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Reduction of Order
Bernd Schr oder

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

What is Reduction of Order?

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

What is Reduction of Order?


1. Typically, reduction of order is applied to second order linear differential equations of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0.

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

What is Reduction of Order?


1. Typically, reduction of order is applied to second order linear differential equations of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0. 2. We must already have one solution y1 of the equation.

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

What is Reduction of Order?


1. Typically, reduction of order is applied to second order linear differential equations of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0. 2. We must already have one solution y1 of the equation. 3. Reduction of order assumes there is a second, linearly independent solution of a the form y = uy1 .

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

What is Reduction of Order?


1. Typically, reduction of order is applied to second order linear differential equations of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0. 2. We must already have one solution y1 of the equation. 3. Reduction of order assumes there is a second, linearly independent solution of a the form y = uy1 . 4. There are two ways to proceed.

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

What is Reduction of Order?


1. Typically, reduction of order is applied to second order linear differential equations of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0. 2. We must already have one solution y1 of the equation. 3. Reduction of order assumes there is a second, linearly independent solution of a the form y = uy1 . 4. There are two ways to proceed.
4.1 We can substitute y = uy1 into the equation. This leads to a rst order differential equation, which explains the name.

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

What is Reduction of Order?


1. Typically, reduction of order is applied to second order linear differential equations of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0. 2. We must already have one solution y1 of the equation. 3. Reduction of order assumes there is a second, linearly independent solution of a the form y = uy1 . 4. There are two ways to proceed.
4.1 We can substitute y = uy1 into the equation. This leads to a rst order differential equation, which explains the name. e P dx 4.2 Or, we can use the formula y2 = y1 dx, which is y2 1 obtained by doing the above substitution symbolically.
Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2 y = u x2 + u2x

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2 y = u x2 + u2x y = u x 2 + u 4x + u2

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2 y = u x2 + u2x y = u x 2 + u 4x + u2 x2 u x2 + u 4x + u2 2ux2 = 0

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2 y = u x2 + u2x y = u x 2 + u 4x + u2 x2 u x2 + u 4x + u2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 + u2x2 2ux2 = 0

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2 y = u x2 + u2x y = u x 2 + u 4x + u2 x2 u x2 + u 4x + u2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 + u2x2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 = 0

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2 y = u x2 + u2x y = u x 2 + u 4x + u2 x2 u x2 + u 4x + u2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 + u2x2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 = 0 u x+u 4 = 0

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2 y = u x2 + u2x y = u x 2 + u 4x + u2 x2 u x2 + u 4x + u2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 + u2x2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 = 0 u x+u 4 = 0

v := u

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
y = ux2 y = u x2 + u2x y = u x 2 + u 4x + u2 x2 u x2 + u 4x + u2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 + u2x2 2ux2 = 0 u x4 + u 4x3 = 0 u x+u 4 = 0 v
Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

v := u 4v x

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Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

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An Example

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Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

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Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

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Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) + c

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

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Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x)

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

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Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x)

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4 u

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4 u= v dx

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4 u= v dx = x4 dx

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4 u= v dx = 1 x4 dx = x3 3

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4 u= y
Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

v dx =

1 x4 dx = x3 3

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4 u= v dx = 1 x4 dx = x3 3

y = x2 u
Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4 u= 1 x4 dx = x3 3 1 y = x2 u = x2 x3 3 v dx =
logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use Reduction of Order to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0, given that y1 = x2.
dv 4v = dx x dv dx = 4 v x ln(v) = 4 ln(x) v = e4 ln(x) = x4 u= 1 x4 dx = x3 3 1 1 y = x2 u = x2 x3 = x1 3 3 v dx =
logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use the Reduction of Order Formula and y1 = x2 to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0.

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use the Reduction of Order Formula and y1 = x2 to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0.
y2 = y1 e
P dx

y2 1

dx

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use the Reduction of Order Formula and y1 = x2 to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0.
y2 = y1 y2 = x
2

e e

P dx

y2 1
0 dx 2

dx dx

(x2 )

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use the Reduction of Order Formula and y1 = x2 to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0.
y2 = y1 y2 = x
2

e e

P dx

y2 1
0 dx 2

dx dx

= x2

(x2 ) 1 dx x4

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use the Reduction of Order Formula and y1 = x2 to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0.
y2 = y1 y2 = x
2

e e

P dx

y2 1
0 dx 2

dx dx

= x2 = x2

(x2 ) 1 dx x4 11 3 3x

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Use the Reduction of Order Formula and y1 = x2 to Find a Second Solution for x2y 2y = 0.
y2 = y1 y2 = x
2

e e

P dx

y2 1
0 dx 2

dx dx

= x2 = x2

(x2 ) 1 dx x4 11 3 3x

1 = x1 3
Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

1 Does y2 = x1 Really Solve x2y 2y = 0? 3

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

1 Does y2 = x1 Really Solve x2y 2y = 0? 3


1 y2 = x1 3

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

1 Does y2 = x1 Really Solve x2y 2y = 0? 3


1 y2 = x1 3 1 2 y2 = x 3

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

1 Does y2 = x1 Really Solve x2y 2y = 0? 3


1 y2 = x1 3 1 2 y2 = x 3 1 y2 = (2)x3 3

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

1 Does y2 = x1 Really Solve x2y 2y = 0? 3


1 y2 = x1 3 1 2 y2 = x 3 1 x2 y2 = x2 (2)x3 3

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

1 Does y2 = x1 Really Solve x2y 2y = 0? 3


1 y2 = x1 3 1 2 y2 = x 3 1 x2 y2 = x2 (2)x3 3 1 = 2 x1 3

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

1 Does y2 = x1 Really Solve x2y 2y = 0? 3


1 y2 = x1 3 1 2 y2 = x 3 1 x2 y2 = x2 (2)x3 3 1 = 2 x1 3 = 2y2

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

1 Does y2 = x1 Really Solve x2y 2y = 0? 3


1 y2 = x1 3 1 2 y2 = x 3 1 x2 y2 = x2 (2)x3 3 1 = 2 x1 3 = 2y2

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Comparing the Two Approaches

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Comparing the Two Approaches


The formula is quicker, but it only works for equations of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0.

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science

Overview

An Example

Double Check

Discussion

Comparing the Two Approaches


The formula is quicker, but it only works for equations of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0. The setup y2 = uy1 requires more computation, but it is easier to remember, and it also works for some equations that are not of the form y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = 0.

Bernd Schr oder Reduction of Order

logo1 Louisiana Tech University, College of Engineering and Science