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1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, most of the worlds energy (80%) is produced from fossil fuels.

Massive exploitation is leading to the exhaustion of these resources and imposes a real threat to the environment, apparent mainly through global warming and acidification of the water cycle. The distribution of fossil fuels around the world is equally uneven. The present system as it is cannot be maintained for more than two generations [5]. The world faces a big problem of depletion of conventional sources of energy which have to be replaced by new ones. Renewable energy is one of the most promising alternatives to the above problems. Photovoltaic panels in particular can provide a good source of producing clean electricity. Solar irradiance is a key driving force of the Earth. It is also ultimately the source of all energy supplies except for nuclear energy. Photo voltaic (PV) arrays convert solar irradiance directly into electrical energy through a solid-state system[8]. The efficiency of the solar panel decreases with increase in cell temperature [TC] since the efficiency is inversely proportional to the panel temperature. The cell temperature of PV module is increased because a large part of the solar radiation is not converted into electrical energy but is absorbed by the panel as heat[5,8]. Irreversible damage of PV cells also occurs due to increase in cell temperature [TC]. Hence cooling is essential for obtaining higher PV panel efficiency as well as to prevent irreversible damage of PV panel. The cooling of photovoltaic (PV) cells is a problem of great practical significance. However, the high cost of solar cells is an obstacle to expansion of their use. The technique used for cooling of PV panel should be simple, reliable, minimal in power consumption and relatively inexpensive.

PV cooling has the potential to reduce the cost of solar energy in three ways. First, the electrical efficiency of PV cells decreases with temperature increase. Cooling can improve the electrical production of standard flat panel PV modules. Second, cooling makes possible the use of concentrating PV systems. Cooling keeps the PV cells from reaching temperatures at which irreversible damage occurs, even under the irradiance of multiple suns. This makes it possible to replace PV cells with potentially less expensive concentrators. Finally, the heat removed by the PV cooling system can be used for building heating or cooling, or in industrial applications. The main focus of this paper is on temperature distribution and its effect on efficiency of the PV module with and without cooling.

1.1.

SOLAR IRRADIANCE Producing an enormous amount of energy by fusion, the Sun radiates 3.9

1026 W. Sun is considered as a black body due to its high surface temperature. Most of the radiation emitted is in the visible spectrum. The Earth, also acting as a black body, absorbs a fraction of this incident shortwave radiation. The atmosphere, and snow and ice cover on the ground reflect about 30% of this incident radiation back to space [8]. There is a distinction between direct and diffuse radiation. When it comes directly from the sun it is known as direct radiation. When the radiation is scattered by the atmosphere back to Earth it is called diffuse radiation. On an annual basis, about half of the radiation is direct and the other half is diffuse. On a clear sunny day, the power density of is approximately 1kW/m2[8]. This number is lower on overcast days and in the winter. As expected, annual solar irradiance is greatest in the Equatorial region and in high sunny deserts.

The solar energy received by Earth is more than 10,000 times the current use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy combined [2]. This means that harnessing such a large potential energy source has the potential to replace a significant amount of carbon based fuels thus reducing the amount of carbon dioxide emitted anthropogenically.

1.2.

PV PANEL

The photovoltaic effect was first discovered by the physicist Edmund Becquerel in 1839 [8]. He noticed an increased in voltage from his wet-cell battery when its silver plates were exposed to sunlight despite that, this technology is considered to be a very recent one. The first PV cell was constructed by Fritts in 1941 with an efficiency of 1%. In 1954, semiconductors were first introduced to PV cells, increasing their efficiency to 6% and later to 11%[8]. Solar PV panels have been used almost exclusively on all satellites since 1958 and on several other space projects. PV panels are used as the Primary electricity source in space missions and satellites. The cost of producing electricity for house applications has dropped dramatically and PV panels are becoming more and more economic viable. The conversion of solar energy to electrical and thermal energy has been practiced for many years. In order to convert the solar energy to electrical, PV panels are used. A basic solar PV panel consists of connected PV cells, which contain a semiconductor material covered by protective glass connected to a load. Photovoltaic panels use the photoelectric effect in order to convert solar energy directly into electrical energy [5]. When sunlight hits the semiconductor, electrons become excited. These excited electrons are separated by an internal field inherent in the semiconductor and collected into an external circuit generating electricity.

Photovoltaic panels convert solar radiation to electricity with efficiencies in the range of 6% to11% [8], depending on the type of the cell. Polycrystalline silicon solar cells offer the highest range of possibilities for applications. This is a consequence of their modest price relative to the mono-crystalline silicon cells, and their considerable stability and efficiency (about 15%). Furthermore, these cells are sold in the form of panels having dark blue appearance which is aesthetically pleasant. When the temperature of a photovoltaic module is increased, the efficiency drops. This can typically result in an efficiency drop off of 0.5% per C increase in the cell temperature [5, 8]. The operating temperature is increased because a large part of the solar radiation is not converted to electricity but is absorbed by the panel as heat [4]. Natural circulation of air is the easiest and cheapest way to remove this heat from the panel and consequently increase the efficiency.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW Melanie D. Zauscher [2006] explained the necessity of PV module cooling [8] in his work Solar Photo Voltaic Panel from a heat transfer perspective. The efficiency of PV panel is inversely related to temperature of PV panel. Electrical efficiency (electrical) was calculated analytically from ambient temperature and solar irradiance through suitable analytical modeling . The temperature of PV panel is reduced by adopting active cooling technique. In this technique a duct containing fins are attached at the rear surface of PV panel. Water is circulated inside the duct using a pumping process, hence it is a type of active cooling system. The thermal efficiency was found to be decrease with increase in inlet water temperature. The temperature of PV panel is reduced by forced convection.

