must use an appropriate style to smoothen the path to the goals. The leader smoothens the path by stimulating subordinates' need for achievement, increasing pay-offs for goal achievement, coaching and guiding, clarifying subordinates' expectancies, reducing functioning barriers, and increasing opportunities for high satisfaction on good performance. This theory has been used extensively in management.

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Situational Theory of Leadership

Hersey and Blanchard combined the grid approach and the contingency theories to propose their situational theory of leadership. According to this theory, leadership is a function of the situation and an effective leader is one who assesses the situation accurately, uses a style appropriate to the situation, is flexible, and is also able to influence and alter the situation. We shall discuss these aspects in some detail. Leadership Styles According to Hersey and Blanchard, a leader is concerned with the task to be performed and with building relations with his or her people. However, a leader may have high or low concern for each of these (task and people). A leader may focus mainly on the work to be completed and/or the leader may focus mainly on building the team. Combining concerns for task (low or high) and for people (low or high), Hersey and Blanchard proposed four leadership styles: Style 1 indicates high concern for the task and low concern for people, Style 2 showing high concern for both, Style 3 having high concern for people and low for the task, and Style 4 with both low. According to them, all the four styles are functional; it is their relevance to situations that is important. Later, Blanchard proposed new terms and his modified model is used here, with the necessary additions. As already stated, leadership style in the situational model is classified according to the amount of task and relationship behaviour the leader engages in. Task-related behaviour, called directive behaviour by Blanchard, is called regulating behaviour here because a leader's behaviour is focused mainly on regulating his or her group members and their activities for task accomplishment. Other leaders concentrate on providing socio-emotional support and on building personal relationships, which is called nurturing behaviour (formerly called relationship behaviour and also supportive behaviour by Blanchard). Regulating behaviour : This is defined as the extent to which a leader engages in one-way communication; spells out the groups' roles and tells the group members what to do, where to do it, when to do it, and how to do it; and closely supervises their performance. Three words can be used to define regulating behaviour, structure, control, and supervise. Nurturing behaviour : This is defined as the extent to which a leader engages in two-way communication, listens, provides support and encouragement, facilitates interaction, and involves the group in decision making. Three words can be used to define nurturing behaviour, praise, listen, and facilitate. A combination of high and low directive and supportive behaviour will give four quadrants, each representing four different leadership styles. These are shown in Diagram below :

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Style 1: Directive : High regulating and low nurturing leader behaviour is called directive style. The leader defines the roles of group members, telling them what tasks to do and how, when, and where to do them. Problem solving and decision making are initiated solely by the leader. Solutions and decisions are announced, communication is largely one-way, and the leader closely supervises implementation. Style 2: Supportive : High regulating and high nurturing behaviour is called supportive style. In this style the leader still provides a great deal of direction and leads with his or her ideas, but the leader also attempts to discover the group's feelings about decisions as well as eliciting their ideas and suggestions. While two-way communication and support are increased, control over decision making remains with the leader. Style 3: Consulting : High nurturing and low regulating leader behaviour is called consulting style. In this style, the focus of control for day-to-day decision-making and problem solving shifts from the leader to the group members. The leader's role is to provide recognition and to actively listen and facilitate problem solving and decision making on the part of the group. Style 4: Delegating : Low nurturing and low regulating leader behaviour is labeled delegating style. The leader discusses problems with his or her people until a joint agreement is achieved on problem definition and then the decision-making process is delegated totally to the group members. Now it is the group that has significant control over deciding how tasks are to be accomplished. Style Appropriateness According to the situational theory of leadership, none of the four styles is ideal: each style can be effective depending on the situation. An effective leader is one who uses a style that is appropriate for the situation he or she is dealing with. In this theory, the situation is characterized by the type of people (team) the leader is working with. Hersey and Blanchard, who developed their theory and an instrument to measure the leadership styles, used a one-to-one framework (leader in relation to a subordinate). They defined the situation in terms of what they called maturity of the subordinate (his or her competence and his or her motivation, commitment or willingness to take responsibility). Later, Blanchard proposed the term 'development level', which seems to be a better term. Hersey and Blanchard proposed that the development level or maturity of the followers be determined by their competence and commitment, that is, their willingness to take responsibility. Since Hersey and Blanchard used the leaderfollower model (one-to-one framework), they neglected the team, the main focus of leadership in organizations. For the situational theory of leadership, the situation is defined by the development level of the team with which the leader is working. Three aspects determine the development of a team or a group: competence, commitment or motivation, and cohesion or teamwork. A leader should, in the first place, know the development level of his or her group and its members, that is, their levels of competence, motivation, and teamwork. The various situations with which the leader deals can be defined in terms of the development level of the group. D4 level (very high) indicates that all the three aspects of competence, motivation, and teamwork are high in the group. D3 level (moderately high) means two of the three aspects are high, while

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one is low. D2 (moderately low) means one aspect is high and the other two are low. Level D1 (low) indicates that the group is low on all three aspects. The effective leadership styles for each development level are shown in the above diagram (Style 1 is appropriate for a D1 team, Style 2 for a D2 team, Style 3 for a D3 team, and Style 4 for a D4 team.) An effective leader uses a style appropriate to the development level of his or her team or organization. An example of style appropriateness is given in the next section. Style Flexibility Hersey and Blanchard also proposed the concept of style range or flexibility (how easily a leader is capable of using the four styles) in addition to relevance or appropriateness (how appropriately a leader uses the various styles). A leader needs both diagnostic competence to assess the situation (development level of the group) as well as competence to use the various styles with ease, as relevant to the situation or its changing conditions. As already stated, according to this theory, if the situation is D1, characterized by a low level of development (people do not know their jobs well, have low motivation, and do not support each other), the most effective style would be 1, in which the leader defines tasks, monitors performance, and provides the necessary guidance. However, after the group has 'developed' (i.e., they know their jobs, work together, and are able to perform fairly well), the leader needs to change the style, paying attention to group morale, facilitating of work, and so on. On further development of the group, the leader need no longer worry about task requirements (low directive behaviour) but may need to build the group (high supportive). If the group is at D4 that is, highly developed (can work on its own as a team and has relevant competencies), the leader need not be concerned with providing guidance or with providing support (low on both, 4). The leader's main focus may then be envisioning, boundary management, providing facilities needed by the group, and looking after external linkages and relationships. The leader can decide which leadership style will be more appropriate for the group when he or she knows the development level of the group he or she leads. Diagnosis of the development level may also help the leader to prepare a plan of action for raising the development level by working on the dimensions in which the group is weak. Leadership Effectiveness Although the situational theory of leadership suggests that leadership effectiveness depends on the use of a style appropriate to the situation and that there is no best leadership style, the most desirable style is 1. However, in order to move towards this, the leader needs to prepare the group and take them to the D4 level. In this sense, this theory of leadership is a developmental theory. Raising competence levels : The competence level of a group is made up of the competence of its members. Competence includes the understanding (based on knowledge) and skills required to perform a job. Competence levels of individual members can be summed up and the average gives the group's competence level. Competence building requires providing information relevant to the roles, building skills to fulfill the roles effectively, and planning a proper long-term training strategy. Raising commitment levels : Commitment or motivation refers to the willingness individually members to set and accept challenging goals, their eagerness to take responsibility, their involvement in the work, and job satisfaction. Again, the average of individual ratings or scores gives the group's motivational level. Commitment building (developing motivation) can be facilitated by helping individual members to set realistic and challenging goals, supporting them to achieve these and recognizing their achievement through feedback and rewards. Raising teamwork levels The teamwork level can be diagnosed by assessing the level of cohesion, collaboration, and confrontation in the group. Cohesion means that the group functions as a strong team and each member feels that his or her views and concerns are considered by others. Collaboration indicates that some tasks are done by members as small teams and members feel free to volunteer, ask for, and respond to requests for help. Confrontation

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implies that whenever there is a problem that concerns the group, the group faces the problem and deals with it, generating alternative solutions and taking decisions about a course of action. An instrument on this aspect is available. Team building can be achieved by making teams responsible for various tasks, allocating resources to them, and recognizing the importance of teamwork through team rewards, the high value accorded to teamwork in performance appraisal systems, and special programmes to reduce conflicts and increase collaboration. Raising development levels through delegation The movement of a group towards the D4 level can be accelerated through delegation. We shall discuss various processes of delegation and how to ensure their effectiveness in the next chapter. In short, leadership is the dynamic process of making people more effective, increasing their competence to multiply power, and achieving goals through them. There are different styles of participating in this process. However, the ultimate goal of a leader is to develop his team and people to become more effective and competent to achieve organizational goals as well as their own objectives. (E) Leadership Function Theories Two t ypes of leadership functions have been contrasted, transactional and transformational. Transactional leaders maximize efficiency, while transformational leaders emphasize on creativity. Transactional Leadership The basic beliefs of transactional leaders are that people are motivated by reward and punishment; social systems work best with a clear chain of command; when subordinates agree to do a job, they cede all authority to their manager; and the prime purpose of subordinates is to do what their manager tells them to do. The transactional leader works by creating clear structures. The leader provides clear instructions to his or her subordinates regarding their work and the subsequent rewards. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are well understood. The formal systems of discipline are usually in place. Transactional leadership is based on contingency; rewards or punishments are contingent upon performance. Transactional leadership is still a popular approach with most managers. Transformational Leadership While transactional functions are primarily concerned with successful completion of tasks, transformational functions go beyond the immediate task. Transactional functions build the competencies of individuals and groups, and enable them to achieve targets that the organization or the individual would have not expected to achieve. These functions empower various groups and individuals in an organization. The following functions fall in this category: visioning, modeling (setting a personal example of a desirable style and behaviour), setting standards, building culture and climate, boundary management (ensuring continuous availability of resources, support from the major customers and from outside and developing a strong lobby and networks for the organization), synergizing (building teams), and searching and nurturing talent. Based on their research, Singh and Bhandarkar reported the following six main characteristics of transformational leaders:

1. 2. 3. 1. 4. 5.

