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Math 1410 Worksheet #21: Section 4.

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In the next few classes, we will tackle the problems of maximizing and minimizing functions as well as drawing graphs of functions. To do this, we need to examine how to nd maximums and minimums for a given function. There are two kinds of maximums and minimums that well use. Denition 1. 1. A function f (x) has an absolute (or global) maximum at c if the domain D of f. We call f (c) the (absolute) maximum value of f on D. 2. A function f (x) has a local (or relative) maximum at c if open interval containing c. for all x in for all x in an

Problem 1. Using the above denitions as a model, write down the denitions of absolute minimum, (absolute) minimum value, and local minimum of a function f.

In general, all of the absolute maximum and minimum values of f are collectively known as the extreme values of f. Problem 2. Look at the two graphs of functions given in the diagram. List all the values of x where the function attains its maximum and minimum values. Are these values local or absolute maximums/minimums?
y
y 2

20
1

10 x 2 10 20
2 x 3 2 1 1 2 3

30 40
3

There are two important points to mention here: 1. Local maximums and local minimums cannot occur at endpoints because they must happen inside an open interval. They are not allowed to happen at the end of an interval. 2. Neither function in Problem 2 actually attained both its absolute maximum and its absolute minimum. What kinds of functions will reach both of these? This is outlined in the following theorem: Extreme Value Theorem: Suppose f is a continuous function on a closed interval [a, b]. Then

So, as long as f is a well-behaved function on a closed interval, f will have a highest point and a lowest point. It is important that f is continuous and that we work with a closed interval in this case. Otherwise, the Extreme Value Theorem can not be applied. Figures 6 and 7 on page 206 show what could happen if we dont have one of these conditions. Now we look at some properties that maximums and minimums have. Problem 3. Look back at the graphs from Problem 2. In each, look at all of the maximums and minimums that dont occur at the endpoints of the graph. What are the possible values of the derivative at these maximums and minimums?

Your answer to this problem can be summarized with the following theorem: Fermats Theorem: If f has a local maximum or minimum at c, then

Keep in mind that Fermats Theorem doesnt work the other way around. If either f (c) = 0 or f (c) doesnt exist, youre not guaranteed that f has a local max/min at c. For example, if f (x) = x3 , then f (0) = 0, but there is no maximum or minimum at x = 0. The numbers c mentioned in Fermats Theorem are so important that we give them their own name: Denition 2. If f (c) = 0 or f (c) does not exist, then we say c is a critical number of f.

Problem 4. Consider f (x) = 3x2 12x + 5 on the interval [0, 3]. Find all the critical numbers of f on this interval.

We now tackle the problem of locating absolute maximums and minimums for a continuous function f on a closed interval [a, b]. This is known as the closed interval method. The Closed Interval Method: Suppose f is a continuous function on the closed interval [a, b]. We nd the absolute maximum and minimum values of f on this interval as follows: 1. Find the values of f at all the critical numbers of f in (a, b). 2. Find the values of f (a) and f (b). 3. The largest of all these values is the absolute maximum value of f on [a, b]. The smallest of all of these values is the absolute minimum value of f on [a, b]. Lets go through an example to illustrate the method. Problem 5. Consider f (x) = 3x2 12x + 5 on the interval [0, 3]. (a) In Problem 4, we found the critical numbers of f on [0, 3]. List them again here.

(b) What is the value of f at each of these critical numbers?

(c) What are the values of f at the endpoints of the interval?

(d) What is the largest of your answers from (b) and (c)? Use your answer to this question to identify the absolute maximum and the absolute maximum value of f on [0, 3].

(e) What is the smallest of your answers from (b) and (c)? Use your answer to this question to identify the absolute minimum and the absolute minimum value of f on [0, 3].