Bryce Cruey , Jordan King and Bob Tingleff [2006] developed methods for cooling the PV panel by using ducts attached to theback-plate Experiments was done with ducts having with and without fins[4]. The experiment was repeated by varying process parameters such as cooling fluid velocity, fin thickness, fin spacing and fin length. The resultant decrease in cell temperature and efficiency increase was noted. It was found that induced turbulent flow in the cooling duct causes greater heat transfer from the panel, which increases the panels electrical output and efficiency. Changing the fin conductivity has little impact on panel output. Bjornar Sandness and John Rekstad developed photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with a polymer absorber plate. Polymer heat absorber plate is attached to the back plate of PV panel[3]. This heat absorber plate is used for collecting excess heat energy in the PV panel. Experimental and analytical modeling for PV/T collector shows the system temperature as close to operation temperature. The PV/T collector is compared with pure thermal absorber and it was found that the PV/T collector had reduced thermal efficiency. The reduced thermal efficiency results in cooling of PV panel since lower-temperature operation of heat collector , consequently efficiency of PV panel is increased. Efstratios Chaniotakis [2001] analyzed the water cooled PV and the air cooled PV panels. The former uses water in order to cool the panel while the latter uses air as the coolant .Water and air is circulated inside the duct attached to backplate of PV module. Naturally ventilated panels and water cooled panels can provide higher efficiencies than conventional ones. The system is analyzed for both water cooled and air cooled PV systems and compare them in order to reveal the most promising. Furthermore, by altering various physical parameters of the heat exchanger in the water PV system, the maximum efficiency is aimed. This
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information can be used in maximizing the efficiency of any collector design. Various important characteristics that a conventional PV can provide, such as the power, are calculated and compared to those of water cooled PV. The direct comparison of both air cooled and water cooled systems was done in order to reveal advantages and disadvantages. The results showed that the most efficient and promising system is the water cooled photovoltaic [5]. Such a system proved to be feasible. Furthermore it was clearly shown that altering various parameters of the system has as a result different efficiencies-output. A. Shahsavar, M.Salmanzadeh, M.Ameri and P. Talebizadeh (2011) developed building integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPVT)for using the cooling potential of ventilation and exhaust air in buildings for cooling the photovoltaics panels and also by heating the ventilation air by heat rejection of PV panel. Mathematical modeling was done for this system and the equation for efficiency of the PV panel is derived [10]. The efficiency thus derived is a function of cell temperature (Tc). Hence the efficiency of PV panel can be directly calculated from the cell temperature (Tc). The results showed that, the exhaust and ventilation air in heating ventilating air conditioning system can be used as the cooling fluid for PV panels and increases their efficiency. Anja Royne, Christopher J. Dey & David R. Mills [2006] analysed various methods that can be used for cooling of PV cells. Different solar concentrators systems are examined and grouped according to geometry. Theoptimum cooling solutions differ between single-cell arrangements, linear concentrators and densely packed photovoltaic cells[1]. Single cells typically only need passive cooling [1], even for very high solar concentrations. For densely packed cells under high concentrations (4150 suns), an active cooling system is necessary, with a thermal resistance of less than10-4 Km2/W. Only impinging jets and micro-channels have

been reported to achieve such low values. Two-phase forced convection would also be a viable alternative. Gur Mittelman,Aiman Alshare, Jane H. Davidson [2009] developed new approach for temperature regulation, suitable for rooftop integrated PV, involves fitting an open channel beneath the PVmodule. The panels are cooled by radiation and free convection as ambient air rises through the channel. A scale analysis and numericalstudy of PV modules with a back mounted air channel provides heat transfer rates over a practical range of operating conditions andchannel geometries [6]. A generalized correlation for the average channel Nusselt number for the combined convectiveradiative cooling isdeveloped for modified channel Rayleigh numbers from 102 to 108, channel aspect ratios between 15 and 50 and inclination anglesbetween 300 and 900. The usefulness of a passive cooling channel to improve PV efficiency is illustrated by system analyses of typicalPV modules. Akbarzadeh. A and Wadowski.T [1995] introduced passive method of cooling through thermosyphoon [2]. The thermosyphoon consists of two heat exchangers piped together, initially evacuated and filled with refrigerant. The lower heat exchanger is evaporator, flooded with refrigerant. The upper heat exchanger contains saturated vapour which acts as condenser. If heat is supplied to evaporator, part of the liquid evaporates and increases the pressure in whole circuit. If the upper heat exchanger is externally cooled, refrigerant vapour condenses and liquid returns by gravity to evaporator. The net result is substantial heat transfer at faster rate from evaporator to condenser. PV cells are attached to evaporator of thermosyphoon and condenser is exposed to natural convective heat transfer. By using thermosyphoon temperature of PV cells are reduced to 46 0C and efficiency is increased to 10%.

3. AIM AND OBJECTIVES 3. 1. AIM The first and foremost aim of this work is to study the effect of Temperature over the efficiency of the PV panel electrical effect, analyse the temperature distribution over the PV panel and to implement a novel technique for cooling the PV panel for maintaining an optimum working temperature. The next step is to increase the efficiency of the PV panel by reducing the operating temperature of the panel. The irreversible damages caused by the overheating of PV panel is undesirable, it makes the panel lose its efficiency to a greater extent. Hence the damage of PV panel should be prevented which could increase the life time of the panel. On the whole a complete thermal analysis of Photovoltaic panel is done by considering all modes of heat transfer and heat generation and suitable cooling technique is sorted out to maintain the panel in thermal equilibrium. Thus a sustainable and stable output is achieved with increased efficiency. This stable mode of operating the panel increases the life cycle of the PV panel. This is achieved by properly removing the heat generated in the system. The Cooling system attached to the PV panel removes the heat efficiently. It provides a proper channel for the flow of heat. The cooling system also helps to maintain a uniform temperature over the entire panel there by preventing the concentration of heat in a particular area.

