This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
' C. AUTHOR OF 'MURRAY'S HANDBOOK FOR RUSSIA.' ETC. THREE MAIS AND ONE HUNDKED AND TWENTY-FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS NEW YORK SCRIBNER AND WELFORD LONDON THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY 56 PATERNOSTER Row AND 1889 164 PICCADILLY .RUSSIAN PICTURES IDvawn vvitb pen anb pencil BY THOMAS MICHELL. AND FINLAND. THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION TO NORWAY IN l6l2. POLAND.B.
LIMITED.THE NEW YORK PiJ I [PRARY AST Of: LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS O LONDON STAM" 'KD : PRINTKD BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. . SIKEET AND CHAUING CROSS.
AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS.N. on which he is a high and well-known authority. and Finland. character was the tenth preserved through century purely Byzantine . Buchan Telfer. Boutoffsky's Ornement Ritsse. the country dealt with large or small. be number of pages is the same. the Ocean The to the 'frosty Caucasus. Poland. PREFACE. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. PETERSBURG. therefore.' execution of this task has been facilitated by the generous per- mission of Mr. ST.. for his friendly contribution of a chapter on the Crimea and Caucasus. and from the Arctic uniformly limited. THE are object of this of the Russian ' volumes of the Pen to represent graphically the salient features Readers of the previous Empire and its inhabitants. and. and Pencil Series will remember that their contents is ' volume Indulgence must. The ancient illuminations that head the chapters of this volume have their It will be seen that been copied from M. the author are also due in a special degree to Captain J. R. John Murray to draw upon the information contained in the The thanks of Handbook for Travellers in Russia. be claimed for the unavoidably incomplete character of a work that attempts to sketch by the aid of both pen and pencil the lands and peoples embraced in so vast an area as that which stretches from Poland to Kamchatka. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.
in the eyes and under the keen observation of states that of form been more or less and the solidified and in the advanced long spirit their civilization and government. at a time for a good part the printing press was already an active force. The foreign criticism and animadversion to which Russia has been liable since the produced by consequence of the days. anything by pen and great position pencil that will not appear to a large class of readers to be more or less a rhhanfft of other travellers' notes and artistic labours. and of the next. Dedication to The Antient and Present State of Muscoiy. In short. the more abstruse their history and surprising in the event. the more. add something peoples. had become when ' ' It is therefore as in a glass hive comparatively easy and free from danger. religion. and cities of Russia in both Europe and Asia. lands. Nevertheless. . of time. and when intercommunication with the rest of Europe. so far from being a terra incognita. has been the subject of such numerous literary productions that it is well nigh impossible to say. they may deserve our particular observation at this juncture By Dr. the more remote the manners. 1698. by giving if somewhat scanty. while at the end of the eleventh century the Byzantine style began to be mingled in Russia with elements of native genius. which was gradually much influenced by the art of India and Persia. but also. among a nation guided for the most part merely by instinct. by sea and by land. the hope is not forbidden that the book produced in these circumstances may not only please the eye of the reader into whose hands it falls. especially that part situated in Europe. information about the history. to the interest he may already take in the subject. and policy of the Italy Muscovites are from other nations of Europe. Russia. that the Russian bees have ever since been toiling under the guidance of" gifted and ambitious rulers to build up the colossal fabric we view to-day with an amazement which is not unmingled with disquietude. and other niceties as that of variety nevertheless.PREFACE. ' ' : . the work may be introduced to its readers somewhat apin the words of an English writer at the end of the propriately seventeenth century 'Tis true. when only the area of the modern Russian Empire presents itself for consideration. Russia received its first strong impulse from Peter the Great. have not They have been the natural which Russia acquired so late in her had political life. or to depict. gardens. Hence. statues.' 1 I say. this relation will not afford the same beautiful of structures. London. more especially of its racial or religious prejudice. and consequently hurried on from one extreme to another. Crull. been great Reformer. him accurate. J. when the wall that had surrounded Muscovia had been considerably breached.
. An Illumination Fortress and Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. 19 Views in Riga .. MS. in the Imperial .. An Illumination from a Manuscript of the Thirteenth or Fourteenth Century. Views 31 in and around Petersburg at . CHAPTER I.. IN THE LIBRARY OF CONTENTS AND The LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS... Cathedral. .. Public Library. in the Imperial Public Library. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL: The Column St. Petersburg of the Four- 30 St. 36 The first Fleet built by Peter the Great The English Quay. . 44 49 51 The Fortress of Schliisselburg 54 . MOSCOW. Petersburg Preface . Petersburg from a MS.... of the Twelfth Lithuanian Peasant 24 27 Museum. St. Petersburg . St. An Illumination from a Russian MS. II.. Petersburg page . . Vilna 21 18 Moscow ... ... of the Fourteenth Century. in the Public of Alexander I... .. FROM A MANUSCRIPT THE SYNOD. ... Voronej . .. III... RUSSIA.. Isaac's 38 41 Plan of St.. . from Library of the Synod. 7 IO EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. Petersburg . . teenth Century.. ST. Century. .. . Petersburg St. St. PETERSBURG. Petersburg Peter the Great St.. St.. Moscow Map of Russia in Europe . The Emperor The Empress of Russia of Russia page 14 15 CHAPTER WESTERN Russian Sledging and Coursing An Illumination from a Russian or Thirteenth . Public /<y' in the 5 5 a Manuscript Byzantine Ornamentation of the Tenth-Eleventh Century.. St. in the Imperial Frontispiece Library.BYZANTINE ORNAMENTATION OF THE TENTH-ELEVENTH CENTURY..
. 73 an 74 The Romanoff House The Sukharef Tower Church of the Nativity . . Sergius) Monastery 96 CHAPTER A VI. . Astrakhan . . Moscow One of the Porches of the Troitsa Monastery Cathedral of St. Pokrofski Village.. Date The Troitsa (St. . . . Holy 75 75 75 75 at Izmailot. Library of the . near Moscow Moscow . . .. 137 . Tartar An Illumination from a MS.. Nijni Novgorod Nijni .. 129 133 135 120 121 A Ploughing on the Steppes Peasant Girl of Great Russia .. "7 . near Moscow page 56 The Solovetsk Monastery .. A Novgorod Russian Trader with his Tea Urn ... ... 1553 Archangel .. in the Library of the Monastery of the Resurrection. 83 SO 88 89 a Church or . RUSSIA..... 93 93 93 93 94 Church of St. ... The Kremlin Wall. .. Sophia at Novgorod the Great .. 1 10 12 Fourteenth Monastery of the Kazan Views in . in the Library of the Synod. ... at Holmogory.. -91 92 .. . . An The Kremlin. Landing of Richard Chancellor the White Sea. .. A Introduction of Christianity into Russia . Basil. ... ... in tage 57 61 64 CHAPTER Illumination from a Psalter of the Thirteenth Century. Lady .. CHAPTER An Illumination from a IV. ... The Great Bell : On .. 125 Nogai Tartar An Itinerant Shoemaker. THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. 107 the Volga Astrakhan Boat Dog Sledge with Fish. .. MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL... Money for . 119 CHAPTER SOUTH An Illumination VII. in of the Thirteenth or the Mosque at Kazan . in the Sacristy of the Monastery of St. New Jerusalem 1613 72 Monastery The Old Clothes Market. A Ancient Pirate Raid on the Volga Cossack of the Volga 1 A Tartar An "3 ..... . . . MS.. Sergius. at Moscow Church of the Virgin of Kazan.. Century. of the Fifteenth Century. .. . . VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA.. Moscow .. .123 ........ . 77 79 So Si Novgorod The Monument at Novgorod commemorating the Thousandth Anniversary of the Empire The Patriarch Nicon The Church in the Monastery of the New . .. . of the Fourteenth Century.. Moscow 66 67 the Belfry the Ivan Veliki Tower.. V. . Moscow. Moscow Russian Peasants near Kuntsevo . . Nicholas.. Moscow The Crown of Monomachus Cathedral of St... . . The Pechersk Monastery The Battle of Poltava .. near Cathedral. . ...CONTENTS.. . Moscow . or New Jerusalem. 69 70 71 The Great Palace.102 . .. An old Church at .. . An 98 99 105 Moscow . New Jerusalem.. ... A Nun collecting Money for A South Russian Woman a Convent 127 from a MS... at Kief. Modern Tartars of 114 116 . . Moscow - A Peasant collecting Jerusalem Plan of the Church in the Sepulchre General Patrick Gordon Officers of the Streltbi exact copy of the original Church of the The Streltsi of Streltsi of a later ..
.. . . . An Illumination from a MS. Kiakhta . Vladimir. An Illumination from a in IX. . of the Fifteenth Cen.. of the Tenth or Eleventh Century. n the Public Rumiantsoff Museum. CHAPTER SIBERIA.. . pleted at Khersonesus A A . Polish peasants. (at .CONTENTS. .170 173 Map .. 160 161 161 Imeritian Noble wearing the Imeritian Lady . the Library of the Monastery 01 . The Iron Gate Market Garden) . .. of the Fifteenth Abo 214 215 Cathedral Century. CHAPTER An Illumination VIII.. St. Kara'im Jew . .164 166 . ... . . Moscow . 145 147 Batoum com149 An An . 218 220 222 223 ... Turcoman Women A Tekke Village Tekkes Samarkand The Grand Minaret. .150 . FINLAND... . Petersburg page 140 Mount St. .. from a MS.... .. . . ... Khiva 203 I9S 197 198 199 202 iSS 189 191 A Khirghiz Bride of the Khanates Map .. . Tobolsk .212 213 the back of the Saxony CHAPTER An Illumination XII... . from a MS. recently . Moscow . Library of the Troitsa Monastery In the Lazienki Park. .. Finlanders Finnish Fern Gatherers Viborg Castle . Warsaw Kamenets. Ostiaks Spinning and Nursing .. . in the . ... . .... . Tim's 163 ... . Peter. with . . The Cathedral of St. The Mosque Kokan 192 of Hazret-i-Turkestan CHAPTER XL POLAND. X.. near Kertch page 152 Feats of horsemanship by Cossacks of the Caucasus 156 A Mingrelian Peasant 158 A Village in Svanneti 159 Inkermann .. ... . . in Podolia tury. in Library of the Troitsa Monastery. 174 .... . of the Twelfth Century.. The Burning A Siberian Merchant in Winter Travelling Dress 175 of Irkutsk in 1879 Gilyaks in Winter Costume on the Lower Amur . 151 Georgian Ladies Naphtha Wells at Baku .. . ASIA. of the Fifteenth Siberian Convict . Moscow Helsingfors . . . Bakhchisarai . . 177 Century. Tartar Bride and Bridegroom . 185 186 CHAPTER CENTRAL An Illumination from a MS. Papanaky .. . . Entrance to the Tomb of a Scythian King.. . Crimea 141 Yalta 144 .. Cross. . The Church 204 205 208 of the Holy . in the Imperial Public Library. in 179 i^o 182 184 Lake Baikal Winter ..... THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. . ... Tunguz Girls . .. A 171 Siberian Gold of Siberia Mine Saint Sergius.. . . . . . 210 . Warsaw. University in the background . MS.
.10 15LoncT itudeEast25fr'>mGrecmvicl. MAP OF RUSSIA IN EUROPE. Sr.35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 35 50 Typo KtOiins Co.
The vastness of these combined possessions. EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.314. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. in 1886. with a population almost three times Russian of the is now under the that which sceptre.000 OCCUPYING miles of railway. one seventh part of the land surface of the globe. and which fails to is reach the Atlantic only by the interposition of the kingdom of Norway. was spread over an area of over two million square miles in Europe.000 square miles). of which eighty-four per cent.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MANUSCRIPT OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY. on territories measuring about six and a half million square miles. before the latter is carried westward across Central Asia to the confines of . from Behring Straits down to Its the frontier of the Chinese empire. an estimated population of one hundred and nine millions. and about one quarter of its entire superficies. the remainder being more or less permanently settled in Asia. sway On the north the Russian empire has an arctic coast-line that embraces more than one hundred and forty degrees of longitude. eastern limits are on the Pacific Ocean. PETERSBURG. ST. the Russian empire had. which forms also its southernmost boundary. exceeded only by the magnitude of the British empire as large as (9. already covered with 1 7. CHAPTER I.
countries with which the empire also comes into close contact. 79) as the the Vistula. inhabiting the country beyond as the Veneti . the Slavs extended eastward the Dnieper. and was day their racial brethren. by Dr. composed of and Slovens. Bohemia. down to the Elbe. off. on the Caspian (practically a Russian lake). the Esthonians. descendants survive.' Tacitus mentions them Vcnedi. where the to earliest historical records the locate them. of which it holds the northern and eastern shores from the Danube to Batoum. They are referred . or the Wends. into territory that later became the dominion of the first centuries after Christ they were cut Novgorod During woods and marshes. who In King Alfred's Orosius the Anglo-Saxon designation survive in Lusatia. they began soon after their short-lived subjection to the Goths (in the third or fourth century) to spread themselves to the west in two distinct streams. in succession to a previous German element exhausted by internecine conflict. Vilhelm Thomsen. or from an inherent nomadic tendency. on the opposite side of the Baltic. and the Teutonic tribes ' designated their early eastern neighbours as the Winecid. in the early part of the ninth tribes. 1 use largely the best work on the subject The Relations between Ancient Russia the Origin of the Russian State. Persia and to by Pliny the elder (A. while the modern kingdom of Roumania has become a neighbour on the lower course of the Danube. few of their The other mass followed the course of and became known as the South Slavonians. These have played an Servians. and in their northward Great. the Slavs made a late appearance on the stage of history. struggle with the Roman empire. of Copenhagen. and on the Black Sea.D. inasmuch as they were the link between early Christianized civilisation and their own kindred heathen It was to the Danubian Slavs that. after which the Baltic and Polish Provinces establish contiguity to the empires of Germany and Austria. Croatians. important part with regard to the entire race. the Scandinavian name for the same people the Philanders know Russia only as Venaja. Cyril and Methodius preached the gospel in their mother tongue. from the events which at that period disturbed the greater part of Europe. Turkey. and . by which the greater part of Europe has been occupied from time immemorial. Settled in a country so remote from the centres of Greek and Roman culture. Bulgarians. the Grand Duchy of Finland is conterminous with Norway and Sweden. while in the eleventh and twelfth centuries Vender. The dominant population of Russia Proper is Slavonic the Slavs or Slavonians having been a branch of the Aryan or Indu-European race. On the west. and Moravia. One mass crossed the Vistula. or by deadly Except in Poland. of the Slavs south of the Baltic is Winedas or Weonodas. century. the Danube.12 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and populated the tracts between the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic. call To this it Vene? From the the Vistula. Whether from external pressure. : We and Scandinavia. severally.
EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. but divided into of the Poliant. in the basin of the Oka. and the Vcs. and the Dnieper. We shall Those who occupied absorbed lands nearest to the race. the a The same is language. of the We ancient first hear in Nestor's 2 Chronicle of the Slavs the home. without any common political tie. the greater part of Southern 'Russia' fell into their hands. and by hordes of Tartar or Turkish origin more or less by nomadic in their habits. 2 earliest monkish historian of Russia. and near the sources of the Volga. the Volga and the Slav territories. throughout the part of what is now Russia. warring more and more among themselves as their numbers multiplied or as they approached each other's territorial confines. now century of the Christian era a number of rude and yet they tribes around Lake with Ilmen. still used in the services of the Russo-Greek Church. at Beyond part of ' these ' Russia Finnish tribes. and having each a In 1 primitive. with Smolensk as their chief settlement. by the Rurik princes. or Czech. Nestor asserts that the Slavonian and Finnish Russian To The day anyone acquainted with the modern language has no difficulty in understanding a Bulgarian. ago. Gradually. It is only the latter tribe that . thus find that We in the ninth century the extensive country we are dealing with was peopled by a number of ethnologically unrelated heathen tribes. had reached. completely excluded the Slavs from the Baltic and the waters by the Slavonic the Mcria. North of the Slavs of Novgorod were the CJihd or Finnish tribes that spread around the Gulf of Finland and the Lake of Ladoga. together with the Lett and Lithuanian races to the south of them. whose capital. written slightly varied form. later played so great a part in Russian while the easternmost Slavs were the Viatichi. in until centuries nations. and who. vernacular. dwelt the Finnish tribes. the Dvina. Servian. Slavs on their eastern side have long been and survive only in name as the Muroma. independent Novgorod as a capital. He part records that even in the western who remained in their country we are engaged in ninth were not a nation. Kief. the centre of modern Russia Proper. and nearest their boundaries became tributaries to them. principal limits of the primitive Slav world. the greater (a designation that long remained unknown) was peopled the Slavonic tribes Their power was.D. . history which joins the Volga at Nijni Novgorod. One of the most important of those tribes was that sketching. as well as A. however. appertaining to it.' which by the spread of Christianity was. the period in question. patriarchal form of these this circumstances government. some of them extant on our voyage down the Volga. of all in the alphabet composed a few the Slav by Cyril and Methodius. Between northern find 969. The most redoubtable of the latter the Khazars had in the latter half of the seventh century formed on the Volga a State ruled from a city near the site of modern Astrakhan. crushed. the ' 13 old 1 Slavonic.
in the mouths places almost the same words Saxons were 'invited' to come over the sea. religion must have had some effect in estranging o o o them from their Roman Catholic brethren at home .RUSSIAN PICTURES.D. founded what could Clearly it could have THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA. in accordance with the law of Their adoption of the Greek Odelsret. from depredations they had already begun to suffer come ye and rule land is great and bountiful. 864. and establishing himself. a Slavonic name. sailing over in his viking ships to the south coast of the Gulf of Finland. of the Britons by whom the been only as a conqueror that Roric. penetrated inland. Dr.' over points out. The Scandinavian character of the ruling race at Kief was probably not Roric's grandson already bore preserved for more than a few generations. had become essentially Slavonicized. ' : . however. us. A. but there is no order in it that another Thomsen monkish legend V. to send the following message to the Scandigroups of the north combined whose Our navians. and by the year 1000 the reigning princes who succeeded to the throne of Kief in priority of descent. from Rhos or Rnss the clan to which he belonged. at Novgorod. then for the first time be called a Russian monarchy.
Vaeringjar] signified only the Scandinavian body-guard of the Emperor of Kyzantium. the stream of settlers ceased to pour in from Scandinavia. the daughter of King Harold. even at the close of the eleventh century. after she had fled with her brothers to the Danish Court. . The term was later adopted by the Slavs in the form of Variag^ to denote Northmen. between the Princes of Kief and the country of their ancestors. 1 Varangar (Old Norse : not Scandinavians in genera!.' or men from 1 keep up its character of a and its Scandinavian element gave way only in the city. King of Sweden. ' Novgorod long continued THE EMPRESS OF RUSSIA.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. That intimate personal relations were maintained. '5 After the period to which we have brought down our observations. Varangian thirteenth or fourteenth century to the Germans of the Hanse Towns. but it had by that time deposited so strong a contingent that a contemporary writer describes the population of Kief in 1018 as consisting 'chiefly of Danes. Their son espoused a daughter of Ingo Strenkelson. is proved by the fact that in about 1070 Vladimir (Monomachus) married Gyda. by to ' the north. whom its lucrative trade was absorbed.
his arms the double-headed black eagle. He was well read in Autocrat of all the Russias. (1505-1534) absorbed the principalities that had remained independent of Moscow. converted into Vira in Slavonian. we bring this chapter to a our rapid but extensive travels through the empire.1 6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. as the representative of the extinct imperial line. still prevalent in Norway. begin to the 1 close. penalties or compensation for manslaughter. Until that catastrophe occurred. the first in Russia. pcis. and his son Ivan IV.' the title of Tsar. or such words than the learned professor has cited.' and in ' 1 ' and desired to be recognised by the Patriarch of Constantinople. This was the origin of the Russian Udel system. Dr. the stove. Thomsen gives a long list of proper names of Scandinavian root which long survived the Slavonicization of the He has also disRuss. or whip. Vladimir. We have already alluded to the law of Odel. Vasili III. Moscow. It was Ivan III. as the Norse Russian for is still. Russian historians are wife of Vladimir. pctchka. Even the Saxon Witenagemotes had been reproduced under the Slavonic name of Veche. The first Russian code of laws. for hearth or oven. compiled in the reign of Vladimir (tenth century). is derived from the old Norse or We have indeed found in Norway many more Swedish knut-r a knot. Having thus sketched the development consolidation Russia down age of Peter the Great. and survived more especially at Novgorod and Pskof (in the form of Republics). now agreed that the legend of Vladimir Monomachus having received investiture at the hands of the Emperor Constantine and is a mere legend of fabricated in the reign of Ivan IV. in lieu of the primitive law of vengeance and retaliation. after his marriage with Sophia His successor. and Czar is a corrupt German spelling of the title. its laws. until the Russian sovereign ' power was concentrated at Moscow. sister of the Emperor Basil and Byzantine lore. or executed within recent times in Russia. under the name of Wercgcld. under which the successors of Roric fought amongst themselves for the paramount throne and facilitated by their dissensions the occupation of Russia by the Tartars during two centuries. (1462-1505) who assumed the title of Grand Duke and all Russia.' covered in the Russian language a host of words (principally for household objects in incipient civilized life) that are unmistakably Scandanavian in their Even the word knut. through Anne.' and added to (or Prince) of Novgorod. For instance. Thus it introduced. Russia had followed the general European path of civilization and development in its social life. of the imperial Byzantine blood. the Terrible (1534-1584) found himself ' the position of being able to take at his coronation. to whom he sent a costly present of sable skins. and its internal government. Paleologus. the first Christian Prince of Kief. was essentially Scandinavian or Teutonic in its principles. with which criminals were punished origin. petch. .
RUSSIAN SLEDGING AND COURSING. .
when we cross the brook Instead ot these we catch a two great empires. MOSCOW. but in the beyond. dynastically joined require ' to be reminded. is of interest as the district. Kovno. and finally 1569. that we are in But geographically we are only in a province of the Holy Russia. CHAPTER WESTERN II RUSSIA. OF THE TWELFTH OR THIRTEENTH CENTURY. in a fertile and pleasantly accidented its present squalor. At partition of Poland (1/95). Dreary as we may have found the of poplars. Muscovite ancient on not we are miles ground. sixty to the Crown of Poland venerable Duchy of Lithuania. We station of Wierzbolow or Wirballen. Prettily situated at the confluence of the Vilia with the great Niemen River. in united with the that third kingdom in 1401. separates glimpse of the blue and gold dome of a Russo-Greek church. and their trim avenues suddenly their neat homesteads. which we reach can proceed the same night in about twenty-four hours. our first objective point is Berlin. their well- which the demand for our passports. Kingdom of Poland. we miss kept roads.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. notwithstanding last stronghold of paganism in c 2 . majority of British and American travellers bound for Petersburg. inhabited chiefly by Poles and Jews.' Even at Kovno. and scarcely plains of East Prussia. IN THE PUBLIC MUSEUM. by a in it 13S6. incorporated with Lithuania fell to the share of Russia. London from and in about fifteen hours more enter the Russian Empire at the frontier LIKE the great St.
they were driven from their last and holiest shrine. days. Dusburg. the Lithuanian grand dukes. sources and fertility. in which the Teutonic knights. : Passing junctions of lines that lead severally to the port of Libau. and the Russians. the moon-god. in the neighbouring province of Courland. messengers. the whose ultimate disastrous retreat is commemorated in the French. with a red face sur- of Petrimpa. in Baltic. now years after its stands a Roman end of the fourteenth century. south and west.20 AUSSSAJV PICTURES.000 men. George while the chapel of St.' We may add that out of eight hundred guns. we halt of the Lithuanians in happier for refreshment at Vilna. on the River Alle. Roman like Catholic edifice in Lithuania. have not permitted the survival of any very ancient remnants of The church of St. amongst hills that rise to not very apparent from the large and handsome attractions not being in other respects sufficient to we must be content to read in ' ' Murray . . or foundation. the Little Paris and town a Russian now the chief of province of the same name. could be seen erect some of the sacred oaks of ancient days. the ' ' The beauty of its situation is the east. and therefore represented as a grey-headed old man of deathly pallor. Peter and St. the church of St. the largest architecture. the capital of the Kingdom of Poland. secured the implicit obedience of pagan kings and princes. are mixed up to a degree that will not admit of any clear account within the limits of these pages. the last mementos of the extinct but once paramount authority which had been wielded by pagan high priests over the greater part of the country between the Baltic and the Carpathians. Ten miles beyond it. to In 1812 the town was devastated and pillaged have existed since 1503. with a white band round his head. the sun-god. recrossed the frontier numbering 70. on the Vilia River. Russia was invaded by an army numbering 700. of Perkun. on the Catholic church. and forced its inhabitants to accept the religion of Christ. and we shall later find a good display of them within the Kremlin at Moscow. his whose iron when produced by when Boleslas of Poland invaded Prussia in 1015. relates that niches in the sacred oak of ancient Romnove contained effigies . by 'In following inscription on a monument which stands in the market-place The army 1812. railway station. the gocl of springs. originally in the name of the true faith. Gertrude is known . which was burnt sceptre. resided at a more ancient place of the same name Romnove in East Prussia. Only eighty years ago.000. Strife and warfare. and to Warsaw. Europe. and one which held out three hundred Niemen. later for political objects. Paul at Kovno. on the site of a sacred until the grove within which the pagan worshippers maintained a perpetual fire until Their chief priest. a chronicler of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. and its encourage a break in the journey. having power the form of a beardless youth over death and misfortune. the Poles. was dedicated in the fifteenth century. in rounded by rays and of Pikol. only nine were carried back by the French.
Sustained as it was by the advice after seceding from the Church of Rome.. whose Grand Duke. had married the 1 History of Romanism in Russia. Ivan III. and killed the martyrs of Lithuanian idolaters. and partly by the inlluence of Muscovy. Italian officer in the military service of Poland (1560). In further corroboration of such a wide and early establishment VILNA. also was a centre of heathen (1323). under Olgord. repose in the church of St. Tolstoy points with pride to the Lithuania by Russians at a period fact that the Gospel was brought to when Latinism was completely unknown. John. Nicholas. their prince in Courland were first faith.WESTERN that this RUSSIA. tower still Jagellon remains. and part of The remains of the kindred in race to the Slavs. Eustace. the fourteenth century. by Anthony. ambassador from the (1517-1526). They assert that even in the reign of King Stephen Bathory (15/5of worship in that city. at the fire antiquity. Vilna now of as the province is. an in of Germany Herberstein. Grodno. to the effect that were more Russian than Roman Catholic churches in Vilna. 1586) there were already thirty Russo-Greek places their time there and that the most illustrious houses in Lithuania belonged to that confession. and the personal visits of the Patriarch of Constantinople. of Greek orthodoxy in the present north-west provinces of Russia. and of Alessandro Guagmno. crowns The Castle the of hill worship in days of remote which an octagonal red brick foot of which a fire was kept Roman Catholic uninterruptedly burning until the triumph of Christianity. Samogitia. the testimony is adduced of Baron Emperor Maximilian. Tolstoy. ' Count D. . l>y the late Count D. notwithstanding of the that the inhabitants not the provinces of Vilna. 1874. 'the Miracle Worker.' at Yilna.
which was a few years later raised a university. and submitted their Church to the pope. for it. under which. been printed in the Polish language. at the same time. powerful protector 1563. often Russian noble of the period states that the clergy of that faith passed their time in drinking-houses.22 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the rites and doctrines of the Greek Church could be preserved. and libraries to the Jesuits.' pillaged their own churches. passed over to Romanism. Senate soon became composed almost enthusiasm that the Lithuanian disputed. the great noble families having already left the Greek Church and embraced Romanism. Vast estates were gradually conferred upon the King of Poland. ' in so far as they were . at the dawn of the sixteenth century. and that it was impossible to find one among them who could translate the works of St. Constantinople was distant. the inhabitants not contrary to the Roman Church. and gave their churches. who. who re-entered the the Church. in Calvinists. Lithuania was flooded with Jesuits. The famed Teutonic knights had in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries done their best by violence to introduce Romanism into Lithuania . By Dissenter' in the Polish Senate. drove the ministers of the Reformed Church from the estates which they held. as a measure of conciliation. established since 1539 in Poland. printing presses. appointed by the king being frequently movement found Lithuania in this condition. John Chrysostom into Slavonic. the authority of the bishops The Reformation The upper classes were ready towards the middle of the sixteenth century. later. Some of their bishops were ' A gained over. the Greek Church held its own. and by the liberty It was accepted with such of the press. however. who established. and Moscow was absorbed by her own disastrous affairs. and by the great nobles. a college at Vilna. exclusively of Calvinists and Lutherans. notwithstanding the proclamation of the union of the Latin and Greek Churches by the Council of Florence in 1438. the Jesuits attacked with increased activity the Russo-Greek Church established in the outlying Polish provinces. orders. daughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania. who thereupon proclaimed the union of the two Churches. was only when Jerome of Prague visited the country (in the fifteenth The pope then century) that Rome began to achieve some success. The Greek priesthood was. without the preassumed the right of nominating and confirming bishops but it liminary consent of the Kings of Poland. the whose expense the Bible had. The Roman Catholic clergy being unable from venality and disunion to struggle against the Reformation.' Thirty years of Lithuania were professed en masse. both as a result of the preaching of John Huss. in a very degraded position. of Even the Prince Nicholas at Radzivill the Black. the year 1632 there was not a single ' Having suppressed the Reformation. vindicated and exercised the right of filling the episcopal This led to the disorganisation of the Latin clergy and religious sees. in to the dignity of them by pale of 1570.
now triumphal entry into Vilna. like the rest of the country through which we have passed. which had been reduced. however. Except towards its mouth. to use modern terminology. we notice some other After much suffering in wars with stirring events in the history of Vilna.' the total number of sick and wounded abandoned by the King the of Naples having been 20. laid to the account of are in We ' now ' the ' ' ' . and which falls into running sluggish course.. when he the residence of the Governor-General. and Cossacks. Teutonic knights. and of every other the White Russia.WESTERN RUSSIA. in the province of Vitebsk still. Although. 650 by rapids. have left many traces in the history of Diinaburg. when they joined the An imposing hills. the original combatants have disappeared or been rendered powerless. In 1708 it was occupied by Charles XII. this shallow and dotted with islands that become in spring. and. and now one of her most important fortresses. Tartars. ancient provinces. the new interests and combinations that have supervened The works form part render the fortress of Dtinaburg of high importance. connected. over the the Valdai the Baltic bridge next takes the train at a solemn pace Western Dvina. 23 After this digression on the ecclesiastical history of Lithuania. More Polish 1863 and 1864.500 corpses lead one above the other. Swedes. The memory Episcopal of Napoleon's occupied the is Palace. and Muscovites. dimmed by of a the recollection of his ignominious in little flight in disguise from five the Grand Army. or. condition ' more than months. politically. finally ceded by the Poles to Russia in 1/72. Russians. after a gallant defence. banks. like the Volga and the Dnieper. and Russian princes. when General Mouravieff sternly carried out irom Vilna the measures which averted a threatened dismemberment of the empire. Petersburg and a Moscow. Teutonic knights. snipe. with records of strife and bloodshed. explanatory of the present predominance of Roman Catholicism. rises in iron-lattice between after St. Poles. together with the tortuous stream Riga. recently disasters overtook insurrection of 1831. line of defence frontier of Russia. for at navigated only by barges light draught which we momentarily see as we move on towards the great railway junction (with Riga on the one hand. later.000. leaving in one hospital alone 7. and in Lithuanians. and the second the western of protecting are intended to render impossible an inimical occupation of the main lines . occasionally accelerated about miles. the city was plundered and destroyed in the seventeenth century by Swedes. to the rabble piled like pigs of train. The tide of the battle the struggle for political dominion in these for Christendom. operations in 1812.' as distinguished from province of Little Great and Russia. mere variety of wild fowl sandy swamps is tenanted by storks. and Smolensk and Moscow on the other) at Dtinaburg. and in 1/94 it fell to the It was the centre of the French Russians. which.
are still in possession.D. which she had embraced at Constantinople about A. Witenagemotes. The city and its territories formed earliest of the Hanseatic in the period of the great trade with part League The gradual Germany. margins of forests of which bears. foundation of the Russian Empire. of of Moscow will these the Grand be Duchy absorption republics by in our account of We need the Great mention described only Novgorod. emblematical of the majesty of the law. of which Pskof was the first Russian outpost. on the model of our Saxon 1/7 Like Novgorod (the LITHUANIAN PEASANT. Nicholas. sent by barge or rail to Riga. the town is also a centre of considerable trade in flax. Formidable as a place of arms. Detached homesteads are now of less and less frequent occurrence. which is still extant. tell the traveller that he is already in Russia Proper. amidst the wailings of the citizens over their lost freedom. Pskof had its open-air t>ec/ic (Witenagemote). Groups of grey and tumble-down-looking log-huts. Nevertheless. and elk. Pskof. Olga. and we learn that the broad cuttings through which we are conveyed are the railway from Warsaw to St. which is reached at Ostrof. It is curious to observe that the earliest tions political institu- country were of a popular character. and from Riga to Vitebsk. played an important part in the. and in 1581 was captured by the famous Stephen it Bathory of Poland. supposed to have been founded by St. who a year later caused to be built the church of St. set up in the great square. Scarcely twenty-five miles beyond is one of the most interesting political centres of primitive Russia. of Petersburg. we are not yet beyond the reach of ancient Lithuanian and Polish depredation. The fortress that existed here in the In fourteenth its three of century survives only in towers of grey and red stone. in the province of Pskof. the vechd bell ring out. 1501 the Lithuanians massacred 4000 of the inhabitants of Ostrof.RUSSIAN PICTURES. at which the citizens deliberated (on one occasion in their shirts) and exercised their right of electing and These had good cause for alarm when they heard deposing their princes. Great) and Khlynof (now Viatka). 955. tallow. forming villages of melancholy aspect. and timber. here that the famed vech bell in the church of the Holy Trinity was taken of the down Three in 1510. hemp. wolves. and saw the club (mace). who partially introduced into Russia the Greek religion. hundred of the most distinguished Pskovian families were at the .
a Lithuanian chief elected Prince of Pskof. Dovmont. 25 same time removed to the dominions of Muscovy Proper. after ravaging Novgorod. cathedral 1138. while Dovmont's Wall. appeared before the walls of Pskof. and forms a square on which once stood the castle of the reigning prince. over could not be a desire whom had previously moved by human force. which again had been churches built in 1266 and Its site is. as a token of submission. and in 1618 by Gustavus Adolphus. was used at the consecration of the Close by is the shrine of the sovereigns of Pskof in this cathedral. Such are the latest vicissitudes We well ' The huge style. being given to seize the idiot. Cathedral It of the built the Kremlin walls. he suddenly and miraculously vanished. whose citizens he equally However. But the ancient spirit of independence had not been entirely quenched. and ' his sword. and exhorted him not to drink the blood of Christians. inhabitants. while he was warning him of his death by lightning if he injured a single citizen. a to monk. is that to among his faithful Pskovians. Olga built a church upon it succession A. in was in Trinity almost fills the space enclosed by 1682. . but to eat of the bread and salt to be On orders presented to him in the cathedral.' offered him raw meat. he addressed the redoubtable monarch as 'Johnny. old suspended near the tomb. assumed rather than inherent. subjected. Unfortunately. in a chapel to the right of the altar screen. and replaced byian equal number of families of the trading class drawn from towns on the The Novgorodians had met with a similar fate thirty-two years Volga. in the so-called Russo-Byzantine ' ' to an edifice raised in 1368. and on the west by the Velikaya. to which the ancient city has been on its stout Kremlin walls. ruled. pursued mendicancy in the guise. without doing any harm to the terror. of an idiot. In 1581 Pskof was besieged by the Poles. Struck with Ivan left the city precipitately. Capering about on a stick. preceded by severally more especially hallowed by the fact that St. the the sainted prince thereby fire signifying the original cross 1509. he abide St. may gaze Their base on the east and north is washed by the Pskova River. according fury by frequent examples in ancient as well as in modern Russia. 957. when Ivan the Terrible of Moscow. in which Olga raised at Pskof was destroyed by The tomb of of plain oak. coffin Among is the a silver shrine with miraculous Its conspicuous of the numerous relics in this the remains of a godly prince who died in properties are assumed to be such that when the more Novgorodians. springs from their southern face. built in 1323. the city was saved from his suspected of treasonable designs. earlier.' constructed at the close of the thirteenth century. . however.I). but not before he had caused the horse of Ivan to fall. claimed his relics.U'ESTERX RUSSIA. but on both occasions the invaders were ultimately repelled. even by the year 15/0. St. who. 1138.
have already seen in at discharge or Dunaburg the barges load that Dvina the grain. and of towns great and small. the capital of Russia religion. although But this is a question of development perhaps somewhat too conservative. in together with Esthonia. in archways. the neighbourhood.000. ranks capitulation. well be proud of the city of Riga. built by Bishop Albert in A. although half of its trade is with Great Britain.D. in a land of farms and mansions. Riga. 1200. but fortunately for the inhabitants. and other native bring products of the Although not the least Russian. was finally ceded by Sweden to The exercise of the Protestant the Peace of Nystad. marked out by tall poplars. one of the over will be found stone of the Holy Virgin.' Every institution is. railway enables us to reach from Pskof the Baltic Provinces of Russia. neat and solid. One here A down Russian couple the of thousand ships of all annually. and with a sea-board of population of more than two and Russian commerce. with crenelated towers. branch off again into the to the highest importance ancient activity of Lithuanian Teutonic knights. ' ' ' ' . with a a quarter millions. on ancient. and we interior. Esthonia and Courland. dating from the The effigy days when the Teutonic knights were paramount (1494-1515). Russian in the country of good highways the since frontier. Poles. at ancient municipal rights and privileges were guaranteed by the terms of that Commercially. 1721 the official and judicial use of the German language. reaching again. no doubt. as advocated by ardent Russificators. and Musco- A We have space to say only that the civilisation and culture of those We are provinces is still undeniably German. stand prisoners Dockmann administered the affairs of the corporation the Docke.26 RUSSIAN whose service to the to this city sainted Nicholas Salos. as the second port in Russia. and as and other laws. the trial of offenders against municipal for a doll). ' The empire may Livonia. linseed. consisting of the Provinces of Livonia. more or less mediaeval-German in aspect. and must ever remain so. vites. the sights at Riga are interesting. and being locally called reproduced in miniature in is the Dockc (which equivalent to the present Danish and Norwegian word dock in which suggests that we have here the origin of the The chairman of the Guild sat under in our own country. the Idiot. its population nations is only 1 70. rather than on new lines. and we monastery of Pskof Pechersk. still Germanic. performed and a small in discomfiture of foes attach to chapel in opposite in the bazaar is in memory of citizens who fell many ancient and interesting monuments an point insurrection out more especially the fortified 1650. Swedes. the hall of the Great Guild. it There are also may re- nowned for its catacombs and for the sieges has sustained. and all which. There is the massive castle. flax. Traditions several of miracles other churches.' we have already recorded. including.
so called from the device of a Moor's Saint Maurice. the of Courland (incapital with Russia in corporated was founded in 1/95). wig.WESTERN The Hall of the RUSSIA. the unworthy favourite of the Empress Anne of Russia. it is asserted. This city. heraldic distinction. in ' ' Bible are the of proudest the possessions Library. . their patron. The palace is also interesting from its occupation in 1 798 by Louis The (later XVIII. Cathedral of St. with the exof Duke ception of the coffin of Duke John Ernest Biron. City South-west of Riga Mitau. or groom. books. many ancient relics of the in Moors' heads distinguish the pews of the Blackheads the order. and contains among treasures of silver. Marie Josephine of Savoy. which. an ardent patriot broke with his clenched fist. and paintings. built in the thirteenth. and renovated in the sixteenth A letter from Luther to the Senate of Riga and a very ancient century. who was originally the VIEWS IN RIGA. &c. when in also its castle (rebuilt was erected by Conrad von Medem. on the Aa River. in order that patriotic Russians might have the opportunity of reviling their enemy. of this historical wing edifice is the of the ancient mausoleum Dukes of the last Courland.) of France. beginning with Gothard Kettler. grandson of an The German Duke of Courland. Most the coffins were closed and secured by iron hoops about forty years ago. the fourth equerry. and his Queen. to ordered by a were cicerone explains that remains the Prince Dolgorouki to be left exposed. they adopted as their honour of head. Grand Master of the Livonian Order of 1/72) In the left Knighthood. all but the eyes and the nose. and he actually requests visitors not to spit at the mummified body and thereby injure the well-preserved velvet clothing. Grand Master and first (151 7-1587). Blackheads. which. Mary. The remains are perfect. was built early in the thirteenth century. ruffles. lies 1271.