Empowering Risk taking Clarity of mission Team building Equanimity Evolving trust

1. Burns' theory

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High Performance Leadership


Inspired by the effectiveness of great leaders such as Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi, who 'transformed' millions of helpless people into a formidable force, Burns proposed the concept of transformational leadership. He assumed that people associated with a higher moral position will be motivated by a leader who promotes this quality. Such people are better off working collaboratively than working individually. Burns defined transformational leadership as a process in which leaders and followers engage in a mutual process of 'raising one another to higher levels of morality and motivation'. Transformational leaders raise the bar by appealing to higher ideals and values of followers. In doing so, they may model the values themselves and use charismatic methods to attract people to the values and to the leader. Burns' view is that transformational leadership is more effective than transactional leadership, in which the appeal is to more selfish concerns. An appeal to social values thus encourages people to collaborate, rather than working alone as individuals and potentially competitively with one another). He also views transformational leadership as an ongoing process rather than the discrete exchanges of the transactional approach. 2. Bass' theory Bass defined transformational leadership in terms of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire, and respect the transformational leader. He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers: increasing their awareness of task importance and value; getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests; and activating their higher-order needs. Two key charismatic effects that transformational leaders achieve are to evoke strong emotions and to cause identification of the followers with the leader. This can be achieved through stirring appeals, coaching, and mentoring. Bass has recently noted that authentic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. He also proposed three aspects: the moral character of the leader, the ethical values embedded in the leader's vision, articulation, and process (which followers either embrace or reject), and the morality of the processes of social ethical choice and action that leaders and followers engage in and collectively pursue. 3. Leadermember exchange theory A well-known transactional theory is the leadermember exchange theory, also known as LMX, or vertical dyad linkage theory. It describes how leaders in groups maintain their position through a series of tacit exchange agreements with their members. Leaders often have a special relationship with an inner circle of trusted lieutenants, assistants, and advisers. The members of the inner circle are entrusted with high levels of responsibility, decision influence, and access to resources. The members of the 'in-group' have to pay for their position. They work harder, are more committed to task objectives, and share more administrative duties. They are also expected to be fully committed and loyal to their leader. The out-group, on the other hand, is provided with lower levels of choice or influence. This also puts constraints upon leaders. They have to constantly nurture the relationship with their inner circle. The subordinates are given power; however, it is ensured that they do not strike out on their own. LMX process These relationships, if they are going to happen, start very soon after a person joins the group and follow three stages. Role taking : The member joins the team and the leader assesses his or her abilities and talents. Based on this, the leader may offer them opportunities to demonstrate their capabilities. Another key factor in this stage is the discovery by both parties of how the other likes to be respected. Role making : In the second phase, the leader and member take part in an unstructured and informal negotiation whereby a role is created for the member. The often tacit promise of benefit and power in return for dedication and loyalty takes place during this stage. Trust building is very important in this stage, and any betrayal by the employee can result in the

16

High Performance Leadership


member being relegated to the out-group. This negotiation includes relationship factors and pure work-related ones. A member who is similar to the leader in various ways is more likely to succeed. This perhaps explains why mixed gender relationships are usually less successful than same-gender ones (it also affects the seeking of respect in the first stage). The same effect also applies to cultural and racial differences. Routinisation : In this phase, a pattern of ongoing social exchange between the leader and the member becomes established. Successful members are thus similar in many ways to the leader (which perhaps explains why many senior teams comprise of upper caste, upper middle-class, and middle-aged individuals). They work hard at building and sustaining trust and respect. The employees are empathetic, patient, reasonable, sensitive, and are good at seeing the viewpoint of other people (especially the leader). Aggression, sarcasm, and an egocentric view are exhibited by members of the out-group. The overall quality of the LMX relationship varies with several factors. Curiously, the quality is better when the challenge of the job is extremely high or extremely low. The size of the group, the financial resource availability, and the overall workload are also important determinants of the quality of the LMX relationships. The leaders also gain power by being members of their superiors' inner circle. These leaders then share this power with their subordinates. People with unusual power at the bottom of an organization may get it from an unbroken chain of circles up to the hierarchy. Level 5 Leadership Based on an intensive study of 11 most effective leaders, Collins proposed the theory of Level 5 leadership. A Level 5 leader blends genuine personal humility with intense professional will. According to such a leader, Level 5 is the highest level of leadership in a hierarchy of leadership capabilities. Leaders at the other four levels in the hierarchy can produce high levels of success but not enough to elevate organizations from mediocrity to sustained excellence. Good-to-great transformations do not happen without Level 5 leadership. A Level 5 leader can transform a mediocre organization into a great organization. The various levels suggested by Collins are as follows: Level 1 : The leader is a highly capable individual. He or she makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits. Level 2 : The leader is a contributing team member. He or she contributes to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting. Level 3 : The leader is a competent manager. He or she organizes people and resources towards the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives. Level 4 : The leader is an effective leader. He or she catalyses commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, and stimulates the group to high performance standards. Level 5 : The leader is an executive. He or she builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical combination of professional will and personal humility. Each level is appropriate in its own right, but none has the power of Level 5. One does not need to move sequentially through each level of the hierarchy to reach the top. However, to be a fully-fledged Level 5, we need the capabilities of all the lower levels, along with the special characteristics of Level 5. A Level 5 leader possesses paradoxical combination of professional will and personal humility. Collins has cited Abraham Lincoln as an example of a Level 5 leader. The example of Mahatma Gandhi is more appropriate. In India, the late Ravi Matthai, former director of IIM, Ahmedabad, represented such institutional leadership. Narayana Murthy of Infosys is an example of corporate Level 5 leadership. Collins has suggested the following characteristics of the two aspects.

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High Performance Leadership


Chapter 3 Leadership Skills Getting and Giving Information Leadership Skills involves getting information for appropriate action. An element of caution and care has to be exercised by the leaders while getting information as there is a possibility of message loss and ambiguity in understanding, during the process of communication exchange. Information received may have to be recalled at a later time. There are many different ways to store and retrieve information. While giving information, there is a greater need for leaders to apply all five senses wherever possible. The leader should speak clearly, use language that everyone understands and vary the tone and pace wherever required. Group Needs and Characteristics The competence of understanding group needs and characteristics have five major parts namely, understanding motives, assessing values, evaluating norms, meeting individual needs and learning personal characteristics. Controlling the Group Control is most often an overt behaviour of the leader. There are specific actions a leader can take to exert influence over a group. The leader in a group deploys the people in his team in a manner to control, breaking up destructive cliques, to encourage greater participation, etc. Knowing and Understanding Group Resources This skill enables leader to recognize knowledge and use of group resources as a major technique in bringing a group together and creating commitment to common goals. Also recognized that resources are theoretically limitless and that the leaders ( and groups) ability to recognize and utilize diverse resources, tremendously affects what the group can accomplish. Involve more people in active leadership by giving each a part according to his/her resources. Evaluate the impact that the availability of resources has on doing a job and maintaining the group. Counseling This skill enables leader to gain knowledge of principles of counseling and practice some simple counseling techniques to be used in ordinary situation. Setting Example Every leader has a special responsibility to set a positive example. As a leader you are constantly watched by those you work with. Representing the Group Representing the group is accurately communicating to non-group members. The sum of group members feelings, ideas, etc. and vice versa. A leader must represent his team on a great variety of issues. Problem Solving This skill, sometimes called planning, enables the leader to identify problem solving as one of the key techniques in developing the groups capability, gain knowledge of a definite technique for problem

18

High Performance Leadership


solving and understand the value of problem solving in group commitment to the task and to the group unity. Evaluation This skill enables leaders to use evaluation as a technique to maintain group integrity while improving job performance. Also it helps leader to describe what is meant by getting the job done and maintaining the group. Evaluation helps to analyze a situation for improvement and to avoid conflicts between getting the job done and maintaining the group. It also develops an attitude of constant evaluation. A leader use variety of strategies for evaluation purposes. Sharing Leadership This skill enables leader to develop a concept of leadership for a group which permits different functions of leadership being shared or distributed among group member according to the situation and members strengths. Sharing leadership is a key function of a leader. The ability to extend him, to accomplish jobs than one person alone can handle. Manager of Learning Manager of learning ( MOL) describes a system for exposing learners to the need to know and involving them in their own learning. By learning, we mean the gaining of knowledge, the improvement of skills, or the development of attitude in certain area. A combination of attitude, skills, and knowledge are usually needed to operate any specific area. Attitudes are the most important and are the most difficult to acquire. Often a new attitude replaces an old attitude before skills or knowledge can be used. The manager of learning must be able to detect this situation and know how to effect the change. Chapter 4 Leadership Lessons - Through Literature

There are lots of leadership lessons to be learnt from the literature. There have been leaders as early as 200 B.C who have left there mark so strong that today also society remembers and follows there vision and teachings. They were the path setters in formation of our civilized world. The path shown by them is still followed by thousands of people and even though there has been so many changes and progress in our society but there teachings, theories and visions are still revered. Broadly we can classify them into three groups: Political Religious & Humanitarian

Business and Economics


Political Leadership : These men and women have guided the world in ways that they are still remembered .Some of the path breaking and history making leaders are mentioned below : i. ii. iii. iv. Napoleon Bonaparte George Washington Abraham Lincoln John.F.Kennedy

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High Performance Leadership


v. vi. Ronald.W.Regan Bill Clinton

Some of the most influential leaders in Indian political and Kings Era are i. ii. iii. iv. Ashoka the Great Shivaji Maharaj Mahatma Gandhi Indira Gandhi

Religious and Humanitarian : There are a handful of religious and humanitarian leaders who have left there mark on the minds of the people. Few of them are mentioned below i. ii. iii. iv. Gautam Buddha Raja Ram Mohan Roy Dalai Lama Mother Teresa

Business Leaders : There are people in the field of economics and business who has created space for there names to be written in the history books. Below mentioned are few of them : i. ii. iii. Bill Gates Narayan Murthy Dhirubhai Ambani

Special Reference Top Ten Despots are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. Tamerlane ( Timur) Ivan the terrible Maximillien Robespierre Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler Mao Zedong ( Mao Tse tung) Francoise papa docDuvalier Nicolae Ceausescu Idi Amin Pol Pot

Another person who has left a mark in our history and also in the minds of the people is ARISTOTLE. Chapter 5 Team Work and Team Building

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High Performance Leadership


What is Team? A Team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. A team consists of group of approximately 3-20 people, who are working towards a common goal / objective / mission, where each person has been assigned specific roles or functions to perform, and where completion of the mission requires some form of dependency among group members (Dyer). Why teamwork? Project complexity Redundancy.. Project will not drop if one person leaves Synergy.. Individual growth .. Humans learn from each other by osmosis

Challenges in team work Dilution of responsibility (accountability), dependence on others, taking on too much, overlap Lack of focus Conflicting personalities and styles/Egos Distribution of credit

Skills Needed for Team Work Aside from any required technical proficiency, wide varieties of social skills are desirable for successful teamwork, including:

Listening it is important to listen to other peoples ideas. Questioning it is important to ask questions, interact, and discuss the objectives of the team. Persuading individuals are encouraged to exchange, defend, and then to ultimately rethink their ideas. Respecting it is important to treat others with respect and to support their ideas. Helping it is crucial to help ones co-workers, which is the general theme of of teamwork. Sharing it is important to share with the team to creat an environment of team work. Participating all members of the team are encouraged to participate in the team. Communication for team to work effectively it is essential team members acquire communication skills and use effective communication channel between one another.