3.2.OBJECTIVES The main objective of this work is to get the maximum possible efficiency from the panel by implementing suitable methods for cooling. The method adopted should be passive and no energy should be expended in the cooling process as it makes the cooling process ineffective. Extra energy will be wasted in cooling process if the process is active and hence passive type of cooling is essential. In this work Capillarity action is used to circulate the coolant (ie) water in this case. Water is made to circulate over the back plate by attaching Wicks along the surface of the back plate. These wicks are placed in the form of grid over the surface. One end of the wick is immersed inside the water reservoir and the other end is free. Continuous supply of water should be there for sustained cooling effect. The water flowing along the wicks gets evaporated due to increase in temperature thereby producing the required cooling effect. The method used for cooling should be cost effective and should be cheap. Temperature is recorded over the day for every half an hour using Thermocouples attached to the surface. Hourly irradiance data and ambient temperature should be recorded for analysis. A mathematical thermal model has to be developed for theoretical analysis. Single degree equation in terms of cell temperature should be developed. Hourly cell temperature is obtained from solving the equations. Experimental values should be compared with the theoretical values for verification. Effect of Temperature over the efficiency should be obtained from study of the temperature of the photovoltaic panel. 4. DESIGN CONSIDERATION FOR PV COOLING: Only a fraction of the incoming sunlight striking the cell is converted into electrical energy The remainder of the absorbed energy will be converted into thermal energy in the cell and may cause the junction temperature to rise unless the
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heat is efficiently dissipated to the environment. The major design considerations for cooling of photovoltaic cells are listed below: 4. 1. CELL TEMPERATURE The photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The cells will also exhibit long-term degradation if the temperature exceeds a certain limit. The cell manufacturer will generally specify a given temperature degradation coefficient and a maximum operating temperature for the cell. 4. 2. UNIFORMITY OF TEMPERATURE The cell efficiency is known to decrease due to non-uniform temperatures across the cell. In a photovoltaic module, a number of cells are electrically connected in series, and several of these series connections can be connected in parallel. Series connections increase the output voltage and decrease the current at a given power output, thereby reducing the ohmic losses. However, when cells are connected in series, the cell that gives the smallest output will limit the current. This is known as the current matching problem. Because the cell efficiency decreases with increasing temperature, the cell at the highest temperature will limit the efficiency of the whole string. This problem can be avoided through the use of bypass diodes(which bypass cells when they reach a certain temperaturein this arrangement you lose the output from this cell, but the output from other cells is not limited) or by keeping a uniform temperature across each series connection. 4. 3. RELIABILITY AND SIMPLICITY To keep operational costs to a minimum, a simple and low maintenance solution should be sought. This also includes minimising the use of toxic materials due to health and environmental concerns. Reliability is another important aspect because a failure of the cooling system could lead to the destruction of the PV cells. The cooling system should be designed to deal with worst case scenarios such as power outages, tracking anomalies and electrical faults within modules.
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5. HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLAR PV PANELS Photovoltaic panels absorb energy and convert it to electricity .Not all this energy is converted to electricity since the panels are not 100% efficient. Most of this energy is converted to heat. They passively absorb about 80% of the incoming solar irradiance as heat. This would not be such a problem if not for a 0.5% efficiency loss of the solar PV panels associated with a1o C increase of the cell temperature. Therefore, heat transfer plays an important role in the actual output of PV arrays .The three modes of heat transfer are involved with the solar PV array. The main energy input is solar irradiance in the form of shortwave radiation. The solar panel undergoes heat removal by convection, radiation, and conduction. The heat removed from the panel is in the form of longwave radiation due to the much colder temperature of the panel compared to the Sun. A schematic of this heat transfer mechanism is shown in fig 5.1.

Fig 5.1. Heat Transfer In Solar Pv Panel


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5. 1. CONDUCTION Conduction is the transfer of heat from one part of a substance to another part of the same substance, or form one substance to another in physical contact with it. In the case of the PV panel, energy is absorbed by the silicon cell and heat is conducted to the back and front of the panel via the intervening layers. However, the heat conducted is negligible because of the small contact area between the solar array and its structural framework 5. 2. CONVECTION Convection is the transfer of heat within a fluid by mixing of one portion of the fluid with another. The movement of the fluid may be caused by differences in density resulting from the temperature differences as in natural convection (or free convection), or the motion can be produced by mechanical means as in forced convection. Heat transfer due to convection in PV panel [6] is given by the following equation Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Where Qconv heat transfer due to convection, Tc T0 -cell temperature , - ambient temperature, (1)

Rconv -thermal resistance for convection 5. 3. RADIATION Radiation is the means of heat transfer between distant surfaces. Energy is carried byelectromagnetic waves. Heat transfer due to radiation in PV panel [6] is given by the following equation Qrad Tc = 4T03(Tc-T0) -cell temperature ,
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(2)

where Qrad - heat transfer due to radiation,

T0

- ambient temperature, -surface emissivity, - Stephan-Boltzmann constant

6. THERMAL MODEL FOR PV PANEL 6.1. THERMAL CIRCUIT FOR PV PANEL

Fig 6.1.1 Thermal Circuit for PV Panel Without Cooling The temperature of each individual PV cell is a function of its materials, configuration,time of day, rotation of the Earth and environmental factors such as wind, temperature,cloud cover and humidity. To determine the temperature of the solar PV panel a comprehensive heat transfer analysis must be performed.To examine the best cooling system for a given concentrator requires the development of a thermal model that will predict the heating and electrical output ofcells. In this project, a one-dimensional model is used because this is consistent with aclosely packed set of cells where heat flow is primarily directed in the normaldirection.The thermal circuit for PV panel without cooling is shown in Fig 6.1. 1.Where I is the
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incoming solar irradiance, Qrad is the heat lost due to radiation Qconv is the heat lost due to convection, Qair is the heat removed by air. T0 and TC represents ambient temperature and cell temperature respectively. The heat removed by air Qair is given by the following equation Qair= h(Tc- T0) Where h is the heat transfer coefficient for air = 25 W/m2K (3)