The Guildhall of the Blackheads contains the One of the oldest is now ' ' Knights plate of is the Sword (a Livonian the order). The environs are as pretty and as interesting as the town itself. came here to marry her cousin. great Several subsequent conflagrations modernised the town. in Ritterhaus. travellers caught sight on this journey of the arrive at the picturesque in but the railway now skirts navigable Peipus Lake. Petersburg. chapel attached to the Gothic. perched object.28 RUSSIAN PICTURES. with its splendid waterfall and its prosperous manufacturing industry.' the cathedral. Working back by the same railway in the direction of St. one of the way prettiest places on the Baltic. Its Danish castle. the finest in It was a Esthonia. In old posting days. the is a strikingly picturesque foundation archives collection of the town Hall. . their eccentric host having suddenly made an alliance with Buonaparte. which is supposed to have been founded in 1030 by a Grand Duke of Novgorod. who attended the French monarch on the scaffold. and of Narva. at which the Abbe de Firmont. a in fire and are 1598. twenty-three miles long at its to the it some distance on Reval. Petersburg. The hospitality thus offered by the Paul ceased in 1/92. on being liberated from the Temple. and of great commercial importance since its . partly on foot.. while we speed on to St. daughter of the unfortunate Louis XVI. and enclosing and many houses of the ancient nobility. when the royal exiles were compelled Emperor abruptly to leave. we founded town of Dorpat. the seat of a university. at a distance of about twenty-seven miles from Reval. in mid-winter. capital of Esthonia. Rathhaus. by represented by a few ruins of the cathedral. Petersburg and the interior of the empire. the Baltic Brighton. or of Town the churches. This chapter must now be brought to a close with a mere mention of Hapsal. on the top of a rock. but we can only draw attention to the ruins of Padis Cloister. in a chapel of the palace. officiated. famed monastery even in the early part of the fourteenth century. dating from the a 1219. Its Gothic features were destroyed Gustavus 1632 by Adolphus. of silver interesting from many and a large English names of donors engraved upon one of the cups. the Due d'Angouleme. connection old ' by rail with St. for Memel.
ST. PETERSBURG..THE COLUMN OF ALEXANDER I. .
' The crust itself in 'window' through which he is now secure enough. in succession to many previous floods. with which for many years he comThe chief pelled all carts and vessels coming to the new city to be laden. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL in : III. waters after flowing a distance of forty-two miles. visibly sunk into the marshy subsoil. as the site of the look into Europe. 1824. the waters of the Neva rose thirteen feet four inches above their ordinary average level. long predicted. Petersburg a still greater catastrophe of the same . is confined within solid granite quays. bear almost clear and on The main stream capital of the Russian empire. of the Neva. but treacherous. the rapid. for it was well pegged down with the superimposed piles of wood on which the Besides. not to accept the possibility. Isaac's. CENTURY. ST. PETERSBURG. In danger to which the city has since been mainly exposed is inundation. ST. of St.ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. it is well resolute Tsar laid the foundations of his first buildings. weighted with the stones and rubble. desired to ' 1/03. OF THE I4TH. it whose huge and heavy mass has Standing on the gallery under the dome of St. Petersburg rests on a crust of soil which almost floats on the water-logged marshes selected the modern by Peter the Great. submerging the greater part of the capital. IN THE BIBLIOTHEQUE 1MPERIALE. PETERSBOURG. is difficult being some day overwhelmed by kind. but the city of St. RISING their surface Lake Ladoga.
and to express a fervent hope that the dreaded combination of the : it now elements its never occur. which. of the 1839. composed mostly only nearly one million. Unlike the huge spaces of which we have spoken this immense in converted into a neat park. The best starting-point for a tour of inspection is partly restored worthy of being square. There is one small. after a fire building erected in 1762 and completed in 1769. than are from beauty are of their architecture. in the reign of the great Catherine. on which stands the Winter which had consumed the interior 455 feet in length by 350 in breadth. and his imperial mistress Catherine II. that scarcely any capital in Europe is more described by pen and depicted by pencil. down to Alexander II. the city itself in summer looks deserted. of such great interest. modern annals of Russia. his which bears name as by George Dawe.. the study and bed-chamber of Nicholas I. in purchased from an Armenian by Count Orlof. in should endeavour to see which he died on the camp bed. . may be considered as emblematical of the magnitude of the empire and of the power by which it is governed and held together. renowned in the more Portraits of soldiers of Russia. they of materials brick and With a population population of more than one hundred millions. from being In this respect only is it typical of Russia. Field Marshals Hall. His writing-table remains undisturbed. The noble halls and other apartments are edifice. the great Palace. However.RUSSIAN PICTURES. and on it lies the last military report which the emperor received. The stucco. of all the known diamonds . obtaining permission to inspect this palace enough to obtain a view of the crown jewels. is a desert in comwith Nevertheless. and the impression of hugeness and desolation imparted to the traveller by the will vast open their spaces of which and wide rather streets. apirs nous le dtlugc we have only to deal with the city as is. The the best edifices are imposing from immensity. and more especially with pictures of victories by sea and by land since the days of Peter the Great. in the hall Russian who is depicted being attended by the Genius and statesmen. cover the walls of a large gallery and those of the In the Alexander Hall is a portrait of Alexander I. and oppresses the visitor with a feeling of insignificance. plain room which the visitor adorn the Round Hall. is the largest. as him to presented by the Pitt diamond of France is the most beautiful. Petersburg while equally good full-sized likenesses of succeeding emperors. Travellers are who succeed sometimes fortunate securely kept in an the imperial sceptre. and artistic treasures of so great and exceptional with its a value. It is certainly a remarkable city... replete with works of art. it contains objects parison every other country in Europe. an English artist of celebrity at St. many buildings. set in so vast a frame. still covered with his military cloak. not only from but also from of the colossal character of its origin. The huge so-called Orlof diamond in upper room.
Alfred Maskell is of opinion that few of the various pieces of goldsmiths' work go back to a period earlier than the third century before Christ. the Greeks from Miletus engrafted their ancient civilisation on them. may principally in the precious metals. It contained the treasures beside him. of classical. principally west of Kul-Oba about four miles In that year. Diderot. in is this and unrivalled of collection process apparent unique objects of ' ' ' ' antique It art. and 1850. Paul Dubrux. See his Russian Art and Art Objects in Russia (South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks).000. They date adjacent districts. now in the Imperial Public Library. PETERSBURG. and surdiamonds fixed on a very large uncut spinel ruby. and Voltaire. but entered by a noble vestibule from Bolshaya Millionaya Street. are naturally of the in pointed out the spots where important discoveries were made. Kertch. in the artists. legends and types with those of the barbarians. Connected with the palace. existence was their first tumuli. and by a library of ten thousand volumes on archaeology. a mitre-shaped diadem).C. is the famed Hermitage. men reconstructed floor is between 1840 and of letters. buried in his richest robes and adorned with his most precious ornaments. from the period of the highest civilisation of Greece to the time of the Mr. spent her leisure moments in conEurope. building was Greek The ground occupied by galleries of antique sculpture. practically revealed by M. first Mongol invasion of the Russian plains in the thirteenth century. The style. Attracted Nomadic and Royal Scythians. with his gold-hilted sword and other arms and the in which wood king lay. D . be divided into two classes objects : ' Hidden in a great number of highest artistic value. with king. and of some of The sarcophagus of carved and painted yewtheir clothes and trappings.100. 1831. as brilliant in when the Greek artist 1884. for it reveals. Petersburg. 33 adorned with noble jewels. by commerce and by the wealth of the described by Strabo and Herodotus. built in 1/65. of original drawings. in which Catherine II. originally the Pavilion. without pretension to archaeological knowledge. the royal tomb. and in their artistic productions mingled The their mythology. is The emperor's crown mounted by a cross formed of five beautiful versation with philosophers. essentially Milesian. in the most perfect specimens. remnants of the libraries of D'Alembert. Its value is about . Scythian. from the Crimea and and others from Siberia and Central Russia. like the his attendants and horses. now least stands in the Hermitage colour as 1 it was at two thousand years ago. was discovered by soldiers who were quarrying stone for fortifica- mouldered remains of a Bosporian king.THE MODERN CAPITAL: in ST. the art of the Greek colonies which were founded on the northern coast of the Black Sea nearly six hundred years B. The Kertch collection is alone worth a visit to St. Museum. together with those of his favourite wife or queen (bearing on her head. who. tions. and The Crimean (Greco-Scythian) objects that most of them are much later. and Siberian antiquities.
a large number of the thin as well as much gold plates with which the royal dresses were covered. by the alloying of gold find the same people represented in the with one-fifth part of silver.C. and importance that he declared its possession was almost sufficient to It was found (1863) in a form a casns belli with the Russian empire. and also in electrum of dental metal obtained. Unfortunately. somewhat incongruous. of lotah-shaped. and other curios. and on a band surrounding the centre are four groups like the Scythians with long hair and beards. presumed on the vase refer to incidents in the been preserved. and purchased by the Museum and in a newly-arranged annexe of the with the Campana and other objects. We M. discoveries of authorities. The costumes thus a photograph. But other of which only fifteen pounds were recovered by the sufficient was rescued to render the Kul-Oba even now. who in one groups his having discovered leg bandaged. and under cover of night carried away. which form the collections of armour are Hermitage . of tumulus near the town Nicopol. and is twenty-eight The work. Thiers was so much struck by its beauty Hermitage. are reproduced in one of a the same tomb. and dressed very much Russian peasant of the present day. in in the tomb bears another his tooth drawn. excepting the hood. and warriors with bows and arrows. after many a similar character. As it the is skull evidence that the incidents so skilfully repousse life of the king in whose tomb it has handed down the five small to us. . with of victories ornamented mounted on chariots. finest halls of the cannot be of later date than the fourth century B. On the ground floor of the Hermitage are galleries of sculpture and of Here also is to be seen the beautiful and matchless Etruscan ceramic art. or basklik. Polish and Bohemian but of high military standards. Mediaeval and Renaissance sections of the Hermitage. estimated to have weighed it paintings golden of pounds. figures of Greek men and women. inches high. the tumulus was not sufficiently a crowd of people rushed into it and guarded. Russian Government king of vases found at Cuma?.34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. conspicuous among the treasures Kertch collection of the Hermitage so called from the Museum at Kertch in which Bosporian antiquities were amassed before the Crimean the In the It is War. which has been introduced into Russia from the Caucasus within modern times. on the Dnieper. adulterated by a large admixture of Oriental trophies and works of art. Kul-Oba tomb was found a very remarkable vase of electrum. and subsequently melted down. and twenty hundred one other treasure. when not found in a natural state. scene is These represent episodes in the life of a chief. which is in the most perfect style of Greek art. after the discovery of its rich contents. as it were in in statuettes found affliction. and nomadic occupation of lassoing breaking in wild horses on the wondrous which stands enshrined in the centre of one of the silver-gilt Nicopol vase.
000. Chaloner. and several other specimens of the great painter. the Descent from the Cross. The collections pictures purchased by Peter the bulk consists Great were chiefly Dutch and celebrated Flemish works. and German The art of Italy is represented by about 350 specimens.. the wife and daughter of Oliver The best of Cromwell. the Ladies Elizabeth and Philadelphia Wharton. which cover almost every available inch of the walls. the and the choicest of the equally numerous paintings by Rubens (in same room and in Room xiv. Indeed.800 paintings. In the Flemish collection we see much more to interest us. The stately grandeur of the apartments into which we are now ushered makes us feel at once that we are in an imperial palace. The best of the six paintings by Velasquez are the portraits of Philip IV. brevity compels us to name only the St. invidious the task. The Spanish and Flemish collections are considered to be Spain by 115. Lord Walpole. Henrietta Maria. D 2 . d'Olivares. Philip. while Walpole its most valuable painlings to the same opportunity. the Earl of Danby. ment the 1779 at Museo for . porphyry. ST. and Empress The gallery contains about 1. the British nation lost the chance of possessing the In addition to the great number of pictures sold to the Russian Governacquired from it nineteen of the best pictures now in that gallery. Josephine (Malmaison collection). Inigo Jones. from the sixteenth to the However early part of the eighteenth century. Dutch. Sebastian. the number of Murillos alone being twenty.THE MODERN CAPITAL: interest. ). of which a little more than one half are of the Flemish. Sir Thomas Wharton. Here we are Gallery. Sir Thomas Laud. and that of schools. by Sebastian del Piombo. Queen Lord Wharton. the collection of Spanish pictures is the best and most varied out of Spain. 35 whole day might easily be spent in studying this department of the Hermitage alone. the many * finest By permitting the dispersion museum of pictures in the in of the world. the Louvre Madrid owes no fewer than 44 of collection. lapis-lazuli. of those of his minister. in the in which frescoes represent the progress of presence of all older Italian masters.' The so largely and after worthily represented in through the Historical immediately the passing Greek art. PETERSBURG. tazzas. were once the pride of Houghton larger Italian school pictures of the attract attention the Hermitage Hall.35. from a national point of view. and Spain. the most valuable. by Luini. for it contains portraits by Van Dyck. Struck with admiration at the noble tables. vases. Archbishop these. of Charles I. but of the now the mainly of the three the Marquis de Crozat. and fill the numerous stands and screens provided for the display of so great an abundance of paintings by the older masters of the principal schools in Europe. and candelabra of malachite. we defer for a moment our proposed systematic inspection of the in A pictures. although nominally the picture galleries of the Hermitage. and jasper that stand on the highly-polished inlaid floors of the principal rooms.
scarcely a picture in this room that is not admirable. After glancing at the productions of Franz Hals and Ferdinand Bol. a chef-d'oeuvre of but the lover afford to cannot of escape pictures attention. A magnificent Canaletto But represents the reception at Venice of the ambassador of Louis XV. is unfortunately unfinished two replicas in The but Cupicl unloosing the Girdle of Venus (known in here charms the eye. The Continence of Scipio. was painted for the Empress Catherine II. formerly Walpole collection. . paid to the British school almost entirely neglected on the rest of the Conti- nentby given the compartment to it in the Gallery. pictures by one of the Guido Reni. as the galleries possess many of the finest specimens of all the noted masters. and treasures the Prodigal Son by Salvator Rosa. there is. an allegory of Russia vanquishing the difficulties of its youthful state. England) French school has enriched the noble classical gallery with . Rembrandt's Mother. his He especially observe the masterly portraits of old Thomas ' Parr.RUSSIAN PICTURES. The great Dutch and Flemish schools of painting may here be studied of the to advantage. show his earliest dated and his is latest style. from the same brush. an Englishman cannot fail to the recognise compliment PETRU RUSSORUM PETER THE GREAT. of Lieven van and the Copenal. Sir Rembrandt Joshua Reynolds's Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpent.' a highly-finished cabinet picture on a stand by itself. for example. Two portraits. In the far-famed Rembrandt Gallery. in short. are magnificent specimens of every period of the art and subject of that great master. 1634 respectively and 1666. J His Danae of art execution allow one to will .
but the death . was Lossenko. although it we find objects illustrative of the and activity Peter the Great. tools. and Peter the in two of his most extra- The Deluge. has a world-wide reputation. must be the exact image of him. Le Watteau. Pompeii. who. and Bruni's Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane. carry with ease . mathematical and other instruments. I. was In in name of his canine favourite. The former has depicted Peter the Great questioning his son. the the habit of placing petitions in centre of the gallery is a wax effigy of the great Tsar. see the small gilt chariot in which of the Russian empire. and presses crowded with valuable The chief interest centres in the relics of of every description. who may be said Its most important work 1759. and with a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Poltava . painted. a Merchant of picture of huge size . that The casts on either of his wax mould and moustaches. at Fotheringay. he sometimes drove the horse now stuffed which he rode at the battle of nicknacks the founder We . the heavy . charming pictures by Claude Lorraine. is a startling academical but the most interesting examples are the two historical pictures by Ugriumoff The Capture of Kazan. Novgorod.. are typical of the Russian realistic treatment of Scriptural subjects. The stuffed Danish hound in one of the glass cases still wears subjects. by Bruni. clad in the it dress which he wore at the for coronation of Catherine side face. by a pupil of Clouet. The Creation of the World. iron staff which his gigantic strength enabled him to a slender stick. Vernet. which is not open to the general public. Aivazofski. who embroidered his were taken from furnished with features after purpose. for it was executed Having exhausted the manifold objects of interest in the Winter Palace and the renowned Hermitage. on the of seized point being by his gaolers for having killed a Swedish soldier who Ivanoff's Christ Appearing to spoke disrespectfully of Peter the Great. other pictures by French artists adorn the Second Hermitage Palace. which he gave the artist. 37 Moine. PETERSBURG. Greuze. like Vereschagin.THE MODERN CAPITAL: landscapes ST. The to is Russian painter of any note founded the Russian school in considered to be The Last Day of earliest have Serpent. the forms part of life Great's Gallery is entered Here the Winter Palace. of from Hermitage. and the Election of Michael Romanoff and those by Matveyeff and Shebuef. with a notch marking his height at about his books. turning seven feet of the teeth he had extracted from the jaws of suffering a collection and lathes. by Brtilow. we cannot do better than mount the dome of hair at sittings . it is Numerous supposed. who Mary Magdalene. The Brazen is represented as a captive in chains at Stockholm. the collar under which Catherine the I. Choice specimens of Russian painting and sculpture fill the two rooms through which we make our exit. is seen ordinary efforts. by Poussin. so different from the conventional Byzantine style of ecclesiastical painting which gives extensive employment to the native iconograph. and the latter Igolkin.
ISAAC'S CATHEDRAL.200. on the site of a wooden St. TETERSDURG. ST. Isaac's church built in i/io.000. while and decoration (not including the subsequent Its form is that of cost of propping it up) exceeded three millions sterling a Greek cross.RUSSIAN PICTURES. Catherine II. ST. of the modern cathedrals most remarkable of one of the opportunity visiting in Russia. laid twenty-one feet long. It was erected between 1819 and 1858. forest on a of piles the total cost of construction . and its three chief portals of gigantic bronze work are approached from the level of the vast square on which it stands by broad flights of steps composed of entire pieces of polished granite from Finland. but commenced in the reign of replaced in 1801 by an edifice which had been Its foundations (364 feet by 315). alone cost . This gives us also the for a bird's-eye view of the city.
and with its two nearly parallel arteries governs the direction It is intersected by three canals that drain to of most of the other streets. is not solid. mostly in mosaic work. like the lapis-lazuli. 39 twelve polished granite monoliths that support the four are feet in height and seven feet in diameter peristyles sixty weighing one hundred and twenty-eight tons each. at the back of the high altar. the Ascension.' trust let me never be ashamed . and of the Sanctuary beyond the Royal Doors. Mine I House put my be called an House of Prayer. in miniature the central dome. we observe that from the so-called Admiralty. Lavish use of malachite and lapis-lazuli has been made in the adorn- ment of the Screen. Alexander Nevski be taken as its terminus. contain bells fifteen to twenty-nine tons in weight. PETERSBURG. do and west. or screen. The As in all interior of Isaac's to is well calculated to inspire feelings of solemnity and veneration. Russian Strictly speaking. they support on each of the four sides of the edifice a frieze with a text in letters of bronze. with cupolas resembling being three hundred and thirty-six feet. the purposely-subdued light brings into relief the glittering sumptuousness of the ikonostas.' adoration. and impress imagination churches. instructive. To the King feet of in Kings. ' O Lord ' ' ' . capitals of bronze. sail. was made in Germany. in which vessels are no longer built. the of the visitor. Women It is supported by eight Corinthian are not admitted into this inmost shrine.THE MODERN CAPITAL: The one hundred and ST. the several texts are : north. although the ascribed. remarkable for its tall gilded spire. The to three and yield none in principal bronze portals are the largest in the world. surmounted by a ship under full The one nearest the great streets radiate like the ribs of a fan. ' The king shall : shall rejoice in Thy strength. Translated. on a flat surface is not a violation of the Second Commandment. the entire height of the cathedral to the top of the golden cross that surmounts the elegant lantern Four belfries. O Lord. and enable barges of light draught to distribute their . but applied on The stained window representing copper tubes fitted over cast-iron cylinders. some extent the city. but holds that an Ikon painted. in miles Nevski three the length. and crowned with massive Corinthian . is not effect easily The Russo-Greek Church distinguishable from actual rejects as idolatrous any carved or moulded representation of sacred or saintly subjects for purposes of worship. and is pillars the only work of art within the church that the is not Russian. costliness of material and beauty of execution. St. which. covered with thickly-gilt is sixty-six diameter and two hundred and ninety-six feet high. of malachite.' The cupola. The view from dome is extensive and First of all. and of the ikons. or produced in mosaic work. copper. which adorn the walls and pillars of the temple. not been worked by human material hands. east. three is of the capital. if the monastery of Prospect. south. ' In Thee. palace This is the main thoroughfare St. these are to which miraculous powers are in not worshipped. or which have its belief ' in images.
within the last ten or fifteen years. are now loading grain. flat-bottomed barges that have to be broken up for firewood come from after the innermost parts of the empire.' under the impression that they were engaged in a pronunciamento in favour site of the ' . we face the Vasili Ostrof. In winter the scene. which is freight. recognisable the two in front of it. principally fuel. or Finland. which. The first and second streets that run across the main thoroughfare are (Great) and Malaya (Little) Morskaya (Naval) streets. in order to put an end to the pile-driving ' habitual skulking of the labourers. from the rough. relieved only by the numberless sledges in which the inhabitants of either side of the ice-bound river are being silently but rapidly conveyed to and fro on terra finna. and flax. which has no through railway connection with the other In summer communication with the opposite parts of the Russian empire.' greatly accelerated the progress of the work. and connected with the the Bolshaya by the handsome Nicholas Bridge and the floating bridge that leads from the Winter Palace to the colossal Exchange. so far as commercial is concerned. A machine which he devised. a lieutenant-colonel. like the Nevski. establishes communication with the Viborg side. practically. a brother of Jeremy Bentham. was actively employed in Russia during a part of the reign of Catherine II. Sweden. the first being. an architect. This was the raw produce. In front of the Cathedral is the Park. so called from its being the starting-point for a journey to the adjoining Grand Duchy of Finland. Turning in the opposite direction. Petersburg.40 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The last bridge. Light steamers also ply on these canals. hemp. is one of comparative desolation. The activity revolution in 1825. in mid-stream. and a general inventor in In one of his manifold capacities he had charge of the the Russian service. thanks to the Cronstadt Canal. the largest island formed by the numerous branches of the Neva. when the deluded soldiery shouted Constitutia. to which we shall refer later. discharging their duties as carriers of long granite quays are lined by other steamers that ply to Cronstadt. The Vasili Ostrof is. Off it are anchored. massive Columns Rostrata: Beyond is another by which stands the British floating bridge that starts from the square on Embassy. side of the river is further maintained by the innumerable small steamers that have replaced the quaint-sterned ferry-boats which were formerly so prominently mainland depicted in illustrations of St. Samuel Bentham. Of course we are speaking of the short summer months of the North. full of handsome buildings and shops. the commercial quarter of the city. has supplied an enjoyable shade to a once cobble-paved square that extended from the huge Senate and Synod houses on the left to the Winter Palace and the Etat Major buildings on the right. Sir construction of the new Fontanka Canal. or as a naval commander. either as an agent of the British Government for building ships of war at Archangel. the big steamers which. of stone and iron. the third of the canals before us.. and abuts on the Fortress.
well acquainted with the sound of Ptrm.42 RUSSIAN PICTURES. to the its primitive national aspect. in contrast with drivers we find ethnographical on which we gaze with the interest we would bestow on a Hindu or a Chinaman in London. and that of their inhabitants. if not too isolated or distant from are too early Russian civilisation. except to to some extent the class who make it their special business ' convey only ' are bent on pleasure. urban centres. with all details on In make themselves acquainted summer the drojkies. years ago the drojki drivers satisfaction of those who revelled in The Isvostchiks. deprived him of the right of succeeding Alexander and placed the throne of All the Russias in the hands of his brother Nicholas. the second by Montferrand. see many mujiks clad in sheepskins. also. statue The 782. and in other types winter the European sledges. the architect of the Cathedral from which we are looking down on those wonderful works. wiry animals. the rural districts. by which their eager course is at once arrested. whose morganatic marriage to a Polish lady had. by Falconet.' Prominently standing out from its environment of trees and shrubs is the well-known equestrian I. . the summer dress It of the peasant. the first remarkable monuments were designed and executed by Frenchmen of Peter the Great. 'the Divine figure of the North. stands in front of the Winter Palace. by the great Catherine in grand monolith of polished granite that commemorates the glory and the Both of these virtues of Alexander I. continues to predominate. although disappointing Nevertheless. We approximation to general to those in search of European dress peculiarities. attract us in by their their while peculiarity. and. or No more striking as far as the knees. vehicles. although few have its sufficient systematic their first patience arrival. erected 1 . The indigenous head-covering to same season is still almost the counterpart of the but it is now which Paddy is wont to carry his dhudeen .. under perfect control. The Nevski travellers Prospect is the next point to of attraction. strange to say. although only ten seeing those Moscow who in generally. which is clearly a modernised of the 'beef-eater's' hat brought to Russia by the adventurous Englishmen who discovered hat in the for sea-board the of Muscovy in the sixteenth ' ' century. Stranger still. exactly the same sound is used in the island and we take the fact as a corroborahorses Skye in tion of far in stopping the Scandinavian . are a very decent set course is necessary of men. The horses are active. although a clear bargain as to the charge for a in order to avoid ultimate disagreement. may perhaps origin of to advanced linen shirts in this century covering trousers has come over the aspect of the country than the outward appearance change In most of the of its cities and towns. as in of Scandinavia. Their dress is almost a mediaeval survival. essentially Asiatic or Indian. is national evident. regardless of expense. and descendant especially the summer head-dress. relegated of Moscow wore rural it districts. the of Grand Duke Constantine. by his own consent.
and to secure from among the mass of rubbish a valuable or pleasing picture. precious stones of high value. extends but. Cossacks. There are cathedral. in four rows like the balustrade in front. Those who have not visited St.' who. Strings of pearls. retook from the French it ' Don the to its present use. Petersburg. The Gostinnoi Dvor. as a revival. were frequently picked up at the stalls. and so decidedly Oriental in origin claims our attention after visiting the Kazan Cathedral. but of great utility on long journeys. the police circumscribes recipient of such articles. foreigners visit the excellent fur shops Russia-leather slippers embroidered in silver In the main every grade.THE MODERN CAPITAL: c. which have not yet followed the example of similar establishments at St. 43 be seen. However. it is of silver. during church plate they had looted. Petersburg for any considerable number of years will be impressed by the It used to development that has taken place in the local bric-a-brac trade. Built between 1801 and 1811. this arrangement somewhat crowds the interior. but the better vigilance of and renders more difficult its nefarious operations. to this day. two hundred and thirty-eight feet in length by one hundred and eighty-two in breadth. with its colonnade in imitation of St. the market is a exhibiting the produce of robberies. be an intense pleasure to ransack the shanties we found full of incongruous odds and ends. asked are not those of the days before trading collectors had discovered this distant mine of wealth. There are also two other markets. for. it has internally the form of a cross. . restaurants. and applied the campaign of the zealous offering of the 1812. PETERSBURG. Crowds of purchasers fill the lanes and alleys by which those markets are intersected. diately many costly votive objects and military trophies in this and the Emperor never fails to offer up his prayers here immehis departure on from the capital and his return after a residence at some other imperial seat. or a bit of porcelain unchipped and bearing a genuine mark of note. cushions. hard. or bazaar so common to all Russian towns. where the guests are generally served by Tartar Mahomedan waiters in European evening dress. . A although architecturally grand. and adds to its conventional clinginess. the Stchukin and the Apraxin. thirty-five feet from the four pillars that support the cupola high. colonnade of granite monoliths. but the prices Torjok. and pretty sashes and ties deftly woven at Bric-a-brac hunters revel in the Apraxin Dvor. the ikotiostas is light and brilliant. and therefore a good opportunity presents itself of viewing national types of bazaar. in the street that turns off from the Nevski from the upper corner of the Gostinnoi Dvor.in ST. is soon reached on the right-hand side of the Nevski. and showed the native dealers that a European market was available for their goods. which were not quite unsuspected of In fact. The Kazan Cathedral. at Moscow. and those in which are sold or gold. Peter's at Rome. at some of the or traktirs.