Stages of team Development 1. Forming Get to know each other Identify strengths and where you can contribute Specify commitment Establish the rules

2. Storming Further define goals, roles, responsibilities

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High Performance Leadership


Power struggles, maneuvering, personality conflicts Discuss the sources of potential conflicts and set guidelines Engage everyone Allow silence people and read them 3. Norming

Team starts to gel.. Managing team dynamics Project management plans Regular reporting and questioning one another Assess progress 4. Performing More feedback Milestones and action reviews Thank in public Manage psychology Identify weak links and support them 5. Adjourning Celebrate success Learn form the experience Provide closure

Role of a Successful Team and Meredith Belbin Model of Team and Work Group Meredith Belbin (1993) based on his research proposed following roles that successful teams should have:

Co-ordinator This person will have a clear view of the team objectives and will be skilled at inviting the contribution of team members in achieving these, rather than pushing his or own view. Shaper The shaper is full of drive to make things happen and get things going. Plant this member is one who is most likely to come out with original ideas and challenge the traditional way of thinking about things. Resource investigator The resource investigator is the group member with the strongest contacts and networks, and is excellent at bringing in information and support from the outside. Implementer the individual who is a team member is well organized and effective at turning big ideas into a manageable tasks and plans that can be achieved. Team worker Team worker is the one who is most aware of the others in the team, their needs and their concerns. Completer The completer is the one who drives the deadlines and make sure they are achieved. Monitor evaluator the monitor evaluator is good at seeing all the options .They have a strategic perspective and can judge situations accurately. Specialist this person provides specialist skills and knowledge and has a dedicated singleminded approach.

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High Performance Leadership


Finisher A person who sticks to deadline and likes to get on with things. Will probably be irritated by the more relaxed member of the team.

Steps to Team Building

1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Area What is required to be done? Goal - Define goals and clarify the contents to the team members. Targets - Establish targets to achieve the goals. Organizational goals should be broken down into departmental targets. Resources - Identify and recognize the talents, skill, knowledge and experience of team members. Role and Responsibility - Clearly define the roles and responsibilities of each team members. Principles - Have a clearly understood and accepted set of principles that will contribute to the success of the team. Communication - Create an environment that is conducive to communication Ideas - Have a methodology to assess, finalize and implement ideas and alternative solutions. Progress - Create a system to regularly monitor progress. Mistakes - Ensure that team and individual errors are examined without personal attack. Rewards - When goals and targets are achieved, share the rewards and celebrate the success.

11.

Stages Involved in Team Building 1. Creation : (a) Stage Indicators Newly formed team New Manager Many new team members New Project/ product/Service Major reorganization (b) Task Activities Developing mission Initial action planning Establishing accountability (c) Team-Member Behaviours Introductions Communication from leader Low risk taking (d) Issues Empowerment Communication Diversity 2. Conflict

(a)

Stage Indicators In-fighting in team Members taking sides in arguments

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High Performance Leadership (b)


Task assignments not completed on time Others taking control from formal leader Competition among group members Task Activities Clarifying roles Establishing measures Defining goals Team-Member Behaviours Power struggles Polarized arguments Various conflicts Issues Communication Teamwork Trust Balance Role clarity

(c)

(d)

3. Cohesion (a)
Stage Indicators "Family" attitude prevails Candid, two-way communication People involved in the workplace Work considered "fun" Task Activities Tackling assignments Generating data Reaching consensus on goals Team-Member Behaviours Input of ideas by all Trust built Communication open Issues Balance Accountability Decision making Teamwork

(b)

(c)

(d)

4. Contribution (a)
Stage Indicators Major milestones and deadlines reached Presentations made on outcomes Collaboration and participation when warranted High quality/high output (b) Task Activities Reaching major milestones Solving problems Continuous improvement

24

High Performance Leadership (c)


Team-Member Behaviours High level of commitment Candid interplay High trust levels (d) Issues Communication Teamwork Balance Accountability

5. Recreation (a)
Stage Indicators Major projects accomplished, team in maintenance mode Initial plan worked to completion Major organizational change, focus or realignment Team and individuals rewarded for accomplishments Task Activities Accomplishing initial plans Process maintenance Planning for next steps Team-Member Behaviours Victory celebration Sense of accomplishment Rewards and recognition Issues Empowerment Work force diversity Accountability Teamwork Robert Bacals Six Deadly Sins of Team Building

(b)

(c)

(d)

1. Lack of model Solution is you need a model of how teams function, so that you can address all
the factors that result in reduced team effectiveness.

2. Lack of Diagnosis Each team is different. Each team has distinct strengths and weaknesses of
diagnosis are necessary without which the team leader runs the risk of using the process that will be irrelevant or useless, again resulting in lack of credibility for the process and the sponsor. Solution is diagnosed as a first step in the process.

3. Short-term intervention - It is not uncommon for a leader to arrange for a retreat or teambuilding day, without developing a longer term strategy for team development. Solution is plan a long term strategy for team building.

4. No evaluation of progress Since team building is a long-term process, you need to know
whether it is succeeding. It is common for team building efforts to take for granted that things are improving without putting in place a mechanism for regular evaluation of team functioning. Solution is plan regular evaluation of team progress.

5. Leadership Detachment It is unfortunate that management sometimes enters into a teambuilding enterprise in a some what detached way. Solution is if you arent willing to hear from team members how your behavior impacts (negatively or positively), dont do team building.

25

High Performance Leadership 6. Doing it all internally team building generally will not succeed unless conflicts and problems
can be brought into the open and dealt with properly. There are times when an outside consultant may be required. While a consultant may bring specialized skills that are lacking in the organization. Team Problem Solving Model 1. Define the problem - what is going on?

2. Set the objectives - what do we want to accomplish? 3. Generate alternatives what can we do about it ?
4. Choose an alternative which is the best?

5. Implement the plans what and who to do?


6. Evaluate what are the results?

Twelve Cs for Effective Team Building 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Clear Expectations Context Commitment Competence Charter Control Collaboration Communication 9. Creative Innovation 10. Consequences 11. Co-ordination 12. Cultural change

Chapter 6 Interpersonal Skills Conversation, Feed Back and Feed Forward Concept of Conversation A conversation is communication by two or more people, or sometimes with ones self, often on a particular topic. Conversation is the ideal form of communication in some respects, since they allow people with different views of a topic to learn from each other. A speech, on the other hand, is an oral presentation by one person directed at a group. Communication

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High Performance Leadership


Communication means usually to speak or to write or to send a message to another person. Communication is much more than that. It involves ensuring that messages reach the person to whom they are sent, that the receiver understand and respond as we want them to; and that we ourselves are able to understand, interpret, and respond to messages that are sent to us. Communication has been defined by many theorists; some of these definitions are as below. Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. --- Keith Davis Communication is any behavior that results in an exchange of meaning. ---- The American Management Association Communication is the process by which information is passed between individuals and/or organization by means of previously agreed symbols. ---- Peter Little Objectives of Communication

Information : Enquiring, supplying or receiving the information. Advice : Personal opinion about what to do? How to do? When to do?

Suggestion : Proposals by the subordinates to the higher authorities indicating change required in existing procedural and operational matters.

Order : Directive issued by management to subordinates in authoritative manner.

Motivation : Motivation channelizes the inner urge of the man to work and to excel towards the organizational goals. Persuasion : Act of influencing the other persons to voluntarily change their attitudes, beliefs feelings or thoughts.

Warnin g : It i s in form ing about the unpl easant consequences if certain course of action is not changed/ amended.

and

unfavorabl e

Negotiation : Discussion by two or more parties concerned with specific problem to

find mutually acceptable agreement. It may be through bargaining orientation, lose-lose orientation, win-win orientation and compromise orientation. Education : It is important from the view of teaching and training the employees and executives.

Communication Process

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High Performance Leadership


Communication process refers to the stages through which the message passes from the sender to the receiver. The stages in communication process are as follows :

1.
2. 3.

The sender forms a message and encodes it into words or symbols. The encoded message is transmitted to the receiver through a channel or medium. The receiver senses the incoming message and decodes it for understanding the message. 4. Further, in most of the situations, the sender looks for confirmation that the message has reached the receiver. This happens in the form of feedback or some kind of acknowledgement. It may take the form of reply given by the receiver. 5. The reply is to be again encoded, transmitted through a channel, received and decoded by the sender of the original message. We have to note here that feedback repeats the communication process.

Creates Message

Encode Message

Receiver Encode Message

Decode Message

Decode Feedback

Receiver Feedback

Encode Feedback

Create Feedback

The Communication Process The different types of communication process are: Sender The sender is the source of the message that initiates the communication. The sender of the information has a message or purpose of communicating to one or more people. Without a reason, purpose, or desire, the sender has no information /message to send. Encoding In the next stage, encoding takes place when the sender translates the information or message into some words or signs or symbols. Without encoding, the information cannot be transferred from one person to another. In encoding of the message, the sender has to choose those words, symbols or gestures that he believes to have the same meaning for the receiver. While doing so, therefore, the sender has to keep the receiver in mind and accordingly communicate with him in the way receiver understands it. Channel Channel is the medium used for transmission of information or message from sender to receiver. There are various media like telephone, mail through post, internet radio, TV, press etc. For communication to be effective and efficient, the channel must be appropriate for the message.