Fig.6. 1. 2 Thermal Circuit for PV Panel With Cooling Water is used for cooling the PV panel through wicks and the heat removed by water is denoted by Qcool. The thermal circuit for PV panel with cooling is shown in fig 6. 1.2. The heat removed by water is given by the following equation Qcool= h(Tc- T) (4)

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where Qcool - is heat removed by water. T- is the temperature of the water used for cooling. h - heat transfer coefficient for water = 30 W/m2K 6. 2. ELECTRICAL POWER OUTPUT The cell efficiency varies with both temperature and concentration. There arevarious models for temperature and concentration dependency found in literature.Most of the models predict quite similar dependencies in the lower temperature range; most models assume straight lines. Thedifferent values predicted arise from the fact that cells have different peak efficiencies. Therefore, a simple approach is used in this article by assuming a lineardecrease in efficiency with temperature, and no dependency on concentration. The electrical efficiency of the PV panel [10] is given by following equation = a(1-b*Tc) where (5) is electrical efficiency of the PV panel,where a and b are

parameters describing a particular cell we use the values given in fig 6. 2. 1.The values of parameters a and b depends cell temperature Tc. The electrical output Pel is given as Pel = Tc (6)

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Fig 6.2.1. Comparison of Various Models for Efficiencies with Cell Temperature

6.3ENERGY BALANCE: If I is the incoming solar irradiance and Qcool is the heat removed by water. The following equation must be satisfied to achieve thermal equilibrium. I Qrad- Qconv- Pel- Qcool=0 (7)

From equations (1) to (6) it is noted that the values of Qrad, Qconv, Pel and Qconv are functions of cell temperature (Tc) and ambient temperature (T0) . By solving the equation (7) the cell temperature (Tc) is obtained from the ambient temperature (T0). The solar irradiance value (I) is obtained from Indian meterological department website. The cell temperature thus obtained is theoretical cell temperature (Tc)theo. The calculation for theoretical cell temperature with and without cooling is as follows
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6.4.THERMAL MODEL FOR PV PANEL WITHOUT COOLING Date: 10th March 2012 T0=28 0C=301K Energy Balance: I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.288*(Tc-28) I=600W/m2 Time: 10:00AM

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3013(Tc-28)

Qrad = 5.288Tc-148.06 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-28)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-28) Qconv = .005Tc-0.14 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=28 0C

=25(Tc-28) Qair=25Tc-700 1.02*10-4*Tc2-30.84Tc+1448.2 = 0 Tc=46.95 0C

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Time: 10:30AM Energy Balance:

T0=28 0C=301K

I=698.6W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.288*(Tc-28)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3013(Tc-28)

Qrad = 5.288Tc-148.06 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-28)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-28) Qconv = .005Tc-0.14 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=28 0c

=25(Tc-28) Qair=25Tc-700 1.02*10-4*Tc2-30.84Tc+1546.8 = 0 Tc=50.16 0C

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Time: 11:00AM Energy Balance:

T0=30 0C=303K

I=663.67W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.394*(Tc-30)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3033(Tc-30)

Qrad = 5.394Tc-161.82 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-30)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-30) Qconv = .005Tc-0.15 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=30 0C

=25(Tc-30) Qair=25Tc-750 1.02*10-4*Tc2-30.95Tc+1575.64 = 0 Tc=50.92 0C

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Time: 11:30AM Energy Balance:

T0=32 0C=305K

I=780.1W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.5*(Tc-32)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3053(Tc-32)

Qrad = 5.5Tc-176.04 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-32)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-32) Qconv = .005Tc-0.16 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=32 0C

=25(Tc-32) Qair=25Tc-800 1.02*10-4*Tc2-30.84Tc+1756.3 = 0 Tc=56.55 0C

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Time: 12:00 PM Energy Balance:

T0=32 0C=305K

I=906.52W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.5*(Tc-32)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3053(Tc-32)

Qrad = 5.5Tc-176.04 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-32)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-32) Qconv = .005Tc-0.16 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=32 0C

=25(Tc-32) Qair=25Tc-800 1.02*10-4*Tc2-31.06Tc+1882.72 = 0 Tc=60.63 0C

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Time: 12:30PM Energy Balance:

T0=33 0C=306K

I=923.15W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.56*(Tc-33)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3063(Tc-33)

Qrad = 5.56Tc-183.35 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-33)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-33) Qconv = .005Tc-0.165 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=33 0C

=25(Tc-33) Qair=25Tc-825 1.02*10-4*Tc2-31.11Tc+1931.7 = 0 Tc=62.10 0C

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Time: 1:00PM Energy Balance:

T0=34 0C=307K

I=863.27W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.61*(Tc-34)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3073(Tc-34)

Qrad = 5.61Tc-190.77 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-34)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-34) Qconv = .005Tc-0.17 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=34 0C

=25(Tc-34) Qair=25Tc-850 1.02*10-4*Tc2-31.17Tc+1904.19 = 0 Tc=61.10 0C

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Time: 1:30PM Energy Balance:

T0=35 0C=308K

I=813.37W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.66*(Tc-35)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3083(Tc-35)

Qrad = 5.56Tc-198.3 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.175 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=35 0C

=25(Tc-35) Qair=25Tc-875 1.02*10-4*Tc2-31.22Tc+1935.06 = 0 Tc=61.99 0C

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Time: 2:00PM Energy Balance:

T0=35 0C=308K

I=761.81W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.66*(Tc-35)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3083(Tc-35)

Qrad = 5.56Tc-198.3 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.175 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=35 0C

=25(Tc-35) Qair=25Tc-875 1.02*10-4*Tc2-31.22Tc+1835.27 = 0 Tc= 58.79 0C

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Time: 3:00PM Energy Balance:

T0=37 0C=310K

I=618.76W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.77*(Tc-37)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3103(Tc-37)

Qrad = 5.77Tc-213.73 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.185 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=37 0C

