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Water Pollution The contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities,

which can be harmful to organisms and plants that live in these water bodies. It occurs when pollutants are discharged directly into water bodies without treating it first. What causes water pollution?

Contributors & causes of Water Pollution

Agriculture waste water Factories/Industrial processes Natural factors effects ground water Oil spills Refineries Mining Trash on common roads/ground Silt from construction sites What is Water Pollution? Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly into water bodies such as rivers, lakes and seas. It also occurs when air and land pollutants are blown by wind or washed by rain into water bodies. Urban settlements discharge many forms of pollutants into canals, drains and sewer pipes which eventually find their way into the rivers and seas. Sources of pollutants include factories, sewage treatment plants, runoff of chemicals from agricultural plantations and live-stock farms.

Causes of water pollution 1) Improper disposal of sewage Sewage refers to solid or liquid waste that is produced by households or industries. It contains human waste, detergent and chemicals. When untreated sewage is discharged into rivers and seas, water pollution occurs.

Causes of water pollution 1) Improper disposal of sewage (continued)

Industrial waste contains large amounts of toxic chemicals. Heavy water pollution occurs when untreated industrial waste is irresponsibly discharged into water bodies. Sewage is treated at sewage treatment plants to remove its waste products before it is released into water bodies.

2) Oil spills Oil spills occur when the hull of an oil tanker is torn by sharp rocks or when a tanker collides with another ship, causing the oil it is carrying to spill into the sea.

Oil Spills and How it Spreads!

Causes of water pollution

2) Oil Spillages However, much more oil is released from other smaller, day-to-day and less visible activities. Current studies have shown that most ocean oil pollution comes from activities on land. These include normal operation of offshore wells, washing oil tankers, loading and unloading of oil tankers at ports, and leaks from oil pipelines, refineries and storage tanks.

Extent of water pollution

1) Endangering plant and animal species In an oil spill, sea birds cloaked with oil will freeze to death as their feathers cannot insulate air to protect them from the cold. The oil also clogs the birds feathers and makes them unable to fly or float on water. They will drown as a result.

Extent of water pollution 1) Endangering plant and animal species - Eutrophication Household waste contains excess nitrogen and phosphorus which encourage the growth of algae on river and ocean surfaces. With the algae covering the water surface, sunlight cannot penetrate and reach the aquatic plants beneath the water surface, causing them to die as photosynthesis cannot occur. As a result, aquatic and marine animals that depend on these plants for food will be affected.

Extent of water pollution 2) Negative impact on human health Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish and accumulate in the tissues of bottom marine feeders.

Our trash kills. 3) Eating Poisonous marine food When odds and ends of life on land-- particularly plastics--end up in the sea, they pose hazards to marine life. Animals drown or strangle from getting tangled in discarded or lost fishing gear, or suffer and even die from eating plastics and other garbage. Biologists who performed an autopsy on an emaciated male whale beached at Sea Side Heights, New Jersey, found this party balloon, ribbon still attached, blocking the animal's digestive tract. Courtesy of Marine Mammal Stranding Center

Negative impact on human health

People, especially in poor developing countries, can suffer from cholera and typhoid when they drink contaminated water.

Extent of water pollution Economic loss Oil spills threaten the fishing industry and fishermens livelihood.

Economic loss Oil spills can also pollute beaches and affect tourism. Needles and syringes washed up onto Long Island and New Jersey beaches during the summer of 1988. Estimated costs from lost tourism and recreation that year were as high as $3 billion

Economic loss Cleaning up oil spills requires an international effort and is a very expensive task. Scientists have estimated that no more than 15 percent of the oil from a major oil spill is recovered in a cleanup operation. The cheapest way and the most effective approach is to prevent oil pollution.

Effects Water pollution has damaged the food chain Contaminated drinking water causes cholera, typhoid, poor blood pressure, vomiting, and damage to nervous system Pollution in water alter overall chemistry of water, causing a lot of changes in temperature which adversely effects the marine life and destroys it.

Minimata Disaster. Background Minamata is a small factory town dominated by the Chisso Corporation. The town faces the Shiranui Sea, and Minamata Bay is part of this sea. In Japanese, "Chisso" means nitrogen. The Chisso Corporation was once a fertilizer and carbicle company, and gradually advanced to a petrochemical and plastic-maker company.