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High Performance Leadership


It must be remembered that written and graphic communication like letters, reports and memos serve the purpose of clarity and also provide a permanent record. On the other hand, telephone and oral communication's have the advantage of immediate feedback. Therefore, in choosing the appropriate channel, the manager must decide whether feedback is important. Receiver Receiver is the person who senses or perceives the sender's message. There may be just one receiver or a large number of receivers, like when a memo is addressed to all the members of an organization. It should be recognized that if the message does not reach the receiver, no communication takes place. Even when the message reaches the receiver and if he cannot understand it, again there is no communication. Decoding Decoding is the process through which the receiver interprets the message and translates it into meaningful information. It may be remembered that decoding is affected by the receiver's past experience, personal assessments of the symbols and gestures, expectations and mutuality of meaning with the sender. Noise Noise is any factor that disturbs, confuses, or otherwise interferes with communication. Noise can arise along what is called the communication channel, or method of transmission (such as air for spoken words or paper for letters). Noise may be internal (as when a receiver is not paying attention) or external (as when the message is distorted by other sounds in the environment). Noise can occur at any stage communication process. It is particularly troublesome in the encoding or decoding stage. Feedback and feed forward The best way to make sure another person has heard and understood what you said is, to ask them to repeat it back to you in their own words. Just request a summary, and take responsibility for any lack of understanding. You could say, I want to make sure I explained that clearly. Would you please tell me how you understand what Ive said? One of the corniest stories I know is about a man driving up a mountain road in a jeep. Coming down the mountain in the other lane is a woman in a jeep. As she passes, she leans out and yells Pig! The man is offended! She is calling him a name and making a judgment on his character. As he looks back in his rearview mirror at the woman behind him, he smashes into a hog that is standing in the middle of the road. That woman wasnt criticizing him, but rather giving him feedback limited by time. Had circumstances allowed, she might have said, There is a large farm animal ahead in the middle of the roadbe careful! Such are the pitfalls of communication. When leaders dont take time to communicate clearly, the potential for misunderstandingand even disasteris high. Feedback is excellent for adjusting your message and assuring understanding, but it is after-the-fact. To increase the odds of future success, you can use feed forward, which provides people with the information they need to be successful before they undertake something. Feedback provides evaluation of what has been done. Feed forward clarifies expectations of what needs to be accomplished. It gives people the answers to the final exam in advance. Feedback focuses on past performance. Feed forward focuses on future performance. It talks specifically about what a successful performance will be like and enrich the description to enrich the outcome. Feedback is remedial. Feed forward is intended to be preventative. Rather than waiting until later to determine if youve communicated clearly, information is provided to prevent possible problems. Types of Communication

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High Performance Leadership


(i) (ii) Formal communication Informal communication

Communication

Formal Communication
(i)
mal

Informal Communication
For

Upward Communication

Downward Communication

Horizontal Communication

Communication (otherwise understood as direction of communication) It is the s yst em designed by the managem ent to channelize the flow of communication along formal organizational structure. It is created to ensure smooth, orderly, accurately and timely flow of information. There are four types of formal communication: Downward communication : Information flows from top to bottom hierarchy.

(ii)

Upward

communication

Flow of superiors.

information

from

subordinates

to

Horizontal Communication : Flow of information between the persons of same hierarchy. It is also called lateral communication. Informal Communication Informal communication takes place outside the formally prescribed and planned network. Unlike formal communication which is deliberately created or documented, the informal communication is spontaneous, off the record and beyond the hierarchy. It has no set rules and no particular direction. It is also called "Grapewine" communication.

Medial of Communication otherwise known as Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal Communication Oral Communication Verbal Communication Written Communication

Non-Verbal Communication
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High Performance Leadership

Oral Communication (includes verbal and non-verbal communication) Written communication

Forms of Oral Communication :


Face to face Teleconferencing Telephone Voice mail

Forms of Written Communication :


Written Words, Graphs, Charts, Reports, Diagrams, Pictures, Bulletins, Letters, Reports, Memos, Facsimiles (FAX), E-mails, Advertisements, Pamphlets etc.

Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering : Sender manipulates information in such a manner that it shall be seen more favourably by the receiver. Selective perception: People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. Information overload: When a situation arises where the information inflow exceeds an individual's processing capacity, communication barrier creeps in. Emotions: How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Communication apprehension: Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication or both affects effective communication. Communication barriers arise between men and women too. Men talk to emphasise status, power and independence whereas women talk to establish connection and intimacy. Men talk to complain that women talk on and on whereas women critize men for not listening. Men talk to offer solutions, whereas women speak of problems tc promote closeness. Men talk to boast about their accomplishments whereas women express regret and balance to a conversation. Other barriers include, cultural barriers caused by semantics, word connotations, tone differences, hand gestures meaning different things in different countries etc Seven Cs of Business Communication According to Francis J. Bergin, there are '7 Cs' of Communication. According to him communication should be:

1. 2.

Candid Clear

Message should be straight forward and frank. Clarity of expression and thought is must.

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High Performance Leadership 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Courteous


Complete Message necessarily should be complete as incomplete message breeds misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Concise Conciseness is necessary to retain the attention as well as to save the time of the receiver.

Concrete Message should not be vague but specific. Concrete expression create specific visual image in the mind of receiver. Correct Message should be correct in grammar, spellings, contents, statistical information etc.

Courtesy and manners plays dominating role in effective communication.

Principles of Communications

Creation of synergetic environment : Misunderstanding are rules rather than exceptions


in unhealthy and uncongenial environment. Hence congenial environment/atmosphere is utmost necessary for effective communication.

Two-way communication : Effective communication is never one-way traffic rather two way channelization as it also has sound feedback system to overcome communication gaps. Strengthen flow of communication : Frequent meetings, conferences and social gatherings should be organized periodically. Proper media : Any media is not ideal for every situation. Audience specific media should be selected. Encourage open communication: Lack of transparency and denial of information breeds rumours in the receiver. Use of appropriate language : Appropriate words, pictures, symbols, presentations etc., is necessary.

Effective listening: It is very essential in oral communication. It is not only the sender's
Self-development : It is most vital aspect of effective communication. It contains: Physical dimensions : Caring about nutrition, exercise, relaxation at right and regular intervals. Intellectual dimensions : Includes thinking, analyzing, reading, visualizing, writing etc. Emotional dimensions Involves feelings, socializing, serving etc.

duty to make the message clear, simple and concrete but also of the receiver to understand the same in proper sense through effective listening.

Spiritual dimensions Involves discrimination of values, meditation, praying etc.


Transactional Analysis - A Tool to Understand Peoples Communication Behaviour Communication is not merely sending and listening skills, but also the manner in which we communicate it affects communication. In fact, there are many ways we can look at communication styles and that the most comprehensive research is the Transactional Analysis (TA). TA is practical yet impact technique to understand people's communication behaviours based on their personal values, thoughts and feelings. Each person operates in three egos Parent, Adult and Child. Each of these egos is distinct and therefore easy to identify and differentiate. More importantly, these egos affect different communication behaviours and eventually communication styles.

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Ego States

Parent-Ego State Behaviours, thoughts and feelings copied from parents or parent figure.

Adult Ego State Behaviours, thoughts and feelings which are direct responses to the here and now.

Child Ego State Behaviours, thoughts and feelings replayed from childhood.

Ego States Parent : This is a set of feelings, thinking and behaviour that we have copied from our parents and significant others. As we grow up, we take in ideas, beliefs, feelings and behaviours from our parents and caretakers. If we live in an extended family then there are more people to learn and take in from. When we do this, it is called introjecting and it is just as if we take in the whole of the caregiver. For example, we may notice that we are saying things just as our father, mother, grand mother may have done, even though consciously, we don't want to. We do this as we have lived with this person so long that we automatically reproduce certain things that were said to us, or treat others as might have been treated. Adult : The Adult ego state is about direct responses to the here and now. We deal things that are going on today in ways that are not unhealthily influenced by our past. The adult ego state is about being spontaneous and aware with the capacity for intimacy. When in our adult we are able to see people as they are, rather than what we project onto them. We ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions. Taking the best from the past and using it appropriately in the present is an integration of the positive aspects of both our Parent and Child ego states. So this can be called the Integrating Adult. The word integrating means that we are constantly updating ourselves through our everyday experiences and using this to inform us. Child : The Child ego state is a set of behaviours, thoughts and feelings, which are replayed from our childhood. Perhaps the boss calls us into his or her office, we may immediately get a churning in our

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stomach and wonder what we have done wrong. If this were explored we might remember the time the head teacher called us in to tell us off. Of course, not everything in the child ego state is negative. We might go into someone's house and smell a lovely smell and remember our grandmother's house when we were little, and all the same warm feelings we had at six year's of age may come flooding back.

Chapter 7 Interpersonal Skills Delegation, Humor, Trust, Expectations, Values, Status Concept of Delegation Delegation is the process by which authority is granted to a subordinate by his superior. But for delegation of authority, organizations would remain forever small Delegation is the only solution to cope with the increasing work load of managers as the organization grows. Because of the constraints of time and ability, a manager cannot perform all the tasks himself. Therefore, he delegates certain tasks to the subordinate and gets them done. It is appropriate to examine, in brief, the concepts of authority and responsibility. Effective Delegation:

Effective delegation pushes authority down vertically through the ranks of an organization.

Process of Delegation (1) Entrustment of Duties or Assignment of Responsibilities This is a crucial step, in that a few important questions like what to delegate, When to delegate?, Whom to delegate? and how to delegate? are answered. The effectiveness of delegation depends on how clearly these questions are answered. First of all, the manager has to decide the tasks to be delegated to the subordinates. For this he must be able to distinguish between the routine and non routine tasks. Routine and single tasks can as well be performed by the subordinates while the non-routine and very important tasks must be performed by him. (2) Vesting Authority When the subordinates are assigned certain tasks or responsibilities, it goes without saying that they need authority also to perform the tasks. Authority is required by them to use the resources of the organization in the execution of the tasks. The superior, therefore, parts with his authority to enable the subordinate to perform. Responsibility and authority cannot be

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seen in isolation. One of the important principles of organizing authority and responsibility emphasizes the need for a proper balance between the two. (3) Accountability Delegation does not end with just entrusting of duties and the sanctioning of authority. The superior has to create an obligation on the part of the subordinates to perform. In other words, the subordinate is accountable to his superior for the tasks delegated. Thus while authority flows downwards, responsibility flows upwards. Need for Delegation Delegate to Take Control of Your Time Delegation helps you by freeing you up to focus on the matters that really do require your attention (this is where it's important for good time and stress management). And it helps you develop your people by freeing them up to use their abilities to the greatest extent (this is where it's important for effective leadership). And Delegate to Build Your People As you probably already know, delegation means giving a certain amount of power to make decisions and complete activities to someone else. What you may not know is that by sharing this responsibility, you enable individuals to grow and to further develop their knowledge, skills and abilities. How to Delegate Effectively (1) The specifics of the task or job to be delegated. (2) The experience, knowledge and skills of the individual as they apply to the delegated task. (3) How this person works best (including what he or she wants from his or her job, how he or she views the work, and so on.) (4) The current workload of this person. (5) The project's timelines/deadlines, including: (a) How much time is there available to do the job? (b) Is there time to redo the job if it's not done properly the first time? (c) What are the consequences of not completing the job on time? (6) Resources for this person as he/she works to complete the task. (7) Your expectations or goals for the project or task(s), including: (a) How important is it that the results are of the highest possible quality? (b) Is an "adequate" result good enough? (c) Would a failure be crucial? (d) How much would failure impact other things? (8) The role you play as the person who is delegating in ensuring the project's success, through ongoing monitoring, support, coaching,' the providing of resources, and so on. (9) Appropriate mechanisms for controlling the project: For example, precisely when should you set checkpoints and report-backs to make sure that things are going smoothly? In thoroughly considering these key points prior to delegating, you will find that you will delegate more successfully. Now, once you have worked through the above steps, make sure you brief your team member appropriately. Take time to explain why they were chosen for the job, what's expected from them during the project, the goals you have for the project, all timelines and deadlines and the resources on which they can draw. And agree a schedule for checking-in with progress updates. Lastly, make sure that the team member knows that you want to know if any problems occur, and