=25(Tc-37) Qair=25Tc-925 1.02*10-4*Tc2-31.33Tc+1757.67 = 0 Tc= 56.11 0c

26

Time: 3:30PM Energy Balance:

T0=37 0C=310K

I=510.64W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.77*(Tc-37)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3103(Tc-37)

Qrad = 5.77Tc-213.73 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.185 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=37 0C

=25(Tc-37) Qair=25Tc-925 1.02*10-4*Tc2-31.33Tc+1649.55 = 0 Tc= 52.66 0C

27

Time: 4:00PM Energy Balance:

T0=37 0C=310K

I=397.53W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.77*(Tc-37)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3103(Tc-37)

Qrad = 5.77Tc-213.73 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.185 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q air=

h(Tc- T0)

h = 25W/m2k

T0=37 0C

=25(Tc-37) Qair=25Tc-925 1.02*10-4*Tc2-31.33Tc+1536 = 0 Tc= 49.05 0C

28

6.5.THERMAL MODEL FOR PV PANEL SYSTEM WITH COOLING Date: 11th March 2012 T0=29 0C=302K Energy Balance: I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.34*(Tc-29) Time: 10:00AM I=705.2 W/m2

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3023(Tc-29)

Qrad = 5.34Tc-154.88 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-29)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-29) Qconv = .005Tc-0.145 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=25 0C

=30(Tc-25) Qcool=30Tc-750 1.02*10-4*Tc2-35.9Tc+1610.22 = 0 Tc=44.86 0C

29

Time: 10:30AM Energy Balance:

T0=30 0C=303K

I=695.27 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.388*(Tc-30)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3033(Tc-30)

Qrad = 5.388Tc-161.65 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-30)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-30) Qconv = .005Tc-0.15 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.5546(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.5546Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=26 0C

=30(Tc-26) Qcool=30Tc-780 1.02*10-4*Tc2-35.95Tc+1637.07 = 0 Tc=45.54 0C

30

Time: 11:00AM Energy Balance:

T0=31 0C=304K

I=835 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.447*(Tc-31)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3043(Tc-31)

Qrad = 5.447Tc-168.87 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-31)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-31) Qconv = .005Tc-0.155 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=27 0C

=30(Tc-27) Qcool=30Tc-810 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.01Tc+1814.02 = 0 Tc=50.38 0C

31

Time: 11:30AM Energy Balance:

T0=32 0C=305K

I=928.14 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.447*(Tc-32)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3053(Tc-32)

Qrad = 5.5Tc-176.04 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-32)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-32) Qconv = .005Tc-0.16 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=28 0C

=30(Tc-28) Qcool=30Tc-840 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.06Tc+1944.34 = 0 Tc=53.93 0C

32

Time: 12:00PM Energy Balance:

T0=33 0C=306K

I=964.73 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.55*(Tc-33)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3063(Tc-33)

Qrad = 5.55Tc-183.39 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-33)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-33) Qconv = .005Tc-0.165 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=29 0C

=30(Tc-29) Qcool=30Tc-870 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.11Tc+2018.28 = 0 Tc=55.9 0C

33

Time: 12:30PM Energy Balance:

T0=34 0C=307K

I=943.11 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.61*(Tc-34)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3073(Tc-34)

Qrad = 5.61Tc-190.75 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-33)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-34) Qconv = .005Tc-0.17 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=30 0C

=30(Tc-29) Qcool=30Tc-900 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.17Tc+2034.03 = 0 Tc=56.24 0C

34

Time: 1:00PM Energy Balance:

T0=34 0C=307K

I=828.34 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.447*(Tc-34)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3073(Tc-34)

Qrad = 5.61Tc-190.75 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-31)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-31) Qconv = .005Tc-0.17 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=30 0C

=30(Tc-27) Qcool=30Tc-900 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.17Tc+1919.26 = 0 Tc=53.07 0C

35

Time: 1:30PM Energy Balance:

T0=35 0C=308K

I=861.6 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.66*(Tc-35)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3083(Tc-35)

Qrad = 5.66Tc-198.29 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.175 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=31 0C

=30(Tc-31) Qcool=30Tc-930 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.22Tc+1990.06 = 0 Tc=54.95 0C

36

Time: 2:00PM Energy Balance:

T0=35 0C=308K

I=806.7W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.66*(Tc-35)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3083(Tc-35)

Qrad = 5.66Tc-198.29 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.175 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=31 0C

=30(Tc-31) Qcool=30Tc-930 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.22Tc+1935.16 = 0 Tc=53.44 0C

37

Time: 2:30PM Energy Balance:

T0=35 0C=308K

I=545.57 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 @=5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.66*(Tc-35)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3083(Tc-35)

Qrad = 5.66Tc-198.29 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.175 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=31 0C

=30(Tc-31) Qcool=30Tc-930 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.22Tc+1674.03 = 0 Tc=46.22 0C

38

Time: 3:30PM Energy Balance:

T0=35 0C=308K

I=217.89 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.66*(Tc-35)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3083(Tc-35)

Qrad = 5.66Tc-198.29 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-35)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-35) Qconv = .005Tc-0.175 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=31 0C

=30(Tc-31) Qcool=30Tc-930 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.22Tc+1346.35 = 0 Tc=37.17 0C

39

Time: 4:00PM Energy Balance:

T0=34 0C=307K

I=355.95 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.61*(Tc-34)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3073(Tc-34)

Qrad = 5.66Tc-190.75 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-34)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-34) Qconv = .005Tc-0.17 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=30 0C

=30(Tc-30) Qcool=30Tc-900 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.22Tc+1990.06 = 0 Tc=39.95 0C

40

Time: 4:30PM Energy Balance:

T0=33 0C=306K

I=224.55 W/m2

I-Qrad-Qconv-Pel-Qcool=0 Qrad = 4T03(Tc-T0) =0.855 =5.67*10-8W/m2K4 Qrad = 5.55*(Tc-33)

= 4*0.855*5.67*10-8*3063(Tc-33)