From 1932 to 1968, Chisso Corporation, a company located in Kumamoto Japan, dumped an estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay. When Chisso Corporation dumped this massive amount of mercury into the bay, thousands of people whose normal diet included fish from the bay, unexpectedly developed symptoms of methyl mercury poisoning. The illness became known as the "Minamata Disease". What was it? Minamata Disease is a poisoning disease of central nervous system caused by methyl mercury compound, which was produced as by-product in the process of manufacturing acetaldehyde at Chisso Co., Ltd. in Minamata City and Showa Denko Co., Ltd. located upstream of Agano River, and was discharged with the factory effluent and polluted the environment, and then, through the food chain, it was accumulated in fish and shellfish. Consequently Minamata Disease occurred when the inhabitants ate high amount of these sea foods.

Symptoms Not until the mid-1950's did people begin to notice a "strange disease".

Victims were diagnosed as having a degeneration of their nervous systems. Numbness occurred in their limbs and lips. Their speech became slurred, and their vision constricted. Some people had serious brain damage, while others lapsed into unconsciousness or suffered from involuntary movements. Furthermore, some victims were thought to be crazy when they began to uncontrollably shout. People thought the cats were going insane when they witnessed "suicides" by the cats. Finally, birds were strangely dropping from the sky. Series of these unexplainable occurrences were bringing panic to Minamata. Doctor Dr. Hajime Hosokawa from the Chisso Corporation Hospital, reported on May 1, 1956 that, "an unclarified disease of the central nervous system has broken out". Dr. Hosokawa linked the fish diets to the disease, and soon investigators were promulgating that the sea was being polluted by poisons from the Chisso Corporation. The Chisso Corporation denied the accusations and maintained their production. However, by 1958, Chisso Corporation transferred their dumping from the Minamata Bay to the Minamata River hoping to diminish accusations toward the company. Finally, in July 1959, researchers from Kumamoto University concluded that organic mercury was the cause of the "Minamata Disease". Finally, Dr. Hosokawa performed concealed cat experiments in front of the Chisso Corporation management, and illustrated the affects of mercury poisoning by feeding the cats acetaldehyde. Dr. Hosokawa was the first person who made a valiant effort in proving to Chisso Corporation that they were the ones accountable for the mercury poisoning. After the meeting with Chisso officials, Dr. Hosokawa was restricted from conducting any further research or experiments, and his findings were concealed by the corporation. Political Action

Finally, Minamata can teach us about politics, particularly as they might apply to environmentalism. The patients of Minamata disease suffered not only from a physical handicap alone. Due to their economic status and the social dimensions of the disease, the victims were also politically handicapped. They--and the fishermen whose livelihoods (if not whose lives) had been destroyed-did not initially command the power or the resources to obtain proper compensation from Chisso. Political lessons may seem inappropriate in a biology classroom. However, students today are increasingly exposed to acts of violence intended to "resolve" conflicts. An example where bearing witness, patience and persistence have proven their effectiveness can provide a significant alternative model for action. People fight back The fishermen of Minamata began protesting against Chisso Corporation in 1959. They demanded compensation, and that Chisso quit dumping toxic waste. Chisso in turn tried to make deals with people affected by mercury poisoning using legal documents that stated it would compensate individuals for their illnesses, but would accept no present or future liability. Many people felt this was their only chance at receiving any compensation, and signed the papers. Measures against Minamata Pollution Effluent Control Drainage of the Chissos factory effluent (containing methylmercury) to Minamata bay got regulated In 1970, Water Pollution Control Law was enacted The law enforced control of discharge of effluent in all water areas in Japan, in relation to toxic substances Conversion of production method was advised against caustic soda plants that might discharge mercury

RAIN WATER HARVESTING What Is Rainwater Harvesting? RWH consists of simple systems to collect, convey, and store rainwater. Rainwater capture is accomplished primarily from roof-top, surface runoff, and other surfaces. RWH either captures stored rainwater for direct use (irrigation, production, washing, drinking water, etc.) or is recharged into the local ground water and is call artificial recharge. It is the activity of direct collection of rain water Rain water can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the ground water aquifer Why Rainwater Harvesting? Conserve and supplement existing water resources Supply water at one of the lowest costs possible for a supplemental supply source. Commitment as a corporate citizen - showcasing environmental concerns Replenishing local ground water, where lowering of water tables has occured