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that you are available for any questions or guidance needed as the work progresses. Theories of Delegation Principal - Agent Theory Principal-Agent theory conceives of delegation as involving firstly a 'principal' who for a particular reason decides to delegate authority over a particular policy area (for example) to another actor or organization the 'agent'. It is generally conceived of as more of a framework than a predictive theory and it incorporates a wide variety of forms. Generally speaking there have been two areas of primary focus, firstly that concerned with 'agency loss' which roughly corresponds to the extent to which decisions/ policy outcomes arrived at by the agent differ from the goals of the principal. This in turn leads to theories concerning how to minimize agency loss whilst maintaining the benefits of delegation. Such theories tend to emphasize the use of ex ante and ex post controls which can help ensure compliance, though every principal-agent approach stresses that principals and agents always have separate interests and as such, a beneficial delegation will always result in some element of agency loss. Secondly, there is the focus on 'informational asymmetries' whereby the agent is assumed to possess an advantage in terms of expertise in the particular area which it is delegated authority in. For instance if a local government decided to delegate refuse collection to a private firm, after a suitable amount of time the private firm would possess expertise in this area that would put it in an advantageous position relative to the principal. As such the agent could use this informational advantage to shape the relations between themselves and the principal to achieve more favourable outcomes -for instance the principal in this example may not know exactly how much funds are required to carry out the task of refuse collection effectively and will rely on the agent to provide them with this information, as such the agent is given the opportunity to extract more funds than is necessary to carry out the task. Delegation as a Credible Commitment This section of the literature has purported to explain delegation as a solution to the problem of 'credible commitments'. In short, this states that in certain situations an actor will choose to delegate authority to another actor or organization in order to constrain their own behaviour and provide credibility to a particular obligation they have entered into. To give one of the sillier examples present in the literature there is that of three blind men left alone in a room with a cake. They all enter into a pact that none of them will eat the cake, but as nobody is capable of enforcing this agreement they decide to delegate authority to one of their friends who can watch over them to ensure nobody breaks their commitment and sneaks off with a slice. In this way delegating authority is seen as overcoming collective action problems. This theory has been applied most prominently in the context of democratic pressures which impact on a government's ability to uphold international agreements. Two factors are seen as causing this problem, firstly the problem of 'time inconsistency' whereby what is the best short-term solution to a problem may be different to the optimal long-term solution. In this instance, a government may agree to carry out the long-term course of action, but when faced with the pressures of winning an election will resort to the short-term course of action which undermines the agreement. To overcome this problem the government will delegate authority to an actor or organisation so as to ensure that the correct long term policy is carried out even when it is not electorally desirable. Secondly, there is the problem of 'political property rights' which refers to the fact that as democracies have the potential to replace one government with another government who support opposing policies, the agreements made by one government must be somehow enforced by an independent authority so that they constrain future governments from breaking them.

Concept of Humor A man speaks to his doctor after an operation. He says, "Doc, now that the surgery is done, will I be able to

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play the piano?" The doctor replies, "Of course!" The man says, "Good, because I couldn't before!" A gardener, an architect, and a lawyer are discussing which of their vocations is the most ancient. The gardener comments, "My vocation goes back to the Garden of Eden, when God told Adam to tend the garden." The architect comments, "My vocation goes back to the creation, when God created the world itself from primordial chaos." They both look curiously at the lawyer, who asks, "And who do you think created the primordial chaos?" Unknown Humour or humor is the ability or quality of people, objects, or situations to evoke feelings of amusement in other people. The term encompasses a form of entertainment or human communication which evokes such feelings, or which makes people laugh or feel happy. A sense of humor is the ability to experience humour, a quality which all people share, although the extent to which an individual will personally find something humorous depends on a host of absolute and relative variables, including geographical location, culture, maturity, level of education, and context. Understanding humour The essence of humor lies in two ingredients; the relevance factor and the surprise factor. First, something familiar (or relevant) to the audience is presented. (However. the relevant situation may be so familiar to the audience that it doesn't always have to be presented, as occurs in absurd humour, for example). From there, they may think they know the natural follow-through thoughts or conclusion. Humor and Leadership Leadership should trigger an element of humor in action. Demonstrated seriousness by the leaders on all occasions may do no good to the followers. An element of humor makes the tougher job lighter to the follower and they start enjoying the job assigned however tougher it is. Requirements of the job may be conveyed in a humorous manner. Similarly, when a subordinate has erred in action, there is a way of putting across the ideas. Humor can facilitate positive results. That is why the concept "Humour at Work" has occupied an important place in major organizations. Trust is a relationship of reliance. A trusted party is presumed to seek to fulfill policies, ethical codes, law and their previous promises. Trust does not need to involve belief in the good character, vices, or morals of the other party. Persons engaged in a criminal activity usually trust each other to some extent. Also trust does not need to include an action that you and the other party are mutually engaged in. Trust is a prediction of reliance on an action, based on what a party knows about the other party. Trust is a statement about what is otherwise unknown for example, because it is far away, cannot be verified, or is in the future. VALUES In the words of Rokeach, values represent basic conviction that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. Value system may be understood as a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's value in terms of their intensity. The above definition of Rokeach suggests therefore that values are learnt from the society and hence are acceptable to the society as preferred "modes of conduct" or "end states". Values are stable and long lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situation. They are evaluative standards that help us distinguish between right or wrong, good or bad in the world. Values do not represent what we need but they indicate what we ought to do to achieve the need in a socially desirable way. Some people value practicality while others value aesthetics. For some frugality is more important than generosity. Values influence our priorities, preferences and actions. We all have set of values that form a value system. This system is identified by the

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relative importance assigned to such values as pleasure, self-respect, honesty, freedom, equality and so on. The values of an individual influence his attitudes and also his behaviour. Why Values are Important ? Values are important for organizations because they depend on individual employees for making decisions and actions aimed at achieving the goals. The problem for these organizations is how to align the individual values with those of the organization. There is a direct relevance between values which an organization believes in and its business practices. Values influence the behaviour of an employee. If the employee feels that payment of wage on the basis of performance is right, then payment of wages on the basis of seniority may not mean anything to him. Sources of Values Values are learnt from the childhood. We derive the values from the people we love or adore or respect like parents, elders, teachers and other eminent personalities from different walks of life. Our culture also nurtures certain value in us. Peace, co-operation, harmony, equity and democracy are the desirable societal values nurtured in our culture. It is interesting to note that values are relatively, stable and enduring. The process of questioning our values, may result in a change. Values of an organization have a direct bearing on the business ethics it follows. Types of Values Values do not operate in isolation. Several values interact with each other to form value system in a society. As per Rokeach Value Survey, values may be classified into two types, one called as terminal values and the other instrumental values. Terminal values may be understood as the desirable-end-states of existence, the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime . Instrumental values refer to the preferable modes of behaviour or means of achieving one's terminal values. Values can be categorized on the basis of the level at which they operate namely, Personal values are formed from past experience and interaction with each other. Values at Workplace The work values may be defined as the conceptions of what is preferable from among the alternative modes of conduct or end states with respect to work. Work values are expected to be an integral part of a nation's cultural system and hence we notice differences between the work values of American organizations and Japanese organizations. They represent the values internalized by members of the society through the process of socialization. In some of the studies, age has been found to be a major factor in differentiating employee values. Young employees give importance to more autonomy at work place, short-run gratification, quick growth, individualism and openness compared to old employees. As a result, young employees bring a different set of values to the work place. Hence, management should understand those new values and accordingly deal with them for achieving good performance. Managers have to study values because they are the foundations for understanding a person's attitudes, motivation and behaviour in the organization. Status In modern societies, occupation is usually thought of as the main determinant of status, but other memberships or affiliations (such as ethnic group, religion, gender, voluntary associations, fandom, hobby) can have an influence. Status is an important idea in social stratification. Max Weber distinguishes status from social class, though some contemporary empirical sociologists add the two ideas to create Socio-Economic Status or SES, usually operationalised as a simple index of income, education and occupational prestige.

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Income and Status Status inconsistency is a situation when an individual's social positions have both positive and negative influences on his social status. For example, a teacher has a positive societal image (respect, prestige) which increases his status but may earn little money, which simultaneously decreases his status. In contrast, a drug dealer, may have low social position though he may have a high income.

Chapter 8 Conflict Management Types of Conflicts Definition of Conflict Conflict has been defined as tension arising from incompatible needs, in which the actions of one frustrate the ability of the other to achieve a goal. According to Wilmot and Hocker (1998), Conflict is an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scare resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals. Daniel Webster defines conflict as: 1. Competitive or opposing action of incompatibles 2. Antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests or persons) 3. Struggle resulting from incompatible needs, drives, wishes or demands 4. Hostile encounter Conflict is merely the existence of competing or incompatible options. Conflicts are experienced every day by both individuals and groups. Conflict is the perception and/or feeling by one party, individual, or group that the 'other' party is hindering the first party from achieving a goal. Three Views of Conflict Traditional view Assumed that conflict was bad and would always have a negative impact on an organization. Human relations view Argued that conflict was a natural and inevitable occurrence in all organizations; rationalized the existence of conflict and advocated its acceptance. Interactionist view Encourages mangers to maintain ongoing minimum level of conflict sufficient to keep organizational units viable, self-critical, and creative.

Conflict and Organizational Performance

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Sources of Conflict

Competition for scarce resources : Resources are limited and claimants are many. The desire to
satisfy one's interests, regardless of the impact on the other party leads to the conflict. This may be seen right from the ration shop to that of admitting the child in the right school.