Qrad = 5.55Tc-183.39 Qconv= (Tc-T0)/Rconv Rconv= 0.2*103m2K/W

Qconv=(Tc-33)/ 0.2*103 = .005 (Tc-33) Qconv = .005Tc-0.165 Pel = Tc = a(1-b*Tc) a=0.5546 b=1.84*10-4K-1

Pel = 0.555(1-(1.84*10-4*Tc) Pel=0.555Tc-1.02*10-4Tc2


Q cool=

h(Tc- T)

h = 30W/m2k

T=29 0C

=30(Tc-29) Qcool=30Tc-870 1.02*10-4*Tc2-36.22Tc+1990.06 = 0 Tc=35.4 0C

41

7. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD The aim of this project is to decrease the cell temperature of the PV panel. The wicks are used to circulate water throughout the back-plate of PV panel along the wicks by capillary action. One end of wicks is placed inside a water reservoir and it is taken along the back-plate by touching the surface. The other end is left free. By capillary action water is transferred to dry surface from wet surface which enables the required cooling action. 7. 1. COMPONENTS

Fig 7.1. 1 Solar PV Panel The system consists of a PV panel , a digital multi-meter ( to measure the panel output such as current and voltage), a 1000 Carbon resistor, a six channel
42

thermocouple with indicator ( to measure the temperature of PV panel ) , wicks and water reservoir. The PV panel used in this project is shown in the Fig. 7. 1. The dimension of PV panel is 35 X 27.3 cm. The PV panel is made up of single crystalline silicon cells which are connected in series. The rated voltage and power of PV panel are 6V and 5W respectively.

Fig 7. 1. 2. K-type thermocouple attached to PV panel K-type thermocouple is used for temperature measurement. K- type thermocouple probe and six channel digital temperature indicator is used for measuring temperature at 6 various points on the bottom surface of the panel. The K-type thermocouple measures temperature between 00C to 12000C effectively. Hence K-type thermocouple is used for this system. The K- type thermocouple attached to the back-plate of PV panel is shown in Fig 7. 1. 2.
43

The fig 7.1. 3.shows six channel digital temperature indicator used for temperature measurement. The K-Type thermocouple probes are connected to indicator. Small change cell temperature is shown in digital display of temperature indicator

Fig 7. 1.3. Six Channel Temperature Indicator.


24 37 58 37

Wicks (Grid structure)

3 0 0

Back plate

228

Fig. 7. 1. 4. Configuration of Wicks Grid Structure

44

The wicks are attached to the back plate of PV panel by using plastic strips and tape. The width of the wicks is 2.1 cm. The wicks are placed in the form of grid. The fig 7.1.4 shows the configuration of wicks placed below the PV panel. 7. 2. METHODOLOGY: The full experimental setup for cooling of PV pannel is shown in fig 7. 2. 1 The wicks are placed below the PV panel in grid like structure as explained earlier. The K-type thermocouple is also attached to back plate of PV panel for the meadurement of cell temperature .

Fig 7. 2. 1. PV Panel withCooling by Wicks The temperature of PV panel is noted for every hour in a day from the digital temperature display. The average value of this temperature is taken as cell temperature (TC) with cooling. The cell temperature thus calculated is the actual cell temperature.
45

The same procedure explained above is repeated for the temperature measurement of PV panel without cooling by removing wicks from the PV panel. The average value of the temperatures gives the cell temperature (Tc) without cooling. The PV panel output leads are connected to digital multimeter through a 1000 carbon reisistor for voltage measurement. The thermal efficiency of PV panel [10] is calculated from the equation given below as = 0.125 (1- 0.006 (TC-298)) Where - efficiency of PV panel, TC- cell temperature of PV panel in K. From these observations the temperature distribution of PV panel with and without cooling is studied as follows. 8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: This study involves the monitoring of temperature over a day time on hourly basis, along with temperature other parameters like Current, Voltage and Power. The ambient temperature and Irradiance values were also recorded hourly from the Indian Metrological Department Website. The Effect of temperature over the output of the efficiency is also noted. The efficiency of the PV panel is also observed. The Observations were made and results were presented in the form of table. The table 8.1 makes a comparison between actual and theoretical values of cell temperature. (9)

46

Table8. 1. Comparison of Actual And Theoretical Values of Cell Temperature (Without Cooling)

Date: 10th March 2012(without cooling) S.NO TIME AMBIENT TEMPERATURE T0(C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 10:00A.M 10:30A.M 11:00A.M 11:30A.M 12:00P.M 12:30P.M 1:00P.M 1:30P.M 2:00P.M 3:00P.M 3:30P.M 4:00P.M 28 28 30 32 32 33 34 35 35 37 37 37 IRRADIANCE

Resistance:1000 CELL TEMPERATURE TC(C) ACTUAL 42.8 41.4 42.2 49.4 47.6 48 47.8 48 45.2 43.6 41.4 43.4 THEORITICAL 46.95 50.16 50.92 56.55 60.63 62.1 61.1 62 58.79 56.11 52.66 49.05

I(W/m2) 600 698.6 663.67 780.1 906.52 923.15 863.27 813.37 761.81 618.76 510.62 397.53

47

Table 8. 2. Comparison of Actual and Theoretical Values of Cell Temperature (With Cooling) DATE: 11th March 2012(with cooling) S.NO TIME AMBIENT IRRADIANCE TEMPERATURE T0(C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 10:00A.M 10:30A.M 11:00A.M 11:30A.M 12:00P.M 12:30P.M 1:00P.M 1:30P.M 2:00P.M 2:30P.M 3:30P.M 4:00P.M 4:30P.M 29 30 31 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 33 I(W/m2) 705.2 695.27 835 928.14 964.73 943.11 828.34 861.6 806.7 545.57 217.89 355.95 224.55 Resistance:1000 CELL TEMPERATURE TC(C) ACTUAL 43.6 51.4 45.8 58.4 51.4 58.2 61.2 55.6 47.4 48 45.4 44.4 37.2 THEORITICAL 48.07 48.55 54.17 58.10 60.23 60.40 55.8 58.79 57.03 48.66 38.16 42.60 36.43

The temperature values were noted from the readings shown by the display connected with the K-type thermocouple. The current and voltage values were recorded from the Multi-meter connected across the resistive load. Temperature based efficiency relations give the output efficiency for each temperature recorded.