PETERSBURG. about thirty-four thousand. Kazan Cathedral. 2. it. Few libraries in Europe can compete number of printed volumes being over a million. 7.RUSSIAN PICTURES. and statue to Catherine II. The Palace of Peterhof. is immediately beyond the Gostinnoi Dvor building we notice the Imperial Public Library. Statue of Peter the Great. 3. 4. in addition to nearly eighty . The Church in the Hay Market. The The Alexander Column. The German Reformed Church. in front of with its riches. 5. The Admiralty. the that of the MSS. I. with a the first VIEWS IN AND AROUND ST. 6. Winter Palace. Resuming our walk up the Nevski. 8.
containing the Evangelistarium. in 1859. languages. Lastly. date of 1056 tion of Christianity into is The Ostromir MS. The nucleus of this prodigious collection in a so new was the library of the Counts Zaluski.. the famous Codex Sinaiticns. is equally The unique noticeable.THE MODER^ CAPITAL: 7 ST. since the beginning of the reign Emperor Nicholas. . Hebrew and Karaite MSS. Petersburg. and discovered by Tischendorf in the still A having been written in the MS. 1889. is the complete series of the Bible printed in all the known languages and dialects of the inhabited parts of the British missionaries and British major part of this grand and lasting monument religious societies have raised to the glory of God and the His Holy Word. In this connection we may mention that. purchased by a Polish gentleman in France The MSS. Petersburg as well as at Odessa. and other languages spoken by the subjects of the Tsar. They were taken from the Paris archives by an infuriated mob. and transferred its contents to St. fetch. Astafief. on its tenth is department. black with bears parchment age. to Charles I. thus speaks of the influence of the Bible in Russia What has the Bible as the Word of 1 ' : God been to among them call ? our Russian people during the thousand years of its existence Has it not been " a light shining in a dark place ? " We its to mind the bright opening period of our 1 national life which had St. the most valuable of these being the books and MSS. There are also thirty the that relate to the Russian. Petersburg. in his History of the Bible in Russia.D. proof of ninth or Chronicle of Nestor. Catherine. from kings of France to their ambassadors. of the Library put together. collection twenty-five them being of earlier date in all thousand volumes is than the ninth century. and character.. Bible written older Greek century. Mr. it was written about seventy years after the introducfor anything they would Russia. a monk at Kief. Greek codex of the four Evangelists. PETERSBURG. and that it of the maintains an agency at St. N. a complete copy of the Greek in the fourth century. and sold by improvised auction in the Slavonic . 45 thousand engravings and maps. the volume of English royal letters from Henry VII. Further acquisitions were subsequently made in Poland. bears the that is. the British and Foreign Bible Society has been engaged in the distribution of the Holy Scriptures in Russian. and the correspondence of various sovereigns. which capital comparatively had already become the property of the Polish State when Suvoroff captured Warsaw in 1 794. the chief glory of this Convent of of of ancient St. in Early European printing (Incunabula) about eleven thousand volumes. except history or geography of the empire. Finnish. 1116. on Mount Sinai. important almost globe. secret State documents. being of especial interest to ourselves. The A brought down to A. consist of letters during the early part of the great Revolution. from Gutenberg to the year exemplified but more to mankind than all the other treasures 1521.
but to the Scripture remained inaccessible. and the Press burnt. accused the printers of heresy. 1 Cyril anil Methodius formed the Slavonic alphabet in order to translate the Scriptures into that language in The acceptance of Christianity by the Russians in the 855-7. not come to and from sophistical glosses. and the revision of the Slavonic text. 5 who endeavoured to carry the light of life into the thick darkness of ignorance God was and superstition which surrounded them. and in A." in These Biblical labours activity in did not remain without influences people because of their high mass of the the quickening spiritual books of Holy society. endured cruel persecution at the hands of the obstinate upholders of old errors. appeared the Ostrojskaya Bible. in consequence of the opposition of the adherents of the old style. The revision of the Slavonic text meanwhile went on in due course. Peter the Great. us of 1 those first so remind the 2 And then following this. long period of darkness when the Word of a rarity in the country. the patriarch Nikon (A. with revised and emended text. at first but few in number. endeavoured to revise the text by aid of the Greek MSS. and called into existence the Russian price. restoration. it spirit.46 KUSSIAN in under the influence of earnest instruction glorious eleventh and twelfth centuries which birth the Word of God. the long. caused by the Mongols.D.D. established at through the intrigues of the 5 MSS. 4 the Royal Printing Press. and at last. imprisoned 1525 . owing to the want of popular schools. 1865 . though slowly and with interruptions. 3 or Ivan Theodoroff. . 1751. 1236 A.D. for the sake of making it more readily accessible. the second in 885.The first died 869 at Rome. who Moscow. once when men like Maxim the Greek. and what could not be completed during the his in lifetime of Peter was finished by Thanks to her energetic persistence. who established a complete system of secondary and elementary schools. printed at Moscow with some emendations. who was deeply acquainted with and who highly valued the Holy Scriptures. He but the work begun by him as the daily need of the people did Others continued it. with his healthy purifying himself fell. inviied to Russia from Italy. at last appeared " the so-called Elizabethan Bible. in consequence of the desolation age of Christianity. died 1556. the first printer. tenth century was bound up with the circulation of this Bible and the formation of schools to teach the people 2 to read it. 3 He came Of to Russia in 1518. nought. writers. in the year 1663. 1652). 4 or the learned brothers Lichud. who had grown accustomed As one who to them. supported in every way Biblical labours.D. and with unconquerable energy he from the errors understood the living significance of the laid the foundation for of copyists Word its of God. 1710-11 cherished the thought of translating the Bible from the Ecclesiastical Slavonic into the Russian language of the day. daughter the Empress Elizabeth. Both these obstacles were removed during the reign of Alexander I. A. but in 1564 Ivan was driven out. ignorantly but honestly believing them to be truth. sprang from the people and knew their needs. But a beginning had been made. . went on. the Slavonic Bible.. and because of the little spread of education.
for the Empress Majesties when at St.000 copies were printed in twenty-six languages and dialects. Past the Moscow Railway Station. On the opposite side of the square to which the front of the Public Library is turned. 1876. to The spread Religious Tract Society has also largely helped throughout Russia the knowledge of the Gospel.' the reach own at a price native language. time it a commencement in the us. especially in their within made equal progress since the publication of the by the permission of the Holy Synod. Founded 1812 ended 1826. 47 Bible Society. and evidence has not been lacking to show that in Russia. Scriptures or parts of them were translated into fourteen new languages 1. or seat of a Metropolitan. PETERSBURG. agate. inferior in precedence only to the Lavra It was founded of the Trinity at Moscow and the Lavra at Kief. and full of pictures and costly objects of art. and we come to the rough stone paving. internally with In a sumptuous shrine Persian pearls.421. brought from the Cathedral at Vladimir by Peter the Great. Petersburg. will be seen the Anitchkoff Palace. has A. being a of St. of those days. over which carriages and drojkies have to rattle when off the wooden blocks laid down for them from the Palace Bridge to the Anitchkoff Palace and along the whole length of Bolshaya Morskaya Street. the glad tidings of salvation by faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ enter the sinful and of the Holy Spirit bring to it penitent heart. one of the most important in Russia. Russia. of which probably 700. by Peter who in Duke a great the Great in honour of a canonized Grand Alexander.THE MODERN CAPITAL: 1 ST. Italian The principal silver church. as elsewhere. The . selling them at low prices and distributing and at the same gratuitously into the Russian Bible the translating them . marble. Alexander Nevski. Siberian and Teutonic knights in decorated 1/90. the activity Now of the Lavra. On the Elizabeth.000.000 copies were distributed in Slavonic and Russian. Nevski begins to flag. In its first ten years the receipts amounted to 3. the capital degenerates into Its rural suburbs are reached at the Monastery an ordinary Russian town. which had for its object the circulation of the books of Holy Scripture as generally as possible. by Count Rastrelli. Russian Bible. During its existence 290 auxiliary committees were established in all parts of .000 to 800. and by the blessing and aid pardon and cleansing and peace. the great architect celebrated are the two close to the equestrian groups by palace bridge Baron Klodt.D. is Swedes and of massive St. used in the Russian empire. battle fought on its site defeated built the in 1241. 1 weighing twenty-nine hundredweight lie the remains of Alexander. made At language. the residence of their It was built in 1744. recent efforts Much ' has been ' done by the circulation of tracts and other Christian literature.938 roubles. school this system has received a wide extension amongst circulation present time the and alongside of the among the people of the Holy Scriptures of every one. now the property of the Grand Duke Sergius. at which the Nevski practically terminates in a huge and slovenly-looking square. and on the other side of it the former Beloselski-Beloserski Palace.
and a great number of other valuables. With the aid only of a nail and a angel and cross on the spire in 1830. founder of pillars Petersburg and of Catherine II. It is for instruction of a selected for the vocation higher order of tutors and to to the more in professors now time to leave the in Nevski. the ' : ' ' and a theological college promising scholars theological schools. where he was buried. the eldest son of Peter I. are suspended on the two opposite the Altar. who died young. Perugino. of which an Italian architect. in which sons of the White Clergy (as distinguished from the Monks) are prepared for the priesthood. and several other ministers of the brilliant On the mausoleum of the Naryshkins is epoch of Catherine the Great. Suvoroff. the Kensal Green of St. Peter. behind which is a remarkable picture of the St. Petersburg. St.. Some of the Ikons are good copies after Annunciation by Raphael Mengs and Guido. and glance at a few of the other places The Cathedral most worth seeing of St. The monastery contains also a seminary. on imperial fete days. an episcopal staff Portraits of the turned by Peter.48 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the summit being 302 feet above the level of The foundations of the fortress were laid by Peter the Great the ground. sister of Peter I. who died in a sudden and mysterious manner in one of its dungeons after his ' Its guns are used for saluting purposes examination on a charge of treason. Great are paid by the upper and richer classes for permission to sums Large repose in the adjoining cemetery. a Russian initjik (peasant) climbed to the top. although blood spurted out from under his finger-nails as he ascended. and to the population of the lower parts of the Consecrated in 1733 on the site of a church coeval with the fortress. In its From their race came Peter the proud device. in 1/03. after having been three times damaged tale of singular daring is connected with the repair of the by lio-htning. Alexander's crown and the bed on which Peter I. the cathedral was restored in 1757.. in Latin his mother having been a member of that ancient noble family. who died of small-pox when only fourteen. Peter and is Petersburg and its neighbourhood. which has also a large collection of mitres set in jewels. St. but the present grim stone work was executed in 1706 under the It is used as a State prison. Among the six other churches within the walls of the Lavra is the Cathedral of the Annunciation.. of superintendence the earliest notable occupant was Alexis. Paul within the fortress on the right beautiful gilt bank of the Neva conspicuous by its spire terminating in an angel bearing a cross. 1 crypt are buried Natalia. to the raised edges of the copper plates with his fingers. city. at Moscow. pontifical robes of gold brocade. all the members of the imperial family have . Rumiantsof. founded in 702. inscribed ' . hanging gradually on A rope. Excepting Peter II. and also for giving notice of the rising of the Neva to inhabitants of cellars. his son. died are among the most interesting objects shown in the Sacristy. Rubens.
in its autograph of his found to later within Almighty God in gratitude for the benefit recorded he had derived from ball An 1724.. we~pass. are also a small wooden church. Alexander II. the Emancipator of the Serfs. Catherine II. reposes alongside of him. near Lake Ladoga THE FIRST FLEET BUILT BY PETER THE GREAT AT VORONEJ.' river in 1668. at the country residence of his grandfather. 49 Petersburg been interred under the floor of this marble tombs above marking the places of their Close to the south door is the tomb of Peter the Great. and in sepulture. almost at the foot of the floating Trinity Bridge. was found by Peter the Great when yet a and it was by sailing it lad. the white stands in front of the ikonostas. cathedral. building The 'Grandfather of the Russian Navy. whose martyred son and successor.THE MODERN CAPITAL: since the foundation of St. the work of four Russian carvers between superbly carved and richly gilt and The ivory candelabrum. lies to the right of the Altar Screen. the opposite aisle that of the Emperor Nicholas. more than ten feet high. PETERSBURG. is carpenters. It a boat constructed by Dutch in carefully preserved a brick Quitting for the river-bank. It he erected between replaces a church which 1703 and E . ST. that 1722 1726. with which traditions of Peter the Great strongly associated. dedication the use of the mineral waters of Olonets. was the turned centre by Peter I. which is of wood. under the direction of a Dutch shipbuilder that he acquired the nautical of the tastes which resulted in the construction of a fleet and the extension the fortress by its eastern gate and making Russian dominions. on the Moskva near the cathedral.
once almost exclulike the street in the rear of it. it the who hurled Russia into Western and the outer building by which the cottage and its interesting contents are preserved from decay. and injurious to our trade. ' : ! ' ' 1 . and the wooden bench on which he sat his door. by British merchant sively occupied. and the In 1873 the interior was renovated. which accompanied Peter in his battles and conservative Muscovy. notwithstanding the addition of stained windows. Company. A boys' school. ' 1815 by Ouarenghi. The Anglican Church stands on the English Quay.10. Petersburg. unfortunately rendered very bare and cheerless-looking. commemoration of the foundation of the St.5. between ' princes its a race nearly as extinct as that of the mammoth.50 RUSSIAN PICTURES. attracted chiefly by an Ikon of the Saviour. effected the discomfiture of Charles XII. A short walk which he built in 703. which has outwardly the appearance of only a private mansion. was his hatred of lawyers. origin. They are kept in the gallery that runs round the cottage. an architect ' whom many of the finest edifices having made a grant of .' Within this church are several objects which belonged to the Great Reformer or were made by him. the palace which he superintended the building of his new capital it contains only two rooms and a kitchen. their combined size being about 55 feet by 20 feet in breadth. and from brings us to his cottage. at Poltava! Among the other of relics of civilisation at forcibly sovereign path is a boat which he built.4. has been converted into a chapel.' present edifice. and I believe I shall hang one of them the moment I get home. defrayed from :the funds accumulated by the so-called British Factory. He said to Lord Carmarthen. and in which habit of singing as a chorister. The bedroom on the left. Parliament Russia Company a contribution Anglican establishments in Russia.' in the form of a compulsory tax on British shipping. Peter's cruelty and self-indulgence were strangely blended with his innate 1710 in he was in statesmanship and the devotional feeling he so frequently displayed in a Next to his prejudice against beards. and of . Those who take an interest in the life of Peter the Great should visit the three or four galleys of his period preserved in the Galley Haven.' in the estuary of the Neva. which at last became obnoxious to the tax-payers. on the ground that the chapel. in which he also dined. is a chapel of the Queen's Ambassador. The capacious and valuable premises enjoy the boon of ex-territoriality. and an extensive circulating library for the benefit of . and on other great feast days. generally crowded with worshippers.000. The church owed in to the 'Great Russia The 1/53.000 towards that purpose.000. and of reading the Gospels on the anniversary of the battle of Poltava. his cicerone in London. at a cost of . is the outcome of the to work of reconstruction carried out in in St. whom he had asked who were the men in wigs and gowns bustling about Westminster Hall I have Lawyers but two in all my dominions. then typical of practical manner. like our other ' Petersburg are due.
on the premises. and yet E 2 . and in fact led a life of jollity without even getting an ear or a cheek frozen . more . and for the spiritual render made by our countrymen colony. PETERSBURG. and the return tide sets in towards the end of September. or less dormant for nearly eight months. and rewards us amply for the frost and snow and life. even though we have enjoyed of a winter season at the capital on the Neva and in the Yusupof Gardens. converted for the purpose into an Arctic arcadia. ST. through which the we have of fragrance passed. to festive establishments on the outskirts of the city. shot bears. light. the young birch all We hail with delight the warm sunshine. We may have skated trees. become acquainted with the sensation of falling out of a high and the song of the nightingale. bursts suddenly into beauty. two thousand are also British subjects who reside Petersburg the and its vicinity. Nothing can be imagined as more enjoyable than a Northern summer. elk. at St. and the darkness THE ENGLISH QUAY. and wolves with local sportsmen. PETERSBURG. Petersburg is out of town the migration to suburban palaces. villas and cottages commences in the early part of our June.THE MODERN CAPITAL: the ST. Nature. In complete arrangements and moral welfare of the British summer all St. window by going clown montagncs russes a refined and toboganing driven in pleasant company in sledges drawn superior at wild kind of speed by three thoroughbred horses abreast. the warm hospitality and the healthy sport of All the Russias.
elevation of sixty feet. unfortunately. laid out in terraces and walks. and although many additions and alterations have been subsequently made.' spires sun. . the stamp of the French school being veryIn the study of Peter the Great hangs his apparent on every canvas. expression but it is more than doubtful whether they are true to Nature or the ethnology of Russia. to which in we before sunset.52 RUSSIAN PICTURES. of banks are the on the of the Little Derevnia. its general character. and many other marvels we can only make grounds fleet Marly. adorned with fountains and other ornamental water-works. and even its original yellow colour. are still perpetuated. . malachite. Petersburg. was built under the directions of Peter I. tazzas of porcelain. wainscoted with some of his carvings. is almost as The River Yacht road on Derby day. The interior is replete with interest. and gives a considerable amount of life to In the the branch of the Neva on which its large establishment stands. the red rays of the setting which partly runs Point. those the Elysian season will prove to be that of summer. is a to those of Versailles. for it abounds in beautiful tapestry. while evening will be found in Gardens behind the the fortress. in the centre of the grounds. and make excursions by rail or and we begin with steamer to some more distant summer residences an Its which Gulf of Finland from overlooks the Peterhof. palace. The more accessible villas are on drive a little the islands of the Neva. and marble. pleasure Zoological But we must now leave St. through Peter's Park. and especially to who have known many winters. magnificent jet d'eait eighty feet high. slop to terminates on the shore of the gulf. portrait in mosaic. reaching the 'Point' of Yelagin Island time sun go down in golden glory. and on the left and domes of the we see within At this glowing hour the road witching capital crowded with vehicles as the Epsom Club is on Krestofski Island. There is an imperial chateau on this island. and its walls are Beneath the palace is the celebrated garden. collection of 863 portraits of beautiful young girls painted by Count Rotari for the Empress during a journey which he made for that purpose through No two are alike either in position or the fifty provinces of Russia. little inferior The Samson. from which moored off Cronstadt. was wont to contemplate his infant its terrace. and the Marly Pond. To the right the banks of the Little Neva are dotted with picturesque chalets standing out to see the ' ' from a background of measurable distance the with the to last ' sombre lofty gilt pines . Novaya ex-village and Arcadia a of Livadia more sober resort Gardens. articles of vertu. and from it runs a boat canal that We cannot. as well as in pictures representing chiefly the naval victories of Orlof and other Russian In one of the apartments is a generals during the reign of Catherine II. Neva. with charming grounds and a delightful view. . plainly seen from : of water-engineering here offered to our bare mention of some of the buildings in the Peter I. describe the view..
which since 1885 enables see. the long. in accordance with his directions Monplaisir. of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. in the at lower garden.' must be either by rail via Oranienbaum. seventeen and a half miles running along the followed by the steamer. We proceed to the capital. night-cap and slippers are exhibited in it the Hermitage. By constant is maintained in it. style. to see were begun by Peter I. of many notable families are full of tokens that the dead have not been Over one of the tombs are likenesses from life of forgotten by the living. when of fine pictures. The fortifications we have come the Petersburg. a . where Peterhof. and fronting the estuary of the Neva. another ancient by steamer direct to Cronstadt. however. in order to . Petersburg in a swift troika. moreover. the sea-approach left to of the natural and partly twenty feet Petersburg. Victoria . none of his wooden . and Alexandria. vespers singing The sepulchral vaults (on Saturdays) is particularly fine and impressive. it has an air of It is. still summoned by a bell be fed with rye flour. or Our next an object. portrait. and more especially the church that stands at the back of the grounds. From squadron By taking from Peterhof the good macadamised road to St. so well known to our readers already. dispense with the presence of servants at intimate feasts the Pavilions on the Tsaritzyn and Olga Islands the English Palace. and its stalls of oak. elegance and comfort which few other Russian churches possess. full the Emperor and and with Empress several reside in privacy it. in 1/03. PETERSBURG. . needless to say. saying to the more prosaic railway carriage at Sergi. 53 to which he caused to be stocked with carp and chub. shallow channel to St. taken altogether. and we can terminate our drive and take But we halt here awhile. . whose bed. severally. for its celebrated monkish whose at choristers. the properties. steamers drawing commercial outport of St. and become a purely military harbour. so far as modern science can possibly effect such imperial residence. the canal is one of the most remarkable works of its kind in Its result. With its open roof. we have the opportunity of seeing Michaelofski and Strelna. Sergius. amongst many others. both as a place of busy trade and as a fortress defending in an impregnable manner. is that Cronstadt will before long cease to be the Europe. cottages in Nicholas around roof of one of them the Emperor watched with a telescope the movements of the Anglo-French the front of Cronstadt. great ship canal. of Her Majesty Oueen floor. founded in 1/34. built in a with 1781. and feet a uniform centre of twenty-two depth dredging. who receives them. with a contrivance in one of its rooms by which dishes and plates are made to descend from and ascend to the dinner-table through grooves in the summer-house in the Dutch also built in the . ' Suffer little children to trip come unto Me.THE MODERN CAPITAL: ST. or carriage with three horses abreast. a mother bringing her children to the Saviour. when he dispossessed Swedes but. to visit the monastery of St. dressing-room. reign of Peter.
The the land defences. for reasons the still unknown. when. In the town the storehouses and workshops is bordered with granite. from canal west to east. I. on which seven strong batteries have been raised. and brought down to Cronstadt to be fitted. In the vicinity of the the chief station in the Baltic for the Russian fleet. The dry docks are capable of admitting some of the larger vessels of war. The southern of stones. of batteries recent date. through a his Charles Napier failed take advantage of passage on the northern side of the island discovered by a couple of That channel is now effectively guarded by a substantial dam smaller ships. consist of several parallel lines connected by encircles many naval which and earthworks. and by a tall iron railing begun in 1721. 1 r walls remain. Petersburg. not inferior to Keyham in its mechanical appliances. splendid steam factory. These are mostly built at St.A USSL4 A PIC TURKS. A very good statue of Peter the Great whose genius created . Nicholas since Sir The formidable-looking stone forts elate from the reign of They have undergone considerable alteration and improvement of the the clays Crimean to War. defences are the strongest. is a military harbour. and are formed by three lines of forts running channel THE FORTRESS OF SCHLUSSELBURG.
Nihilists has since been used as a State 1756.. and the now son of Empress father. so ST. after is much full contention. and a zoological garden on part of the ground now covered with palaces. knights and of the Swedes. into is divided the Old and the New Garden. by the Regent Biron). is second in some has not the fountains and the cascades But it is much larger in extent both as a town of The latter. near the governor's residence and the of what we have so the back of Summer Garden planted by Peter. formerly the Swedish fortress of Noteborg. both beautifully ference.. forming rapids easily navigable. the favourite since it respects to that of Peterhof. In whom he had been Elizabeth. were covered with gold leaf at a cost of more than a million of ducats but. It who finally delivered it Peter 1/02. it Like the of the dominions of formed anciently part Novgorod the for Great. The Old Palace. a hot-house. in the roccoco style of was restored and embellished by her. and a variety of other attractive buildings. imprisoned prison. originally by Catherine I. (together with his and conspirators. all the statues and the capitals of columns. either outside or commodious Vauxhall attached to the railway station. originally at of Dunaburg. which issues here from the Ladoga lake. on the left bank of the river. and alternately. being at the mouth of the famous canal that forms part of a fluviatile system that connects the Baltic with the distant Caspian. . at of the Neva. at 55 much the far seen stands on a square middle harbour. ' alone gilt. Pavlofsk. Originally the structural ornamentations. is a busy place of trade. Ivan VI. the consort of Peter.000 for the fragments of gold leaf. which the munificent Empress declined to accept. built in 1744. rest of Ingria. imperial residence. He was killed in an attempt made for his rescue by an officer of the guard.66. the Lithuanian I. The present aspect of this beautiful spot is.' of the able to capital a mouthful of fresh and to enjoy the music of the excellent orchestra that plays every afternoon. three miles at distant. mainly due to the care bestowed on it by marine rival. . the gilding the contractors in the restoring palace offered having worn off. who had confined himself to building a small cottage. and later at a lonely spot on the White Sea.. passed of to some time in in the fourteenth century into the hands. pavilions. is also a Petersburgians. PETERSBURG. the source Schliisselburg.' The dome and the cupolas of the Palace Chapel are now Catherine II. eighteen miles in circumprivate villas and as an imperial park. engaged . however. is often the object of a day's excursion by steamer. The town of Schliisselburg. laid out and well wooded. architecture. Tsarskoe of its Selo. spent the remainder of his life on this insular Bastille. and rush away from the within the the same time the for ' summer encampment resort of those who are air. on the ground that she was not in the habit of selling her old clothes.THE MODERN CAPITAL.
NEAR MOSCOW. active Kola. slopes rising from a background of bluish-purple hills. connected At present there is but one town with the rest of the empire by rail. SERGIUS. only (800 inhabitants) upon town in question. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY IN THE SACRISTY OF THE MONASTERY OF ST. together with the integrity of Sweden. civil has now resumed though comparatively pleasant aspect in an amphitheatre of green. after a dispute that had lasted for five finally its total population is centuries. a Russian Naval Station.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. and guaranteed. and . destroyed in 1854 of a its administration by an wide English district. sloping down to the Arctic Ocean. into which the region discharges its abundant waters. CHAPTER THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES ' IV. as the seat of the gunboat soon arose out of its ashes. is broken by the gulf and the straits that give access to the White Sea. the stations. by Great Britain and France in 1855. while Norway. This is the Murman (Norman) coast. a few private whaling and fishing and it. scarcely that of the city of Manchester. OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. . long coast line. of Archangel and Vologda form together an immense sparsely-inhabited plateau. was almost in summer. woodless. which commences at the Jacob River on the borders of settled in 1826. to which attention is being more and more directed with reference to the possibility of establishing in one of its commodious and never-freezing bays. it but. The province of Archalone has an area larger than that of Great Britain and France ' THE The Governments angel combined.
} .' Si. 1553- Niva.LANDING OF RICHARD CHANCELLOR AT HOLMOGORY. Petersburg. IN THE WHITE (Reproduced by Permission front the illustrated ' SEA.
of one hundred and twenty and of commander. the coast is still more dreary and uninviting. here somewhat tempered in its frigid severity by the Gulf Stream. Sir Hugh tons. all these lands from Novgorod the Great. on the opposite side of the Murman coast. and on the other by the White Sea. while wearing orthodox crosses round their necks. frozen during more than half the year. 1553. Nicholas. politically. which had inherited. self-eaters.. There had been no maritime intercourse between Western Europe and Muscovy. storm in the North Sea separated the three vessels. but in decliningnumbers. They hunt and fish over the vast hyperborean region that extends from the White Sea to some distance beyond the great Enisei River of Siberia. The peninsula thus 59 bordered on the one side by the Arctic Ocean.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. namely. and delighting in the ringing of church bells when they have the opportunity. by means that remain unknown. which were the The Russian name of Samoyedes. were frozen to coast. It is here we begin to find. was Willoughby. where he and The Bona- August. by mere accident in 1553. original home of this Ural-Altaic race. at a village called Nenocksa. or Samoyedes. and severe Confidentia. Eastward of Cape Kanin. venture alone escaped. and ascertained from some fishermen that he had reached Russia or Muscovie. still more or less secretly worship their primitive idols of stone and wood. by the chartered Mystery Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands. a native in of Bristol. The design was conceived by ' ' Sebastian Cabot. until the sixteenth century. little The interior. the under him one hundred were placed Richard and sixty tons. Chancellor cast anchor in the bay of St. bay near Sviaty Nos. not far from the Korelian mouth of the Dvina. Bonaventure.' for the purpose of finding a northern sea passage to China and India. and to the foot of the Altai Mountains. although of Venetian parentage. having from him in commandment the 241)1 ' ' On else but his amide and things to deliver to their King. right away to the spur of the Ural Mountains. that they were Englishmen sent unto these coasts from the most certain excellent King Edward VI. been explored except constituting almost one by the Lopars (Lapps) huge mossy bog and the Saamy. and seeking nothing . who.' Explaining. in Chancellor. death. Sir Hugh Willoughby with his own vessel and the Bona Confidentia ultimately reaching with Cornelius Durforth the Bona A much his difficulty a companions. is known as Russian has Lapland. when. the coast of the White Sea was reached by an adventurous expedition fitted out in London. on the Lapland sixty-five in number. which determines the frontier of Siberia and the limits of European Russia in the North. men who subsist principally on raw flesh. appointed in the Bona Esperanza. has literally the same signification as Esquimaux. of ninety tons. the Samoyedes.' by which they are known to the civilized world.
' great was Chancellor kindly and hospitably received by the equally astonished natives. and sold their goods at a to native complaint. they carried everything before them. 1 1 From Factor^ an agent. they It is were fast being ruined by the execution of so many of their debtorsindeed true that the life of the early English settlers in Russia was not an They had to contend with civil commotions. . they retorted that. pestilence and easy one. on the contrary. Instead of getting the furs. and sent them back from Moscow in March 1554. wax. The engraving on page 57 represents him and his two principal companions merchants named Burton and Edwards being received in state by the Governor and other high authorities of the province. and even permission to seize and despoil of his goods the subject of any other Power who might attempt to reach India. a Factory at Holmogory (fortyRussia. A charter then granted by the Tsar enabled the Company to trade throughout his dominions without paying any taxes. on the strength of an open Royal Letter with which each of the three vessels had been provided. hemp and tallow of Muscovy from Flemish and Lithuanian traders by way of the Hanseatic towns.' and requesting that one of His Majesty's Council should be sent to treat with the Tsar. whereby your country merchants maie with all kind of wares and wheare they will make their market in our dominions. Kazan and Astrakhan. and the Bay of St. ' . Pskof. obtained Ivan the Terrible. and depots at Novgorod the Great. and tniffique with his people. Persia or China by way of Russia. after he had friendship. then on the throne of England. seven miles above the mouth of the Dvina. not far from Archangel). It is not surprising that under such advantages the Company prospered. and in 1555 Chancellor returned to Moscow with a reply from Philip and Mary.' A new Company was thereupon formed in London by special charter. English merchants were now in direct and privileged communication with the country which supplied those valuable a later treaty with Queen Elizabeth secured to them the commodities exclusive right to carry on the new trade in English ships. then Tsar and in the zenith of his glory as the capturer of Kazan and the Suzerain of Siberia. with a letter to King Edward assuring him that his shippes and vessels may come as often as they please. and obtained firm hold of all the most important centres of commercial With a head agency at Moscow. permission to repair to Moscow in the ambassadorial character which he had assumed. Yaroslaf. When Ivan the Terrible complained of these proceedings to the English Ambassador in 1569. amounted to two and three profit which. ' ' Holmogory is evidently derived from the Norwegian Holnigaard. Nicholas soon became an important place of commerce. according hundred per cent. The important right of coinage was also bestowed upon them. gave the three Englishmen ' a cordial and distinguished reception. Kostroma.60 K^SS/AW PICTURES. whereby they doubted not but that commoditie and profit would grow to the subjects of both kingdoms.
however. Tsar. the boyars informed the merchants of the Company that ' their . daughter of the Earl of Huntingdon.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN famine. 61 when fifteen English Moscow was destroyed by the Tartars in men and women perished in the flames. and their agency house in 1571. not only restrained the impatience of the He desired to marry Queen but also filled him with high hope. and long fingers. but Elizabeth negotiation.' suggested the Tsar should marry Lady Mary Hastings.. Above all. and artillery and other be sent from England. in to enter desired into a treaty to of mutual defence against common skilled He the Queen allow ' navigators and persons warlike ratified shipbuilding to come to Russia. negotiations. Skilful RUSSIA. who was not averse to the alliance. her chief defects being In the midst of this delicate 'red hair. been effected had not a special Muscovite ambassador reported unfavourably of her age (thirty) and of her personal appearance. a straight nose. refuge in the country of the other in case disturbances in their own realm The matrimonial part of these proposals should compel them to do so.' was politely rejected. it was to be by oath between her and himself that either sovereign might take stores to ARCIIANlIKI. one of her maids This would probably have of honour. Elizabeth. and meanwhile enemies.
captains. Russia to obtaining the Tsar's in permission his to return to Scotland ' in whose nickname ' own country became Old Tom Dalzell. so far as numbers are Dalzell and Drummond concerned. who.' the English were relegated to Archangel and. . in condemnation of the people who had put their Charles to death. where he had command of a small army. with Captain |ohn and who.' is spoken of in Kirkton's History of tlie C/nirc/i of Scotland as a man whose rude and fierce natural disposition had been much confirmed by his breeding and service in Muscovia. Her first regular in the reign of Peter the Great's father. As in the case of the army. by Scottish formed were regiments and English officers. Lieutenants Dugdale and McKenzie.KL'SSIA\ PICTURES. They won the earlier naval battles of Russia. Captain Roxburgh. now the third. with about three thousand men. British officers were the first and In the reign of Catherine the Great. R.' a which Covenanters were made to suffer. Orloff got although beginning. Even in the reign of Alexander I. Englishmen was derive immense proceeded advantage from the opening of her seaboard to the commerce of all the maritime nations of Europe. Many of them were Peter the Great's ablest coadjutors in the extension and the reform of the empire he left to his successors. subsequently Admiral. notat made the Earl of Carlisle the a efforts Restoration. Meanwhile. destroyed the Turkish at Chesme. 1665. and saw There were popular murmurs against the nothing but tyranny and slavery. especially the Dutch. who had great difficulty in Although the important in its trade thus established by thenceforth altered character. the credit for them. monopoly. Next.' and other nations. renewal of their ancient privileges was never obtained.N. aided mainly by Commander. Cronstadt was fleet Elphinstone. so far as eminent services are concerned. in Europe.' Muscovian rigour of Dalzell's military administration in Scotland.. foremost organisers "and commanders. Their names are. of Muscovy. who profited in no smaller degree by similar aid. were in the succeeding reign permitted to participate in the commerce of the country. the English spirit of enterprise in had not benefited Muscovy this direction alone. long jealous of the English renewed. so in that of the navy of Russia.' Generals (created Baron Strathallan in 1685) were credited Muscovite instrument with with the introduction of the thummikins. and lieutenants were engaged in creating her fleet. and he was railed against as ' a Muscovian beast ' who used to roast men. and for a considerable time after. in fact. English admirals. by withstanding ' . and William Drummond of Cromlix. and some British volunteers. A volume might be well filled with the exploits and services of our countrymen in Russia. a legion. Greig.. Their exclusive privileges were therefore not English Tsar was dead. had passed into the service of the Tsar after the defeat and imprisonment of Charles I. The most famous of those officers were Thomas Dalzell (or Dalziel) of Binns. 'lent' to Russia in 1/69.
so undoubtedly abundant. which. We might add name upon name which to in matters. but none of the Russian churches are of any antiquity.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. His chief physician was Erskine. erected at the beginning of the present but no century. we may instance the United States of America by the immigraastounding tion of multitudes with acquired skill. while the founder of the Russian Medico-Chirurgical Academy at St. and the visits in summer of some fifty British steamers to the port on the island of Solombola now alone attest out- common wardly the former importance of Archangel as a place of British trade. learning. visited for The cathedral may be the . the Russians with such Sir Russia. Archangel. to their immense advantage. bears at present little evidence of the importance it acquired in the sixteenth century. Peter the Great's first school of mathematics was under the direction of Farquharson. whose foundations were laid by a conglomera- effectually political even the strong hand grasp while he was engaged not it proof that. when strictly kept within narrow bounds of nationality and consanguinity. a friend to the cause of the Pretender. The decline its of trade the to city dates removed British the more is merchants houses building still established reign of Peter the Great. civil and and regeneration. and Germans on the more modern development of the equally vast empire of Great Britain. tion of races. . Flemings. Huguenots. from the oldest extant the Archiepiscopal Palace. Petersburg was also a Scotchman. by the blending of races. The houses of the early English merchants which stood in the Cathedral Square met with the of timber fate. the starting-point of the modernisation of Muscovy. The colonies of Great Britain have long been individually results attained in the . in which One of the themselves in great numbers. and on which he made the century. a Scotchman. in no smaller degree. enterprise. capital that much of the present No greatness of the Russian empire is due. excepting in ecclesiastical of Peter the Great was able in his great work of is to British skill. undergoing the same regenerative process. gilt or coloured. An Anglican church. longer used. and habits of industry and. practically a 63 colony of British naval it officers and artificers in the service of countrymen taught good and enduring results. at Moscow. being not older than the last purpose of seeing the large wooden cross preserved in it as the handiwork of Peter the Great after he had escaped from a storm on the White Sea. There are plenty of other domes and spires. Nor was the art of war alone that our James Wylie. learning. is meant to be conveyed by this assertion any Panslavist who may be inclined to take umbrage at it will do well to study the influence of Jews. disparagement to native genius. In further support of this view. who accessible port of his new capital. are undeniably liable to become effete. and a relative of the Earl of Mar. built in 1/84. the older that having been destroyed by one of the many fires ravaged Archangel during the last century.
On the sides of the gateway are models of the two small vessels in which they crossed from Archangel.64 RUSSIAN PICTURES. to which some ten thousand pilgrims are annually conveyed in a steamer commanded and manned by monks.' the native point of view. or sent into exile. Built of wood in 1438 and rebuilt of stone in 1558.' Russia. and further on we come to an obelisk commemorating the harmless attack made on the monastery by the British \YhiteSea squadron in 1855. by the Patriarch Nicon. landed in 1702. thick. as the late Mr. and intervals thousand feet round and by square towers. secure themselves Deeming in 1667 to receive the revised I THE SOLOVETSK MOXASTHRY. It was founded in 1429 by St. and in to wealth and from the began grow power year About a century later the 1442. It is. the Peter the Great. one of its first abbots. and broke into a rebellion that lasted It fell at last by treachery. ' Dat cruys makcn Captcm Piter van a C/it. when the holy fathers walked in procession round the walls while the shells were flying over their heads. and many of thi monks were put to the sword. under Zosimus. however Archangel is the revered water-gate to one of the holiest places in Russia the famed monastery of Solovetsk. the brotherhood refused circumference. ' From the city is a magazine of oats and tar. of planks and skins. however.. accompanied six churches of this fortified monastery that will chiefly interest him. The visitor is first shown the chapel erected over the spot on which liturgy sent nine years. following inscription in Dutch: In Western eyes. churches were rebuilt in stone. and between 1590 and 1594 the monks enclosed them within in a wall of granite at boulders. by his son Alexis. Hepworth Dixon said in his Free 1694. the Cathedral of the Trans- . Sabbatheus. after a long siege. A large number were executed later. the remainder being kept in awe and submission by three hundred Streltsi. nearly three supported twenty to thirty feet high and twenty feet in their stronghold.
and of military banners bearing the emblem of the cross.' who the head of which stands Kern. In the vicinity are two chapels (1753) containing the tombs of Germanicus and of other reverend fathers of The Cathedral of the Assumption was consecrated in 1557. the sword of the Prince alliance with a butcher of Nijni Novgorod. and precious stones.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. once Civil Governor of Petrozavodsk. Among the objects of highest value are the sacerdotal vestments. did good same cause. the capital of the province of Olonets. lies about half-way between Onega Bay and Lake Ladoga . at Old Believers. reject It is also a place of political exile. local repute. Metropolitan of Moscow. and precious stones contributed by Tsars and nobles. throughout the province of Olonets but few scientific fishermen have as yet taken advantage of its wealth in trout. with a belfry 125 feet in The artistic treasures of the monastery. 65 figuration contains the ponderous silver gilt shrines of Saints Sabbatheus and Zosimus. and char. have yet although grandeur to the Imatra Sweden. one hundred and fifty miles long and chapter. and restored or renovated in the church dedicated (1667) to height. Solovetsk was used as a political prison so recently as the reign of Nicholas. Kivatch. ' as is indeed the whole of the region we have so imperfectly described in this fifty The Lake of Onega. its gold. The remaining two and the Church of Nicholas Thaumaturgus in 1590. and a large collection of ancient Russian and other weapons. churches enclosed by the walls were founded severally in 1596 and 1687. put up in 1697. There abundance of bear and other shooting in this neighbourhood. patriots who expelled the Poles from Pojarski. Only a few Russian travelit has been immortalized in one of in the best is also poems of Derjavin. miles broad. . a settlement of the been very active as since and who have the innovations of Nicon. There trophies forgotten in this the armour of the comrades of of a monk. fishermen and seamen in the White Sea. buried in this monastery. linen gave the gold reliquary adorned with pearls In contrast with those gorgeous vestments is the plain also who chasuble of Zosimus. About forty-two miles north-west of and mica. on rich its western shore in is copper. is iron Petrozavodsk. At its southern end the White Sea forms the Bay of Onega. by Ivan the Terrible. and . Onuphrius the Great. Outside the wall is the eighteenth century. equal in Petrozavodsk Falls lers in the \Vaterfall of Finland. ornamented with pearls of unusual size presented to the monastery in 1550 . grayling. part of the relics of St. silver. service in the in who was one of the most active Moscow in 1613. as and seen Trolhatten it. and an imposing ikonostas. who. are carefully preserved in a special Sacristy. Nor are military is museum of otherwise sacred objects. Philip.
THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. MOSCOW. r CHAPTER Moscow : V.' but at last 14/8. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE SYNOD. a central mart of great importance and prosperity. It is here that the Northmen under Roric established themselves A. the citizens of Novgorod gradually acquired political power and independence. until from 1136 they assumed the right of electing or dismissing their prince at a vccJic or witenagemote.. way to Moscow a special excursion should be made by rail to Novgorod the Great. soon rendered the Lord Great Novgorod. and water ' communication with the North and South of Russia. Kief became the seat of the grand ducal throne of the Scandinavian (subse- ON the quently called Varangian) conquerors. in order to destroy effectually their fifty spirit of independence. families I'cche of the merchant own together with their Bell. and capital. before they took their viking ships down the Dnieper to Kief. removed to 8000 boyars or nobles. annexed their possessions to the Grand Duchy class of Moscow his . impelling them to internecine warfare for its possession. 862.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A PSALTER OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. Trade with the Hanseatic towns.D.' as the republic became styled. For a considerable period the Novgorodians were able to boast that no one could in 'contend against God and the Great Novgorod. Ivan III. the founder of Muscovite dominion. and . The city once covered an area forty miles in circumference. the cradle of the Russian empire. however. When. and.
ONE OF THE TORCHES OF THE TRO1TSA MONASTERY. F 2 .