Different set of values and goals : Values may be defined as basic conviction that a specific
mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. In general sense, it may be understood that for some, ends justify means and for others, means are more important. People who respect values in action do not compromise on the means achieve an end. Different groups have differing goals and focus. Contrasting perceptions : Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. People's behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on the reality itself. When the perception of one individual differs from that of the other, conflict begins. This is so because, it is not necessary that individuals should have same perceptions all the time. Perception about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic which in management parlance, we call it as halo effect i.e., drawing general impression on a single characteristic may lead to conflicts in functions and between people. A situation wherein people selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes may also give rise to conflicts.

Lack of trust : Trust may be defined as a positive expectation of one, that another will
not act opportunistically. Trust is built over a period of time based on certain key elements such as competence, consistency, loyalty and openness experienced by the people between them.

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That is to say, through trust, time tests relations. Trust and integrity cannot be seen in isolation. When an individual's experience with another is not pleasant and encouraging, lack of trust leads to conflict. For instance, the leader does not support the subordinate in times of crisis and leaves the subordinate to fend himself, the later looses confidence and conflict begins. Competition
for

Scarce may be defined as the sum total of ways in which an Personality clashes : Personality Resources Different individual reacts and interacts with others Heredity, environment and situation are the OverlappSet major determinants of personality. Type A personality ing Of Values, belongs to the world of impatience, anxiety and aggression, whereas Type B personality is Goals just in the reverse order of Type A personality. A Authority situation wherein Type A personality as a leader entrusts the job with his subordinate who belongs to Type B category, then obviously the product shall be one of conflicts and there shall be clashes between the two. This is so because Type B personality does not suffer from a sense of time Contrastin Threat urgency and can relax without guilt. g

Sources Perception Of s Faulty communication : Communication is the transfer of information from a sender to a Conflict

To Status

receiver with the information being understood by the receiver. The communication process is complete only when the message is received and understood properly. Faulty communication caused by unclarified assumptions, poorly expressed messages, poor listening and premature Lack evaluation , information overload and semantic distortion ofmay result in conflicts.
Attribution Trust

Attribution: The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate Faultyfactors when making judgments about the behaviour of others lead the influence of internal Personality Communic to fundamental attribution error. Different behaviours of a personality in different situations may Clashes ation cause conflicts.

Threat to status: Insecurity, lack of confidence brings in an element of uncertainty in the minds of
individuals concerned, may trigger conflicts in an organization.

Overlapping Authority : Two or more managers claim authority for the same activities which
leads to conflict between the managers and workers. Sources of Conflicts Different Types of Conflicts Deutsch has suggested five types of basic issues underlying conflicts : control over resources, preferences and nuisances, values, beliefs, and the nature of the relationship between parties. He has suggested the following six types of conflicts involving these issues: Veridical conflict : This type of conflict exists objectively and is perceived accurately. For example, a newly created department B may demand the use of spaces being occupied at present by department A. Contingent conflict : Here the existence of the conflict is dependent upon readily rearranged circumstances, but this is not recognized by the conflicting parties. For example, for the new department B, space can be created by converting vacant and unused space into usable space, but this is not being done.

Displaced conflict : Here, the parties in conflict are, so to speak, arguing about the wrong things. For example, the conflict between two departments over the transfer of a person may cover up the real conflict of getting priority from the top management. The former is the manifest and the latter the underlying conflict. Misattributed conflict : In this type, the conflict is between the wrong parties, and, as a consequence, usually over the wrong issues. For example, the inefficiency of a department may be attributed to the individual representing the department even if the individual may be very

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efficient personally. Latent conflict : This is, in effect, a conflict that should be occurring but is not. For example, the conflict between an exploitative management and workers may not be felt and expressed until the workers are made aware, through political education, of their rights.

False conflict This is the occurrence of conflict when there is no objective basis for it. For example, department A may have a conflict with department B because the former perceives that its share of resources is being usurped by the latter although this may not be true. In a climate of suspicion, false conflicts multiply, based on and fanned by rumours. Functional Conflict Functional Conflict or Constructive Conflict is regarded as Creative confrontation which promotes creativity and encourages interaction. It is a struggle between persons who are engaged in a dispute or controversy and who remain together, face to face, until acceptance, respect for differences, and love emerge; even though persons may be at odds with the issue, they are no longer at odds with each other. The critical factor is the willingness to explore and resolve the conflict mutually. If appropriately handled, conflict can provide an important opportunity for growth. Creative confrontation increases commitment and enhances productivity and thus the group is unified. Dysfunctional Conflict Dysfunctional Conflict or Destructive Conflict can be harmful or have negative consequences. Several identifiable elements may occur in dysfunctional conflict, such as the information is withheld, feelings are expressed too strongly, the conflict is obscured by a double message and feelings are denied or projected onto others. Such conflicts leads to maladaptive psychological behaviours such as defensiveness, anger, hostility, alienation and weakened relationships. Conflicts are not resolved, so issues build up, which further divides the group. Give rise to a climate of mistrust and suspicion. These conflicts are nonproductive conflicts that are characterized by feelings that are misperceived or stated too intensely. Destructive conflict lack commitment and thus lessens satisfaction. Organizational Conflicts :

Interpersonal Conflict Conflict between individuals due to differences in their goals or values is called Interpersonal Conflict.

Intra-group Conflict
Conflict within a group or team is called Intra-group conflict.

Inter-group Conflict
Conflict between two or more teams or groups is called Inter-group Conflict. Managers play a key role in resolution of this conflict.

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Conflict that arises across organizations is called Inter-organizational Conflict. In all these conflicts, the same process is involved: one party wants to achieve a goal (the goal may be to get an idea accepted, to complete a task, to have a close relationship, to serve a cause, or to control resources) and the 'other' party is seen as hindering the first from achieving that goal. Stages Involved in Conflict

Physical Threat

Verbal Aggression

Antagonism Tension Frustration Conflict Awareness Latent Conflict

1. Latent Conflict - in which disparities exist. 2. Conflict Awareness - in which disparities are recognized. 3. Frustration - in which feelings, such as anger erupt. 4. Tension due to frustration tension arises. 5. Antagonism opposing behaviour. 6. Frequent Disagreement frequent disagreement occurs due to opposing behaviour. 7. Verbal Aggression in which feelings are acted out in observed behaviuors. 8. Physical Threat physical threat is expressed as a result of verbal aggression. 9. Physical Aggression physical threat may lead to further physical aggression.
Outcomes in Conflicts

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Lose-Lose / Avoiding
No one achieves his or her true desires and the underlying reasons for conflict remain unaffected.

Lose-Win / Smoothing
One party achieves its desires and the other party does not.

Middle of the Road / Compromise


Compromise occurs when each party to the conflict gives up something of value to the other.

Win-Lose / Forcing
One party uses force, superior skill, or domination to win a conflict.

Win-Win / Collaboration
Collaboration involves working through conflict differences and solving problems so everyone wins. The conflict is resolved to everyones benefit. Chapter 9 Conflict Management Coping Strategies Wilsons Method of Conflict Management

1. Evaluate intrapersonally : know and understand the conflict. 2. Define interpersonally : share feelings and perceptions publicly. 3. Identify shared goals : this may mean developing some ideas about both parties 4. would like to have as a result.

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be resolved.

6. Weigh the resolutions against the goals : find out how well each of the possible resolutions
satisfy or meet the goal or goals generated in step 3.

7. Select best solution : identify which among the alternatives is the best, most satisfying and
agreeable one.

8. Evaluate resolution: when the resolution has been put into place or acted upon, ascertain whether
it had its intended effect. To confront simply means: 1. To face, especially in challenge 2. To oppose 3. To cause to meet 4. To bring face to face Keep in mind: Behaviour not confronted will not change. If someone is doing something or behaving in a way that is unacceptable to you, you must bring it to their attention. You must confront the issue. When aired at lower stages of conflict, anger can be cathartic, helping the parties more clearly identify the issues and values involved. At higher levels of conflict, however, explosive anger can have the opposite effect. Anger itself is neither positive nor negative. How we choose to utilize that anger, however, is vital to our success in managing conflict. How well we control that anger and our overall stress level will dramatically impact our ability to effectively handle lifes conflicts.

Positive effects of conflict Increased motivation Enhanced problem/solution identification Group cohesiveness Reality adjustment Increased knowledge/skill Enhanced creativity Contribution to goal attainment Incentive for growth

Typical reactions to conflict Retaliate: I dont get mad, I get even. In many instances retaliation feels like a good option. The momentary satisfaction of getting back at the other party is tempting (like the airline attendant who routed the bags of an obnoxious Cleveland-bound passenger to Tokyo instead!) But retaliation is always a mistake. That fleeting moment of victory always precipitates even greater conflicts down the road. What goes around, comes around.

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Dominate: My way or else! Bullying behavior and running roughshod over the other party are common responses for some. People with short tempers and strong opinions may fall into the domination mode automatically if they are not extremely careful. While there are times when this approach is appropriate (immediate safety and security issues), it is typically very hard on the long-term relationship and will invariably spark additional problems later. Isolate: Sometimes simply accepting or ignoring the situation without response is a good idea. Just be sure you have truly accepted it as opposed to suppressing it. If you can accept it and let it go, great. If, however, it continues to bother you, to fester inside, to build upon other issues youve ignored, its a time bomb just waiting to explode. At some point, your charming, easy-going personality will turn ugly for little or no apparent reason as the lid blows off the pressure keg. Your desire to avoid confronting a small issue up front has turned it into a much larger, much less easily managed situation. Cooperate: The last and preferred option is to confront the issue immediately. Many people recoil at the concept of confrontation and think it, by definition, must be a loud, unpleasant experience. To confront an issue simply means to address it and put it on the table for discussion.