48

Table 8. 3. Hourly Temperature Variation over PV Panel (Without Cooling)

Date: 10th March 2012 S.NO TIME TEMPERATURE OF PV AMBIENT PANEL (c) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Tavg 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 10:00A.M 10:30A.M 11:00A.M 11:30A.M 12:00P.M 12:30P.M 1:00P.M 1:30P.M 2:00P.M 3:00P.M 3:30P.M 4:00P.M 52 53 58 44 55 52.4 28 55 55 58 47 61 55.2 28 54 54 56 47 60 54.2 30 56 55 59 44 56 54 32 TEMPERATURE (c) V 8.9 8.76 7.84 9.02 7.47 8.54 8.5 8.56 8.8 8.4 8.45
49

Resistance:1000 OUTPUT OUTPUT OUTPUT EFFICIENCY

VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER

AMPS 8.9 8.76 7.84 9.02 7.47 8.54 8.5 8.56 8.8 8.4 8.45 6.6

W 0.07569 0.063362 0.057456 0.076038 0.06989 0.073788 0.0785 0.069389 0.072761 0.065934 0.056852 0.062568

% 11.912 10.235 10.31 10.325 10.16 9.815 9.755 10.325 10.1 10.715 10.58 10.94

51 53 55 55 67 56.2 32 56 55 61 59 73 60.8 33 58 60 64 57 69 61.6 34 60 62 66 53 62 60.6 35 57 58 61 49 60 57 35

47 45 51 47 54 48.8 37 52 53 50 45 53 50.6 37 50 50 44 38 47 45.8 37

6.6

Table 8. 4. Hourly Temperature Variation over PV Panel (With Cooling) Resistance: 1000 AMBIENT (c) V 29 30 31 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 33
50

DATE: 11th March 2012 (With Cooling) S.NO TIME TEMPERATURE OF PV PANEL (c) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Tavg 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 10:00A.M 10.30A.M 11:00A.M 11:30A.M 12:00P.M 12:30P.M 1:00P.M 1:30P.M 2:00P.M 2:30P.M 3:30P.M 4:00P.M 4:30P.M 46 47 52 44 55 48.8 52 52 57 47 61 53.8 53 53 56 47 60 53.8 48 49 53 44 56 50 OUTPUT OUTPUT

OUTPUT EFFICIENCY POWER

TEMPERATURE VOLTAGE CURRENT

AMPS 8.9 8.76 7.84 9.02 7.47 8.54 8.5 8.56 8.8 8.4 8.45 6.6 7.07

W 0.0792 0.0767 0.0615 0.0814 0.0558 0.0729 0.0723 0.0733 0.0774 0.0706 0.0714 0.0436 0.0500

% 10.715 10.34 10.34 10.625 9.89 11.435 9.77 10.235 10.415 10.64 10.79 11.225 11.435

8.9 8.76 7.84 9.02 7.47 8.54 8.5 8.56 8.8 8.4 8.45 6.6 7.07

57 57 63 55 67 59.8 59 61 68 59 73 64

58 60 63 57 69 61.4 52 52 57 53 62 55.2 49 50 56 49 60 52.8 50 47 51 47 54 49.8 46 45 50 45 53 47.8 41 40 44 38 47 42

37 38 41 38 42 39.2

The observation was carried out for two days. On the first day no wicks were used for cooling. Temperature was recorded without cooling (Table 3). On the next day wicks were attached to the back-plate surface and water is allowed to flow through the wicks and the required cooling action was achieved. Temperature was recorded as the previous day (Table 4). The temperature obtained on these two days was compared and considerable cooling was noted. The output power can be calculated from the current and the voltage measured during the experiment. The conversion efficiency of the PV panel[10] is calculated from the following relation. =0.125(1-0.006(Tc-298)) Where TC is the Cell temperature in K The efficiency is calculated hourly for every temperature recorded over the complete day. This efficiency calculation is done for two consecutive days without cooling and with cooling of PV panel. The efficiency calculated on both days was compared and the increase in efficiency was noted. The Maximum rise in efficiency was found to be 1.62%. The maximum temperature decrease was noted to be around 3.2C. So it is clear that this system is capable of increasing the efficiency by 2% for every decrease in 4C. Graphs were plotted between various parameters for comparison and validation of results. Two graphs were drawn between Temperature distribution in PV panel and Time. A graph representing the variation of efficiency with the time, variation of power with time were drawn. Graphs were drawn to compare the efficiency variation with and without cooling, to compare the obtained values with theoretical values. A considerable increase in efficiency was noted for this

51

configuration of cooling. This increase in efficiency could be further increased by using improved cooling system. A liquid having higher coefficient of convection could be used for increasing the efficiency.

80 70 60

10th March 2012(Without cooling)

Temperature(C)

50 40 30 20 10 0

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Tavg To

Time

Fig8. 1.HourlyTemperature Variation Across The Panel The graph in fig 8. 1. shows the hourly variation of temperature across the Photovoltaic panel. The dotted line shows the average temperature of the back plate. The Variation of the ambient temperature for every hour is also indicated in the graph. It is seen that the temperature rises to maximum at the midday and falls down. These observations were made without the cooling effect (i.e.) without wicks

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11th March 2012(with cooling)


80 70 Temperature of PV Panel(C) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Tavg To

Time

Fig 8. 2. HourlyTemperature Variation Across The Panel (With Cooling) The graph in fig 8. 2. depicts the temperature variation across the PV Panel with the cooling (i.e.) with the wicks attached to the back plate. The graph shows the variation of ambient temperature with time. It is evident from the graph that the temperature is almost uniform. Cooling reduces large variations in temperature. It is also noted that there is considerable decrease in temperature due to cooling.