The ruin of the city grand completed in 1570. 1030. dates from 1050). facing the altar. which is reproduced also at Kief. their son Vladimir 1052). The most modern of the saints in . in countless treasures gold. is the Byzantine mosaic work behind the altar. daughter of Amongst the most venerated King Olaf of Norway. were thrown into the River Volkhof. supply the usual form of a Greek cupola supported cross. Paul (brought from Khersonesus by St. Sophia. from St. which. and (d. princely and . those of St. who had contemplated a transfer of their allegiance to the Prince of Lithuania. Archbishop of Novgorod. with its figured Internally cornice is a remnant of the work of the seventeenth the century. who but died the 1653. and precious stones.D. which is of century) been preserved in the apse. and traces painting canonized princes and ecclesiastics of the same kind of (twelfth have above the thronos. Enshrined in silver or bronze are the remains of numerous saints. original ikons The ikonostas dates The most ancient in it CATHEDRAL OF ST. founder of of Mstislaf Cathedral. The Sophia St. model of the famous St. 1341. Archbishop of Novgorod (d. when even its monasteries and churches were sacked by Ivan the Terrible. 1180). or seat of the Metropolitan. In curious fresco the galleries above are representations of . expired record of deceased Archbishops and Metropolitans of Novgorod is brought down to iSiS from A. and probably of the same age as the cathedral. have not deprived it of the distinguishing features of one of the oldest churches in Russia. Only two of the inscriptions over the 86. most ancient of these are relics (d. More ancient still. of Brave 1 1 (d.D. oak. Sophia at Constantinople. The belfry tower dates from 1439. and Nikita. Thousands of its inhabitants. 1223.clerical. of John. of Kief. with two similar pillars at the altar. Vladimir).MOSCOH': THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. silver. SOPHIA AT NOVGOROD THE GREAT. in 1820 and 1837. are those of Peter and (a Byzantine copy of the eleventh century) and St. Later additions from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries and complete restorations. is by eight massive quadrangular pillars. Anne I. consort of Yaroslaf the the A. old was The glory of the city survives only in its constructed in 1050 by Byzantine artisans after Cathedral the of St. 1108). and the roof of the cathedral.
archiepiscopal A. still so called. has in existed since close which III. respectively 1178 At the western or principal entrance to the cathedral are the exceptionally fine and interesting Korsnn (Khersonesus) doors. palace built in and the government stone A. a Magdeburg production of the twelfth century. century. is alone sufficient attestation of the German and Roman Slavonic Catholic character of the work. resided subjugation 1302. numerous tombs of Novgorodian princes are now legible. They overlaid with bronze plates. They are dated and 1218. in the form of principalities. which St. the Governor which were 1104. the head of a man in German dress. to in of by Ivan the walls The walls.D. Petersburg into an empire. Sv ' ' AN OLD CHURCH AT NOVGOROD. The life-size . with tongs and a pair of scales in his hands.7 RUSSIAN PICTURES. although the notwithstanding are of wood fecit over The legend Rigvin me explanations were probably added later. is quite equal to that of the door of Zenone at Verona. There Acropolis. they were 700. bearing fifty-four inscriptions in Latin and Slavonic. independent or confederated. that their Byzantine origin has long been disproved. or as the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Close the cathedral renovated by Peter the Great the splendid bronze monument erected 1862 to commemorate the thousandth anniversary of the existence of Russia. offices are within same place of wooden is erected Rebuilt in in in 1490 by an 1 Italian architect. by which those principalities were absorbed whether and ultimately welded at St. after the are several other churches within of the walls of the Kremlin. or the fifteenth of like Novgorod the tall One tower the city them by.D.
It was founded in 1657 by the Patriarch Nicon. figures on the history.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. who caused the neighbouring accidents of country to be named after various sacred sites monastery. monument are emblematical of these several periods of Russian But our object is to reach Moscow. and much as we should wish to say something of the other ancient towns that lie between the two capitals. jtt THE MONUMENT A'l NuVUuKuI) Ll'MMI. ifr^Tlriii^tor ffl if-. h rni~ ' . . about fourteen miles from a station .. '- "^ '^\ VS ..MOKATING THE THOUSANDTH^ANNIVERSARY OF THE EMPIRE.. . we must confine ourselves to a short mention of the famous situated New Jerusalem not far railway from Moscow.
to erect an all it his wealth and all the energy exactly similar structure. with the gift of the Holy Ghost to work cures. As a mark dissatisfac- the Tsar absented himself from the cathe. dral on one of the great festivals of the Church but Nicon was far from being daunted. laid down his crozier. yet internally it remains more like the edifice in which the Crusaders worshipped at Jerusalem than is that church itself since its destruction by fire. The monastery of the New Jerusalem was thus left uncompleted. of the Eastern patriarchs convoked at Moscow disposed of his pretensions. and he Jerusalem made his appearance suddenly in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Moscow. a Metropolitan was temporarily invested with the patriarchate.RUSSIAN PICTURES. in civil as well as ecclesiastical matters. an artificial Kedron. In 1/23. analogy Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. New and the Tsar was induced. to banish him to a monastery in the province of Novgorod. withdrew to New Jerusalem. a river to represent the title equal in dignity in to that of the Tsar. of whom he fearlessly sermonised the patriarchal cathedral. . when orders for its restoration were given by the Empress Elizabeth. and replaced the primate his retreat at the even in the high Moscow on an THE PATRIARCH NICOX. Nicon a model of the more the render to order procured complete. and it was not finished and consecrated until some years later. and remained in that condition until 1749. and in the pictorial representations of in matters Byzantine purity His arrogance became so great that he exercised jurisdiction sacred subjects. and began. to resume his seat on the patriarchal throne. a village close by was dignified In with Nazareth. while a small chapel built on a mound was called Eleon. he A council alleged. the principal tent-like cupola collapsed. Although the of the church was in these circumstances somewhat original plan departed from. in 1658. . having been ordered. In spite of Nicon's protest that he was still a Patriarch. for example. and. his former friend. and in public documents assumed a Palestine . he publicly threw off his pontifical sakkos and mitre. and. in brook was made was converted into the Jordan. arrayed once more in his pontifical robes. devoting to the attacked he had previously with which clergy for their intemperance and He also endeavoured to restore the Russian Church to other irregularities. although unwillingly. relying on the speedy repentance of the sovereign. six years Nicon was a recluse at but in 1664 his worldly ambition reasserted itself. of ritual. tion. ass. ceremony of riding through led by the Tsar him- For to typify Christ's entry into Jerusalem. in a dream.. self. attiring himself in the habit of a monk.
he wore on his breast. and of the same form dimensions as the church at the actual precisely as the arrangements of that church are. . the various members of the But internally it is so imperial family in after times.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. that. further complicated by the aspect addition of of chapels by. has the an ordinary successive Russian cathedral. which. find his way without 1 difficulty through every corridor and stair and corner of the copy. intricate built probably any other in the world. at the foot of the Golgotha. a traveller who has seen the original can THE CHURCH IN THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. down to our own day. 1869. or in honour of. beyond Jerusalem. and in its 73 renovation in 1812. suspended from 1 Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church.' ( show the present outward form and the internal Nicon is buried in the of this highly remarkable structure. with a brass cross. late We cannot : describe ' it more graphically than it the words of the Dean Stanley still Externally. as penance. arrangements Chapel of Melchizedek. London. close to the corre)ur illustrations sponding spot in the actual church of the Holy Sepulchre where lie the Over his tomb hangs the iron plate remains of Godfrey of Bouillon.
and in which he wrote his Chronicle of the Church of Jerusalem. Endearing epithets applied to the city by the Russian people. his portrait.' and ecclesiastical life. is lowered by means of long strips of linen from the Golgotha Chapel. to assist at the Easter Eve service of the Russo-Greek Church. embroidered on a cloth. which is in an upper gallery. We once struck by the busy 1 more or irregular streets. On we ' reaching at Our holy mother Moscow. and after being laid on a bier in front of the altar screen. In the sacristy are kept his hat. . and many other interesting objects. is anointed with ointment supposed to be identical with that used PLAN OF THE CHURCH IN THE NEW JERUSALEM AN EXACT COPY SEPULCHRE. Large numbers of them were decapitated by the orders and under the superintendence of Peter.74 PICTURES. his neck by a heavy iron chain. the original wooden model of the church of the Holy Sepulchre. a four-storied tower from which Nicon watched the building of the church. Much interest also attaches to the skiit. the original supply of which has been maintained by the continuous admixture of analogous ingredients. In 1698 General Patrick Gordon defeated the rebellious Streltsi in the vicinity of the monastery. The body of our Saviour. and sheepskin coat. or hermitage. which is preceded on Good Friday by a ceremony that is not performed anywhere else in Russia. and finally freed Peter the Great from those illdisciplined and even mutinous bands. This is the Descent from the Cross.' truly 1 are in the are political centre the of that less Russian. Pilgrims come in vast numbers to the monastery. OF THE ORIGINAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY by Mary Magdalene. shoes. ' Moscow all the is white-walled.
GENERAL 1'ATRICK GORDON. (trader) : The are kitpcts thoroughfares and squares of sheep-skinned innjik (peasant) and the wily. and the ill-filled that respect different St. porters in national dress.ATOSCOll': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. and the Hermidepreciated paper rouble. We are received by to which we are bound. in these days Russia. which to cover a cloth coats shirt pretend long of dazzling red silk. will served shirts waiters in white Restaurant. we cannot omit a passing reference to the comfort OFFICERS OF THE STRELTSI. and trousers. cloth-clad here in their aboriginal from condition looking the one driving long teams of roughwaggons or sleighs. that is to say. larger a of The Slavianski Bazar. high boots of polished leather. seen only at the neck. and the accommodation now obtainable in all the and also to its relative cheapness. laden with every . STRELTSI OF A LATER DATE. the value of which he still totals up on a Tartar abacus. and a small round hat gaily adorned with peacocks' feathers. the other standing at variety of raw produce his shop door. The old drojki has a sort of knife-board on four wheels its tattered and grimy with disappeared. and inviting passers-by to enter and view his goods. Petersburg. together In their stead driver. not our object to describe hotels and the details of travelling in Nevertheless. are well-appointed car- riages and swift proliotkis (a miniature victoria) which rattle us over the long cobble-paved streets that lie between the Nicholas Railway Station and the Slavianski Bazaar or Hotel. tall It is Russia. as in 75 crowded in in summer so as well winter with vehicles and pedestrians. tage by even the luxury of cities of . THE STRELTSI OF 1613.
sketch of the history of Moscow must precede any description of its Chronicles record its existence as early as 1147. On the September. It was he who built her first wooden walls. its governor. notwithstanding great and the assault of the Crimean Tartars in 1572.I>. led by Prince Murat. By the early part of the fifteenth century. They were replaced in masonry A. a peace. Moscow had regained the and monasteries position of a flourishing capital. About principal buildings. Their advanced guard. after failing in an attempt to negotiate October he left Moscow with an army consisting of 120. Alexander Nevski.76 RUSSIAN PICTURES. after the sack of the city in 1382. when the Tartars left no building standing that was not constructed of brick or stone. when the Poles took possession of the city. which to in 1771 greatly reduced the the great tragedy of 1812. in order to clear it of the invading legions under Napoleon.000 of its the reduced considerable part city of these continued to fires in inhabitants perished in the flames or by the sword. thirteenth century its ashes. and pre-eminence amongst the city of Vladimir. towards the end of the the seat of a principality (or Grand Duchy) under Daniel. Passing over other disasters by fire in 1611. the Russian was succeeded by principalities. 1 9th with S5Q pieces of cannon. 1812. has already been mentioned in the French occupation disastrous of of some the incidents the refer to can only his September. and strengthened by a moat in 1394. with a horde of three hundred thousand men. city. of the and Grande of the small remnant Armte. the remnant of the host of nearly half a What became of this million with which he had crossed the Niemen. who. and we left Moscow. and Napoleon made the moment chosen for setting the . Rising from 7 . and for three days the flames raged with terrific fierceness. 1367. consisting of Polish and Prussian lancers. This was city on fire. with many fine churches the younger son of . took possession of the Kremlin on the i4th of population we come had ceased to solemn entry next day. or fortress. under Ivan I. when the ancient city be the capital in 1771) was fired by the orders of (which Count Rostopchin.000 men. and 100. devastated on that occasion the southern and central parts of what we now call Russia. and by the plague. 1536 of was to ashes. . the grand- A son of Chingiz Khan. which latter encountered a rival in Riazan and it was only towards the middle of the fourteenth century that the Grand Duchy of Moscow became paramount. who was the progenitor of the Kief had in 1158 lost its subsequently mighty race of Muscovite princes. and the number grow. a century later it was burnt down by the Tartars under Baati. favourable comparison with bear any other corresponding establishments in Western Europe. Moscow became. when a and 1547. plunder with which it second chapter. and gave to the space they enclosed the Tartar name of krcmlin. Napoleon withdrew to the Petrofski but returned to the Kremlin on the 2oth of the outskirts on the Palace.
together with the wallecl Kitai Gorod (Chinese Town). the centre. Black or taxable is the White City. Spread over a circumference of twenty-five miles. which the heart of the city and its chief attraction. Encircling these adjoins it. Moscow has now The Kremlin stands exactly in population of three-quarters of a million. anciently exempt from taxation. and. a its THE KREMLIN. .MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. MtjSCUW. is part of the population having been located in the Earthen City beyond. in 77 our description of the churches and other buildings connected with its history.
and tell of the existence of nearly four hundred churches. Our attention is next directed to the bells. we ascend by some four hundred and fifty steps to the highest of the five stories of which it is composed. notwithtiles. The largest of these. weighs sixty-four tons. therefore. more or less embedded in trees. and which has since been converted into boulevards. stands on a granite pedestal at the foot of the tower. 1812. Close under the southern front of the Kremlin walls. five times as heavy as the celebrated bell of Erfurt. flows the river which standing its humble origin in one of the morasses of the neighbouring province of Smolensk. once of the head. monasteries and convents. bared heads. Peter the Great. The King of Cast Bells. who executed rigorously enforced. The tower over it was constructed in 1626 by an English clockmaker in a style (Gothic) discordant with the Italian battlements. and four times heavier than that of It was re-cast after the partial destruction of the tower in Rouen. were replaced between 1485 and 1492 by the high and stout battlemented walls and towers we now see. and not even the it without conforming to the old custom. and are pierced by five gates. If the day be clear. but which have been much restored and extended since they left the hands of the Italian architects by whom they were designed. however. on the east face of the Kremlin. given to it the character of a Porta Sacra. They are 7280 feet in circumference. for which the tower is as famous as for its great height. Viliers. we Passing through or belfry of Ivan the Great. or Ivan. a out of the metal of ancient but in weakened in bell. when Napoleon and his marshals surveyed the city from it. and is. trace the main We and ancient circumvallations. our eyes Church were made to pay toll it with are dazzled by the glitter of the gilded or star-bespangled spires and domes that surround us on every side. which is three hundred and twenty-five feet to the top of the cross on its gilt cupola. two years after Gordon's victory over them. and proceed to enjoy one of the* most striking and unique views in Europe. chapels. whether walking or driving. and the season that of summer. uncovering the Streltsi in front of it. the principal of which is the Redeemer Gate. and the eye ranges over a vast expanse of coloured house-tops. The Kremlin fortifications. thus named after approach the renowned tower its architect Under the guidance of one of (in 1590) John. called so from the wall of earth which formerly surrounded it. also made use of the gate as a point at which dissenters from the Orthodox emperor can pass through if they wished to preserve their beards. named the Assumption. its 1733 huge and other which the treasures the of ladies Moscow jewels composition by streets . and which was brought from Smolensk in has 1647. with their quaint towers of glazed green has given its name to the great city. the numerous cicerone who infest the basement.7S RUSSIAN PICTURES. A much venerated ikon of the Redeemer arch over the of the placed gate. rebuilt in 1367.
maximum two thickness The Tsar feet. Alexis and it the Empress Anne appear upon in on the are t i relief figures. . nearly two hundred tons. and the Evangelists.MOSCOU': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. a pious inTsar the lost i Kolokol of its out 737. side in by the it falling of upon heavy some rafters. the Vir- gin Mary. the large piece (seven that feet high) now rests against the pedestal. its is height twenty-six feet its four inches. all surrounded cherubim. alone eleven minus h s The weight bell. circumference - sixty seven feet eleven and its inches. and scroll below o n representas of the Saviour. by Another monster of which the Muscovites ON THE BELFRY : THE IVAN VELIKI TOWER. 79 had the thrown liquid into metal with tent. and which weig tons. of the the broken piece.
while its the shining white walls are inscribed in letters of gold the names individuals of all ranks and of the regiments decorated with the bravery or 1769. is seen defeating the Tartars at Kulikova. A THE GREAT BELL. and were not unin frequently destroyed the many accidental con- flagrations to Kremlin jected. the entire front of which is decorated with cannon taken during the retreat are of the French. and later The Great of brick. is unfortunately not ancient in It stands on the spot upon which. from the earliest times. On of the by sixty-eight feet. a cannon of enormous It size. cast in 1586. left it. on the banks of the Don. in 1849. originally of wood. great episode is in Russian trated history illus- on an immense canvas ments. guards the corner of the arsenal. the Moscow princes and tsars built their habitations. It measures two George. in 1380. The first of the series of magnificent in is dedicated feet to the military order of St. hundred feet. and success in the field. Palace. II. age or in style. which was founded by Catherine in is bestowed only for distinguished acts of . a palace built by Cathe- rine II. proud is the Tsar Pushka of the Kremlin. imposing in aspect. halls the gallery at the top of the noble staircase that leads to those apartDimitri. Prince of Moscow. the great beauty and grandeur of the state apartments within render the Bolshoi Dvorets a residence fully befitting the mighty Autocrat of All the Russias. Incongruous as is its exodd from the various mixture of periods and forms of architecture which it exhibits. than fifty-eight height is no less order. has which the been sub- The present which the French edifice replaced. These suffered destruction at the hands of Tartars and Poles.8o RUSSIAN PICTURES. burned down had a f t e r Napoleon terior. weighing forty tons.
into which open rooms allotted to maids of honour of the We more imperial court. end of a gallery. leave the modern and magnificent for the antique and of the aside the Winter Garden. the early part is the Zolotaya Palata. seven recesses and seats along the walls.Af OS CO IV: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. the chapels. with its fronts cut G . however. and a host of At the private apartments. 81 must. MOSCOW. the clergy. it is supposed to have been an audience chamber of the but it is on record that in a chamber similar patriarchs and metropolitans . From the THE GREAT PALACE. interesting parts palace. setting perforce the Picture Gallery. a large square building. In the Granovitaya Palata. and foreign ambassadors on great occasions. to this in character the Tsaritsas of Moscow received the boyars. and Nicholas I. and which are taken to represent the seven councils. elating probably from of the fifteenth century. but restored in the style of the in seventeenth century the reigns of Paul I. or Gold Hall.
who had been charged by the Streltsi with the control of State affairs. and the diplomatic personages who have taken part in the great ceremony. The most ancient of the thrones is that of the last Christian Emperor of Con1472 by Sophia Palaeologus on her stantinople. severally. Ancient armour and weapons. however. Three thrones of studded with Persian workmanship. belonged. The ornaments and the and elevated to the dignity of a vassal Tsar. around which is stacked the imperial plate when an emperor is crowned. we find chamber built by Italian architects for the Tsar of Moscow in 1491. originally twelfth-century work. and the two upper ones were added in 1636. which all the Emperors of Russia have assumed at their coronation. the superior clergy. rubies. Among the crowns we single out the jewelled cap of Vladimir Monomachus. on lifting the drapery at the back. in token of the ancient descent of their Peter I. a sapphire and a ruby all of large size spring from extremity. (1682). of the labours of Orpheus and the legend of Thrace. The Round Room is full of thrones. bestowed by Ivan the Terrible. an aperture is seen through which Sophia. the middle of the sixteenth century is seen in the Crown of Kazan. their sister. brought to Moscow in Its ivory is beautifully carved with representations marriage with Ivan III. a true restoration of an audience then only seventeen years of age. the nobles. fill the first two rooms. and Alexis. whom he converted to Christianity. diamonds. to Ivan the Boris Godunof. The rooms are all very small. resting on a broad border of dark and surmounted by a plain cross terminating in large pearls at each A topaz. is the double of throne vermeil in made for the curious. Its high arches rest on a central pillar. The Treasury. and twenty-five pearls of Ormuz. after he had conquered the Tartar kingdom of Kazan. and pearls. is the depository of a vast number of historical objects and of treasures hereditary in the reigning house. a Tartar Khan. and other regalia. upon Simeon. A good specimen of Moscow four rubies. and elegant gold arabesques of a work of .82 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Most Terrible. prompted Ivan. and yet it was in the Tercm that the first Romanoff sovereigns gave audience to foreign ambassadors. It is in fine gold filagree work. Attached to the palace is the ancient (restored) building called the Terem. who was both mentally and physically incapable of governing. Its two lower stories were built in the early part of the sixteenth century. The Earl of Carlisle was received in it in 1664. and dines with the sovereigns and princes. the entire decorations are Oriental. Germany coronation of Ivan and Peter as the joint successors of Theodore III. while upon the cap itself are four emeralds. and who in 1689 resigned his share of the government to into facets. sable. and which we cannot avoid observing from the palace yard. crowns. which forms the right wing of the palace. the dome of the cap on gold stems. vast power. Here on the richly gilt throne of silver the monarch sits in his coronation robes. German and Russian. turquoises..
for its large jewels to I. a strip silk. part of the regalia of the Russian sovereigns up to the time of Peter I. G 2 . and with only a few objects of the fourteenth and fifteenth separate case are some Stuart specimens of English work. Many topaz. Next Peter it the tiara-shaped crown.. and divided by the four principal zantium lion. generally classed as Russo-Byzantine. beautiful art. presented to the Tsar of Moscow by the sovereigns. together with eight horses. Some of the orbs of great St. 988. rubies. and cap. symbolical figures of Bythe eagle. and the rises top is surmounted by an enormous cap of maintenance. Among the old state carriages preserved in a room below is a coach which Queen Elizabeth sent.D. ' We very early phase of the great Eastern Question. tached of brocaded the the are represent episodes in life of David. summit. and the unicorn. Its panels are ornamented with allegorical allusions to a crusade the Tsar had proposed to make against the Turks. besides a great number of emeralds and pearls. and we must preface our description of the more notable cathedrals with a few observations on the origin of the architectural features of those edifices.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. adorn is it. both of Byzantine workmanship. In a good Queen join. than nine hundred the in addition numerous rubies and are to in fixed on pliant stems. in the of most style Greek of at- The to plaques coloured enamel. but Emperors the III. in magniVladimir by reality made for Ivan eighty-nine two baniu. or collars.' Moscow abounds in churches. the one reputed to have been sent especially Basilius and Constantine. It is studded with fifty-eight diamonds. A. a The furthest room is museum of gold and THE CROWN OK MONOMACHUS. but in which thus see in this relic the record of a Bess refused to centuries. The They are escape notice. mostly of the seventeenth century. decidedly or the Persian character. made A no diamond cross fewer to from immense uncut ruby on diamonds adorn the body of emeralds ficence. cannot the fifteenth century. to the Tsar Boris Godunof. the : the griffin. silversmiths' work.
the the outlines of The Uspenski Kremlin crowned in it Sober. Their Russian disciples varied again that style according to their own taste. the silver shrine of Philip. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael. national is size. its grandeur. If of tent or cone-shaped pinnacles. essentially Italian. features of the latter style surviving only Byzantine. whether type in be built Central Russia. as Dean Stanley correctly dimensions what in the West would be called a chapel architecture. The after 1812. we shall ecclesiastical architecture reproduced in of Russia or arrive the conclusion when stone predominate over constructions in timber (in the fifteenth century). It has been restored several times. it rather than a cathedral. when the French used it as a storehouse. and created a special type of ecclesiastical architecture in a mingled Italian and Persian style. otherwise have given more light to the interior. succumbed to the Oriental taste of brick buildings began to the Russians. with a later combination of the Polish. gained the prefix of Aristotle 'on account of his cunning. especially officiating. which at the same time lent itself more easily to the its construction stone. the older at subsequently that we examine closely Proper still extant. similar to that of the Grim representations of martyrs moderate the glitter that would walls. the . and brightness being features previously unknown in Its five domes. Metropolitan of Moscow an of more than 1566-1569. Among the many tombs in observed. ancient churches of a Byzantine An abundance of timber caused them to purity ever existed. and that the Italian architects called in by Ivan III. height. separated from the Assumption by a small paved square. Moscow included. under the influence of Georgian as well as Persian forms. Nevertheless. As a matter in the material or the in all no churches of the early Christian age survive in Russia It is even doubtful integrity of their original forms. built between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries will show that non-existent in Byzantium. adapted their work in accordance with it. or Cathedral of the Assumption. who. in the centre of the the most venerated pile in Russia. Nevertheless. dates from 1509. of fact. including the central cupola. since its sovereigns continue to be 1479 on new foundations by an Italian architect named Fioraventi. in their architectural details they are Italian rather than in characteristic their apses. of wood. Byzantine influence was already very feeble. for it is that of a object prelate who had the courage to rebuke Ivan the Terrible publicly for his atrocities. For this offence he was dragged from the altar at which he was in the cathedral is and ultimately put to death.84 RUSSIAN PICTURES. They are supported internally by pillars covered with frescoes on a gold ground. when the original edifice of 1333 was rebuilt by a Milanese architect. Indeed. were covered with copper-gilt plates only in 1684. according to Russian chronicles. a careful study of the Russian churches style of construction.' a wonderful It was considered was built in structure. ordinary interest.
and causes it to be distributed among the bishops oils of the several dioceses. already quoted. against each sepulture. with whom the male line of the Romanoffs became extinct in 1/30. and Russian The Metropolitan of Moscow. portable pyxes. No fewer than forty-seven princes of those families repose in the tombs that literally Frescoes on the walls. emperors consecrated at their coronation. Close by is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. is numerous glass cases in . notwithstanding O the canons of the Church. rebuilt in 1489. or all the many cinquecento panagias. In the old residence overlaid Alabastron. part of the Synodal Buildings within the Kremlin. ami cannot stay to point out studded with precious stones of great value. balsams. emeralds. belief that it having been who also covered the nine domes with of gold. made but the richest another room. ' ' few drops only are annually used in the preparation of the sacred oil with which orthodox children are anointed at their baptism. . the most interesting of the latter being a long-necked vase. Notwithstanding its Persian form and distinctly Russian workheld to be the original receptacle of the chrism obtained from with Constantinople porting to A on the introduction of Christianity into Russia. manship. cloisonne gold. restored after a fire in 1547. the monastic vow nil the cathedral. 1 1 They are well described in Mr. and thoroughly renovated in 1867. The 'great mitre. the Patriarchs. of the Metropolitan Peter. having been perfectly restored to its ancient appearance of a mausoleum of the Rurik and Romanoff dynasties from Ivan I. record their altar lies Ivan the Terrible. Maskell's Russian Art. in being The most then hallowed by a drop or two of venerable of the robes that hang the sakkos. the necessary quantity of oil and white wine. is a large and curious collection of ecclesiastical vestments. Next the his numerous offences against administered to him on his death-bed. or dalmatic.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. in Ivan the Terrible after the murder of his son.' out of four that belonged to Nicon. is diadem-shaped. to denote that he died a monk. ornaments and vessels. and diamonds (1583). assisted by his higher clergy. under the mistaken could save his erring soul. one is that of the Metropolitan Dionysius 1322 an expiatory gift of with rubies. interior is 85 extremely interesting. A essential and spices are added to great variety of gums. His tomb is covered with a black pall. names and features. and purhave been a portion of the ointment used by Mary Magdalene. prepares a new supply of the mir every two or three years at the season of Lent.. it is in and called the mother-of-pearl. The only emperor buried in it is Peter II. Many of the ikons within it were acquired at the sacking of Novgorod the Great by Ivan IV. and other precious ornaments of fine workmanship which the sacristy of the Patriarchs offers to We our view. the entire compound the contents of the Alabastron.. covered Of the seven mitres. the most ancient belonged to the Patriarch Job (1595). to Peter the Great.
Our of ' it Theophile Gautier It is description given of the edifice by without doubt the most original monument in the justifies the . by which we issue from in the Kremlin. where we 1 CATHEDRAL OF ST. MOSCOW. We are now the great Red (or beautiful) Square. the Redeemer Gate. Basil the Beatified.86 Xl/SS/JV PICTURES. Much churches stand side treasure of a similar kind is preserved in the sacristies of the that within the side by at Chudof Monastery and the Ascension Convent. are at once struck by the eccentric appearance of the Cathedral of illustration : St. BASIL.
a thing which has neither colossus. the 1737 great conflagration and all the vessels and domes with its the church. such as it is after subsequent alterations. 87 nothing that one has ever seen. it in its strict accordance with ancient 1812. as legends assert.' of cast iron of ' ' labyrinth of passages. Ivan the Idiot. of Astrakhan. a stalactite grotto turned upside down world . not Thibetan pagoda. chapels were added to it. a prophet and miracle-worker. and ordered 'that drawings. side should not produce another structure of equal merit.' who acquired also the epithet of Big-cap. reposes emblems his venerated of costly shrine little in harmony with the equally and crosses which he wore for austerity. and the innate compassionate feelings of the people are . idiotic taken from the Tartars. Napoleon. stable. It was pillaged and defiled by the Poles early in the seventeenth century. and the edifice. and in 1626 a fire which broke out in the dome of one of its chapels spread over the whole of Moscow. a for Christ's sake'). testant reader must bear in mind that idiocy is a form of mendicancy very common in Russia. 1555. Again. chapels eighteen destroyed Restored seven years later. each separate places different in colour and surmounting many of worship. which the movement of the air will presently cause to change in form. found in present form. his orders. an edifice formed of clouds It might be taken for a fantastically coloured by the sun. one is tempted to a whimsical will-o'-the-wisp. connected by a in a chapels Basil. it recalls . In one of the lower from the heavy iron head-piece on which he was wont to carry buckets of The Prowater as an exercise of charity. 1668. the tutelary saint.- THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. although the edifice suffered to the extent of being robbed and in the confusion used as a design. ask if it is Hindoo. by an Italian whose eyes were certainly not put out. a crystallised style. and belongs to no known One would imagine it to be a gigantic madresore. in order that he Seven years later. In another renovated in in 1784. the great cupolas of Basil the in fire that devastated the Kitai Gorod destroyed all Beatified. or vanish into nothingness. It has as now eleven domes. and again thoroughly and treasures within it. It was commemoration of the additional acquisition architect whose name remains unknown. built on this site (anciently a cemetery in which was buried Basil.MOSCOW'.D. when it became known by its present name. Mosque' to be destroyed. prototype nor similitude. and danger of the French occupation of Moscow. or In looking at this impossible church. after conquering Kazan. in the form of heavy iron chains is famed for the relics and the Another penitential weights chapel penance. with the treasure he had ' wooden church dedicated rebuilt in to in the stone A. Fortunately for later visitors not of iconoclastic temperament. were not carried out. Chinese.' Ivan the Terrible. Intercession of the Holy Virgin. this curio disappeared in 1812. but was not completed until the end of the sixteenth century.
princi- which are now better kept and lighted. worthy (1818) in memory of Minin and Pojarski. feature these is the A the Red Square will be replaced by a building more and of of the the in monument front of erected site. however. in which ladies improvements can do their shopping without discomfort either in the heat of summer or the excessive cold of winter. and at the neighbouring monasteries. appeal to charity fire. The and 1 thoroughfares in about the Kitai are scarcely re- Gorod if** cognisable by one who has not seen Moscow for A PEASANT COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CHURCH OR MONASTERY. is no same observation The may be made with regard to the appearance of the civic population.88 RUSSIAN PICTURES. most othercities and towns in Russia. recent years from a style of from the imits provement of pal streets. monks and nuns to be seen in the streets of the city. in the porches of its churches and chapels. Also. we must not fail to mention the al fresco mart . perhaps more painful. it. longer correct. much moved by Another common. the butcher and the boyar who drove the Poles out of Moscow in 1612. and the old Gostinnoi A some length of time. Dvor (Great Bazaar) on Apropos of markets. accounts given by previous travellers as to the great number of mendicant men and women. be admitted by any recent visitor to Moscow that the must. in striking erection of arcades or passages. as well as from the planting of trees in squares and boulevards. it. Moslike cow has gained much in more imposing building. consists in the exhibition of sores resulting from accidents by and It it is not unusual even to see beggars going about barefooted in winter. which is certainly betterdressed and more European-looking than even fifteen years ago. couple of years more.
of which we give an illustration. is well repre- It view the of sale animated scene and purchase in every possible description of merchandise.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. . The assemblage is of a decidedly uninviting character. 89 ~ ' - ' - under the walls of the Kitai Gorod. MOSCOW. in odour as well as in appearance. and the rawest material of Mussuffices to covy sented in it. whether THE OLD CLOTHES MARKET.
Indian and Persian in history of illustrated design. objects illustrating the Helleno-Scythian period. the it ere he enters the Kremlin. and two arches we find the Iverskaya Chasovnia. and sacked by the French. and at frequent ceremonies of blessing a new Emperor always stops to pray before its popular belief in annually realised house or public edifice. and models of interments in the South Russia. stone arrowheads and tools. within the Kitai Gorod. this unique and comprehensive museum will rival objects. and from its attendance at the weddings of the affluent. and the miraculous powers is so great that a very large sum is from the donations of worshippers. was brought from in Mount Athos 1648. at a respectful distance. with copies of contemporaneous the state Frescoes copied from the walls of St. are in two rooms full of early Slavonic When completed.. ravaged by fire. This is the most venerated image Moscow. it was rebuilt in 1859 in the style of noble Muscovite dwelling-houses of the .IX 1125. at the various epochs of man's times. worrying The next room brings us to the end of the Bronze Age. in fame and interest the Kremlin and all thereunto belonging.' or hideous idols details which will not bear reproduction here. ' Ekaterinoslaf. implements. Sophia Kief and from those of other Russian churches. the frescoes. and typical of Russian ecclesiastical art down to A. existence. on the outskirts of the surging. Savage man is seen on a and stones sticks a mammoth taken in huge fresco. busy throng. rich and poor. or chapel dedicated Iberian Mother of God. shudder at the ghastly frescoed representations of an interment at Bulgar on the Volga. A chief lies dead in a boat.90 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and from the visits paid by the ikon to the houses of the sick. from A room decorated with age down to modern and ornamented in a style of coeval In the first represents each such epoch. found in great numbers in the province of of stone in human form. One of the most remarkable of the modern buildings in Moscow stands at the end of the square opposite the Cathedral of St. represent After this come monuments at of religion in the Iron Age of Russia. and his wives. frescoes found in catacombs. earliest arms. The between to the its adjoining gate is the principal entrance into the Kitai Gorod. horses and dogs are being slaughtered preparatory to the burning of the boat and its contents. honestly or otherwise acquired. three apartments are relics of the Stone and Bronze Ages. this huge edifice of red brick is a the human species in what is now Russia museum is in which the in course by specimens of workmanship. and we a pit-fall. here deposited. so far as it can be denned. with The Babi. Basil. whose in ikon. mounds that are found scattered over to death with Early Arab geographers give graphic accounts of those sacrificial rites. in Varvarka Street. Some of its stone walls are alone of undoubted antiquity but. in the shape of mammoth tusks. Christian not later than the tenth century. art. of being &c. . Another secular building of high interest is the Romanoff House.
and offices. was born on this spot. which has also plate many secret recesses for the concealment of treasures. and The turret on the affording a charming view of the city from its windows. carvings built in of wood. sixteenth century. it boyar's apartments. a nursery. and a large room called the Chamber of the Cross. and a small study. As Granovitaya Palata. was . above the cellars. the family on great occasions in this apartment. a panelled stamped leather. consist of a vestibule. in which are shown two brass ink-bottles like those used in the in the was exhibited days of Chaucer. We in diameter) in it Founded commemorate the deliverance of the city from the French. the first Tsar of the The present dynasty. a room for female servants. a is in form of west surmounted by a vane the griffin. and the household assisted at matins and vespers.AfOSCOJf: THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. 1839. complete the arrangements of this storey. The principal exhausted. bearing the offensive and defensive weapons of the Romanoff coat-of-arms a short sword and a shield. and we Temple of the Saviour. An oratory. and including reception-room the bed-chamber. Tcrcm. Above is the THE ROMANOFF HOUSE. with adorned with rich wood. being on record that Michael. or banqueting hall of the palace. kitchen. in a house of the same kind. to sights of the Kremlin and the Kitai Gorod are now are attracted towards the grand go farther a-field. in which priests offered their congratulations on great Church holidays. whose huge gilt dome (ninety-eight feet and attendant belfry-cupolas shine pre-eminently over Moscow.