Chapter 10 Conflict Management Styles Dimensions of Conflict (Thomas) Cooperativeness The degree to which an individual will attempt to rectify a conflict by satisfying the other persons concerns. Assertiveness The degree to which an individual will attempt to rectify the conflict to satisfy his or her own concerns. Conflict-handling techniques derived from Thomas cooperative and assertiveness dimensions: Competing (assertive but uncooperative) Collaborating (assertive and cooperative) Avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative) Accommodating (unassertive but cooperative) Compromising (midrange on assertiveness and cooperativeness

Various Types Conflict Management Styles

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Avoidance or Withdrawal Style Proper situation : Conflict is trivial, when emotions are running high and time is needed to cool them down, or when the potential disruption from an assertive action outweighs the benefits of resolution. The other individual is more powerful or the cost of addressing the conflict is higher than the benefit of resolution. Function : Denying the existence of conflict and hiding ones true feelings. Just postpone the conflict by downplaying disagreement, withdrawing, staying neutral at all costs. lose-lose. Accommodation and Smoothing Style Proper situation : When the issue is more important to the other person. Giving in and smoothing over differences to maintain harmony. When the issue under dispute isnt that important to you or when you want to build up credits for later issues. Function : Playing down the conflict and promotes harmony and gains credits that can be used at a later date, lose-win Competition or Authoritative Command Proper situation : You need a quick resolution on important issues that require unpopular actions to be taken and when commitment by others to your solution is not critical. Trying to win in active competition, or using authority to win by force. It was used in the past by corporate managers. Function : It is an effective style when there is a need for a quick decision. No lose, no win. Compromise Proper situation : Conflicting parties are about equal in power, when it is desirable to achieve a temporary solution to a complex issue, or when time pressures demand an expedient solution. When goals are moderately important, but not worth the effort or potential disruption of more assertive modes. Function : Bargaining for something acceptable so each party wins and loses a bit. Collaboration or problem solving Proper situation : Time pressures are minimal, when all parties seriously want a win-win solution, and when the issue is too important to be compromised. Both parties commit to finding a mutually satisfying solution. They work through differences to solve problems so that everyone gains. Function : The most effective style for genuine resolution ,win-win. Negotiations Borisoff and Victor (1998) argue that the best strategy for conflict management (negotiation) depends on the desired outcome. Negotiation A process in which two or more parties who have different preference must make a joint decision and come to an agreement

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Distributive bargaining Negotiation under zero-sum conditions, in which the gains by one party involve losses by the other party Integrative bargaining Negotiation in which there is at least one settlement that involves no loss to either party

Determining the Bargaining Zone

Developing Effective Negotiation Skills Research the individual with whom youll be negotiating. Begin with a positive overture. Address problems, not personalities. Pay little attention to initial offers. Emphasize win-win solutions. Create an open and trusting climate. If needed, be open to accepting third-party assistance. Unilateral negotiation Unilateral negotiation strategies include: The trusting collaboration strategy. The open subordination strategy. The firm competition strategy. The active avoidance strategy. Chapter 11 Positive Thinking Attitude, Beliefs Attitude Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are positive, negative or neutral views of an "attitude object": i.e., a person, behaviour or event. People can also be "ambivalent" towards a target, meaning that they simultaneously possess a positive and a negative bias towards the attitude in question. Attitudes come from judgments. Attitudes develop on the ABC model (affect, behavioural change and cognition). The affective response is a physiological response that expresses an individual's preference for an entity.

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The behavioural intention is a verbal indication of the intention of an individual. The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity to form an attitude.

Most attitudes in individuals are a result of observational learning from their environment. The link between attitude and behaviour exists but depends on human behaviour, some of which is irrational. For example, a person who is for blood transfusion may not donate blood. This makes sense if the person does not like the sight of blood, which explains this irrationality. Implicit and Explicit Attitude There is also considerable research on "implicit" attitudes, which are unconscious but have effects (identified through sophisticated methods using people's response times to stimuli). Implicit and explicit attitudes seem to affect people's behaviour, though in different ways. They tend not to be strongly associated with each other, although in some cases they are. The relationship between them is poorly understood. Types of Attitudes A person may have a multitude of attitudes, but what is important for us to study is the limited number of job related attitudes. These job related attitudes are positive or negative evaluations held by employees about various aspects of their work environment. Essentially, there are three important attitudes we are concerned with; namely job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment. 1. Job Satisfaction One of the tasks of a manager is to provide job satisfaction to their employees. Job satisfaction refers to an individual's general attitude towards his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes towards the job, while a person who is dissatisfied holds negative attitudes towards the job. When we talk about employees attitudes, mostly we mean job satisfaction. As a matter of fact, the two are closely related. 2. Job Involvement The term "jobs involvement" is relatively a recent concept in the management literature. There is no complete agreement over what the term means. Generally, it refers to the degree to which a person identifies with his job, actively participates in it and considers his performance important to his self-worth. Individuals who express high involvement in their jobs are likely to be more productive, have higher satisfaction and are less likely to resign than employees with low involvement.

3.

Organizational Commitment The attitude reflects an individual's orientation towards the organization by tapping his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Individuals who are highly committed see their identity as closely attached to that of the organization. Like job involvement, highly committed employees will be better performers and have lower turnover than those with low levels of commitment to the organization. Attitudes - Implications Attitude and Productivity The link between attitude and productivity is not clear yet. Because in 1955, Brayfield and Crockett, made an extensive study of this relationship and concluded that there was minimal or no relationship between attitudes and performance. However, two years later, Herzberg and his associates concluded from the review of studies that there was generally a positive relationship between attitudes and productivity. They noted that in many cases the correlations, although positive, were low. Similarly, a review in 1964 of twenty three separate studies revealed that, except in three cases, there was a low but positive relationship

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between attitudes and productivity give rise to mixed findings. The recent research studies also have not placed conclusive results on the positive relationship between job satisfaction, involvement and higher productivity. Attitudes and Withdrawal Symptoms It was found in early studies that employee satisfaction is inversely related to absenteeism and turnover. The greater the job satisfaction on the part of an employee, the less is the scope for employee's withdrawal behaviours. Brayfield and Crockett found a significant but complex relationship between attitudes and both absenteeism and turnover. Vroom found a consistent negative relationship between job satisfaction and turnover, but a less consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. Many studies have found that satisfaction has a consistent impact on absenteeism, but an even more profound and consistent relationship on turnover. Research evidence is fairly clear that committed and satisfied employees have lower rates of both turnover and absenteeism. If we consider the two withdrawal behaviours separately, however, we can be more confident about the influence of attitudes on turnover. Attitude And Satisfaction We should recognize that job attitudes and job satisfaction are closely related. In many research studies, in fact, these terms are used interchangeably. In studies of job attitudes, it is generally thought that the result is some measure of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction, however, is not behaviour but rather a general feeling of commitment with the job. As a result, if attitudes are positive, job satisfaction tends to be positive. On the other hand, if the attitudes are negative, satisfaction becomes low. Therefore, if a manager wants to have employees who are satisfied with their jobs, he should strive to create in them positive attitudes towards their job and the organization. Attitude Formation Unlike personality, attitudes are expected to change as a function of experience. Tesser (1993), has argued that hereditary variables may affect attitudes - but believes that they may do so indirectly. For example, if one inherits the disposition to become an extrovert, this may affect one's attitude to certain styles of music. There are numerous theories of attitude formation and attitude change. These include:

Self perception theory by Daryl Beni Balance Theory of Fritz Heider Congruity Theory by Osgood and Tannenbaum Dissonance Theory by Leon Festinger

Theories of Attitude Self-perception Theory Self-perception theory is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist, Daryl Bern. It asserts that we develop our attitudes by observing our own behaviour and concluding what attitudes must have caused them. Self-perception theory differs from cognitive dissonance theory in that it does not hold that people experience a "negative drive state" called "dissonance" which they seek to relieve. Instead, people simply infer their attitudes from their own behaviour in the same way that an outside observer might. Selfperception theory is a special case of attribution theory. Bem ran his own version of Festinger and Carlsmith's famous cognitive dissonance experiment. Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task. Some subjects were told that the man had been paid $20 for his testimonial and another group was told that he was paid $1.

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Those in the latter condition thought that the man must have enjoyed the task more than those in the $20 condition. Bem argued that the subjects did not judge the man's attitude in terms of cognitive dissonance phenomena, and that therefore any attitude change the man might have had in that situation was the result of the subject's own self-perception. Whether cognitive dissonance or self-perception is a more useful theory is a topic of considerable controversy and a large body of literature, with no clear winner. There are some circumstances where either theory is preferred, but it is traditional to use the terminology of cognitive dissonance theory by default. Balance Theory This theory was first developed by Fritz Heider (1) Basically it is an interpersonal theory of consistency. Unit formation and denial of unit formation (+1, -1) Liking and disliking (+1, -1) (2) Balance exist when you like a person you are associated with (+1 x +1), or dislike a person you are not associated with (-1 x -1). (3) Imbalance exists when you dislike a person you are associated with (+1 x -1) or like a person with whom you are not associated with (-1 x +1). Imbalance is stressful and you will tend to change one of the cognitive components. Congruity Theory

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


This theory was developed by Osgood and Tannenbaum. It deals with attitudes (evaluations) and relationships Attitudes are measured on a 7 point scale from +3 to -3. Attitudes are always toward some object. Objects may become linked in our mind that is form a bond. There are two types of bonds:

Associative (positive link between objects) Dissociative (negative link between objects) These links are similar to unit formation in the Balance model of Heider. Congruity exists when our evaluation of (attitude toward) two objects that are associatively bonded are identical in magnitude and direction. We like the Democratic Party (+2), and we like National Health Insurance (+2) and we learn that the Democratic Party endorses National Health Insurance (Associative Bond). Congruity also exists when our evaluation of (attitude toward) two objects that are dissociatively bonded are identical in magnitude and opposite in direction. We like the Democratic Party (+2), and we dislike Multinational Companies (-2) and we learn that the Democratic Party rejects Multinational Companies (Dissociative Bond). Incongruity exists when our evaluation of (attitude toward) two objects that are associatively bonded are not identical in magnitude. We like the Democratic Party (+2), and we like Election Reform (+1) and we learn that the Democratic Party endorses Election Reform (Associative Bond). Incongruity also exists when our evaluation of (attitude toward) two objects that are dissociatively bonded are not identical in magnitude. We like the Democratic Party (+2), and we dislike Continuation of Tax Advantages (-1) and we learn that the Democratic Party rejects Continuation of Tax Advantages (Dissociative Bond).

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

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When there is incongruity, people feel the effects and are motivated to change their attitudes to make them congruent. Both attitudes change. The weaker attitude changes more, the stronger attitude changes less. Attitudes do not change direction (sign). Let stronger attitude magnitude = S, weaker attitude magnitude = W (no signs, absolute values). Then S (before change) becomes (after change) S-((W/ (S+W))*(S-W)), and W (before change) becomes (after change) W+((S/(S+W))*-(SW)). Signs of the new values are the same as the signs of the old values.

(12)

When there is a dissociative bond between two attitudes with the same sign, or an associative bond between two attitudes with opposite sign, the theory does not apply. We tend to not believe the bond in this case. Dissonance Theory (1) This theory was proposed by Leon Festinger, and has generated more research and controversy than any other cognitive consistency theory because of its ability to make non-obvious predictions. Two cognitive elements can stand in relationship to each other as consonant (one implies the other), dissonant (one implies the opposite of the other) or irrelevance (one has no implication for the other). Dissonance is distressful and we seek to reduce it.