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Temperature comparision
60 58 56 54 Temperature (C) 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 without cooling with cooling

Time

Fig 8. 3.Comparision of cell temperature with and without cooling The graph in fig 8. 3shows Comparision of cell temperature with and without cooling. This clearly shows the decrease in temperature after cooling.

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Efficiency Comparsion
10.9 10.7 10.5 EFFICIENCY(%) 10.3 with cooling 10.1 9.9 9.7 9.5 Without cooling

TIME

Fig8. 4.Comparison of Efficiency With And Without Cooling The graph in fig 8. 4.shows the variation of efficiency with and without cooling and the efficiency was compared in both cases. The increase in efficiency is evident from the graph. This graph was developed from the temperature graph and the inverse relation is clear from the graph. The efficiency graph is the inverse of temperature graph. It confirms the inverse relationship of cell temperature (TC) and efficiency ()

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Power comparision
0.08

0.075

0.07 POWER(W)

0.065 With cooling 0.06 Without cooling

0.055

0.05

Time

Fig8. 5.HourlyVariation of Power With And Without Cooling The variation in power with and without cooling is shown in the graph in the fig 8. 5. This graph shows the electrical characteristics of the PV Panel. The power output is obtained from the current and voltage values. The power reaches maximum at the mid-day and decreases as time goes on. The power is constant along the day time.

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70

ACTUAL VS THEORITICAL 10th March 2012

60

50 Temperature(C)

40

30

Theoritical Actual

20

10

Time

Fig 8. 6.Comparison of Actual And Theoretical Temperatures Without Cooling The above graph shows the concurrence of the actual and theoretical values of temperature, thereby validating the results obtained. The values obtained from the experiment go well with the theoretical values obtained from thermal model. This graph was drawn without adopting cooling technique.

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ACTUAL VS THEORITICAL 11th March 2012


70 60 50 Temperature(C) 40 30 20 10 0 Theoritical Actual

Time

Fig 8. 7. Comparison of Actual And Theoretical Values of Temperature With Cooling The above graph shows the concurrence of the actual and theoretical values of temperature, thereby validating the results obtained. The values obtained from the experiment go well with the theoretical values obtained from thermal model. This graph was drawn by adopting cooling technique.

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9. CONCLUSION The temperature distribution of PV panel with and without cooling is studied. The actual cell temperature of PV panel is compared with theoretical cell temperature calculated from thermal modeling. The cooling of PV panel is achieved by using wicks through capillary action. The efficiencies of PV panel with and without cooling were compared. Significant cooling of PV panel is observed, since the temperature of PV panel is decreased by using the cooling system. The increase in efficiency of PV panel with cooling makes the system feasible. The system used for cooling removes the excess heat generated in the PV panel through natural convection using water. The cooling system is passive, since no power is consumed for circulating water through wicks. This system is simple and reliable in nature. The cost of the cooling system is very low when compared to other active cooling systems. Further research is required in order to decrease the cell temperature and to increase the efficiency of PV panel. This study can be further extended by using liquids higher coefficient of convection. Applications of Nano fluids in could be the best alternative for cooling of Photovoltaic panels. Nano fluids are efficient in removing heat through convection, applications of Nano fluids takes this technique a step ahead of time. Further a proper structured arrangement wicks and liquid flow aids better cooling.

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10.REFERENCES 1. Anja Royne, Christopher J. Dey , David R. Mills (2004), Cooling Of Photovoltaic Cells Under Concentrated Illumination: A Critical Review, School of Physics , University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, pp.452- 481 2. A.Akbarzadeh and T.Wadowski (1995) , Heat Pipe Based Cooling System For Photovoltaic Cells Under Concentrated Solar Radiation, Energy conservation and renewable energy group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Victoria, Australia, pp.84-86 3. Bjornar Sandness and John Rekhstad (2006) A Photovoltaic/Thermal (Pv/T) Collector With A Polymer Absorber Plate; Experimental Study And Analytical Model, Department of Physics, University of Osla, Norway, pp.2-8. 4. Bryce Cruey ,Jordan King, Bob Tingleff (2006), Cooling of Photovoltaic Cells pp.2-32. 5. Efstratios Chaniotakis (2001) , Modelling and Analysis of Water Cooled Photovoltaics, Energy Systems and the Environment, pp.1-54. 6. Gur Mittelman, Aiman Alshare, Jane H. Davidson (2009), A model and heat transfer correlation for rooftop integrated photovoltaics with a passive air cooling channel, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, , Minneapolis ,USA, pp.- 1150-1154 7. J. M. Olchowik, S. Gulkowski, K. J. Cielak, J. Bana, I. Jwik, D. Szymczuk, K. Zabielski, J. Mucha, M. Zdrojewska, J. Adamczyk, R. Tomaszewski (2006) , Influence of temperature on the efficiency of mono crystalline silicon solar cells in the South-eastern Poland conditions , Material science Poland, vol.24, No.4, pp.2-6
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8. Melanie D. Zauscher (2006),Solar Photovoltaic Panels From a HeatTransfer Perspective, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, pp.1-6. 9. Hughes, Ng Ping Sze Cherisa, and Osman Beg (2011) Computational Study of Improving the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Panels in the UAE, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, pp. 278-282. 10. A. Shahsavar, M. Salmanzadeh, M.Ameri, P.Talebizadeh(2011) , Energy saving in buildings by using the exhaust and ventilation air for cooling of photovoltaic panels, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran, pp. 2219-2223. 11.H.A.Zondag, W.G.J. van Helden, M.J.Elswijk, M.Baker (2004), PV Thermal Collector development - an overview of the lesson learnt, 19th European PV solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, June 2004, Paris , France, pp.2-4

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