Why Rain water be harvested To conserve & augment the storage of ground water To reduce water table depletion To improve the quality of ground water To arrest sea water intrusion in coastal areas To avoid flood & water stagnation in urban areas Why Not RWH? Not applicable in all climate conditions over the world Collected water quality might be affected by external factors Performance seriously affected by climate fluctuations that sometimes are hard to predict Collected rainwater can be degraded with the inclusion of waste water runoff


Storage devices may be either above or below ground Different types include Storage Tanks Water Containers Lagoons or Lined Ponds Size based on rainfall pattern, demand, budget and area

RAIN WATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUES : Roof top rainwater harvesting. Surface runoff harvesting .

METHODS OF ROOFTOP RWH Storage of direct use Recharging ground water aquifer - Recharging dug wells - Recharging pits - Recharging tube well SURFACE RUNOFF HARVESTING Harvesting of surface runoff and storage of the same into reservoirs such as water pans makes it available for use when required. In this method of collecting rainwater for irrigation, water flowing along the ground during the rains will be collected to a tank below the surface of the ground.. TRADITIONAL RWH STRUCTURE BAWODI: Traditional step wells are called vavadi in Gujarat, or baoris or bavadis in Rajasthan and northern India. They were secular structures from which everyone could draw water. Most of them are defunct today. JOHADS A johad is a crescent-shaped bund which is built across a sloping catchment to capture the surface water before it runs off. Water accumulating in the johad percolates in the soil to augment the groundwater. The groundwater then can be used when there is no rainfall. Kunds Covered underground tank, developed primarily for tackling drinking water problems. Usually constructed with local materials or cement, kunds were more prevalent in regions where groundwater is saline. Before the onset of rains every year, meticulous care was taken to clean up the catchment of the kunds.

Cattle grazing and entry with shoes into the catchment area of the kunds was strictly prohibited. The proximity of a kund to the house or village saved time and effort in searching for drinking water. USES OF RAINWATER HARVESTING Domestic Use Agricultural Use Increase groundwater supplies POTENTIAL OF RWH Impacts on downstream flows. Reduce soil erosion. Increase the crop production. Increase infiltration and groundwater recharge. Improve food & economic security. ADVANTAGE It uses local construction materials and labor. Sources of energy are not needed to operate the systems. The owner/user can easily maintain the systems. The water is convenient and accessible; valuable time and effort are saved in collecting and/or hauling water. It provides a supply of water to meet future agricultural needs. SO AS WE ALL ARE THE HUMAN BEINGS AND ITS OUR RESPONSIBILTY TO SAVE OUR GROUND WATER LEVEL AND MAKE THEM RECHARGE AT TIME TO TIME BY RAIN WATER HARVESTING What is a Wetland?

Wetlands are difficult to define: Range of hydrological conditions Great variation in size, location, and human influence

Distinguishing features of wetlands: Presence of standing water Unique wetland soil Vegetation adapted to or tolerant of saturated soils

Why Protect Wetlands? Healthy wetlands provide important services: Ecological Recreational Scientific Cultural Economic Drivers of Degradation & Destruction of Wetlands

Implications of Loss of Storm Protection Services Decreased natural barrier against extreme weather events Increased flooding Increased destruction due to storms

Destruction of fisheries and their infrastructure What Are Wetlands? Areas with water on top of or close to the surface year round or close to it Commonly known as bogs, marshes, or swamps (What do wetlands do for you; Wetlands; Wetlands Habitat) How Are Wetlands being destroyed? Drainage projects Polluting with runoff Land clearing Logging Development Waste Dumping Why Are Wetlands Important? Provide habitat for fish and wildlife Control floods Control erosion Enhance water quality Providing Habitat for Fish and Wildlife : Providing Habitat for Fish and Wildlife According to the US Environmental Protection Agency one-third of endangered species reside in Wetlands. Fish use wetlands as breeding grounds Migratory birds use wetlands for nesting, resting, feeding, and breeding