Being of white sandstone. the tower. the activity is connected the ancient empire naval he moved by capital of the In 1695. introduced in 1829 from a source twelve miles distant. the stone from which Moscow derives one of her most endearing popular appellations. supported by thirty-six marble columns. thirteen were meant to resemble the bow and the stern the extremities Structural accretion has destroyed all trace of a contemporaneous flag-ship. brings into relief the gold with which the walls and pillars are abundantly de- corated. it is as dazzling in summer as the sheen ' of the dome and bare-looking the interior of the casket the four cupolas that surmount this otherwise inelegant and But block. Outside have now Tower precincts we visited. to a Scotchman named building has been used as a pressure tower or reservoir in connection with a supply of water.' is the inscription over the on native material and labour. not the only as a but as an conspicuous object. in a mixed style. while THE SUKHAREF TOWER. spent exclusively God with us. quarried near Moscow. and after serving as the location of a naval school. and within recent years perfected by the appli- Farquharson. he caused this structure to be built in the form tall of a vessel. at a cost of two millions sterling. . entrance to the principal portico. which. is magnificent and elegant The ' beyond all description. the main of British capital. his enthusiasm for matters. and the surrounding galleries the quarter-deck. created. the direction of which was entrusted by Peter I. edifice with which. Lombardic and Gothic and two hundred and feet high. like the military and naval enterprise of our countrymen in more ancient days.RUSSIAN PICTURES. completed only in 1883. dark. representing the mast. highly-polished Labrador' marble. of Peter the Great in almost exceptionally. haul reliefs and other ornaments notwithstanding. of such resemblances. has played no unimportant part in the cation development of the Russian empire. the Sukharef claims our attention.
CHURCH OF ST.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. but it is almost superfluous to being say that a host of other buildings and institutions of high interest must remain un. I'oKROFSKI VILLAGE. It typifies the connection between Mary. CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY AT UMAILOF. The superposition of the cross on a crescent so often seen on Russian cupolas is not emblematical of triumph over Mohammedanism. From the Donskoi. 1 . NEAR MOSCOW. CHURCH OF THE VIRGIN OF KAZAN. MOSCOW. NEAR MOSCOW. she being represented in ancient Greek pictures with her feet resting on a crescent. in our pages. the mother of our Lord. and the cross. recorded . 1 FOUR CHARACTERISTIC RUSSIAN CUPOLAS. for the device was used ages before the expulsion of the Tartars from Russia. There 93 are monasteries in numbers all about Moscow well worthy of if not described mentioned. Danilofski. NICHOLAS. CATHEDRAL. AT MOSCOW. and Simonof monasteries delightful views of Moscow and its multitudinous cupolas are obtained their churches and sacristies being also well worthy of inspection.
Kursk Railway. The well-known Sparrow Hills afford. a village about six miles from the centre of the city. Izmailovo. Peter the Great studied the art of war.RUSSIAN PICTURES. In the seventeenth century the Tsars had a well-stocked menagerie as well as an aviary at this residence. on a glorious northern summer's day. rebuilt in 1679. It was built between 1775 and 1800. Grandsire of the Kolomenskoe. however. nothing remains except the church. and was occupied by Napoleon after the Kremlin had become too hot for him. on Tsars in the . the finest view of the ancient capital. the is another Petersburg. which Napoleon first beheld from their summit. Moscow ' ! Moscow and ' ! Another favourite trip by carriage or tramway is to the Petrofski Park Palace. and it was here also that he discovered Russian Navy. which we reach towards the hour of sunset. vicinity of Moscow. is an ancient domain of the Romanoff family. Standing on this slight elevation of the left bank of the Moskva. we can well realise the feelings of the French invaders when they caught sight of the Kremlin walls and the glistening domes before us. ancient seat of the St. In the palace. of which. on an island of the lake. however. RUSSIAN PEASANTS NEAR KUNTSEVO.' a boat now preserved at in a shed the ' Moscow. and exultingly shouted.
quantity of Russian agricultural produce. villas. within a few miles of Moscow. Thirty minor that vast estates monasteries were later attached to it. and such by the middle of the eighteenth century more than 106.1818. The mansion is of a somewhat later period. were consequently bestowed on the monastery. was rendered all the stronger by the appearance to him (as recorded in the annals of the Russo-Greek Church) of the Virgin Mary and the Apostles Peter and John. and to his extremely rude methods of husbandry. unimpaired by contact with so rapidly becoming we are and factory labour. population fealty and quit-rent to St. a nobleman of Rostof. . and twelve brethren. when its principal cathedral was erected. Our illustration. It was established in 1342 by Sergius. 1388. and jewels. and German colonists but the serf holds doggedly to his primitive plough and flail.D. Sergius. same enemies appeared before its walls a few years later. Frederick William III. One of the most remarkable of the holy places in Russia reach of Moscow by rail. w hen Ladislav of on Prince Dimitri Tartars. where the corn of the peasantry is generally threshed by the A large and increasing equally ancient method of the tramp of bullocks. or Monastery of the Trinity. The estate came to the Naryshkin family from the Tsar Alexis.000 male serfs. having his kingdom. who was also the father of Peter I. glad to find a primitive Russian village still occupied by stalwart specimens of the true Slavonic type of Moscow. by 30.000. except in the southern provinces. Few travellers fail to devote is within easy a day to an inspection of the Troitskaya-Sergieva Lavra. T . To the blessing he bestowed is ascribed the great victory gained on the Don over the and treasure in Lands. which her for is At so short a distance from modernised. which are naturally detrimental to the quality and the . Laid waste by the Tartars in 1408. and situated in pretty woodland scenery dotted with off. simple. but the inscription on a granite pyramid near the conservatory is worth recording : 'On the 4th July. A. son-in-law of the boyar Cyril Naryshkin. representing a In of at least owed 500.' viewed Moscow from Kuntsevo. engraved from a photograph taken on the spot. the monastery was re-established fifteen years later. after his death in 1392. King saving of Prussia. the Canterbury of orthodox pilgrims. gold. but unsuccessfully. thanked Moscow. One about six 95 of our miles pleasantest drives on a recent occasion was to Kuntsevo. farmers.000 Poles. quantity of agricultural machinery is sold at the two capitals to the larger landed proprietors. we find Russian peasant proprietors threshing corn with the Biblical flail ' ' ! The instrument is used throughout the rest of Russia. and is of little interest. The 1608 the monastery was besieged. silver. shows not only the character of the contemporaneous town life dwellings of the inhabitants of the central part of Russia.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. Here.. but also that of one of their agricultural processes. and self-denying Sergius to canonisation. and the claim of its abbot the pious.
and a variety of other articles of ecclesiastical crosses. and on coarse enamel and deft wood-carving. burdened nearly with jewelled ikons. in Last Supper solid gold. and we a enter ground. for the applications of In a glass case inserted in the altar the kisses of the orthodox faithful. The Cathedral of the Assumption. nearly completed in 1547. the figure of Judas being is Close to the ikonostas. and built in 1585. to whom in his youth they had afforded shelter against Streltsi. the interior interesting nature of representation alone of brass. incidents in the military of The the history monastery. the the tutelary saint. typifying the nine celestial hierarchies. at which monks sell ikons. which stands on the of the original edifice raised by The entrance is level with the Sergius. Of the twelve churches which it contains. not over clean. is larger. circuit. ' ' screen are seen his pastoral staff and other paraphernalia. of whom 100. the silver. Poland disputed and the most venerated site and doings of St. certain small parts of the body being left uncovered. with nine cupolas. Sergius being the principal subjects represented in pictures and photographs. monastery.96 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Dingy. of the is its rendered attractive only by the costliness and the In the archbishop's stall we find a contents. oil. and somewhat unsavoury from character. portico full of stalls.000 repair annually to the THE TROITSA MONASTERY. use or the life the presence of way-worn pilgrims. the most ancient insurgent are the last is the Cathedral of the Trinity. were repaired byPeter the Great. as much in connection with atrocious crimes as with prodigal The incorruptible remains of St. Sergius are exhibited in it. but curious chiefly for its . the These rights of the newly-elected Michael Romanoff. gift of Ivan shrine of one thousand pounds in pure in whose name recurs so frequently Russian history. acts of piety. a mile in walls. weighing the Terrible. pictorial tapers.
buried here. he caused to be inscribed the significant admonition. founded by the late Metropolitan Philaret as a retreat from the cares of his high office. The interior of the church is remarkable for its simplicity. Female worshippers are admitted once a year into the church at Gethsemane. recluses hardly ever leave their subterranean cells. Evangelists in it is attributed to the early part Of the other sacred of the thirteenth century. to whom so many was completed in 1/69. jewelled crosses. an renowned He is equally by Plato. next to the house in which he lived. to wipe a streaming brow. while the ardent worshippers look and feel as if they had emerged from a steam bath. but the extraordinary richness of those at St. in which vows of perpetual are being fulfilled by human beings in the garb of monks. A of the copy manuscripts. and emblazoned with a large cross in rubies of fine colour. the elegant Count Rastrelli. Let finds he within. an object Its treasures are of paramount of mostly is not among them a resplendent copy of the Gospels. given by the Tsar Michael in 1632. dedicated to the Ascension of the Virgin Mary. Peter I. designed by in Russia are due.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. headed eagle the throne of in wood commemorates is Boris Muscovy. Streltsi were seeking to wrest him 97 from his was concealed under the altar when the sister Natalia. and other ornaments. after the profuse gorgeousness of the churches we have just viewed. A detached building contains the curiosity to pilgrims. The sight is a strange one on a hot day in August. buried at the western entrance. in those less tidy days. In some catacombs beyond. or Hermit's Cell of Gethsemane. and a large twohis escape. The binding is beautifully ornamented with floral and arabesque patterns in enamel work. It is nearly edifices we need only notice the church of St. established in 1783 and learned Metropolitan of Moscow. which contains a library of four thousand old books and Sergius Radonejski. seclusion beyond is the Bethany Monastery. pious or mundane. and over which. Chief sacristy. a half from the monastery is the Sfciif. and in reality Not a hand can be raised in the densely-crowded edifice far from pleasant. usurper of We cannot but admire belfry. which edifices important three hundred feet in height. in which their thin linen and cotton clothing had not been removed. who have elected to breathe the pure air of heaven perhaps only once a year. We are to some extent prepared to see a large collection of imposing ecclesiastical garments. earlier date than the seventeenth century. effectually walled in.' not him who comes in here carry out the dirt short distance ' A ii . Godunof. contrasted with emeralds and sapphires of great size and beauty. Sergius seem to be worth all the treasures in the cathedrals and monastic establishments at Moscow and About a mile put together. painted in 1609. and we are still more impressed with its austerity when we descend to the neighbouring catacombs. frescoes.
in 1158. Ptolemy and other great cities on the main water-artery of the WE are bent on descending the Volga. and Bolgars subsequently formed powerful states on it. as flowing through the country of the Scythians and Sarmatians. IN CHAPTER A VOYAGE DOWN VI. and the Russian empire. tinder Rurik. and to the exercise of untrammelled liberty but because we desire to see the celebrated fair of Nijni Novgorod. sixteenth power had been destroyed in the sent fresh masses of nomads China century. Kalmucks. the bands armed of a Russian commenced observes writer. and after their Central Asia and ' ' . and Khirghizes) to the banks of the Volga. but with little accuracy.' by century came the Tartars.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. the Rha (great river) or Volga. OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. were in their turn subdued by means similar to those which have brought The the modern Russians to the frontiers of Afghanistan and Persia. Khazars. TIIK VOLGA. not because ancient geographers mention. we are inspired by the Vniz po Matushki. established by the Northmen at Kief. vniz po Volge (Down popular Russian robber-song a song with which the present generathe Little Mother. The Huns. after the foundation of the powerful Russian principalities of Suzdal and Murom ' ' (eleventh century) and the removal. but were gradually subdued and absorbed by the Great-Russian race. task. to Vladimir of the paramount In the thirteenth throne. MOSCOW. down the Volga) made familiar in their childhood as a were Muscovites of tion middle-aged song inciting to deeds of daring. These (Bashkirs.
H 2 .
' produced by the ' village industries of Bokharian. especially for grain. the depot in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the English goods imported at Archangel.A VOYAGE Suzdal has DOWN THE the VOLGA. A recent visit confirms an impression long space to a description of it.000 labourers find employment on the artificial waterway which thus connects the Caspian with the Baltic. from a small lake near the town of Valdai. who waived his claim to the treasure. of tea. like that. by an English merchant. to tion. of brought from the northernmost parts of the in the provinces of Moscow empire. namely inclined. still afford rich materials for the study of the aboriginal races by which they were held. ior been completed by detachments of Cherniayef and Scobelef. has. and desired that it should be employed in the We could. on its course of 2320 miles. in honour of our own country. modern arcades which protect his customers and himself from The formerly itinerant however. administraand to a great extent. the river than at take Yaroslaf. particularly the Mordva. so far as language. or Armenian. or even at Yaroslaf. brought and skins furs Central Asia. of cotton.' But although thoroughly Russianized. the assimilation that results from modernized intercommuniinevitable process of cation by rail and telegraph is rapidly depriving Nijni Novgorod of its older since mercantile features. to which higher up This is one of the a branch line runs from the Moscow Trunk Railway. if so service of the Almighty or in some benevolent object. oppressive . formed. But most travellers are content to make the easy railway journey from Moscow to Nijni (the lower) Novgorod. Persian. and of gaily-painted chests and other articles so extensively iron (most of under water. becomes navigable by small steamers. now taken refuge in the Russia. and now a great centre of manufacturing industry. 1652) with the proceeds of gold which a Russian trader had discovered in a cask sold to him as containing paint. have the patience to embark on the great river at Tver. One of the finest specimens of Russian architecture is the Church of John the Baptist. the great inland Caspian Sea. now in larger and larger quantities from chiefly sea-borne. at the time when the celebrated So much has already been written about that great fair is being held. while another sacred edifice in it is adorned with two Tradition says it was built (in leopards. the banks of the Volga. it We certainly found in in 1888 the same huge stocks of consequence of a severe flood). most important commercial entrepots of the empire. cosmopolitan gathering that it would serve no useful purpose to devote much Neva. are concerned. religion. and the Cheremyssi of Finnish or Ugrian origin. rain. at Yaroslaf. its travellers Few it where first position in that respect dating from the middle of the last century. of textile goods manufactured chiefly and Vladimir. Rybinsk. everything else nationally peculiar in Russia. means of canals communication was established between the Volga when by and the About 5000 craft and 100. the Chuvashi.
or at any other continental mart. to the before the Beggars exhibiting repulsive sores fear to withhold their donations lest their superstitiously charitable. propelled by the use of and commodious substitute for wood ago. be dwindling are in Nor the in craft appear numbers. cheap and inferior. great developbarges.er< VIEWS IN NJINI NOVGOROD descriptions to of the fair. and we might fancy ourselves at Leipzig.102 RUSSIAN PICTURES. more Turkish than Mongolian in features.~-:v3^^evi-. ' 3 and trim iron petroleum refuse as a cheap. Even the multitude of stalwart Tartars. The wares exhibited in those galleries are as a rule German. and who are always mentioned in heat.BAZAR : . they are unloading so quaint engaged and mediaeval-looking as they were only a few years ment of steam transport as fuel. and blinding dust. abundant. mercantile transactions be who in- fluenced by the evil one are likewise types that are fast disappearing under . .
travelling dclicatesse towards the source of the supply of caviar that delicious which no one can properly appreciate until he has tasted it almost We make our first real acquaintance with it at fresh from the sturgeon. The average consumption of bread alone is one and a half pound per man. from the peasant nightly entertainment for all sorts in a It was a novel spectacle to see a Russian untjik sitting upwards. benevolent merchant named Bagroff. supported by a nights of July and August. an ample dinner consisting of in with labourers are them supplied (about \\d. soup buck-wheat porridge the staple food of the Russian masses. and a cigarette in his mouth. is the honorary patron of one of several night refuges.} and of about one pound of kasha. see as we descend to the Caspian. how important a part it plays in We the occupations of the population on the lower course of the Volga. of Panslavist celebrity. Their clothes. ' ' ' at all spirits rare to find a labourer or ale are allowed. at one of the many restaurants are hunger by all inevitably bring us. supply some of the needed softness for body and head. in which six to seven hundred of the poorer labourers find a resting-place and glad enough are they to take advantage of the wooden ledge and the cast iron cylinder offered to them as a substitute for mattress and pillow. the present governor of the province. with a bottle of beer beside him. such as they are. rye bread is supplied gratis to the Near the that skirts the Volga are miserable casuals. but tea is available throughout the day. Count Ignatief. which takes its name from the city and its fair. Under the guidance of an officer of the civil service. while the poor are fed at a nominal charge per meal. 103 and enlightened administration of General Baranoff. not in the air.' Siberian Line For the sum of five copecks several soup-kitchens well worthy of a visit. we visited some very curious places of after a long stroll will and conditions of men.A VOYAGE the active DOWN THE VOLGA. to show us the holes and corners of the fair. or less than a penny. and the small amount required as covering during the hot At another of these refuges. but open merry-go-round. Shelter and food are abundantly provided for the absolutely indigent. our sorely tried olfactory nerves will soon Among discover the masses of dried or salted fish that have been brought from the rich fisheries on the Volga and Caspian. specially deputed the obliging governor. No capable of disposing of three pounds. on these arrangements is made good out of the revenue yielded by the the masses of goods stacked on the banks of the Volga and the Oka. for the consumption of the fastshall This alone is a trade of colossal proportions. but it is not . to which the pangs of Nijni Novgorod. on the strength of old acquaintance. at a The financial deficit charge of three copecks. or and black bread ad libitum. and we keeping orthodox. or piled on board the floating part of the fair. charitable fair. Here again. its first great tributary out of thirty-seven others. in a room of large dimensions. .
much reduced in height and circumference Although restored in 1620. and come down to the great turning-point in its history. which they enclose. who had already. the Dmitrofskaya and the walls The Kremlin we Tverskaya. the Cathedral of the Arch- angel. distinguishable by its eccentric colouring and dates its existence . if life. There was no disorder and national the student of to shock anything. their city of Oshel.' pass over the common episodes of Tartar invasion and princely internecine strife. in 1219. were. side of the ikonostas are dedicated to the patron saints of Minin and Pojarski. George. the deliverers of Moscow. so called from a privilege granted in 1641 a monastery dedicated to St. namely. Altars on either Tartar-looking belfry on the opposite side of the street. Nijni to ' ' became conspicuous as the place at which a company of Holstein merchants built the first war vessel ever launched in Russia under a charter for opening a trade with Central Asia. that the Prince of Suzdal took. see towering on the cliffs of the right bank of the Volga were built in 1511 by a Venetian. but our be hoped. there was not much.' Out of the forty odd churches outside the Kremlin.' inhabiting the country now known as the province of Kazan. could see the process of we European assimilation at work. although in one of its painful and demoralizing phases. It was for the purpose of arresting the incursions of the godless Bolgars. to whom a monument in the form of a granite obelisk was raised opposite the cathedral in 1826 by 'grateful posterity. is substantially a structure of 1227. in imitation of our countryman. in 1558. and consequently of high interest. The old walled city of Nijni Novgorod has in itself strong claims on to friend. of Rostoff Yaroslavski. crossed that sea in a ship that bore the red cross of St. a tributary of the Volga. who incorporated in them two towers which dated from the fourteenth century. Macarius. They after a great fire. not take it amiss if we record our gratitude towards our good Mr. and founded a ' strong settlement at the the Volga. we need only indicate the Rojdestvenskaya. The neighbouring unsightly Church of the Transfiguration from 1834. by way of the Caspian. Andrei Alexandrovitch Titof. There is no doubt that in this respect we were under deep obligations to the enlightened official who had supreme charge of us. Persia and India. near the mouth of the great Kama. accompaniment by detectives in plain clothes through the Kunavino quarter was sufficient proof that the tranquil surface exhibited to us was in a certain measure delusive. still prominently extant about In the same century. the intelligent traveller. and is remarkable only for its octangular. the removal to confluence of the ' Oka Low with We it of the ancient Fair of Makarief. seventy miles lower down the great river. it is no brawling . however. which he named Novgorod the New Town of the Countries. who may already be known to some of our readers as a learned archaeologist and comsummate connoisseur in matters of Russian ecclesiastical lore and art. Anthony Jenkinson. However. and he will.104 RUSSIAN PICTURES.
to Korsun. cases of swarthy representations. erec- Critics trace its 1371.A VOYAGE architecture.D. DOWN THE VOLGA. 993. and be must therefore the most ancient it holy image in Russia. A inscription on testifies that it was in painted A. the is most ancient the Annunciation. Of the monasteries Novgorod. when it was ravaged or tion by Purgas. and which existed. according authorities. on the banks of the Oka. to in some 1229. Before proceeding on our voyage. overlooking the . Prince of the Finnish Mordva to t ribe. 105 peculiar It was built in 1/19. or terrace at the extreme end of the city. or drive to we walk the otkos. Count by Gregory Stroganof out of a portion of vast riches acquired by goldmining at Nijni in Siberia. not far from the floating bridge. or Khersonese workm a n s h Greek it i p. in all attributed. by the Metropolitan sented to of the it Alexis. who probably Holy as pre- the ikon Virgin.
hundred Volga steamers of all kinds and dimensions American riverwith propellers. and confessed unreservedly that they had never been better taken care of than by the merry commander of the Novoselski. the other the should be the trimmer. criminal and political. as when we travelled on the Volga some fifteen years before. and our own personal insignificance in relation to the great works V 7 We of the Creator. Those of the latter Frisco. the founder of the steamship company. and all the blunt outspokenness of a Russian Slav with a shirdkaya natilra. Our good fortune has secured to us a commodious berth on board the Novoselski. ago by He was a real cosmopolitan. olga from its junction with the Oka. or wide. are favoured to the extent of We on board during our stay at Nijni. the Caucasus and Mercury Company are in a position to offer superior in relation to other on the advantages steam-ship companies Volga. so called after His Excellency Nicholas Novoselski. in the service of the Russo-American Company. and over all was below. extinguished some years the cession of the Islands to the Aleutian United States of America.' The engineer.' for his duties ' ' more appropriate name of the consisted solely in setting latter alight. and culinary requirements. on which we paced or settled ourselves comfortably whenever the great heat of the sun was tempered by a kindly breeze or moderated by a welcome cloud. clotted here and there with forests. The steamer was one of the many vessels that have American-typed supplanted the earlier pioneers of the Our cabins were our saloons above them. now so There is not one of the abundantly supplied from Baku on the Caspian. Volga. charge of a couple of men. The absence of smoke and of attendant soot was soon explained by the fact that the steam by which we were not ' propelled owed its origin. not to wood or coal fuel. and the originator of several of the greatest and most successful enterprises in Russia. but to the refuse of petroleum. tolerable accommodation.' as inscribed autoFew were the languages in which he could graphically in our note-book. or stern wheel iron steam barges and tugs that now uses any other description of fuel. the spacious top deck.lo6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Led by the attentive captain to the we found in it engine-room. and of finding a charmingly and eminently intelligent and communicative commander in the person jocose of Sea Captain Felix Alexandrovitch Pietroschiewich. with the cuteness and droll levity of a Yankee.' description were appropriately garbed in the American-English of to which this real salt-water tar had traded during the greater part of his life. expansive mind and habit. see a far-reaching alluvial plain. and are impressed by the monotony of the landscape. one being the five craft stoker. Subsidised for the carriage of mails and exiles. in the matters of punctual speed. an aboriginal of the coast of Croatia or Dalmatia (evidently the scene of his nativity). bv . sleeping ' convey either his serious or his merry thoughts. A majority of our party had travelled from Australia.
on the ground of not having paid his fare. There were few races in Europe or Asia that were not represented among the five hundred passengers embarked in the Novoselski. and peasants. like companions. Persians. turquoises. camps of their own. We were travelling by one of the best mail steamers. gazing . including some of a soldiers TEA URN. were huddled together on the second deck. including priests. or tea- he the had aid frequent with and comA RUSSIAN TRADER WITH HIS panionship of his prikastclii or clerk. his samovar. The was accompanied by to which urn. distinguished by their cleanliness and their stores of pillows and warm coverings.A VOYAGE means of DOWN THE VOLGA. There was but little talk among them during the daytime. the jet of petroleum refuse conveyed under each of the lour boilers and set free by the turn of a cock. more than usually indigent and untidy in his outward appearance. who were merchants or cotton. knpcts. recourse. sufficed to arrest at a stopping-place the further generation of steam. notwithstanding occasional disembarkations. or trader. from their more lowly in Christian not. 107 a rag saturated with naphtha and ignited by a lucifer match. All sorts and conditions of men and women above the trader stratum of Russian society were assembled in the saloon cabin. madder. The petroleum is furiously over the bottom of the boiler by a jet same nozzle. and subsequently increased to nearly seven hundred. which was spent in eating and drinkand on at the busy activity numerous places of call. scattered into spray as it issues from the supply-pipe. ing. Russian silk. apart slept soldiers. was very soon put on shore. All had more or less a well-to-do appearance. themselves. and the rougher classes of the Russian population were consequently in a minority. the fair of Nijni was yet scarcely on its decline. and Tartars formed Bokharians. sleeping. on the other hand. crack regiment of guards on furlough. divided for that purpose into two parts. the closing of which. and excepting only a village priest. The Asiatics and the and made to burn of steam issuing from the lower classes. who. each passenger more or less snug at night on mattresses and felt rugs. They in rows and batches.
when Ivan the Terrible. subdued it. and especially of the Volga provinces. un- climatic barrenness of the that soil conditions under which they have so long struggled. representative of different sections of society. was much attention. until we approached Simbirsk. The reverse outside the precincts of hotels and restaurants. and the unsanitary state of their supplied with chimneys. and.000 of them left favourable industries living in out their last the district. It is Russian. have contributed to this result. this day. that a foreigner acquainted with the language is often placed in a condition of some embarrassment. is To belabour unmercifully any one who may come in their way during their weird operations. we dropped down the Volga at the rate of nineteen miles an hour. and often retired. with an army of 150. At Kazan we find a very different population. the bounds of newly-sown fields. a town of 5000 inhabitants. the unremunerative character of the simple them. The days. with a for this is the strong admixture of a handsome and vigorous Tartar element ancient capital of a Mongol kingdom which flourished between 1438 and 1552. the old women of a village sally out at night unclad. and entertained and instructed by the vigorous discussion of political and social questions. The abnormal number of idiotic and deaf and dumb children is another symptom of the moribund condition of the Cheremyssi. on the outbreak of murrain among cattle. them from drought and destructive insects. There indeed no part of Central Russia where these have been better preserved. under similar conditions. on the right bank of the river.io8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. they are in reality more than half pagan. dark and the atmosphere that commenced. and next day touched at Cheboksary. It is so far the cool. dancing frantically round each hut. too The scenery. Every year also the young girls of the northern forested region of the Volga beat. winding. the channels. and we soon get accustomed to were being towed up shifting monotonous to attract the Volga through after its strings of barges that shallow. the criticisms state of affairs which he cannot help hearing being generally very strong against the present and the powers that be. slaying to protect . was then discussed with a freedom that would astonish those who had been led to believe that in such matters Russia is a country of mutes. . This is the town of towns of the Chuvash race. over which the secret police is supposed to keep close watch. It was the ladies had the night become economical sociability condition of the country. and have contributed greatly towards keeping alive among the population of the middle course of the Volga the customs and superstitions of remote ages. the they occupy.000 men. With these fellow-passengers. which are not nominally Christian. and it is equally interesting as the capital of a barren district in which another ancient ' ' Finnish people the Cheremyssi are evidently There are not more than 100. Although are to known dwellings. accelerated as it has also been by the prevalence of goitre and other diseases. and whom they pursue with wild cries as an impersonification oi death.
after the model of the Assumption in Moscow. built Its altar within the Kremlin is that of the in marks the city. pears. founded in 1804. planted a cross after he had stormed the the original In the church of a convent close to of the ' the Kremlin walls the is ikon Virgin in of Kazan.' to which deliverance of 1613 was attributed. and attended by about six hundred students. is visited on Wednesdays and Fridays for devotional exercises by crowds of pious Tartars. a Lector of the English students have the of the benefit universities language. for the heat the we subsequently were became so intense caviar that down we supported ourselves principally on and . It was under city length. and its some of its ancient appearance only in its Kremlin Sumbeki Tower. we refreshed ourselves melons. Similar waste may be observed over a purpose was rich stable manure of within the zone of black earth. It is supposed to have been originally the minaret of the mosque (demolished in 1552) in which the Khans or Tsars of Kazan were buried. our steamer. especially great part thrown of stables are into ravines. Chief among the numerous public institutions of Kazan is its University. under the rude and obstinate sweepings belief that the land is not in need of any stimulant or restorative. parched and grimy. the costliness of its ornamentation is insignificant compared with that of the copy we have seen in the Kazan the Poles Moscow from Cathedral at St. by and we were astonished to find that the material used for that partial repair. although Oriental languages were formerly the principal As at most other Russian objects of study at this seat of learning. The most interesting of the churches Annunciation. We pass the Admiralty suburb. and to the left of the causeway our attention is directed towards a pyramidal monument raised on a small mound over the bones of the Muscovites who fell at the capture of Kazan. five miles in is connected with the which the river bank. The site of their graves. 109 all troops of the Tartar Tsar. in ! we half-smothered suburb. and in it dust. on the west face of the tower. 1562. while far away to the right we see the mosques and minarets of the Tartar rattled.. walls The city retains in (of 1568). in which Peter the Great built a flotilla for the Volga and the Caspian. to visit the city in a carriage that A stoppage of four hours enabled us had been ordered by telegraph. Although adorned with a diamond crown presented by Catherine II. apples. chiefly of surgery and medicine. The latter is an object of great reverence to the ten thousand Tartars of Kazan. who thus keep alive the memory of their ancient rulers. where the Russia. Petersburg. along the high causeway. so good a provision. grapes of which voraciously with the delicious fruits we bought a small sack full for a few coppers at the long row of stalls Hurrying back to displayed that until close to we had made the sun went And glad landing-stage.A VOYAGE the DOWN THE VOLGA. spot on which Ivan IV.
and we reach one of the centres of the grain trade at Simbirsk. the Novoselski sped again down the muddy waters of the Volga. washed down by cool cups of Badminton. itself the contingent recipient of the waters of five hundred and seventy-four affluents. iron. and other produce of the interior of Siberia. water-melons. who preferred The tanks being filled by means of hose with a supply of oozy petroleum and after embarking a fresh refuse. manufactured out of Caucasian or Bessarabian wine. insurgents. Numerous on the villages and groups of storehouses river bank tell us thatwe are passing through the great corn-producing districts of South-eastern Russia. rebellious of the Cossack Don . to the wonderment of our less experienced sipping fellow-passengers. suffered in greatly 1670 from the bands a robber of Stenka Razin. a city of the seventeenth century. At about fifty miles from Kazan. over a course of 1 1 60 miles. the Kama River. hot tea. bringing to it a vast number of vessels and rafts laden with salt. but nevertheless its fortress the ultimately arrested victorious march of the A century later the IAKTAR MOSOUE AT KAZAN.no RUSSIAN PICTURES. joins the Volga. perched chief on a of cliff 560 feet 'above the level It the river. whole . a of travellers.
as a student at the University of Edinburgh and as a practical admirer and copyist of all good things that were British. whatever may mares' milk. that sparkles like champagne. and only a few remnants remain of the walls of the fortress by which the inroads of Next in Cossack robbers and nomadic tribes were eventually arrested. much of the trade and intercourse of Russia with Central The memories of Kalmuck and Cossack ravages Asia passes through it. for its buildings are mean except in the main thoroughfare. and being connected by rail with Moscow on the one hand and Orenburg on the other. Although this did not prove the case. who personated Peter III. This is the magnificent Count Orlof-Davydoff. with paving Clouds of dust hang over or pervade its broad streets. or bend formed Here begins the . whose late father devoted to its cultivation and improvement the knowledge he had gained in Scotland. and seriously threatened to wrest Moscow from Catherine II. An ordinary map of Europe shows the Samarskaya Luka. and we can say from personal experience that. It bears no evidence of being inhabited. is the capital of a rich agricultural of the same name. surroundings would be in keeping with such imposing resplendence. Volga between Stavropol and Samara. under Pugatchef. to the trade of Samara in grain and tallow is the supply of celebrity which the adjoining steppes offer to kumyss. be its is alleged far curative properties. the conqueror of Siberia. freely after subdue the rebels.A VOYAGE of the DOWN THE VOLGA. while the opposite side of the river is one continuous cornfield or grass meadow. There is nothing of interest in Samara. Its efficacy those who are afflicted with diseases of the lungs and kidneys. by the estate of a population of 65. and had imagined that its in Russian towns. by noble landlords. in the seventeenth century have long been extinguished. except when a copious shower has converted them into the deepest and blackest of mud. with thickly-wooded hills beyond. (suffocated some ten years previously). through which men and cattle have to trudge until the sun has reasserted the supremacy of dust. like province Simbirsk. like so many other Ermak. or fermented mares' milk. and the Empress had been brought to her in an iron Pugatchef army to its only really pretty part of the Volga right bank rises in cliffs of curious formation.000. We had long watched our approach to the shining silver domes of the red brick cathedral and belfry of Samara. village on the right had who previously. the steamer leaves Samara and passes Pretty landscapes open out after bank has been named after the Sulphur Hills. HI country at this part of the Volga joined another rebellion. also a Don Cossack. A . which is about the only one that can boast of what is called which. yet it is a city of great commercial importance. has for some time past been recognised in England. It required an breathed more cage. from being a repulsive beverage even to the sound and healthy.
the of snow. a town situated at the foot of a hilly background. It enables trains to design and execution. so called from the fact of their having been permitted to return from Austrian Poland. to Irghiz River begin stretch the neat and thriving German colonies . Within the of the district are the Palestine seceders to the Austrian Confession. (From a contemporaneous pritU.112 RUSSIAN PICTURES. magnificent in run uninterruptedly from St.} of limestone that have the appearance hermit cells of Cheremshansk. We religious are not centre an ethnographical and long in reaching. the principal goal of the migrating peasantry. been Volga pirate. Beyond prosperous domains of the Old Believers. persecuted by the succession of their bishops as stoutly as it does that of our own Anglican prelates. the broad Volga is spanned for the first and as yet the only time by a railway bridge. a Cossacks. asphalte Europe. Near Syzran. Other villages of piratical origin dot the the Cavern Hills. containing the largest deposits of next to those of the Abruzzi in Italy. or dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. with patches Petersburg to are the AN ANCIENT PIRATE RAID ON THE VOLGA. From the mouth of the of a widely different character. one of whose principal settlements is Khvalinsk. our next great station. where they had taken refuge when being This still denies the apostolical Russian Church. until in banks we reach Orenburg. at Ekaterinenstad.