(2)

(3) (4)

Magnitude of dissonance is a function of importance of the items and number of cognitive elements involved. Dissonance can be reduced by changing the behavioural element, attitudinal element, adding cognitive elements, consonant with the behavioural element and changing the importance of cognitive or behavioural elements.

(5)

Attitudinal Change Attitudes can be changed through persuasion. The celebrated work of Carl Hovland, at Yale University in the 1950s and 1960s, helped to advance knowledge of persuasion. In Hovland's view, we should understand attitude change as a response to communication. Change in the Focus of Recruitment There has been an absolute all time shift in the focus and purpose of recruitment done by the companies today. While people were recruited for their skills and expertise before exclusively, today the major recruitment requirement is one of attitude. People today are recruited for the positive attitude. This is based on the reality that skills can be developed among employees. Attitude is one which cannot be hired from the shop. Hence, the mantras of companies today is recruit the person for attitude and develop the skills subsequently. Developing Positive Attitude The way you think, day-in and day out, affects all aspects of your life. Learning to listen to your "internal dialogue" will help you recognize your thought patterns and how they may be affecting the way you handle the stressful situations of daily living. Many people have found that, when they tune in to their internal dialogue, much of it is negative. Thoughts like, "I could never do that" and "What if I fail?" can seriously impact the way you behave. This, in turn, affects every aspect of your life. When we are stressed, certain hormones are produced by the body. When released

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infrequently, these hormones are harmless but, when produced continuously, they can cause serious damage. Cardiovascular disease is caused in part by the continuous production of stress hormones. The key to living our lives free from negative thought is to remember who we truly are, free from our momentary emotional shifts. For many, the transition to positive awareness of self requires "small steps" on a chosen path. The following tools may prove to be powerful stepping stones necessary for the greater achievement of Absolute Joyful Living. Belief and Knowledge Belief is the psychological state in which an individual is convinced of the truth of a proposition. Like the related concepts of truth, knowledge, and wisdom, there is no precise definition of belief on which scholars agree, but rather numerous theories and continued debate about the nature of belief. The concept of belief presumes a subject (the believer) and an object of belief (the proposition) so like other propositional attitudes, belief implies the existence of mental states and intentionality, both of which are hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mind and whose foundations and relation to brain states are still controversial. Beliefs are sometimes divided into Core beliefs (those which you may be actively thinking about) Dispositional beliefs (those which you may ascribe to but have never previously thought about). For example, if asked 'do you believe tigers wear pink pyjamas T a person might answer that they do not, despite the fact they may never have thought about this situation before. Belief and knowledge False beliefs are not knowledge, even if the individual believes them to be true; a sincere believer in the flat earth theory does not know that the Earth is flat. Unknown facts are not knowledge, because they are not known by any individual; it is the belief element in a true belief that makes the link between a state of affairs and an individual. Unjustified true beliefs are lucky guesses, and therefore not knowledge. Is belief voluntary? Most philosophers hold the view that belief formation is to some extent spontaneous and involuntary. Some people think that one can choose to investigate and research a matter but that one cannot choose to believe. On the other hand, most people have the impression that in some cases people don't believe things because they don't want to believe, especially about a matter in which they are emotionally involved. Limiting beliefs The term limiting belief is used for a belief that inhibits exploration of a wider cognitive space than would otherwise be the case. Examples of limiting beliefs are seen both in animals and people. These may be strongly held beliefs, or held unconsciously, and are often tied in with self-image or perceptions about the world. Everyday examples of limiting beliefs: That one has specific capabilities, roles, or traits which cannot be escaped or changed. That one cannot succeed so there is no point committing to trying. That a particular opinion is right therefore there is no point considering other viewpoints. That a particular action or result is the only way to resolve a problem.

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Chapter 12 Positive Thinking Martin Seligmans theory of Learn Helplessness Positive Thinking Is the glass half full, or half empty?

Positive thinking is a mental attitude that admits into the mind thoughts, words and images that are conductive to growth, expansion and success. It is a mental attitude that expects good and favourable results. A positive mind anticipates happiness. joy, health and a successful outcome of every situation and action. Whatever the mind expects, it finds. Positive thinking is not accepted by all. Some treat it as a management joke. Some feels that it is illusory. Some others opine that it is very difficult to practice. The fact remains that those who believe in positive thinking understand its power. The power of happiness and joy, the power to postpone disease and death. When a doctor treats a patient, the result depends on the faith and thinking of the patient. If the patient feels that nothing is going to happen out of treatment. At the moment itself the result is lost. Research studies have revealed that positive thinking has helped the cancer patients to come out of the trauma of its consequences. Among the people who accept the power of positive thinking, not many know how to use it effectively to get results. Yet, it seems that many are becoming attracted to this subject, as evidenced by the many books, lectures and courses about it. The subject has become so popular that the management experts are able to make out of money through the topic. Yes they are positive that they can sell the concept of positive thinking to change the lives of the people. It is quite common to hear people say: "Think positive!", to someone who feels down and worried. Most people do not take these words seriously, as they do not know what they really mean, or do not consider them as useful and effective. How many people do you know, who stop to think what the power of positive thinking means? The following story illustrates how this power works. Allan applied for a new job, but as his self-esteem was low, and he considered himself as a failure and unworthy of success, he was sure that he was not going to get the job. He had a negative attitude towards himself, and believed that the other applicants were better and more qualified than him. Allan manifested this attitude, due to his negative past experiences with job interviews. His mind was filled with negative thoughts and fears concerning the job for the whole week before the job interview. He was sure he would be rejected. On the day of the interview he got up late, and to his horror he discovered that the shirt he had planned to wear was dirty, and the other one needed ironing. As it was already too late, he went out wearing a shirt full of wrinkles. During the interview he was tense, displayed a negative attitude, worried about his shirt, and felt hungry

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because he did not have enough time to eat breakfast. All this distracted his mind and made it difficult for him to focus on the interview. His overall behaviour made a bad impression, and consequently he materialized his fear and did not get the job. Jim applied for the same job too, but approached the matter in a different way. He was sure that he was going to get the job. During the week preceding the interview lie often visualized him making a good impression and getting the job. In the evening before the interview he prepared the clothes he was going to wear, and went to sleep a little earlier. On day of the interview he woke up earlier than usual, and had ample time to eat breakfast, and then to arrive to the interview before the scheduled time. He got the job because he made a good impression. Of course he had also the proper qualifications for the job, but so had Allan. What do we learn from these two stories? Is there any magic employed here? No. it is all natural. When the attitude is positive we entertain pleasant feelings and constructive images, and sees in our mind's eye what we really want to happen brings brightness to the eyes, more energy and happiness. The whole being broadcasts good-will, happiness and success. Even the health is affected in a beneficial way. We walk tall and the voice is more powerful. Our body language shows the way you feel inside. Positive and negative thinking are both contagious. All of us affect, in one way or another, the people we meet. This happens instinctively and on a subconscious level, through thoughts and feelings transference and through body language. People sense our aura and are affected by our thoughts. Is it any wonder that we want to be around positive persons and shun negative ones? People are more disposed to help us if we are positive. They dislike and avoid anyone broadcasting negativity. Negative thoughts, words and attitude bring up negative and unhappy moods and actions. When the mind is negative, poisons are released into the blood, which cause more unhappiness and negativity. This is the way to failure, frustration and disappointment. There is a greater need to tutor our nerves with the rays of positive thinking. The word impossible includes the thought that I am Possible. We have to programme our nerves with right thinking often so that the nerves respond properly to situations. Let us think about the joyous moment of life. Why to waste time and fill our thoughts with past tragedies and the insults faced. Good thoughts lead to good results. We do not help the neighbour by thinking positive. We help only ourselves, our System and our action. There is a greater connection between the thinking and the level of blood pressure we undergo. Negative impressions on an issue and negative thoughts obvious have its own attendant reflections in the physiological functions of the human body. Always visualize only favourable and beneficial situations. Use positive words in your inner dialogues or when talking with others. Smile a little more, as this helps to think positively. Disregard any feelings of laziness or a desire to quit. If you persevere, you will transform the way your mind thinks. Once a negative thought enters your mind, you have to be aware of it and endeavour to replace it with a constructive one. The negative thought will try again to enter your mind, and then you have to replace it again with a positive one. It is as if there are two pictures in front of you, and you choose to look at one of them and disregard the other. Persistence will eventually teach your mind to think positively and ignore negative thoughts. In case you feel any inner resistance when replacing negative thoughts with positive ones, do not give up, but keep looking only at the beneficial, good and happy thoughts in your mind. It does not matter what your circumstances are at the present moment. Think positively, expect only favourable results and situations, and circumstances will change accordingly. It may take some time for the changes to take place, but eventually they do. Seligman's Theory of Learned Helplessness Learned helplessness is a psychological condition in which an animal has learned to believe that it is helpless. It has come to believe that it has no control over its situation and that whatever it does is

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futile. As a result, the animal will stay passive in the face of an unpleasant, harmful or damaging situation, even when it does actually have the power to change its circumstances. Learned helplessness theory is the view that depression results from a perceived lack of control over the events in one's life, which may result from prior exposure to (actually or apparently) uncontrollable negative events. Learned helplessness is a well-established principle in psychology. It can be observed in the effect of inescapable punishment (such as electrical shock) on animal (and by extension, human) behaviour. Learned helplessness may also occur outside the laboratory, in everyday situations or environments in which people perceive (rightly or wrongly) that they have no control over what happens to them. Such environments may include repeated failures, prison, school, war, disability, famine, and drought. A similar example is that of those concentration camp prisoners during the holocaust, who refused to care or fend for themselves. Present-day examples can be found in schools, mental institutions, orphanages, or long-term care facilities where the patients have failed or been stripped of agency for long enough to cause their feelings of inadequacy to persist. Not all people become depressed as a result of being in a situation where they appear not to have control. In what learned-helplessness pioneer M.E.P. Seligman called "explanatory style," people in a state of learned helplessness view problems as personal, pervasive, or permanent. That is, Personal - They may see themselves as the problem; that is, they have internalized the problem. Pervasive - They may see the problem as affecting all aspects of life. Permanent - They may see the problem as unchangeable.

The concept of "explanatory style" which is discussed separately is related to the fundamental attribution error. Reference Text:

1. Organizational Behavior by Fred Luthans (9th edition)


2. 3. Management Concept , Practice And Cases By K.Aswathappa High Performance Leadership by G. Vijayaragavan Iyengar.

4. Organizational Behavior By S.P.Robbins,S.Sanghi

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