. while neighbours adhere doggedly to the Lutherans keep themselves A COSSACK OF THE VOLGA.A VOYAGE by Catherine Russia. at least In the provinces of Samara and Saratof these colonists number religion. planted with the agriculture in their primitive That result has object of improving the condition of so far not been attained beyond the boundaries of the colonies. DOWN THE VOLGA. . II. entirely aloof socially. and retain strongly their prejudices against the Russo- Greek and particularly against intermarriage with those who profess it.000. whose Russian modes of husbandry. 300.
notoriety is prominent Razin Another connected with robber deeds. its history is one of bloodshed. is passed on the but the most important a bank. linseed. a town which was founded and fortified . miles. From Saratof the Volga takes a direct southerly course for a considerable distance. and it may be hoped that the citizens will not much longer delay the of their streets with gas. with an extensive trade in grain. and eighteenth and Nekrasof The redoubtable Pugatchef bombarded it from the Falcon Hill. Russian and foreign. Built on hills. and the excepadvantage of waterworks con- structed with the aid of British capital. frowning undulating ground within an Saratof is a handsome and amphitheatre important of bare of and city 112. Saratof is now a prosperous emporium of trade produce. tobacco. render city most European-looking on the Volga. lower courses of the Volga. cases has a and in some cliff of name its own.114 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and murdered all those who rebellion against the shaved in compliance . (1708). it contains.000 it inhabitants. It was a subsequently ravaged robber bands of Stenka Razin then held century it thriving place on several occasions it so far back by 1635. In 1700. mostly of the Stenka period. Like all the other towns on the middle and the suppression of piracy. fine tallow. agricultural Surviving Its all these misfortunes. whose gallery of pictures. There was evidence it the and promise of still greater improvement. one of the numerous British officers Its fortifications proved very useful in then serving the Tsar of Moscow. 1668 instigated by the Don Cossacks. 1830 and 1848. German in by Colonel Thomas Baillie. A TARTAR LADY OF THE VOLGA. lighting They have reason to be proud of the Museum of Art with which the city has been endowed by Professor Bogoliubof. and highly other its many public and private buildings. the citizens rose in reforms of Peter the Great. Each sionally intersected by ravines. couple of hours after leaving Saratof stopping-place is at Kamyshin. with a breadth of nearly three right bank and are occamostly perpendicular. in wheat. broad and paved tional streets. and visitations of cholera in was pillaged by the rebel Cossacks of Bulavin . and to this long list of disasters must a neighbouring bluff 560 feet high be added the ravages of the plague in 1807. a celebrated painter. bluffs The on the are large left colony. in the as but was The until 1671. Kalmuck Tartars.
growing commercial from the presence of a apparent whatever Jew-baiters may say to the the great and contrary. ' ' A mustard seed. and the new large storehouses on the river bank. and justly acquired the title of the Naphtha King. and delivered at Tsaritsyn into naphtha-cars. we find ourselves suddenly a bright patch of German civilization. and gives our well-known Colman but little chance of competition. among other large and thriving villages trading in wheat and in salt. and or Moravian Brethren. and our passengers rush on shore to obtain a supply of the healing and invigorating cordial. yellow sand). so called after the enterprising Swede who started the industry. Almost buried flies about in clouds like the indigenous Tartar Sari-chin. At Sarepta. A amount of timber to Kalatch on the Don. Tsaritsyn (the of 36. two great and tanneries.A VOYAGE with his orders. Don (the Russian rivers of which the waters are not naturally or artificially connected) has diminished the importance of the place. where the goods are shipped the for Rostof. carries large quantities of salted and dried fish (a species of corigonus) from the Caspian. after which Catherine II. in the petroleum or kerosine trade of Tsaritsyn.' is well worth The oil stored on the river bank in the long rows of iron cisterns seeing. Not less important is Nobel's Town. and a considerable. prosperous colony of Hernhuter (Bruderunita) in t 1770 on communistic principles. and the fine shops it is only and ware- houses in the central square. 115 Pugatchef took the town. our next stopping-place but one. This to further whom.000 inhabitants. This is a neat. stone-built. strong balsam is also made here out of industries. looks as if railway and steam communication had roused it too early from the slumber of a Russian provincial town. great number of Jews. immediate vicinity. I 2 . which can be seen travelling in vast numbers over the rail net-work of European ' Russia. yet its former prosperity is to a great extent maintained by its steam mills. connecting the Volga with the Don. potteries. with a population mosquitoes. DOWN THE VOLGA. at the head of the Sea of Azof. caused it to be repopulated. Ragged children and in fine sand. belonging to the Nobel and other companies is brought from Baku on the Caspian in iron vessels. We can now only mention.000. the little town of Dubofka. short railway. having proved in practice to be inconsistent both with real liberty and with founded in modern of In addition to agriculture. Sarepta mustard is used all over Russia. the south of Russia owes much of its material development. 13. the colonists pursue a variety progress. that is attest importance of the place. raised in Elton Lake. which were subsequently abandoned. which squalid pigs roam about in most of its dirty unpaved streets. of which the most important is the preparation of mustard. and hanged all its inhabitants in 1774. Although the railway that only with now formerly the capital of the Volga runs between the Volga and the Cossacks.
but it extent of about seventy-five per cent. between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries. mentioned remains their chief temple. A little further down on the same side we come upon a short line of railway abutting on the Boskunchak Lake and The right bank is on the border of the Kirghiz steppe. to the . in which such concentrated. which Ivan the Terrible There is not It is now half Asiatic. held lower course of the MODERN TARTARS OF THE VOLGA.000 is the Kalmucks. although be found dotted over with Kalmuck encampments or kibitkas. the later capital of the Tartar kingdom. the Tartars. founded by the Kipchak Tartars. known in their later invasions Golden Horde. saltworks. the capital. ruled supreme over almost of Central whole the Asia. and.RUSSIAN PICTURES. the Persians. and forming the province of Astrakhan. Volga in such force as to be able to threaten Russian towns so distant as Penza and Tambof. after parting with the range of hills that had so long accompanied its right bank. another town of races is in Russia. At the place we have visit. and perhaps in the world.' of Muscovy as the Beyond is ' In four and a half days from Nijni Novgorod we end our voyage at Astrakhan. To our left the country appears unpopulated. subject to Russia since but who. 1655. Subduing the of Nogai Tartars. in alliance with the the wild Bashkirs. out of a population of 70. and the Armenians who are most en evidence to the European eye. the Central Asiatics. The Russians predominate a medley numerically. Tsitrakhan. they at one time. on account of their . in the twelfth century. and Cossack settlements. in which the it when explored will principal fishing. half cosmopolitan. is occupation chief is Kalmytski Bazaar settlement the the Mongolian Kalmucks. declining gently towards the Caspian. flows through a vast uniform steppe. for we pass villages (locally called Vatagas). of the kingdom of Astrakhan. conquered in 1554. The Volga now makes a sudden bend to the east. which many travellers are induced to in order to witness the religious rites of that once mighty Tartar race. comparatively lively.
in we find ourselves within the precincts of the ' Admiralty and . but gave to Russia the sovereignty over the Caspian Sea. and after the capture of Derbent and the acquisition also from Persia of Baku and the provinces of Gilian. of Holstein established with the countries on the opposite side of the The last local rebellion occurred in 1706. Peter the Great reached Astrakhan with a large force. belong to a variety of quaint craft well worthy of the artist's The history of the city has already been foreshadowed in our reference to Cossack rebels and marauders. not only made secure the possession of Astrakhan. and six years later Caspian. on our view as we approach the vast harbour between the main stream and the Bolda branch of the intricate Volga delta will be found on closer inspection to pencil.A VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. and Astrabad. 117 The forest of masts which bursts respectively peculiar dress and features. of the Caucasus and Mercury Company If we land at the pier Astrakhan. who in 1665 checked depredations the trade which frequent by their by permission of the Tsar Alexis the Duchy SrrSS" AN ASTRAKHAN BOAT. Mazanderan.
but transferred as a naval station in 1867 to small Here. for they are then harpooned in The larger fish are drawn on shallow places through openings in the ice. and mitres. while those of more convenient size are dealt present very difficult for any fish to with closely set hooks. and spring. name for this delicacy is caviale. and in the preparation of caviar. important a source of wealth. thirty We may observe in passing that the Russian yearly from Astrakhan alone. or in and then stored Isinglass is an ice-cellar. Canal. The in the city is the Cathedral of the Assumption. annual catch of these three descriptions of sturgeon is respectively 300. caviar being a corruption of the Italian of the only an attempt to reproduce the sound word word . are kept the yacht which he sailed. and 1.500. Their extirpation has been proceeding at a many years past. which is intersected by the Varvazzi is originally in liable. owing to the silting of the estuaries of the Volga.000. but excavated 1 744. whence they to store-houses. and no fewer than In twenty-five thousand men are engaged in the five thousand and odd vessels and boats that pursue the same industry on the Caspian. At Astrakhan the most valuable product of the Volga is the sturgeon (Acipenser stnrio and The average Acipcnser huso] and the smaller sevriuga (Acipenser stellatus]. of 800 and even rapid rate measures run up to 1600 pounds. partly on in of the delta which are too shallow for lines those branches ground navigation.000. at with in are carried hauled up to high landing-stages. founded by Peter I. thousands of labourers flock to Astrakhan to take part in its rich fisheries. At least forty thousand men and women find such employment at the Volga fishing stations. again.n8 Port. spinal marrow of the sturgeon. which. completed in 1710. 100. in the salting and drying of the fish. sacristy has one of the richest collections in Russia of vestments A Persian mosque stands in the principal street. and to a weight . the boat in and house built for the great Reformer. a collection of old arms and specimens The most striking edifice of the tools used during his reign in shipbuilding.' RUSSIAN PICTURES. channels of the Volga delta are practically barred.000. and the time is evidently approaching when be adopted by the Government for the preservation of so It is for the sturgeon. although averaging nineteen feet in length. produced by a process of drying from the inner part of the from its bladders. in a Baku. deepened by a Greek of that name in 1817. to be soaked for about twelve hours in brine. as well as models of ships. The thirty gear used is of the strongest pounds for will in weight. the boats. as a precaution against the inundations to which the city autumn. shore and cleaned on the spot. generally unbaited. is ikra. They are mostly taken partly in nets. winter. and a fine fish-glue is obtained are despatched barrels thousand which of The roe yields caviar. escape the ground-lines with which the many small Nor have the fish any repose even in winter.
the quantity of dry salt until it can be taken out by . DOWN THE VOLGA. and gradually enclosing it in a shallow bight. .A VOYAGE haviar. in DOG SLEDGE WITH FISH. it ripe. swoop down in It is a tradition thousands to gorge themselves on their artfully-earned prey.. 119 by which the Turks and Tartars knew it ages before its appearance After the fish has been cut open. while the inferior is merely salted and packed in ' ' The higher sort small barrels for consumption by the less wealthy classes. perfection beyond St. drained is and put under a when its superfluous moisture has been made of the bark of the lime tree (bast) packed bags The commoner sort of caviar replaces bread strong press. Fishing in the delta of the Volga is also pursued on a large scale by Spying. with the aid of sentinels. the best being converted either into pressed or grainy caviar.e. Petersburg. rest is and packed left in tins or barrels with is a small i. the sentries being also in due proportion rewarded for their vigilant services. they have pouched. a of quality. is reserved for the tables of the affluent. birds these clever that of the fishermen the disgorge the fish Volga among make a fair division them down on the sand. semi-transparent greyish colour. a school of small fish. sieves that retain the in which the roe is conis membrane passed through tained. and can seldom be found in in the daily menu of the labouring classes ' ' . a semicircle. the roe is taken in Southern Europe. but the grainy on the Volga no taste and with of fish or salt. ASTRAKHAN. in strong brine until it in balls. out and divided into two qualities. laying of the total catch. the hand off. after which. and. so far as the rest of Europe is concerned. they form pelicans.
Kursk in 1032. son of Vladimir COMING Russia Monomachus. SOUTH RUSSIA. and on the southAuthentic records attest the existence of east with Tsaritsyn on the Volga. the railway passing through the cities of Tula (the Russian Birmingham) and Orel.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY IN THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE RESURRECTION. three hundred and thirty-five miles from Moscow in an almost direct line. Kursk became one of the principal places on that line of defence against Its disasters and sufferings as a military the Crimean Tartars and the Poles. or black soil country. with Riga on the Baltic. OR NEW JERUSALEM. from whom it passed alternately to the Princes of Chernigof In the thirteenth century it was razed to the ground by and of Pereyaslavl. and in 1095 it was held by Isiaslaf. CHAPTER VII. MOSCOW. after Little Russia (the more southerly districts watered by the Dnieper) submitted to the Tsar Alexis. . the centre of a rich agricultural district connected by rail. on the west. and the Tartars. the first town of any importance in Southern is Kursk. In 1586 the southern frontiers of Muscovy were fortified. We are now almost in the heart of the Chernozem. outpost ceased only towards the end of the seventeenth century. from the north.
they were absorbed by the dominant Little Russia is. power. on an elevation. it had lower class of their horsemen. marches became safe and populated. The more southerly part of the province of Kursk is in the Ukraine. these into Russia a free man. and. or. those of Poland. in fact. or ancient border country. or flat and woodless condition. although it long denoted in anything he chose. for even the churches are mostly not older than the second half of the eighteenth century. Little Russia was another arbitrary name anciently a to of what has been also known as the Ukraine. PLOUGHING ON THE STEPPES. rather. It is a great relief to the eye to see at last a handsomely-built city like Kursk. relatively to the surrounding flatness. a man free to do been used by the Tartar hordes to designate the From the princes of the House of Rurik southerly districts passed into the possession of Lithuania.SOUTH so called from the rich black RUSSIA. however. 121 loam of which its surface is composed to a These vast plains were known to depth of two and three yards and more. and ultimately incorporated into provinces. perched. There is. later. Herodotus. and almost smothered in the verdure of numerous gardens. not much to see within it. This word is not Slavonic. and other ancient geographers only in their present steppe. Strabo. but Turkish and . a term now used only to denote the Southern Russians as distinguished . Its semi-nomadic population obtained in early days the designation of Cossacks. and for as the borders or especially to the Ukraine of the Poles or the Muscovites . No great part given fixed geographical limits can be assigned to either of these designations.
gradually . entirely spent in card-playing. although nearer akin to the Muscovite than to Russians become the Polish tongue. and and make the most of those qualities by adorning thembeauty grace. and with frost and snow that left scarcely four months in the year for labour in the field. resembling strongly those of the Roumanian and Transylvanian peasantry. there are well-appointed country seats in the South of Russia in which the long summer days are only for meals. tinge pensity to reckless hospitality. and even the race. refinement of the ease of their lives in a is attributable to the comparative a with climate more country. though a less muscular. and same an equal proof the as insouciance to the material future. selves in neat and picturesque costumes. or Great Russian. gardens. who were not freebooters like the old Cossacks of the Volga. however. also. Their lives are altogether more happy. and whitewashed cottages. finer-featured. The upper classes of South Russia. Vitebsk) Malo-Ros (Little Russian) is physically a better. Their houses are not like those of other parts of Russia log huts. full of deep feeling. social jollification. like those of all Slavs.122 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the every-day Except. and later with internal enemies. of vermin and cockroaches but wattled. to sport (principally coursing). in the case life of the Southern Russian There is a strong bears a strong resemblance to that of the Irish squireen. Poles and rebels. Indeed. from is principally the Great Russians of the more the central part of the empire. with thick forests which had to be cleared. surrounded by and kept internally in order and cleanliness. full. is a cross between the Polish and the Russian. and The women have both less rude and primitive in his domestic surroundings. with interruptions There are . as he of the con- temptuously called by his more vigorous northern brother. The men sing of the daring exploits of their plaintive and in the minor key. with swamps women of Little Russia fertile which had to be drained. enriched by the cultivation of large and fertile estates. man than the Veliko-Ros. and to a great extent to card-playing. generally. Cossack forefathers. There the Great and the White Russians had to contend with a soil much less productive. genial than that of the more northerly parts of the empire. He is taller. but courageous men engaged in a life-and-death struggle with nomadic The greater hordes. of the larger landed proprietors. The language of thought of these two branches of the Little Russian. Little Ethnographically. with wild beasts which had to be destroyed or guarded against. or Ho/iol. although their songs. There a strongly-marked difference cast in outward appearance. the fused with the White Russians of the north-west (Mohilef and The and with the Slovaks of the other side of the Carpathians. and favoured in their social development by long contact with the ancient Western civilisation of Poland. and not without a vein of romance are. thatched. is the mode Slav of life. exhibit a similar superiority over the bulk of their compeers in Great Russia.
' Proper. absenteeism has been largely on the increase. and vehicular locomotion is therefore resorted to only as a matter of necessity. parched. progress to the immigration of landed proprietors from the northerly and eastern districts of the Black Soil Zone. cracked. offers but few attractions to the surface presenting the next ladies. A PEASANT GIRL OF 'GREAT RUSSIA. and along a of black mud.SOUTH horses in RUSSIA. and of certain capitals and watering-places in Western Thus. indeed. on journeys to estates or towns often fifty to one hundred miles distant. 123 and vehicles of every description to which but they can be harnessed taking a drive through endless cornfields natural roads or tracks. ' ' . has no great attractions in any part of Russia plenty in the stable. and dusty one day. and ever since the Emancipation of the Serfs and the accompanying extinction of the power and authority of the proprietary classes.' Kief is the resort of the more ' towns. while Kursk and Kharkof owe much of their riches and . to the advantage solely of the principal provincial Europe. Country life.
who lived between 1050 and 1116. Its close intercourse with Constantinople. and in the ruined stonework of the gilt gate which Boleslas the Brave in the nth century opened with a sword (now in the cathedral at Cracow) that was contributed much The original long after used at the coronation of the Kings of Poland. grandson Vladimir to establish the Christian religion in his dominions.. at The first to arrive were Kief. as concisely as the subject will permit. Partly from motives of policy. Podolia. viking ships.' Mother of Russian planted men on their from the seat of the paramount throne of the Variag (Var&gr) principalities. and a very interesting epitome of it exists in the History of the Eastern Chnrcli. Traces of them are to be found only in the much-restored Cathedral of St. and so his marriage with the to its sister of the Emperor of Byzantium.D. From century that time also Kief has continued to be the Jerusalem. Nestor. swept away the grand monuments of sieges Christian antiquity which the city once possessed. first by the Lithuanians (from 1320). Regent of Kief. Conflagrations. when by a treaty with Poland the Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnieper. towns. and to become the founder of the Russo-Greek Church. as we have previously mentioned. who urged him to believe in their religion and to honour Mahomet. we proceed to give.D. Scandinavo-Slavic character of the great city was lost during the occupation of the provinces of which it was the capital. which they reached by descending the Dnieper and crossing the Black Sea in 200 About A. gives a very circumstantial account of the conversion of Vladimir in A.124 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Olga. the Canterbury of the Russian empire. had embraced but it was left to her Christianity at Constantinople about the year 955 . an account of the great event which made it glorious and memorable to all ages. 1496. But interrupting here for awhile our description of the city. prosperity and importance that in the nth no fewer than four hundred churches stood within its walls. In the year 986 envoys from the different religious bodies of the then known world came to Vladimir. after the conversion of Vladimir to Christianity. intestine and Tartar wars. and then by the Poles until 1667. south-western ' princely landlords of the affected by Polish culture. 1500. strongly and favourably by Northway Novgorod the Great to Byzantium. the conversion Muscovy regained Kief. 882 it became. and Kief (of which Kief is the seat of administration) passed finally under the Russian sceptre. 988. To the question In what late Dean Stanley's Lectures on tlic which we shall ' . together was only at the second partition of Poland (1/93) that all the districts which now constitute the South-western Provinces of Volhynia. Mussulmen from the Bolgar kingdom on the Volga. Sophia. to induce him to abandon pagan worship. commotions. viz. from here quote a few passages. It with ' ' of the Russian people to Christianity nine centuries ago. in and 1240. In Kief we see the districts.
you wish to teach others you whom God has rejected and dispersed ? Do you wish. who made the heaven and was the true the stars and the INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY INTO RUSSIA. in a summary manner. nor What. says the late Dean Stanley. : accept the prohibitions. whilst thy gods are of wood. the requirements of their and their dissidence from Christians and Mahometans. He derided the religion and . 125 does your religion consist ? they replied that they believed in God. and also in what the Prophet taught circumcision. who explained their belief. which was then ' fearfully ' expecting the end dency. dispersed for their sins throughout the world. that we should suffer the same ? ' . ' ' A ' Philosopher from Greece ' came last. Drinking is the great delight of Russians. moon. Vladimir told them to go home. the Papal See become the prey of ruffians and profligates. and above all.' said Vladimir. under a general feeling of desponhaving at that epoch.' They came from the Pope to tell him that of the world. abstinence from pork and wine. their religion earth. They had been led to confess that they had been fathers ' Our did not believe in your religion. however. The rude prince would not.' he said.' with the objection ' : did they receive it from the Pope. and after death life in a harem.' On learning that the law of the Latin Church commanded fasting. one ' : We fear God. perhaps. and eating and drinking only in honour of God.' Some Jews. and every living creature.' Next came the representatives of Western Christendom. 'we cannot live without it.SOUTH ' RUSSIA. the prohibition of drinking. were also dismissed law.
the sister This sacrifice was made. founded by Heraclean Greeks. ! sent wise men 'to examine the faith of each and the manner of their worship. For this purpose he scene ' . practice of the the Mahometans. find in this objection such combine the beautiful and fully satisfied at Constantinople. condemned world the celebration of Mass by the Roman Church Churches triumphed which was of with unleavened bread the had been in the point on which the two greatest torn asunder and explained why the the Jews to 'Germans and Greeks' believed over the ' Him whom by had crucified. and even their idols were coarsely hewn out of wood or stone. 300. at that celebrated the of for its ceremonial both of Church and period splendour It was in the Church of St. 988 in the Church of the Holy Mother of God. deacons issuing from the sanctuary with torches in their hands and with white linen wings on their shoulders. and at whose presence the people fell on their knees and cried. was baptised A. which surpassed all others in the grandeur of its form of worship. subjecting to a similar fate the Byzantine capital 1 Lectures on the Eastern Chttrc/i. Kyrie eleison ! They were told by the wily Byzantines that these were angels who had come down from heaven to mingle in the service and wanting no further proof of the trueness of the Greek religion. they had no ornaments nor beauty. Under the stern orders and Christianity. a marriage between himself and Anne.' It is curious to ' ' . gorgeous with gold and mosaics. 2 See p. and then made as a condition.D. and that their stench was insupportable Roman Churches they represented that although they were better than the Mussulman mosques. Happy right sinners who are on the left But he would not consent to be baptized until he had been more fully instructed about each religion. The prince painted are those who on are the woe to the impelled to exclaim. ' early evidence of an innate human yearning to the impressive with religious worship. Vladimir did not long hesitate to act on the recommendations of his But he first besieged the rich city of Khersonesus in the Crimea.' These reported in A. and Vladimir of the Emperor Basil Porphyrogenitus. There is no record of any adornment in the rude temples of the Pagan Northmen and Slavs. envoys. p. He on was other the envoys of exhibiting Vladimir a tablet the Last Judgment. now replaced by a splendid cathedral in commemoration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to This was effected wholesale. and of his immediate conversion to Christianity. . they hastened back to Kief. at 2 Khersonesus. 987 that the Mahometans prayed with their heads while of the German and covered.D. Sophia. both of not ' . that the Russian emissaries witnessed a service which had This yearning appears to have been purposely been rendered more than ordinarily magnificent. 147.126 RUSSIAN PICTURES. then all State. They were struck but what most by the multitude of lights and the chanting of the hymns filled them with astonishment was the appearance of the deacons and sub.
and It remains essentially Eastern. on whom the Russian Church has conferred the same tine the title as that of Constanto Great : Isapostolos.. except in the case of danger to life and under other urgent circumstances and affirms. swam. . Perun. in close . almost effected exceptionally in Europe. Gaul. or ' Equal an Apostle. and dispensations of complete submersion of the body at baptism. and a by a Martin. influence.. predestination. whilst the priests procured from Constantinople read the prayers. of course. whose doings we sketched on our way to Moscow. and Germany were Chris- tianized respectively tine. recently deceased). We may well agree with Nestor a sight wonderfully curious and beautiful to see. rejects holds the necessity purgatory.' that it must have been ' From this centre the Christian the example. Tolstoi. Romanism in Russia (the eminent Minister of the Interior. Eucharist. the huge wooden idol. it It does not. indulgences. it was without the agency of missionaries. connection with autocracy. others in the waters of the Dnieper . but there was no in Russia corresponding apostle except Vladimir. all the men.' It would lead us too far to describe. however faintly. From the Roman Catholic Church differs strongly on many points. that the holy bread must be leavened. during the reigns of Peter I. principally by Nicon. subjected to changes in matters of liturgy. whilst admitting the doctrine of transubstantiation. doctrine. some plunged in.SOUTH RUSSIA. England. and reformed to a certain extent A NUN COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CONVENT. 127 threats of the prince. scourged by twelve horsemen. an AugusBoniface. point out the prominent fact in this conversion. Suffice it to was that it consolidated between the say beginning of the fourteenth century and the middle gradual of the seventeenth. the author of religion spread gradually over Russia. and cast into the river. recognise the and in respect of matters of faith and spiritual supremacy of the Pope denies that it the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son. II. Another important distinction is that. was dragged over the hills at a horse's tail. by of the lesser princes of the Rurik line. in regard to the . on the secular or . the development of the RussoGreek Church through the four periods into which its history is divided. or command Both the late Dean of Westminster and the late Count D. women. Catherine and more recent sovereigns. and children at Kief were bathed some sat on the banks. namely that.
As doctrine regards the Anglican Church. The Englishman. uneducated masses with which they are socially blended militates against their worldly Their position in the social scale is well exemplified in the regeneration. This was an advantage which Pagans converted by the Latin Church were not permitted to possess. she divulged that she would like to ask the village priest to dinner And yet he was no ordinary rural pope. although a second marriage is forbidden also retains the Gregorian Calendar. and which accounts. language. is to a widowed The Russian Church obligatory. During the greater part of the Mass the " royal doors (in the altar screen) The ceremonial . or associated with his staying at country ' ! love of vodki . however. co-operation could be established between the Churches for any useful purpose. in his oft-quoted work : ' Maskell of the Greek Church is excessively complex. that the Church Slavonic is now practically almost as different as Latin is to the vernacular of We Catholic countries the purest in ethnological descent. who declared that his kindness to the priest was much more than she had expected even from his known amiability The services of the Church are conducted in the old Slavonic. into which the Scriptures were translated after Cyril and Methodius had introduced the semi-Greek alphabet. marriage priest.' his to do own tilling and compelled harvesting. but a man of orthodox learning. for the the father's it ! Russian. took a seat beside him. the lady of the house highly-educated noblemen in Russia. Many generations will Russo-Greek faith. following anecdote. well informed also on lay matters relating to his own country. ' ' white clergy. cannot compress even a superficial reference to the services of the Roman Russo-Greek Church into fewer sentences than those used by Mr. for which he was profusely thanked by the hostess. Their almost entire material dependence on the rude. and after much genuine hesitation on the part of the lady. and observations was so great that ' the interest he Time propagation of Christianity in Russia without the aid of missionaries. it is difficult to see what practical harmony and conceded. and clad in a handsome cassock of mauve silk. and the symbolical which it the represents meanings by dogmas of religion are everywhere made the subjects of " minute observance. who parishioners in their happened took in to ' know little was mistaken for an excessive politeness. the Not very many years ago a young Englishman was house or mansion of one of the greatest and most To his surprise. scrupulously clean.128 RUSSIAN PICTURES. so much modified the Russian ancient has. and communion between these two have to pass before the Russian clergy attain a high level of culture. which is still used with some modifications. in some degree. said to him one day she had a great favour to ask. are unreconcileable with those some of of the the principal points of another great stumbling-block against official Churches continues to be the denial by the Russian Synod of the apostolical succession of the But even if these points were Anglican bishops.
Now from one corner comes a chant of many closed . effect is bewildering. and a fleeting another a single one intones. unlike any other lies yet underneath original the tinge of Orientalism. when as the clock strikes twelve the announces that Christ is risen.' the modern four lines style with five lines in not the Gregorian. now from . tones now used Church long been written as in in the Russian are comparatively They have clef. that the in said A SOUTH RUSSIAN WOMAN. through glimpse is gained of To a stranger. now and again entering for a short or pope popes pass throughout the church. crossing himself and responding ' officiating priest K . . no is instrumental music of any voices Bass permitted. of extraordinary It is depth and power are the most desired. the deacons remain to for the time. modern. Then they are the thick the celebrant rolling clouds of incense.' The cords religious music dis- of Russia ' has a peculiar charm of its own. the treble clef. the closed again suddenly. unable to follow and in ignorance of the meaning. in turn the voice of the officiating priest is raised within. barbaric music. in the deep bass tones of the men mingling with tive the ol is plain- trebles younger indescribIt voices which able is in its harmony. far above the barbarous that are to be heard in Greek and other churches of the East at the present moment.SOUTH are RUSSIA. accompaniment. amongst the crowd. From time time a voices. There is a sweetness and attractiveness in the unaccompanied chanting of the choir.' on which each member of the crowded congregation falls on his knees. incensing holy pictures answered in deep tones by the deacons without. . 129 most part without. Now the doors fly open. in on the tenor or bass Next to a coronation at Moscow. the most gorgeous ceremony of the Russian Church is that of Easter Eve. and is the . . the wailing tones of all No kind.
the site of the famed monastery of that name. however. 1889. bursts out the Church bell in The churches are on the largest and sweetest in tone of any in the world.' The choir . It is now. tells heavily The exchange of dyed or painted eggs at the time of paschal salutation is a general custom throughout Russia. beforehand. with Christ is risen. is bound to carry in his Friends. .' or Easter less curious No is it to know that a competitive tapping of dyed eggs at Easter-tide prevails also in some parts of Sweden and Norway. and groats mixed with hempseed oil. as a rule of 'Yea. steep elevations of the right after a course of more than 1000 miles Sea Black the into falls which rivers in Russia). and is regularly laid out with broad streets worthy of the handsome houses 1 St. by which which rolls furthest his and he can also win the competing eggs own well-directed egg may touch while rolling. the people rush back to their homes. days. or Town on the Cliff. to break the fast which a majority Bread of them have kept. and no one who village rings out can realize the impressive effect of the ringing of so many bells. while the tables of the higher and middle classes groan also with viands and refreshments of a more solid kind. irrespective of sex. then give to each other three kisses.RUSSIAN PICTURES. until the salutation has been hand.' and. will be found even in the lowliest cottage. Easter-tide game is existence Monday. James's Gazette. As soon as the service is over. on Pace-egg of very similar games with eggs 1 has recently been reported from Northumberland. to inordinate indulgence in on the public health after Easter is over. the hardest point crack the weaker shells. ' day. Those with the testing of the relative strength of eggs. . beer and vodka continue ' ' to flow throughout the country for sudden break from subsistence on several fish. and the Podol. ' exchanged with each friend or acquaintance. the Pechersk. do so for some time after Easter Sunday. the ancient Borysthenes. \Yine. prince or pauper. with the result that this dried mushrooms. the city is divided into (being therefore one of the greatest the Old Town. and hard-boiled eggs dyed mostly red. town. Picturesquely perched on bank of the Dnieper. chandeliers. Another favourite on the smooth floor. April 27. congregation adding wax taper which each worshipper. as a matter of fact. and therefore win the wager It is curious that the which may be the damaged egg or a small coin. or hymn has not been in Russia its merriest peals. lustres. and so are the games played with those such as rolling them down a hollowed-out piece of wood raised at one end ecrgs The victory is to the owner of the egg a stand about twelve inches high. sotto voce. continue to the paschal salutation. both consecrated and a kind of conical cake made of curds. in the beautiful simultaneously every city. and huge this great occasion bathed in light from of illumination from the no small amount the candelabra. meat and drink. The latter is the commercial quarter. time to return to Kief. more or less strictly. verily Easter He has risen. for the previous forty days.
with the relics of a Metropolitan who was decapitated by the Tartars in 1497. the above Equally interesting Metropolitan's hemispherical vaulting are the Greek frescoes on the wall-supports and partly in the upper galleries. 1 The Lithuanian Perkiin. containing the principal official and other residences. wearing the These effigies bear witness to the Catholic tonsure and with shaven chins. have been preserved on the altar walls and in places on the wall-supports and the arches. its adherents having been re-united to the Russo-Greek Church by official 2 conversion and 'administrative measures. and shaded with fine old trees. convex surface of the figure in mosaic is that of the Virgin Mary. which. repaired 1385 a reduced copy of the Its original form and renovated once more in 1850. 1390. is considered to be an exact reproduction of The Its the original. Sophia. built A. and in a lower tier. who. and they have survived the results of those labours. Tartars. is Another remarkable a superbly executed representation of the Lord's Supper. Tithes Church. nominally Here also is the great Cathedral of 1695. and the ancient structure has in reality been preserved only where we also find internally some in the centre of the existing mass. divided from the upper by wide bands of ornamentation in similar work.I>. in the twelfth century and again in it for was reconstructed extant. enclosed within earthen ramparts anciently the site of the Pagan Pantheon from which Perun (or Jupiter) was . in the place of Perun's temple. St. This edifice is only erected a Christian church dedicated to St. 989 by Greek artists and artisans. the founder of the cathedral. 1 ignominiously dragged by Vladimir. which in early ages contained chapels. is between the Pechersk the latter was quarter and the Old Town. Vladimir. and thoroughly restored in 1826. to wean the Ruthenian or South Catholicism Roman made by attempt Russo-Greek Russian peasantry from the Church. is among the principal treasures of St. for the Uniat Faith or Church exists no longer. K 2 . All these were discovered in 1843 under the whitewash which had been applied to them while the cathedral was (1590-1633) in the possession of the Uniats (Catholics.U. 131 which line them.Hungary and the Balkan peninsula. whose priests are depicted on the pillars that support the dome. 1017. mosaic floor in front of the principal altar belonged to the original church. destroyed two centuries later by seventeenth in the and restored between century. is erected on the site of a sacred edifice bearing the same name. Church of St. Sophia at Constantinople has been much altered by repairs and additions. The best part of the city. Basil.SOUTH RUSSIA. stands in a chapel dedicated to St. founded in A. Some of their beautiful mosaics remnants of the work of Byzantine artists. on the stall. This.' The tomb of Yaroslaf. The Uniat Faith is spreading among the Slavs of A us tro. although consecrated only in 1842. Above the Metropolitan's stall are figures in mosaic of Byzantine prelates of the third and fourth centuries. the most ancient basilica in Russia of the Byzantine style. ritus Greed]. the Sophia.
for his grace addressed a letter of congratulation. Early in spring. in the South of Russia. ancient in origin (1055). the view from St. Andrew. and an Orthodox Ecclesiastical Academy. It is easy among such surroundings and such memories to realise the of the spectacle great gathering of the prelates and priests of the Russoand of the Eastern Churches in close communication with it. flanked by the cells of the brotherhood. on the occasion of the celebration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to Even the Archbishop of Canterbury was present in the spirit. and God shall cause forth the grace of God many churches to rise within it. Anthony and St. of These are now deposited under a block of grey marble within the latter the new church. and is intended to serve as a basis of operations. built in the elegant proportions of the style of Louis XV. the first two abbots. and one for which the city is well worth visiting. For a view of the Podol quarter we must repair to the terrace of the Church of St. with only the head. Theodosius.' We have left to the last our mention of the most interesting sight in This is the Kief. brought into strong gilt relief by the massive fortress walls and bastions. The belfry alongside is more than three hundred the hill . have a strikingly picturesque almost every part of Kief. when the Dnieper huge assumes in front of Kief the dimensions of a vast lake. ' of the Pechersk quarter of the city. the and coloured and of domes the spires monastery. with a handsome cathedral built by Mazeppa for the use of the Uniats. enclosed within the immense fortress that crowns ' . Approached from the east. with seven gilt cupolas. planted. it had been found impossible to send a bishop to Kief to represent the Church of England. and goodwill to the Metropolitan of Kief. Vladimir. according to an ancient legend. in 1 744. Its principal cathedral.132 RUSSIAN PICTURES.' To the right we now see the gilt domes of the Bratski Monastery. Russia. and standing on the spot on which St. Greek Church that took place at Kief in July. Andrew's terrace is more than ordinarily striking. is reached by a fine avenue of trees. 1888. and at once arrest attention from We en mention passant that the huge arsenal which the fortress shelters supplies all the troops in South Russia with arms. Christianity. which was while on the left are the shining cupolas of the formerly a Jesuit College for Ascension Convent Women. or the first in rank in and the most Lavra. the Apostle of Greece and of Scythia. while its barracks are capable of accomKief is the most important strategical point modating thirty thousand men. in which also regret was expressed that. the first shall hereafter shine cross seen in Russia. . Pecherskaya Monastery. the ruins Ill of St. sympathy. The monastery is entered by a gate ornamented with frescoes of St. predicting that on hills about there shall be a great city. Andrew. effect. were found the tomb. owing to an assembly in London of the Universal Episcopate of the Anglican Church.
the style of architecture is neither elegant high nor imposing. and the ancient stalls of the monks perpetuate its somewhat Roman Catholic appearance. the limestone of the high They extend a considerable distance in passages blackened by the torches of visitors. The richly-decorated ceiling is scarcely seen .SOUTH feet RUSSIA. chasubles. however. it is undoubtedly in the Tithes Church of which the principal we have spoken. and . in the shape of ikons. sacristies have been described that we must pass over the many already light even by the of the innumerable tapers which are treasures of the Pechersk Monastery. 133 internally. of its The monastery owes excavated part celebrity and of its revenues to the neighbouring catacombs of St. Theodosius. kept constantly burning by pilgrims who come from every part of the empire. and who are So certainly not fewer than two hundred thousand in number each year. which the cathedral claims to hold in a side chapel. church THE PECHERSK MONASTERY AT KIEF. Anthony and St. although the veritable tomb which contained vessels. and pectoral crosses of great value and religious interest. Vladimir. An object of special veneration is the true head of St. in river-bank.
Kharkof. over which the railway What a contrast passes. Englishman. and in that posture body Other ancient catacombs have recently been discovered under the city Numerous itself. with palls of cloth and silk their mummified hands are so placed pilgrims. typified in the two grand bridges by which the Dnieper is spanned close to Kief! The Nicholas Suspension Bridge. with South Russia. Anthony. they are not held in equal we find here also the remains of ten monks selves ' veneration. in ' martyr being buried almost up to his still who had immured themOne order. The catacombs of St. and We are shown St. wool and hides from the central provinces. Kharkof became the capital of the Ukraine. human remains and coffins have been found in them. died from his neck for some months . after having been a Cossack outpost town since 1647. Charles an Vignolles. In proximity to it is the splendid Mr. when Poland finally seat of trade population of 160. Sugar. Nestor. brandy. is exhibited who. between these primitive works of man and the achievements of the skill and labour of the nineteenth century. open coffins. by girder bridge constructed by a Russian engineer. Nevertheless. down even to the Caucasus. are on a smaller scale. for as to be able to receive the devotional In kisses of the who individually apply distinct saint most renowned removing some one cell are the remains of eleven 'martyrs/ who besetting and one and the same time immured themselves in it. are largely sold at the five fairs held each year at Kharkof. in fulfilment of a vow of continence. is the being a centre from which the a and manufactures ' . Anthony. to the south of those of St. his small chapel and the cell in which he passed the last fifteen years of his life without breathing the fresh air. principal to the east in of Kief. and as they contain only forty-six bodies (the others have seventy-three) of departed saints of a secondary order. saints in . through the small windows from which we turn away with a shudder. as they believed. lies in the first catacomb. which has also reason to be proud of its university with upwards of six hundred students. but their origin and history have not yet been ascertained. the annalist. Black and Azof Seas.000. its founder. Theodosius. and at voluntarily took food.I 34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. largely produced in this part of Russia from beetroot and bounty-fed. and of its connection by rail with the shores of the Baltic and those of the In 1/65. at the extreme end of the gallery. the interments is evidenced by the pectoral crosses that have come to light. 6755 feet in length.' and corn. of Northern and Central Russia are spread products throughout the provinces to the east and south. until they died. and the Christian character of also remains. is considered to be It was built between 1848 and 1855 a noble monument of engineering art. to gain the kingdom of heaven. on either side of which lie worked in gold and silver for the intercession of the sin.
principally in wool. descending of barge accompanied by Joseph II.. and cattle. horses. At Ekaterinoslaf we are again on the great Dnieper. in gardens and the Catherine's running for nearly three miles parallel Palace.K or POLTAVA. King Stanislaus Augustus Poland and a brilliant suite. and later the high road of -the Tartar invaders of Russia. consecrated only in 1835. Two monuments commemorate the victory. The centre of the field so disastrous to the THE KAI'I I. It was only a the river from Kief in a stately village when Catherine II. is familiar to us in connection with the defeat of Charles XII.SOUTH RUSSIA. 135 ceded the province to Muscovy. a bronze statue which represents . almost with concealed Dnieper. Poltava. also a place of extensive trade. and which has been reduced to one-sixth in the edifice that was The town consists of only one row of buildings. by Peter the Great in 1 709. and a vast number of tumuli. particularly of the Khazars. of stone which we have seen in the Historical Museum at Moscow. raised it to the dignity of a town bearing her own name. Swedes is marked by a mound which covers the remains of their slain. of Austria. which have yielded coins establishing the fact of an early intercourse both with Rome and Arabia. this was the camping-ground of nomadic tribes. whether from the Crimea or the shores of the In the province of Kharkof are found those remarkable idols Caspian. Anciently. On that occasion she laid the first stone of a cathedral which was not destined to be completed on the imposing scale she had projected.
and restored to a more fitting marble. Nicolaef is the handsomest as this Russia. in her clad Roman armour and crowned. at the delta of the Dnieper. the founder of the town. over forty miles of steppe. tion of Admiral Samuel Greig. on which are abiding-place. drive 1 settlement. Within a high circular wall near The great English Vixit propter Alios. in the 65th year of his age the ' recorded his principal achievements. and es. with a sun-dial on one face and a portrait-medallion on the An inscription on it in Russian and Latin tells us that Howard other. the Emperor Paul. ordered the remains to : be exhumed. and to be buried in a hole under.' is : Johannes Howard. on which typhus fever supervened. from which they were again disinterred in 1874. number of she caused to be inscribed in Slavonic over the Cathedral of St. the more favourite.the floor of the crypt. part of the country was called after its conquest Chesme . he caught a cold. striking feature of which. with the aid of some equally gallant countrymen. marked by a tombstone of white Church of the Assumption is a simple obelisk. Ouisquis Amici. somewhat relieved in its monotony by numerous ancient tumuli. he set out from Kherson on philanthropist In Kherson. huddled together the bazaar. won for the Russians the naval battle of Sea. in 1787. constitute the sights of Ekaterinoslaf. and the garden of her magnificent Prince Potemkin.' died and was buried in a village about four miles north of the month of November. and the Ekaterinoslaf Prospect is dotted with their stands and their moneychests. in the year 1790. or Ingul with the Bug. to Kherson. son of the admiral of Scotch parentage who. was buried in this cathedral in 1791. but her son. Next to Odessa. Being lightly The monument clad. at the junction of the It was the site until 1775 of a Cossack setch. died on the 2oth January. the ' inscription 1790. and descend In commemoration of her visit. and in 789 it received its present appellation in commemoration of the capture of Otchakof from the Turks on the feastDestined from the first by Potemkin to be the harbour day of St. 1 789. temporarily neglected by the naval claim to that proud position after the fall town in New in 1769. is its Jewish population. however. horseback to visit a lady at some distance on the banks of the Dnieper. Nicolaef re-asserted its It owes much of its present affluence to the sound administraof Sevastopol. considerable in a special quarter between the river and ' ' A them pursue the favourite Jewish occupation of money -changing. Ad Sepulchrum Stas. painted blue and red. We now follow the route taken by Catherine II. Catherine 'Dedicated to the Saviour of the human race by Catherine II.136 RUSSIAN PICTURES.' By her directions. A fortified of a Russian fleet in the Black authorities. Alios Salvos Fecit. Prince Potemkin. according to his last wish. over his grave is a block of marble surmounted by a sun-dial. brings those who do not proceed by steamer to the great naval station and commercial port of Nicolaef. Nicholas.
37 Turks and Tartars. &c.SOUTH from the RUSSIA. about five millions sterling. has been connects this important harbour of with Kharkof and other rich agricultural centres. Of the six ports on the neighbouring Sea Azof. Its large trade. British shipping is chiefly . which now mostly in grain. greatly promoted by the railway. is the most considerable. Taganrog. tallow. as at Nicolaef. I. The annual value of its exports of corn. although steamers have at a considerable distance from it. Alexander to anchor the is died in 1825. wool. 1.. and. owing to the shallowness of roadstead. where A NOGAI TARTAR.
open-air or Odessa on the Black Sea of is the Odessns AN ITINERANT SHOEMAKER.' anciently the abode of Scythians. Much of the produce shipped here comes from Rostof on the Don. immunities were later granted to the city. all the ancient rights and privileges of the warlike Cossacks of the Don. Ginestra of the and the Genoese. the chief centre of inland trade in the south-east provinces of Russia. Bolgars. the La Hadji-Bey and the whole of the Turkish provinces of Otchakof were annexed to the Russian empire. employed the Neapolitan De Ribas and the Frenchman De Volante (both in her military sen-ice. the capital of the Country ' of the Cossacks. Huns. when renegades from Muscovy and vag- rants of every description formed themselves into Cossack or robber communities. Sarmatians. title of ' Ataman ' of the Don the The last investiture with Cossack baton 1 took place also the reigning circle. whom they powerfully assisted The town subsequent wars. It was not until 1791 that the fortress of the Greeks. The present population Don dates from the sixteenth century. an d is adorned with in a bronze monument or chief) to the Platof.' Emperor in 1887. received in Various privileges and 1 795 its present modernized name of Odessa. Khazars and Tartars. was founded in 1804. but it owes its present prosperity . famous Hetman leader (Ataman of the Cossacks between 1/70 and 1816. Hadji-Bey of the Turks. at a assemblage. and one in which many industries (especially the manipulation of tobacco grown in the Caucasus and the Crimea) are pursued. and in 1637 took the Turkish fortress of Azof. but from 1718 they were gradually brought under subjection to the Tsar.138 RUSSIAK PICTURES. in virtue of the Treaty of Jassy. employed in the trade. when confirmed. It is usual to bestow on the Russian heir-apparent the Cossacks. Until the reign of Peter the Great the powerful and independent Cossacks were not much interfered with. peopled mostly by Greeks and Albanians. which. Catherine II. They attacked the Tartars and Turks. A short distance above this great mart is Novocherkask.) to construct a town and harbour.
of which one-half are have the advantage of an institute and Consul-General Stanley. with no small advantage to the states in which they were permitted to become free citizens and loyal subjects. we are not surprised to find that Odessa has developed into a handsome city of South European aspect. baiting likely to disappear under the This culminated. after The water administration of local the although it prevails in the great export trade of In of the Jews so considerable as it once was. carried on with great vigour and enlightenment the works of construction and improvement thanks Under such advantages contemplated by his foreign predecessors. a French emigrf. in the following . to the disabilities under which the made for the be should allowance Jews have so long struggled in Russia. Greek and Jewish sharpness that prevails at Odessa has not on the whole been favourable to the employment of foreign The Greek element has. city residence at Odessa as Governor-General of New Russia. enjoyed by the Prince Woronzoff. harbour. who became its first governor in 1803.000.R. Odessa has now an atmosphere pure and bright. devoid of any vegetation beyond a few shrubs and sickly acacias. who in 1823 took up his between 1817 and 1857. brought from the Dnieper. a chartered a notice certain in body in the sea-bathing put up by years ago. rendered secure by a breakwater initiated or designed by Sir Charles Hartley. of Odessa had grown from nine to twenty-five thousand. whose suffering sharewailing over the unprofitable (to them) investment of so much is hard cash. and ample means of quenching thirst thanks to the expenditure of over a million pounds sterling by the British still holders are Odessa Waterworks Company.SOUTH chiefly RUSSIA. and with an export trade now valued at ten Its splendid millions sterling. in a great measure to the privileges of a free port. affairs. also a Frenchman.' It is much to be desired that a more sober and correct view in regard and that clue Israelite community at Odessa should supervene. the Duke of Edinburgh. is hundred steamers. through thirty-inch pipes. as they did in days long gone by in England and in other countries to which they resorted. Nor is the ' ' establishment of which it contrived to dispossess the municipality. Limited. The combination of Russian. thirty miles distant. and under the annually visited by at under the British flag. being carefully filtered. when he was succeeded by Count Langeron. 139 to the talents and energy of the Duke Emanuel de Richelieu. however. H. the population It is now 240. Formerly enveloped in clouds of fine dust. power city. only a secondary influence in the capital. ' : The notice was words No clogs or Jews are allowed to bathe here. established in patronage of H. Eleven years later. to which the members of it is fact. and dependent for its supply of water upon rain-tanks and a few brackish springs. trees and gardens of great beauty. least fifteen Their crews 1875 by reacling-room. not many that community are periodically subject.
consisting of about nine thousand square miles. In those days the Crimea was a somewhat distant land whereas we may now pack up our traps and set foot at Sevastopol on the sixth day after leaving Charing Cross. CHAPTER THE CRIMEA AND is VIII. is one vast steppe. except where the Tauric range. energetically proceeded w ith throughout the empire. as we shall discover in our observing their of this chapter. OF THE TENTH OR ELEVENTH CENTURY IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. CAUCASUS. to a cir- THERE homogeneity cumstance territory . from the of its extension over so an almost boundless of the expanse of race level and yet. while many of its incidents must be fresh in the memory of the middle-aged. Like that part of the Russian continent with which r connected by the narrow isthmus of Perecop. still do apart. the Crimean peninsula. PETERSBURG. from its having been the battle-field of the last war in which England has many continue to live. for Russia's network of railways. journey over the Crimea and the Caucasus the subject The Crimea has a special interest for Englishmen of this generation. speaking their own tongue and own been engaged with a great European power. and government. even though studiously strategic. largely teeming with corn. although all it many diversities human are brought into near contact.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. extending over a distance of forty-five miles. customs and religion. is being . it is . no portion of the of surface of the globe more adapted mankind than the Russian empire. ST. subject to similar rule may be said.
CRIMEA. . PETER.=" 3>C -~ - J MOUNT ST.
crocus . embedded in the midst of sumptuous cultivation and as we proceed. shaping the most fantastic of sea-boards. maple. elm. who was publicly whipped for being stances. was better known. lorded over the Ai Petri precipitous heights by majestic (St.. with luscious pastures. At Yalta we are in the most fashionable watering-place in the South of Russia. lilies geranium and orchids. and cornfields with green hedges. and beyond is Gaspra. Woronzoff possession of life. we from time to time pass masses of gigantic blocks of granite thrown up at various periods by the convulsions of Nature. The cypress and magnolia are beautiful in their development. in the affair of the diamond necklace of Marie Antoinette. to the inhabitants on the declivities that slope to the sea a of the and prolific Riviera. Peter). Here the Tartar villages lie embosomed in the midst of truly lovely scenery. Lower down. copses. at which point there suddenly bursts on the view From and there from fissures in the rocks strike forth again the and or the beech. to our beleaguering troops. and beautiful region in close proximity to the sea. poplar. are seen from the road. and the fir and beech which attain a very large size. Baidar the towards the Baidar one of the grandest that it is possible to a offered combination of mountain. a place to which three ladies repaired. where the irregular declivities pine juniper project into the sea. its comfortable hotels and luxurious clubs attracting the wealthy from for the all parts November. and of the Emperor. are within a few miles of each other. none attractive in their architecture. reminding one much of an English land- ot (carriage) road. concerned The residences of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. this valley the road leads over a spur Gate. Starting from Balaclava. Alupka. the as the Countess de la Mothe. and sweet-pea. but all surrounded by perfectly fascinating scenery. juniper. in the reign of Alexander I. the seat of the late Prince Woronzoff. at Livadia. yew. brooks. sturdy pines and junipers looking like tufts of verdure as they overhang the perilous scape. which begins in April and continues to Excellent carriages and good saddle-horses facilitate excursions . ash. under different circumladies. which afforded so we many good through valley. The first genuine Tartar village is Kikeneis. conceive. while here constructed through a wealth of vegetation. the peonia. the indigenous trees comprising the Tauric pine. and violet. Countess Guacher. an altitude of three thousand to four thousand feet. the road is brinks. One of those purpose of converting the Tartars to Christianity. veronica. even some of the luxuries things. at the first west pass extreme of the the range. oak. and Mishor.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. where two Wellingtonife gigantece planted in 1869 by the Prince and Princess of Wales are shown. during the bathing-season. sights by In front rise the bold cliff. with vegetation varied suggestive 143 and rising to ensures climate beyond by the description. and the banks are seen covered with the of the valley.
up the smiling valleys, horsemen being enabled to visit the interior of the Yalta is peninsula by crossing the passes above Derekyuy or Uchan-su. the westernmost point of the wine-growing district, which includes Massandra, Partenite, where is a church of the eighth century, Gurzuf. and Alushta at the eastern end of the range, from which village the carriage-road turns sharp away from the coast, and leads direct to Simpheropol, the capital. The Russians are very proud of the wines grown on these shores, but connoisseurs prefer the wines of France and Germany. The yield, including the produce
Sudak on another
part of the coast, consists of Bordeaux,
amounts annually to about three Burgundies, Hocks, Madeira, and
some sweet wines
times have nations fought for, and disputed, the narrow classic as the scene of the strip of territory possession wanderings of Ulysses because of the golden harvests to be gathered from over the hills, and of its own even temperature. History asserts that the
THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
Cimmerians were the first inhabitants of whom so little is known they were succeeded by the Tauri replaced, seven centuries before the
from what had become known as the granary of Greece.' Then came the Huns, who were succeeded by the Goths, the earliest Christian settlers, and they held possession until the proud Republic of Genoa sent forth her galleys laden with men and arms to seize, if
subsequently every other point of vantage along consuls or governors, establishing
r*M .,.,jji &
an extensive and powerful hierarchy, and at the same time constructing those Sudak, Theodosia, and Balaclava, of which splendid defences at excite the of every passing traveller. to admiration remain enough to the south coast for the benefit of sea-bathing Visitors who throng travel by rail to Simpheropol, the chief town, and thence continue their
by way of Sevastopol, or take the but the more favoured route to Alushta
carriage-road already via Odessa, where
bi-weekly steamers convey passengers to Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia, and Kertch, continuing the voyage to the ports of the Caucasus. It was near Eupatoria that the British and French forces landed, on
1854, not to evacuate the peninsula until July,
which period were fought the decisive battles on the Alma and Chernaya, at Balaclava and on the heights of Inkermann, and the fortress of Sevastopol was evacuated after a lengthened siege and bombardment. The country between Eupatoria and Sevastopol has been compared by travellers to that around the Dead Sea, owing to its sterile and uninviting aspect, but the Saki mud baths in those parts attract numerous patients suffering from rheumatism and diseases of the skin. The Bay of Sevastopol, four miles in length and nearly one mile at its widest part, is one of the securest harbours in the world, having an almost uniform depth of ten fathoms. The handsome town which stood on the of hill and the extended to the water's edge, was completely destroyed slope during the war, and has only of late years commenced to recover from its calamities, for it has again been decreed a naval, military, and commercial port and station, while the railway gives an immense impetus to export trade. The hotels are good, and guides are obtainable for visiting the sites of the several camps, batteries, and battle-fields, which, in a few years, will be inaccessible to the traveller, by reason of those localities becoming
during the siege, they were laid within small enclosures inside the divisions and batteries of attack and defence in which they were serving, so that
evacuated by the contending parties it was seen to be dotted with numberless cemeteries, of which one hundred and twenty-six were inside the British lines. The Russians and French early availed themselves of facilities afforded for removing their dead to grounds
the land was
and raising to their memory mausoleums which remain objects of veneration, even to the destructive Tartar herdsmen, who persisted, year after year, in inflicting every kind of damage upon the memorials of our own dead until at length the reproaches of travellers of all nations and creeds stirred to action a small body of Englishmen,
specially set apart for the purpose,
with supported by the Prince of Wales monuments have been removed from the
cemetery, called Cathcart's, after Inkermann the walls of the old
scattered enclosures to the largest the gallant officer of that name who fell at
are levelled, and the graves covered with two to three feet of earth, so that in a few years the very sites
After a length of time the lab'ring swains, turn the turf of those unhappy plains,
Shall rusty piles from the ploughed furrows take. * * * * * *
Amazed at antique titles on the stones And mighty relics of gigantic bones.'
Quite near to Sevastopol stood the ancient city, Khersonesus, founded Grecian colonists seven centuries before Christ, and of whom it is
THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
state of civilisation during the space of one thousand years to the free institutions they enjoyed, and to competence for self-government. This
became city to enjoy its
empire, continuing, however, until taken municipal institutions, by siege by the Vladimir, who restored it to the empire as one of the conreceiving
Christianity and built the church, the in the crypt of the cathedral lately
Vladimir marriage. foundations of which are
THE CATHEDRAL OF
VLADIMIR, RECENTLY COMPLETED AT KHERSONESUS.
being a flourishing city
features of its neighbourhood exquisite detail the is the student able to verify with extraordinary minuteness so that coasts, most exact of geographers, and fix the graphic delineation of that
day, and describes in and of the adjoining
so delightfully illustrated by honest
In the Eight miles from Khersonesus, says Strabo, is Symvolon-limen. is mentioned as but it the of we it as the know Odyssey port Lsestrigons,
and a species of pilchard. but nearly every vestige The inhabitants. that lies ensconced amidst luxuriant gardens founded and vineyards reaching to the sea. on the left. shores of the Black Sea. since it was the only port oi debarkation for all our materiel of war. and well furnished with mattresses and pillows of every hue. the floors are covered with expensive Turkey carpets. George. obelisk in the tenth century. affluent are These Tartars are very indolent. as a rule. as everywhere else on the occupation has disappeared. the cleanly more In the supposed to be the circumstances of the inmates. of the Genoese. . different aspect to the sterile surroundings north of the cliff by which it is The apartments that were occupied by Florence Nightingale sheltered. The road from haddock. entirely from those of the men. silver. war are shown by the monks with unaffected satisfaction. because the larger the display. now marked by an and a branch road to the right leads to the Monastery of St.148 RUSSIAN PICTURES. their staining certainly not to and advantage. the plain which was the scene of the famous cavalry charge under Lord Cardigan. . the delight of the ancients. and for the rest of the year they remain idle. the cooking department and guest-chamber apart on the being ground floor. the latter freely decorated with an abundance of towels embroidered in gold. stricter is Sunnites than their co-religionists on the south coast. but equally removed from the fanaticism of Mahometanism. for the the during remembrance of that lady Sevastopol is Khans. Sevastopol to Balaclava almost skirts. and the females are not in the habit of holding monogamists. they are. In their cottages the women's apartments are on an upper story. houses of the mnrzas. Their children are fair to look upon age. bream.and toe-nails. should occasion arise. and of England too. mackerel. are They hospitable. locked harbour. and the of the sole safe haven for our shipping. although intercourse with others. or silk. the last capital of the thirty of the largest towns inhabited entirely by Tartars. For instance. during which period it is agreed among them that no festivities shall take place. and occasionally their teeth. here engaged in the pursuit of fishing and salting their gains for import the sea at this part abounding in turbot. or nobles. is of dyeing and uniting their eyebrows with a straight dark their finger. nevertheless the females do not retain their good looks in adult whilst the practice line.. etc. miles from Bakhchisarai. and coverlets richly embroidered in gold. they do not wear the yashmak. and one respectfully preserved. Some of the Genoese defences of the British fourteenth century remain. its inviting situation presenting a very . and never think of learning a trade they work in their gardens and orchards from the end of May to the third week in August. upon which are spread reclining mattresses and bolsters in satin or velvet. or veil. are Greeks. and at all times willing to welcome the belated or worn-out traveller. . nor do they hesitate to receive aliens in their houses.
THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
be married, he goes about for three days with a handkerchief over his head, so placed as to conceal his face, for he is a man ami the bride during that same period remains with shame
in a darkened room, quite ready to sob if spoken to by anythe wedding-day, the bride, closely veiled, takes her place at her side in a carriage, a pile of gaily-coloured handkerchiefs being on
the seats in front, one of which
given by the mother as a wedding favour
who may approach
it moves left arm, along, in which that in other the relatives carriages following silently, turn out a the is the bride. Should the procession pass through people village, and stretch a rope across the road, as is the custom in the Vosges, and
the kerchief round his
to offer his congratulations and joins the procession as
that friend ties
but there is no spirit in the procompel the bride to pay her footing And when the not one merry shout ceedings, no fun, no cheering, no bride finally alights at the door of her future home, she is seized by a crowd of women who are in waiting, and dragged or even carried into the house and de.'/.mi. ^j :.\l rA v \ j liverecl to the 'happy man,' after which
immediately had assembled. Bakhchisarai
noiseless scene, the guests disperse as silently as they
supplies Tartar continues
be very remaining perfectly indifferent
A TARTAR BRIDE AND BRIDEGROOM.
every description of improvement intro duced from without, whether in manuto
and so we agriculture the same kind of shoes or slippers, belts, cushions, horseas have been in use amongst this people during many
The Tartar does not despise even cutlery, now also manufactured at
the old flint-lock gun, and prefers Bakhchisarai, but formerly made
Karasu-bazar, a place which, in its prosperity, used to turn out as many 400,000 sword blades annually, chiefly for use in the Khan's army, but also for export to the Caucasus. The great attractions of Bakhchisarai are the places of interest within
Jews' fortress,' on the easy distance, such, for instance, as Chufut-Kaleh, summit of a rock, said to have been a stronghold since 460 B.C., and the cradle of the Karaim, a sect of Israelites opposed to the Talmudist Jews, by whom they are looked upon as heretics. The Karaim reject all tradition and Rabbinical writings, adhering solely to the Old Testament, whence
Karaim, or readers readers of Holy Writ the plural designation, Kara, a reader. They esteem the high moral teaching of Jesus Christ,
no part, accusing more they took but they look for of having shed innocent blood especially the Pharisees the coming of the Messiah from the house of David, and for the rebuilding The Karaim are energetic and industrious, and hold the of the Temple.
where they number about 5000. Their largest part of trade in the Crimea, as much as thou wouldest, desire that do canst not 'If thou is precept
thou mayest do as much
thou art able to perform.'
the foundation of their sect from the period of the Maccabees, in the second of the century B.C., when traditional lore was introduced to the prejudice books of Moses but, according to the Rabbinists, who form the larger
of Jews, their reputed founder was one Anan-ben-David (Hannassy), Anan of the race of Betzur, in the eighth century of the Christian era. the since ever has been which a at erected great Jerusalem, synagogue Such centre of the Karaim, who acknowledge his successors as their head.
THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
It is computed that there are from 50,000 to 60,000 Karaim in various parts of the globe. At the foot of the is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, a Jews' fortress
cemetery of great antiquity, in which every Karai'm would wish to be buried, and wherein is pointed out, with pride, the grave of Isaac Sangaris (A.D. The countless tomb-stones 767), who converted the Khazars to Judaism.
are very varied in form, some being in the shape of a sarcophagus, others like coffins or kysts, but the more remarkable are finished off with head
itself is pierced with a number of Katch-kalen, Cherkess-kerman, etc., provided, with reclining places, corn-pits, water-tanks, chimneys and other conveniences formed out of the solid rock originally, in all probability, together with similar the The more numerous localities, many dwellings of the wild Tauri. of these cave habitations are at Tepe-kerman, but the more remarkable are
near the summit of Mangup, where one chamber measures twenty-one feet by seventeen feet. The citadel of Mangup was
principal defence of the Goths of their prince, within its
and of the
still remains standing a wall, believed to be of the fifteenth century. Near Bakhchisarai are two pillars of calcareous rock of striking appearance, a liisns natures. The
her village, her daughter pursued her to bring her back, when suddenly the would-be apostate was turned to stone for wishing to desert the true faith,
was once a woman who desiring to become a Christian
whereupon the daughter, herself became petrified
A KARAJ'M JEW.
Travelling in the Crimea, as in all steppe country, is dreary work, for the beds of the larger water-courses they cannot be called rivers are almost arid, not presenting even the appearance of those
summer and autumn
verdant meandering lines exhibited by the prolific orchards on the banks of such smaller streams as the Alma and Belbek, orchards from which Russia
annually supplied with a large variety of most excellent apples and pears In these streams are taken trout, something like ,200,000. roach, and dace, and salmon are speared at their estuaries, cray-fish being
to the value of
also abundant, but chiefly in pools and ponds. bustard, attains a large size and is in great
bird of the
profoundly of his mortal him rifle and who has to stalk with bullet man, shy enemy, unless he prefers milder sport such as quails, pigeons, snipe, and partridges, all plentiful enough in season, as are many kinds of waterfowl on the coast, especially to the north-east and north-west.
demand, but he
wretched village Stary-Krim, in the east of the peninsula, called Solghat, that could count 100,000 men on a war
at Ak-mesjid, now Simpheropol, the chief town footing, the viceroy resided has become the neutral ground of Russian, It and seat of government
Greek, Israelite, Armenian, and Tartar traders, and of gipsies, who meet here periodically over and over again, but as if they had never met before, deporting themselves with perfect indifference towards each other, scarcely exchanging a nod of recognition as they jostle one another in the crowded bent market-place or bazars, and avoiding all mutual intercourse, but each on the hardest possible bargain with his neighbour. Occasionally, a
his appearance, his dealings, not
more reserved than the
boisterous, setting value upon time, and if not respected he is at least
town, the chief and central mart, roads converge from every part of the peninsula, its caravans of double-humped camels, where the railway has not yet been
introduced, being in constant communication with the south coast and
Kertch, the city and fortress at the extreme eastern point of the Crimea, where we must now hasten as being our port of embarkation for the Caucasus, of which there is so much
having regard to its extent and the interest ever excited by that
fascinating land. Kertch, as
ENTRANCE TO THE TOMB OK A SCYTHIAN KING, NEAR
peninsula, has a remarkable history,
like something time the from twenty-four centuries, when it first received a name that of Panticapceum to the clay when a handful of the allied forces effected a landing in 1855, to occupy and to hold! A unique feature in its neighbourhood are the countless barrows that extend in every direction dismal-looking hillocks, the silent and imperishable monuments
wealthy people, who, after they laid their dead, These tumuli or barrows vary in size, and thus piled the earth over them. hundred feet in one of the some when, largest, measuring one years ago, direction height and one hundred and fifty feet in diameter, was explored by of the Russian Government, it was discovered to be the tomb of a Scythian us by scrupulous left to king, verifying in every particular the account Herodotus, who relates that when a king died, his wife and attendants were
an ancient, great,
in search of treasure. happy and of vegetation O habitations in various stages of decay. as is known. Interspersed human German . the brave mountaineers offering. unless the seventy nations spoken of by in ' ' Strabo as holding the fastnesses in the o great mountain chain were either or subdued. upon the supplication of that monarch that he might be defended against his enemies. are sometimes attended with the most unsatisfactory results. of attendants. though outwardly restored. process of subjection was shortly commenced. ceded as it had been against the 1799. a name that vies in its antiquity Panticapaeum. recognized by the golden wreaths that had adorned their brows. together with himself. rendering abortive many a campaign. after extensive and toilsome cuttings. etc. when he discovers. J O and are here there with the some natives that remain. directed their Petersburg. the superb Kertch gallery at the Hermitage. where tracts of once cultivated now present the distressing sight of tangled growths homes. will queen.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. carefully preserved. and bid farewell to the Crimea. silver. conciliated Conciliation. who.000 of four tribes of . confirmed the annexation of his dominions to Russia The To possess Georgia. and a profusion of exquisite golden ornaments and trinkets. many of which are pronounced to be the most perfect specimens in These of the high condition of art Greece in those early times. to the King of Georgia. that were bronze. however. find therein. warriors. and recovered out of this very sepulchre. The result denuded condition of Circassia. his weapons. Circassia oppression which drove no less than 250. of which we now take leave. fourfold they appear Large as is the on the opposite with the lasting necropolis of Phanagoria. those of victors. that not until the year he was able to announce to the 1863 did the 'the commander-in-chief feel that Emperor But the country was not pacified Caucasus. to wit. excavations are conducted during two or three months every year by a member of the Archaeological Commission of St. and oppression was of Circassians to seek expatriation to Turkey. the country into which is we perceptible in the are first about to pass after crossing lands. 153 strangled and his horses killed. page 33. protection afforded by the Emperor Alexander I. whose labours. Petersburg. nation's will. and priestesses have been brought to light. the same stubborn resistance. perhaps by Venetian colonists in the fifteenth century. St. it was soon discovered. But besides the tombs of kings. disputing each acre of ground with so much <_ tenacity. electrum. of horses and It has been already noted on golden vessels. and the vessels of gold. however. the remains of the king and to attention to the number shore of opening of tumuli tumuli around Kertch. was out of the and so the question. that they might be laid in his tomb. at some early period. the complete subjugation far from it. that visitors their trappings. was not to keep it. that the tombs have been rirled.' resorted to chiefly in the more accessible and densely-populated territory. year after year. with the Straits of Kertch.
maintained at half a million. trustworthy.' From the Molokane (milk-drinkers) sprang the Uukhobortsy. 'Wrestlers with the Spirit' as the name implies. together with the adjacent Black Sea Cossacks. long since Cossacks remain has adopted the dress of the even from boyhood. garment. by means of a ' ' where they united with the descendants of the Grebenski The predominant Cossacks. Catherine's from having been founded by the sovereign of that name and bestowed. or Dukhobortsy. Grebenski continuing to preserve their identity with the natives of Great and although the whole of this imposing force. with whom they are not to be confounded. o 20. which every or twelve sockets.000 of those new warrior settlers consisted in barring all egress from of stations that extended first fortified line the mountains. and they are now free to go whithersoever they will but how are these poor people to give up their homes. true to the orthodox faith Caucasian mountaineers. subsequently known as the Catherine mistrusted their power and influence. of the Caucasus. . by which they mean Thou shalt images. having on either breast a row of ten A rifle. waist. the vernacular whose and to the customs of their forefathers.. the type amongst the Zaporogians to Vladikavkaz. ' on the principle that all men are equal and a monarchy unnecessary. and specially district remarkable is for their kind The which chief town literally. whence their origin . and tempted them to the The first service of some Kuban with o grants of land and other l privileges.154 RUSSIAN PICTURES. since God's command to Moses was in these words ' ' . settlements. in in all parts like a frock-coat. Russia. for a few are stationed in each principal town. chiefly as an escort to the closely at the with a a . removed from them the ban of exile. consists of a single-breasted but reaching almost to the ankles.' Ekaterinodar. on the Zaporogian. tongue has never been forgotten by them. ' : make to thyself images. territory.' as ' distinguished from all others. because the true Church consists of an assemblage of such as are chosen by God to walk in the Light and Life without the use of any distinguishing signs or symbols. their land. who refuse to recognise any kind of temporal authority. tightened only belt from which are suspended dagger. Little of the is that still Russians. who style themselves the Real Spiritual Christians.' etc. sheep-skin hat finished slung off at its summit with a piece of coloured cloth completes the costume. treatment of animals. our Lord having said that He and His are not of this world and they dissent from the Orthodox Church. whom they indiscriminately call Worldly. The late Alexander II. sectarians originally deported hither by Alexander I. in 1792. each of a size to hold a cartridge. The number of Cossacks in Transcaucasia being very limited. good agriculturists. the back and a tall across is man possesses. a name signifies. and frequently pistol. and sword. of ' the Kouban gift. The dress so universally worn by the male sex. their cattle now ? They are steady and not . and a few Molokane.
FEATS OF HORSEMANSHIP BY COSSACKS OF THE CAUCASUS. .
amongst many others. is to throw their hat and rirle to the ground. which the coast. remarkable as being the place to John Chrysostom was banished at the instance of the Empress Eudoxia although the exile never strangers. wheel. of being an the reputation. is the principality of Mingrelia. and useful breeders of cattle. had the Abkhases not destroyed them in their struggles against the Russians. inasmuch as our wanderings have brought us to the /Ea of Circe and the Argonauts. landscape like we are as struck at the the aspect afforded by the numerous whitewashed Mingrelians. and plenty of smaller game. has been thoroughly restored of late years. the Earther south. but north of the great meet with the Kabardines. he will to enter into proceed eastwards.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. equally dashing horsemen. box. early youth in those singular exercises and break-neck evolutions for which the Cossacks of the Caucasus have become so famous. his destination having Abkhases are at present heathens. To the south of the Circassians. continued to be the seat of the Catholicos of Abkhasia until the twelfth century. with the imaginary enemy fire as if at an enemy left heel resting on their steed's hind quarter. keep up a rapid fire. now addicted to thieving when the opportunity is afforded them. with seldom a roof to cover him other than the vault of heaven but the ordinary traveller is likely to encounter difficulties and delays that he would prefer to avoid. then Pityus. anciently given to piracy. hospitable to strangers. are making of wine from their . they will stand on the saddle and fire all round at an or throw the body completely over to the right. thoroughly domesticated. In a Mingrelian too. a noble race. and is a striking object to passing vessels. the first amongst the Circassians blood of the they are the friendly relations with Russia to ' ' . Being the mother church in the Caucasus. reached escaped the general destruction. governor of 157 are performed by Chapars. and in pursuit. and pick them up whilst going at the province. Setting their horses at full gallop. . Caucasus. their duties . or turn clean round. Should the traveller elect range. for they are determinedly inimical to Their mountains abound in forests of magnificent walnut and where the enthusiastic sportsman will find the bear. every such edifice being occupied and One church. and wolf. the horse's fullest speed. at Pitzunda on converted by the latter into a military post. and occupying about one hundred miles of the coast in the Black Sea. The we have just quitted. and sitting astride facing the horse's tail. are the Abkhases. Christianity was here introduced by Justinian. and extending some way inland irom the sea. except well-wooded hills. Practically. Pitzuncla. where we again tread classic ground. hyaena. who have enjoyed from time immemorial. A favourite feat. an and trained in like manner from irregular force. who constructed many churches that would have been notable specimens of Byzantine architecture. incurably cottages their they in dot neighbours whom the given to indolence. indolent and lawless race.
after the disposal of the body with over the grave. strange rites. outside communication between the beginning of September and the end of May. most profuse vegetation. rather than preserving the property and contenting himself with a smaller income. their orchards. vineyards otherwise abundant . and they thenceforth become man and burials. when a couple other at about to be hips their garments funerals are attached each the by the who . and bank. in con- sequence of the passes being blocked with The scenery in this valley. in miles of the upper at no part exceedingare cut off from all and width. in drunkenness the clay ending Christianity and Svanneti by the sovereigns of Georgia as early as the tenth century. the Svanni have been to keep to the observances of the Russian Church. and all undergrowth even. utters a sentence two. and grand beyond description 4 ' . They fifty occupy some forty or the Ingur. indeed wherever the pure air of heaven and its divine .' writes a snow. say from to near its water-shed Sougdicli. but in most their communities married. and if we ascended a journey easily accomplished on horseback. is of great beauty and wildrecent traveller. we should find ourselves amongst the well-known military station a very wild and singular people. meadow. well-defined features and usually raven black hair. or prince. although a formal submission in 1833. own priests. is the wealthiest of the dispossessed rulers : the foresight of his predecessor and his own European training having taught him the clanger of disposing of land and squandering the proceeds. every imaginable flower is seen in its wild state. whose farther complete it they made valley of ten miles subjugation dates back no may be said than 1876.' the ordination of a priesthood in 1859. and wife or at at several villages in the valley are churches of comparatively recent date . light is Since required not obstructed. the Svanni. minister. amid the ness. if they may be to so designated. hill-side and grass plot are literally covered in every forest with all that is most lovely and grove. For or instance. continue is to officiate after ancient custom. They may certainly be included amongst the handsomest people in Transcaucasia. Between Mingrelia and Abkhasia courses the Ingur. the earth is thus gorgeously arrayed. A MINGRELIAN PEASANT. the mourners abandon themselves to feasting in first upheld was and brawls. with their The Dadian.I 5 8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. prolific through they are content to live on the produce of the interposition of a beneficent Providence rather than to any agricultural diligence on their part.
and yet they will cross as a caution to trespassers. Murder is rife.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. that the price of blood shall be in of the murderer has to forfeited. money A very notable feature in their villages are the towers of defence. used as a place of refuge in The Russians have days of feud by a member or even an entire family. filling the churches with the horns as offerings. the erect A VILLAGE IN SVANNETI. been careless and doubtlessly prudent in rarely undertaking to attack the Svanni in their isolated strongholds. the services being conducted mechanically by Russian or Georgian priests in a tongue quite unknown to the people. whose language is a very distinct dialect of the Georgian. but there being no be made up in cattle or land. with which each cottage is provided. and keep Lent without knowing why they so . but '59 they remain empty. each other. but are ever ready to a tall staff surmounted by a do commit depredations upon not They steal from strangers. fully sixty feet in height. preferring rather to leave this strange . The Svanni fast on clo Wednesdays and Saturdays. The price of a life is estimated hundred roubles. equal to the amount ~o to ^80. crime being met by the one paid or the at six circulation. life inviolable law. they fix the skulls of animals about the fences and walls of their habitations for the purpose of warding off evil influences.
Batoum. towards the development of the resources of this beautiful country. intersected somewhat pestiferous but important and good roads through valleys highly cultivated with maize. its annexation since that has tended in no small degree. with barley. another principality.i6o RUSSIAN PICTURES. consideration for the property of others there is much yet to south by the River Mingrelia. the hills and their declivities being overspread handsome returns. and yielding with . a is situated from Guria. which flows through the country whence was The Rion divides introduced into Europe the Phasian bird our pheasant. the birth of a female child being usually deemed a reproach to its parents. the great range. we find it bounded on the Rion. recent travellers speak in more favourable terms of the but as Svanni. Ozurgheti. corn. and oak the box. to Russia in 1878. The upper years by the members valley reason of of its the Ingur has been the brought to notice of late of our having Alpine Club become have starting-point effected the ascent in from of which Elbruz. and other of the highest peaks . where Returning to Mingrelia military station and commercial port. exported in large quantities. and the destruction of female infant life. regards their be desired. Contrary to earlier experience. of their feelings towards strangers. population to its own gradual extinction. the ancient Phasis. a contingency that is certain as the result of frequent deaths through personal animosities. and of their hospitality Koshtan-tau.
If so inclined. dress generally in use amongst females of the upper classes. but interest. through a land of much the historically and pictorially. falling from it Archaeologists would delight in an inspection of what remains of the . branch at line. and Kakhety. a city advantage.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and is sometimes ornamented with gems.E. the chief town of the old kingdom of Imeritia. which lies over the front part of the head. Passengers from Odessa and the Crimea landing at Batoum find the train in readiness to convey them to Tirlis. beautifully situated little on the banks of the Rion. do not disdain to wear the papanaky. AN IMERITIAN LAI>V. or velvet. less frivolous. a small lozenge-shaped piece of leather. fifteen reached in about hours. here beauty. are the a Rion station. to great rate Khytaea. the main for which will take him to Kutais. not forgetful that at one period or other their dominion extended over neighbouring territories. Although many of the well-to-do noted for their fashions in women. the men. about six miles distant. M . the traveller in the distance. The natives pride themselves not a on the distinctness of their nationality. like Mingrelia and Guria. silk. and worn round the brow like a coronet it is embroidered with gold or silk thread. to the left is Imeritia. On highlands of the old kingdom of Armenia. chiefly in Georgia. affect European assuming the bonnet or hat. of the past. Chemokmedy. and is fastened with The headstrinofs under the chin. 161 the chief town. where he may tarry for a while may exchange. WEARING THE of ^Etes any PAPANAKY. the capital of the whole of Transcaucasia. stiffened. attractively situated. right. Imeritia. a thin white veil. may be de- scribed as consisting of a narrow black velvet band. was the residence of the rulers who lie interred at the ancient monastery and episcopal church. the train travelling slowly enough. cleverly arranged. ancient at AN IMERITIAN NOBI. in loose folds. the residence of great It is the . antiquity. a glory.
N. Having driven through the suburbs on his way from the railway terminus. public library. tions. watered by the Kur and its tributaries. after which date it became the sepulchre of the sovereigns of Imeritia. openings for light. three thousand and and enterprise. is obtainable. unquestionably for water-courses. interesting edifice is the Episcopal Church of Genath at Ghelaty. some eight miles off. etc. and grooves have been cut. presumably for the great. beams and pillars. limits Beyond this pass the train stops at Gori. over which are laid the lines of rail by gradients of one in twenty-two feet over a distance of about eight miles a triumph of engineering skill due. Between Kutais and TiHis is the Pass of Suram. the romancers of Georgia. would be almost uninhabitable. at an altitude of twenty-seven feet. the chief seat of Government and one residence of the Governor- thousand souls. and but for unpleasantly situated between ranges the River Kur. Here is a town there can be no other designation for it conif such a term sisting of public edifices may be employed of large habitaeach being for others. main thoroughfares lead to as many separate quarters.if>2 RUSSIAN PICTURES. an edifice of in century. the traveller crosses the Kur over the Woronzoff Bridge. in succession the public gardens. the where the wealthy live in well-built nouses of elegant construction An extensive bazaar. Uplytz-tzykhe. palace main guard-house. and yet the whole has been entirely hewn Tradition is replete with incidents in the and shaped out of the solid rock. and is believed to have been the burial-place of the great Queen Thamara. the by which time he will have 1 The Crimea and Transcaucasia. on the banks of which it is built. viz. where are situated the best From the square three hotels and restaurants. it were well to halt at this station for accommodation fairly good the purpose of visiting the unique rock-cut town. and the first is ever constructed of the style now accepted Georgian. carrying away An old and equallywith them every movable decoration of value. The Turks destroyed it in 1691. conveniently divided. Governor-General. is hills. but which a mixture the Armenian and Byzantine. the European. native bazaars. the eleventh as cathedral. 1 many The groups are ornamented with cornices. and the National Theatre. By Captain Telfer. where he passes of the . R. smaller dwellings and and partitions. which having a population of about hundred of perfectly barren at once brings him to the principal street. having doorways. . reached Palace Street and Erivan Square. as is the entire railway. law-courts. gymnasium. of a glorious while are separated by streets and lanes. six miles away. and the market-place and Russian view of the city and an interesting sight is obtained from the eminence : . to British capital . museum. situated at the Since plain. a restoration of the eleventh century. mouldings. Titiis. have history of these remarkable excavations. but faithful historiographers hitherto refrained from endorsing any of the tales that have been handed down by General.
apart from other trades. of an evening.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and encloses that most precious Georgia. in the fourth relic with which the nation was converted to Christianity century nothing less than a cross of vine stems bound with the hair of M 2 . As is the custom elsewhere in the East. The Cathedral of Zion was formerly the church of the Patriarch of It dates from the fifth century. They love wine and music. however. an allowance. or eating and wine-shops. and so are passed a succession of silversmiths in their stalls. The Georgians are merry folk. and presenting the disagreeable appearance of carcases swollen after lengthened immersion in water. those of one trade congregate together. buffalo. and copper-workers. the wine of the country being kept in or sheep-skins laid on their back. greatly exceeded when. rarely allowing themselves to be depressed by the troubles of life. whence rise the confused sounds of human cries and the din from the iron. friends meet together to join in the national dance. goat. 163 crowned by the old fortress which immediately overlooks the Asiatic quarter and bazaars. brass. armourers. of furriers. and ever seek to drive away dull care by indulging in their favourite Kakhety two bottles being the usual allowance to a man's dinner. called the Lezghinka.
and are the representatives of one of the most ancient monarchies of the world -. for not a vestige remains. signed his renunciation of the crown the 1 in favour of Emperor Paul in 800. George XIII. GEORGIAN LADIES. 7124 feet . Nina.for Bagrations to if the rose . and is the Georgian Church may be considered ^-. who first has long been suppressed. patron saint. ~_. first 587 and allowance be made power in for will interregnums it be found that their reign extended years.. and died shortly afterwards amid the execrations of his late subjects. - preached the truth replaced by a Russian ! The patriarchate in all Exarch. whence travellers on their way south have to content themselves with the post-road which goes over the Delijan Pass. The' palace of the kings has entirely disappeared. Many of his descendants are in the service of Russia. the St.. but for the present the line is constructed as far as Akstafa only. a day railway will convey passengers and goods the entire Some distance from Georgia into Armenia.164 RUSSIAN PICTURES. so that identical with that of respects Russia. for having ignominiously betrayed them. over during 1092 the twelve earliest centuries that elapsed from their election.
but the place is dull enough. excellent carriages are obtainable at Erivan. the cradle of the Gregorian Church.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. long a Turkish fortress town.840 feet. the first abode of Noah after he came forth from the ark. . As Georgia is the land of wine and song. Kurds. since his tomb is reverently shown by the inhabitants. surnamed the Enlightener. . so is Armenia essentially the land of legend and tradition. almost symmetrical in its outlines. Gregory. An and frequently cause immeasurable inconvenience to the ordinary traveller. ' ' edifice standing within high battlemented walls presenting the appearance of in its treasury one of the most extraordinary of sacred encloses a fortress. Other still more important towns in Armenia. for which must be held in great part responsible the magnificent mountain that exhibits itself suddenly at a dip in the road Well may the Armenians glory in long before the plains are in sight. is Nahitchevan. and Turkish dealers in search of good horses. where crooked lanes are lined with high walls.by the southern slopes into the plains of order for post-horses may be obtained at any post-town. the former being the largest and most powerful fortress and the the latter. As in most Russian towns. whence a two hours' drive over a good road brings the visitor to the Monastery of Etchmiadzin. upon which they will the frontier. above the Armenia. for Persia ruled here during a but at the bazaars one considerable period until vanquished by Russia meets with other nationalities. who eagerly escort strangers to see it. and probably also his last. The population is Armenian and Persian. are Alexandropol and Kars. that mask the dwellings within like the defences of a fortress.' the founder. 165 descending. the traveller will find good accommodation. principal arsenal in Transcaucasia was gallantly defended in 1855 by Sir Fenwick Williams and a few British officers. their Ararat. available by carriage-road. looking almost dwarfed by the side of its ' ' mighty neighbour. the largest city in Russian Armenia. and rising to an altitude of 16. defying Cossacks and custom officers alike. and the post-station nearest to the Persian frontier. relics ! Another priceless brought hither by the Apostle Thaddeus in the year 34 is carried about which relic is the hand of St. until the garrison was starved into surrender by General Mouravieff. 12. peerless among the mighty works of the Creator. Kars was finally ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.' in 1829. the identical spear-head with which our Lord's side was pierced. a beautiful Gregory. Greeks. fly across Within a short distance of Erivan. Lesser Ararat. or in the broad streets and unpaved quarter laid out by the Russians since their occupation of the province by a boulevard and gardens fair to look upon. even though enlivened .916 feet above the sea. At fairly Erivan. whether in the Persian quarter. special sea. in a silver-gilt case. but orders granted to officials or others on duty always take precedence. and so called the only-begotten Son of God here descended and appeared to because The convent. such as Tartars from the steppes.
town. streets. where neither Viewed from NAPHTHA WELLS AT BAKU. all religious books for the use of Gregorian congregations library contains and from the A Caspian. citadel. the sea.166 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Baku presents a distinctly picturesque appearance. being Gospels and devotional works. and from being of greystone masonry. plains. and in it for the is also employed the consecration of the patriarchs. is embarked for transport to the interior Russia by the Volga. of where the the houses look as it they were the other and lining the shore new or Russian quarter being at the Modern Baku contains the pretty little bay.. to journey pick ourselves up after having retraced our steps by rail to dismal-looking Baku a town of recent approached through a desert of sand and stones. and the palace of the princes of bygone days old towering above the piled the one above base. so called from its begrimed condition. with its sombre numerous minarets. worth inspecting. where we must now from the creation. on the line between Tiflis and the MSS. Tartar city brought into prominence of late years through the introduction of railways is Elizavetpol. at the west end of Baku compose the Black Town. The some early printing-press issue in various parts of the globe. purpose of healing the sick and performing other miracles. where the . constructed of massive blocks of naphtha. the wealth of Baku. Numerous refineries. some handsome residences and well-paved the principal being the busy quay. vegetable nor animal life can possibly find an existence. or for conveyance across the Caspian to Central Asia.
because of his prosperity. Kakhety. The Lesghians. who never fail in their hostility is towards others. are good tacticians. and. more especially the Lesghians. is and acid. where still stands the wall constructed by King Heraclius as a defence against the frequent attacks of which thin the mountaineers of Daghestan. who is no favourite among the different populations. and Sygnak in Lower.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. that the Georgian makes merry. who invaded the and carried off females and the young of both these marauders are called. ungovernable tribe. the last stronghold of the brave Shamyl. ago by the increasing number of speculators engaged in a trade which has now completely driven out of the market all American produce. Georgians are rarely met with outside the confines of their country proper. in Georgia. In Daghestan is Gunib. whilst in truth their religion consists of a love of independence and an unconquerable aversion to Russia. The Chentchen are a wild. they call themselves distinction to the Tartars who occupy the declivities and plains. whom the strength of Russia was unequal to subdue during the space of thirty Do the Russians say that they are numerous as the grains of sand ? years. which. when the opportunity them. which he owes entirely to his own industry and thrift and from being strictly a trader. because of the many naphtha springs that were constantly burning. the richest vineyards being in the Valley of It is with the wine of Alazan. occupy the mountainous region known as Interior Taiil in and Eastern Daghestan mountaineers. are second to none in bravery. plain from time to time. Kakhety. they were hustled away some ten years . red and white. until. grateful even in the days of Strabo. The two principal towns in this wine country are Telav in Upper. the foremost and most enterprising trader encountered everywhere being the Armenian. 167 Since a remote period has ever enveloped in clouds of the densest smoke. is the work of its own people. three afforded . After a predatory fight. agriculture. for they cannot forget that they were employed by Shamyl to assist him in subduing them. selves on the heights. this neighbourhood been considered holy by fire-worshippers. the fires at Surakan. as far as the slopes of the great range. Stretching and even from the shores of the Caspian. some even perpetually indeed. and even from India. hidden by trees. the . shot down their enemies in scores as they advanced in column up the narrow defiles. sexes. watered by the river of that name.' said the great Tartar chief when addressing the numerous tribes who placed themselves The mountaineers posted themunder his leadership to repel the invader. from the province of Baku. a suburb of Baku. ' Then are we the waves that will carry away that sand. the Armenian is careless about . with the connivance of the Government. Nominally. continued to be guarded by fire-worshippers from Yezd in Persia. and cool under fire. giving it the preference over the wine of Mingrelia. as Lesghians are Mahometans. the vine is successfully cultivated in the Georgian district of Kakhety.
years ago only, with their hated neighbours, the Chentchen resorted to an that of amputating the hands of their wounded ancient and cruel custom Other tribes and them to the doors of their dwellings. enemies, nailing and Kysty, the Ingush are scattered to the west of the Chentchen
Chentchen, not a little
of Christianity and Paganism, tinged with talismans they wear about their persons
being inscribed with passages from the
Adjointhe Ingush and Kysty, and near the Kabardines, whose acquaintance made in Circassia, are the Ossets, a numerous tribe to the west of the
Arabic or Persian.
River Terek and in the valley of the Ardon, whose origin and history, long a subject of debate amongst ethnologists, has finally resulted in an almost general admission that the Ossets or Osses are descended from and inhabit the same parts as were anciently peopled by the Alains or Alans, mentioned for the first time by Josephus. The Ossets occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Terek, in the hilly parts where they adjoin the Hefsurs, Ph'tchavy, and Tushines,
rude tribes of puzzling religious tendencies, and exceedingly superstitious. The Hefsurs are a proud and supercilious race, inimical to Russia, as are
and Tushines, so that they rarely quit their impregnable homes in the most inaccessible sites on the mountains, and live much the same life they led a hundred years ago. The great thoroughfare between Transcaucasia and Russia is from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, the terminus of the Moscow-Rostof railway, by way
of the Dariel road, a stupendous engineering success completed in the reign This road winds over a pass 7977 feet above the sea, and is of Nicholas.
and clear for traffic in winter by the Ossets, whose country it which service they are exempt from all taxes. The traverses, post stations are the best in the Caucasus, and the distance, 126 miles, is The first usually accomplished in something less than twenty-four hours. station at which horses are changed after leaving Tiflis is Mz'hett, the site of the most ancient city in Georgia, its first capital, and residence of its
in repair in return for
Pharnawaz, 302-237 B.C. The cathedral, restored in the seventeenth century, in which many monarchs and patriarchs are interred, is worth
For ages was here inspecting as a perfect example of Georgian architecture. preserved the seamless garment of our Lord, the handiwork of the blessed
but unhappily when the Persians overran Georgia, the precious relic Virgin was sent for safe custody to Moscow, where it has remained ever since. From another station on this road is obtained a near and beautiful view
of Kazbek, ascended, twenty years ago, to its very summit, 16,546 feet, by several members of our Alpine Club, notwithstanding local traditions which
assert that the
peak of Kazbek, being a holy
inhabited by a
and that the
by an unseen power
THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
arrested by a storm, and compelled to retrace his steps. of the station the road, keeping the right bank Mr. Douglas D. through the celebrated Dariel Pass, of which
The bold and broken forms of the gigantic mountaineer, says arrest the attention of even the most indifferent observer of The mere fact of the existence of a carriage road is some detraction
yet we agreed gorge from a comparison with the finest
defiles of the Alps.'
completed the journey from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, he will have arrived at the depot and point of transit for all goods brought by rail from Russia, and there transferred, for conveyance to the Transcaucasian provinces, to clumsy, unwieldy carts or vans drawn by those in charge of the caravans never being in a hurry, horses or oxen as to when they start, or when they arrive at their indifferent completely destination, and rejoicing in a lengthened stay at Mlety station, after having accomplished the most toilsome part of the distance the ascent and descent Vladikavkaz was founded in 1785 on the site of an Osset of the pass.
and became the headquarters and chief military depot of the Russians during their lengthened struggle for supremacy with the stoutit is now the chief town and seat of government for the hearted hillmen The population province of Kuban, and still an important military station.
of Circassians, Armenians, and Russians, and a few Ossets at The chief industries are the bazaars, for the natives made off long ago. the manufacture of silver and gold lace, arms, burkas, the Caucasian's allThe hotels are fairly good, but there weathers cloak, silver ornaments, etc.
being nothing at Vladikavkaz itself sufficiently inviting to encourage a longer stay than is absolutely necessary, the following choice of routes lays before He may post through Eastern Caucasus and embark at the stranger.
or take the Petrovsk for Astrakhan and the tedious voyage up the Volga route to en Moscow or travel rail to Novorossisk by railway to Rostof
Ekaterinodar, post thence to
embark Tanian and
following that line as cross the straits to Kertch.
Travels in the Central Caucasus
AN ILLUMINATION OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY
OF SAINT SERGIUS, MOSCOW.
have, within the compass of a very few pages, to sketch the leading features of Asiatic Siberia, which, having an area of nearly five million English square miles, is almost three million square miles larger than It comprises, the whole of European Russia, including Poland and Finland.
one thirteenth part of the globe. On the other hand, the population, sparsely scattered over eight provinces, is scarcely that of London, for it amounts to little more than four millions, giving less than one inhabitant per
For thousands of mile, against forty-one in European Russia. miles Siberia has a northern seaboard on the Arctic Ocean, and an eastern
degrees Europe, and on the south its limits come into contact with the empire of China and with the dominions of Russia in Central Asia. A gloomy desert of frozen tundras, or mossy boglands, on the north,
Sea of Okhotsk that embraces nearly the west, the Ural Mountains separate
the rest of this vast country is in some parts green and fertile as the prairies and pampas of America, in others mountainous, with alpine lakes, glaciers, and snow-clad peaks. The principal rivers are the Ob, the Enisei, and the Lena, which, after being fed by numerous tributaries, discharge their mighty waters into the Arctic Ocean, on points of the seaboard practically inaccessible
shipping for the steady and reliable prosecution of trade. Railways will soon be constructed to bring the rich produce of the great Siberian rivers to a westerly harbour on the Polar Ocean, more free from ice than the fjords,
On the south, Siberia has a convenient waterbays, in the Kara Sea. way into the Gulf of Tartary, namely, the great Amur river, with its tributary, the Usuri, which
diplomatically acquired from China in 1859 and 1860. So far, Asiatic Siberia
that from Perm, on the European side of
Ekaterinburg and Tiumen, it will not be long before the Ural chain is
southerly point Great Siberian
which was opened as far as Ufa,
Omsk, Tomsk, Kras-
and Irkutsk. and the Russian coast on the Pacific are
railways or under
points of construc-
rality of our readers only as a land of penal or
from early impressions conveyed by
OSTIAKS SPINNING AND NURSING.
or the Exiles of Siberia, and
more recently from the reports of
to the Russian convict system, be said to be a land flowing with
who have devoted
milk and honey,' requiring only the energy of man and the resources of civilization to raise it to a condition of great affluence. The sparseness of its population is an obstacle which greater facilities of communication are rapidly removing.
strong tide of immigration has set
from Central and Southern Russia,
even towards the distant basins of the Amur and the Usuri, where the Russian peasant finds himself in contact, not with bears, but with tigers. The natives whom the Russians have displaced as masters of Siberia are no longer to be dreaded, and their numbers are dwindling rather than
Ethnographically, the aboriginal races are grouped as the Arctic, roaming on the frozen lands of the Arctic Circle, from the mouth of the Lena
with settlements also at the
the island of Sakhalin
of Samoyedes and of Ostiaks, and other Finnish tribes,
north-western part of Siberia, principally between the Ural
Mountains and the Enisei, from the shores of the
Enisei, from which, however, they are cut off by strong Slav
sources of the
E nisei sk and Kras-
noyarsk; the Titrkish, which
supplies fishing and hunting Yakuts to a large tract of
country intersected by the Lena, and nomadic Khirghizes,
Nogais and Bashkirs,
west of the
represented by Buriats
Kalmucks, who, starting as a narrow ethnological wedge from the Arctic shore east
tribes of the
extend southwards until they meet the Tunguz and Lamut MancJiu race, dominant from the head of the Sea of Okhotsk to the Russian outpost at Vladivostok, on the Gulf of Tartary. The origin of Russian dominion in this part of Asia is worth tracing. In the most remote times, the Slavs, and mainly the Novgorodians, had
but with the loss over half Cossacks crossed drowned in who the had Ural. and traders from Novgorod the descended the tributary streams of the Ob river in search of furs. Ural territory. and Tiumen. Early in the sixof teenth century the Muscovite Tsars. in suc- ceeded of capturing of the Isker. after Ermak was soon and the the Irtysh. or Siberia. at portages. and capital present city of Tobolsk.SIBERIA. Cossacks.' of the that to lands within of the ' the basin ' Ob. eventually reduced them to . was known to ancient Arab merchants and missionaries. in 1581. Kanda. '75 commercial intercourse with the tribes settled on Ural Mountains. long but the construction of fortified Cossack posts at the confluence of resisted rivers. which had exploited long been of the Stroby agents which family. demoralized also by the danger of their position in the face of inimical native tribes. on the Irtysh. and established their power at Sibir (the name which the Russians gave to Isker). a little above the a Tartar of the was Isker kingdom. A SIBERIAN MERCHANT IN WINTER TRAVELLING DRESS. the Koriaks. The Buriats on the Angara. and other aborigines. ganoff derived great riches from its Siberian trade. of which site of the the principal mart was at Isker. and in mountain passes. . A Cossack robber band under Ermak followed in the footsteps of the and trappers. having annexed the wide dominions the Asiatic slopes of the Great are known to have Novgorod. style to began Lords themselves ' of the territories of the ( )1> and is the say. and on a second expetraders dition. were forced to later abandon a conquest which was virtually effected Muscovite The Tsars thus became masters of the Transby troops. Tobolsk.
from which had issued. Many of them. or ears. in Russians and Siberia. political. and by the small remnant of the tragedy took place. were Ivan the Terrible. Towards macious Little Russians Streltsi whom the most Peter the Great had spared. Boris Godunof. by first only from the sevenboth criminal and political. and sent to guard. arrested her in a development invasions. factories at spite of that treaty. just annexed to Muscovy. on Chinese territory. were exiled in batches to Siberia. began to supply Siberia with a new class of exiles noblemen and ex-favourites. to at 1851. or perpetrators of fraud and crime against the State. Tobolsk became the central seat of government. as in the law having thus been the remainder was we have already said. numerically The Russian but later trappers. the militarily occupied. submission. Some of their descendants are 1 banks of the Lena. victims of Court intrigue. and nine points dealt with. Poles. in isolated forts. a century and a half previously. of teenth whom we exiles. But a desire to entire possess an outlet ' in the in Pacific for the huge continent of Siberia led the establish. contuof the Ukraine. In 1689. preponderate century. the hordes that devastated common to the rest of Europe. like a human criminal.176 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Amur was gained. The sovereigns who more immediately succeeded Peter I. Isker. near Tobolsk. distant confines of his empire. by successive established a semi-Asiatic form hands of those on ineffaceable injury race. Strange to say. or Sibir. from which Russian dominion was consolidated and extended. in Russian Government. the Tsar was compelled to order the evacuation of the settlements formed by Cossacks on the Amur. which was formally banished in 1591 to Pelym. are now in the Mongols and Tartars inflicted such well-nigh suffering. in the Gulf of Tartary. Russia. . on the sufferer in this respect was the tocsin Volga. in the thirteenth century. to lose its tongue and ears. to which we are indebted for much information in a concise form. the first bell of the town of Uglitch. having been swept away by a flood. and Cossacks. were succeeded. representing the Slav traders. and condemned. of which the population was later increased by Dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. . of the territory through which the Celestial empire is now dangerously vulnerable. nose. in 1860. branded or maimed in tongue. under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. and ultimately. for the offence of ringing out an alarm while the emissaries of Prince the usurper. The plains of Mongolia. and portage connecting that river with De Castries During the Crimean War the left bank of the two extremities of the Bay. 'trading the mouth of the Amur. by skilful diplomacy and the Chinese Government made a formal cession. have spoken. son of exiled to doing to death the young Among of the earliest in State criminals Siberia were the citizens the town which that the end of the seventeenth century. Dimitri. perished settled in villages along the 1 Russian revised Edition ol Rechis. whom and the of government at Moscow.
tied. deported to the same wilds large bodies of Poles. Kennan's articles in The Century. Catherine II. 685. where no friendly hand could help them. the messenger of glad tidings was generally unable to find them. ' See Dr. even if pardoned. other parts of Siberia. and the considerable contingent of Polish exiles suppression of the insurrection 1500 as settlers certain circumscribed dis- Like the ordinary criminals of every grade who have been poured into Siberia for the last century exiles and had. about 900 Poles. . the custom to guard against the escape of convicts trils. and the tender mercies of the beyond left to Tunguzes and reported to prefer the chase of an escaped convict to that of a wild goat. still escape obedience to the call of ' General Kokushka. Of these. Nevertheless many is. and about within tricts. where. when it more especially to 1 ' the crowding of political offenders and criminals. ' who are only one fugitive skin.' that the cuckoo 2 The Howard Association has recently proclaims the advent of spring.ind tundras of Siberia. has in three shirt. in days happily gone by. with by tearing out their nosUntil 1864 they were branded a hot iron on the forehead . kaftan? and some kind of sheepskin entirely. the four political until recent journeys miles of days. who had served under the in In the reign of Alexander banners of Napoleon.SIBERIA. xxxvi and xxxvii. which has Buriats. Siberia. 177 miserably in the forests . it was. p. were last I. while his the leanest his coat. to sent join their countrymen performed the same dreary journey after the of 1863. to make or five thousand on foot. or chained in It took gangs to long iron poles. with the coat The long worn by peasants. drawn attention to the dreadful sufferings still endured by exiles in Siberia. vols. and on both cheeks but at present runaways are simply placed the pale of the law. them two years to reach places of banishment in the Trans Baikal as well in as province. a half. 972 were sent as convicts.' SIBERIAN CONVICT. Russian edition of Reclus. and where.
' which save him from the full the habitual rigour of the law. at In some respects. ' In this respect it appears necessary that a exceed twenty years' hard labour. and are able to find occupation and recreation of one The intellectual level of the Siberians is markedly higher kind or another. and to their a unable to acquit prisoner clearly culpable. innocent wives and children of the former. owing to the continuous cordially received influx of educated exiles. the penalty of death is now inflicted only in cases of political and other crimes requiring special measures of repression. when the benefit of of Russian juries. island of Sakhalien. however. Russia but. in filthy prisons. and it has trial great amount of crime thus escapes punishment in become a serious question to Russian statesmen whether A suddenly introduced in 1865. except in its polar region. themselves to a great extent the descendants of exiles. and to numerous other happy. Corporal punishment having been abolished in 1863.. do much both to sustain and to raise . among the Bashkirs. criminals to the that the worst are now observe deported We on the Gulf of Tartary. who lead Siberia is a pleasant land to convicted other public institutions. it cannot in truth be said that their lot in Siberia. die.' in one of the more than twenty-five per cent.. and perhaps luxurious life at Tomsk or lenity Tobolsk. of the inmates are conlargest of which ' stantly officials ill . They are by the local inhabitants. to give him extenuating circumstances. Russia. here salutary terror to prospective criminals. to whose steppes he banished gentleman Without pretending to . a Russian Howard would undoubtedly find field watching over and improving the system in its details. doom of labour in the mines of Nerchinsk should have a considerable amount of may. present punishment by exile might be made more impressive and more effectively of activity in centres remote deterrent of crime. of banks and a to free. will. thanks ' proneness. bring forward a typical case of comparative that a Polish felicity in exile. is now a very hard one. has not done more harm than good to the moral condition of the people.' No can accuse a of . than that of the population of European Russia. even. Tomsk and the university recently and Russian no doubt. As regards the generality of political exiles. of intentional deportation mitigate the although of present government or the superior cruelty or negligence in the matter of very great deal has already been done to the felons still sufferings condemned and banished a large revolutionists. honest and more than ten per critic cent. the from the eyes of philanthropic governors.i 78 RUSSIAN PICTURES. plunderers felons. Polish established at that level. we may interest our readers by mentioning in 1863 met. after they have once reached the places of their banishment. in ocean steamers which embark their miserable and dangerous freight at Odessa.' and the punishment for the most atrocious murder or series of murders does not by jury.
from which malachite is raised. a voyage of four days from Novgorod by steamer. and with whom he followed in the sport deserter from the British language. army Recalled after a couple of years. We Siberian carried must now towns. an Irish taught him the English exile liberated settled at . the Crimea. resuming work in his original profession of an advocate and the knowledge he had acquired from his Irish friend enabled him to undertake English business. St. irregularly disposed. It is an important centre of we Here metallurgic industry. who the of hawking. and to retire after a very few years with a considerable fortune. down the eastern side of the Ural Mountains. of which there eleven. visit some of the principal Until the great country on the River Nijni the Ural. At their foot lies much are Nijni Taghil. we we have been sketching via Perm. and at Aziatskaya station begins our descent into Asia. take rail to Ekaterinburg. Not far from the principal works. 179 was relegated. The great specimens of the many iron works of Neviansk are some thirty stocked with N 2 . we find a minerals found in museum well Siberia.SIBERIA. the aspect of a Siberian city is given to Perm by A SIBERIAN GOLD MINK. Petersburg. started by a Stroganoff in the sixteenth century. Kama. Although within across railway to Ufa is have to reach the the confines of Europe. in proximity with the famous Demidoff copper mines. its low wooden houses.
in large numbers. was founded 1723. We are told of the emerald mines that belong to the State. jasper. Exiles are distributed from this point over Eastern Siberia. 1884. through its great affluent the also the goal of caravans from China and other parts of the Irtysh. was yielded by Siberia. named by Peter the Great after Catherine in of gold production in the tons I. and a number of other stones more or less rare and precious. Our railv/ay journey ends. jacinths.extensive mining mines. and seven times as large as Great Britain and Ireland. of and . In eight days more. but as they are more than a hundred miles away. . The upper town Tobolsk occupy a commanding position on a hill with a and from which we gain an extensive view of the Irtysh. and to several gold washings in the neighbourhood of the city. or more than a quarter of the total gold world (estimated at about 144 tons). Sophia is the most handsome. of elk. wolves. the Cathedral of St.000). the capital province of the same name. precipitous not far from the city by the Tobol. by descending first the and then ascending the Ob in a steamer. and is a handsome districts.600. like that of many an exile. and at our feet spreads out the joined lower town. aqua marine. there is a mine of gold quartz at Berezof which most travellers are induced to inspect. beryl. and the British and Foreign Bible Society have consequently selected it as the most suitable place for a thorough and systematic dissemination of the it has water is communication with the it Word of a of God among Steamers run the political prisoners. as we also do of the presence. a town founded in 1586 on the site of an ancient Tartar city. There is also a laboratory in which the gold raised in Siberia is smelted into ingots. Although the Ostiaks in these regions still live in tents.SIBERIA. such smelting ore. lapis lazuli. after a somewhat monotonous voyage between low and flat banks inhabited by Ostiaks and other aborigines. from Tiumen in a day and a half to Tobolsk. already referred to. thirty-two (^4. we find ourselves at Tomsk..' and in a:s great importance as the centre of rich the seat of the State 'administration of the it which are cut and polished garnets. 181 miles beyond. on the Tura River. Ekaterinburg. city. and bears in the forests that have not yet disappeared under the great demand for wood fuel used in possesses The Crown a factory in local gems and stones. bristling with domes and spires. topaz. it must suffice to take note of the fact of their existence. distant East. alexandrite (crimson by day and green by night). Close to it is a belfry in which hangs fortress of front. for while Ob. opals. This is the most important commercial centre in Western Siberia. Of the twenty churches that stand out from among the modest wooden houses of Tobolsk. at Tiumen. Irtysh. and in their immediate in neighbourhood In are the first gold washings to which we come Siberia. In addition to iron and copper works. the oldest and most populated in Siberia. and the the exiled bell of Uglitch.
Siberia. they are more or less Russianized. via Irkutsk.-A TOBOLSK. and have not. Its prosperity and revive now that it has become the seat of a university for .182 RUSSIAN PICTURES. like their congeners on the Built in 1604. both of to reach China and the At present Irkutsk with province) as well made and kept post horses. takes a fortnight neighbouring Enisei . retained their Enisei. the direction. and is it can also look forward to the benefits it of the in it great railway which destined sooner or later to pass through Pacific coast. Tomsk remained a centre ancient dress. of subjugation and annexation until the towns of Eniseisk and Krasnoyarsk were founded importance for the will same purpose on the Enisei River. along roads (in the as any in England.
which mountains is surrounded and occasionally attain a height of 7000 by is crossed At the station from which it feet. Rapid recovery is. from Kiakhta which it on a scale. great mass steep decline and forming rapids nearly of rock. &c. Holy Sea. and occupying an area of 14. rises picturesquely in the middle of the A rushing waters. is the junction of the roads . THE BURNING OF IRKUTSK IN 1879. and before a great of Eastern Siberia. The road winds along the wooded part of the Angara hills crowned and covered to the valley. however. and other trees. also This sheet of water. 400 miles long by 20 to 50 in breadth. cedars. being made under the impetus of Its leather. called the A beautiful view is soon obtained of Lake Baikal. and candle works are being continued industry and trade. the largest fresh water lakes in the world. and never passed by them without an act of devotion..000. fire 1879 was the finest town in Siberia. the seat of the administration picturesque Angara River. is one of It is 1364 feet above the ocean. 185 Irkutsk. soap. held sacred by the followers of Shamanism. also tenanted waters. lies on the It has far off in Lake Baikal. on the opposite side. which rises not a population of 36.SIBERIA.000 English square miles. more rugged part of the valley. the Angara will be found rolling down a four miles in length. in large after the establishment enjoys is likely to attain a considerable development of railway communication. by a steamer the depth close Fine fish in great variety abound in its in shore is a thousand fathoms. and presents magnificent views of After passing a foot of their slopes with pines. and the transit trade in tea. which are by the ocean seal. Travellers bound to Kiakhta can reach it from Irkutsk in four days by post and steamer. At Verkhneudinsk.
Sixty miles further on. Mrs. II. to the conversion of the Mongolian Buriats. On the (. . at the end of a heavy and sandy road that runs along a parched and undulating tract of land covered here and there with a little grass. between 1817 and 1840. bank of the Selenga are still extant some of the outbuildings of the house in which they lived.1 86 RUSSIAN PICTURES. beyond. is left . lead that and at severally to Pekin and to Vladivostok on the Pacific a small and miles we modern 110 reach the scene town. Yule. Stallybrass. and three of their children. Selenginsk. YAKS IN WINTER COSTUME ON THE LOWER AMI'K. of the labours of the devoted themselves English missionaries who. and in an enclosed cemetery we find the graves of Mrs.
The theory that tea carried overland is superior to that which aroma. which enjoys. 220 is yards wide. drawn by oxen. and mounted on wooden discs instead of walk along a macadamized road brings us to the Russian frontier town of Kiakhta. already for the the icy north. separates entered through a gate the in Russian the The latter empires. and follow the travels deteriorated in or way of the grand country of the Amur a vast and one also of high importance to Russia from a strategical kingdom Our readers must be content with the sketch we have point of view. which can no longer be considered as the land of made of Siberia. in strong contrast with the comparatively low level of general culture in the European parts of Russia Proper. the growth of the northern provinces of China.SIBERIA. in from becoming rooted to the being rigidly excluded (from beyond the order to prevent the subjects of His Chinese Majesty soil. 187 Troitskosavsk. under existing arrangements with China. and Chinese by three thousand male Celestials. 1728. seen to greater advantage in it than on his native dreary plains. since its free in population. nor as mingling with in exclusively the land the honest banished. resulting in a spirit of freedom and a broadness of view. notwithstanding that its cathedral is Buriat endowed with gold and jewelled church properties.' women Notwithstanding the competition of sea- borne tea. we stop to gaze at the corn and hay market Mongolian wheels. on the other hand. a town inhabited palisade of Maimachen. a A Lamasery is among the principal sights of this place. for there has been a great mingling of blood in this new country. and thereby becomes As a matter of fact. has strength by sea. imported via Odessa and St. of the is ' ' exile. even Russian It was founded as a fort about officials are not allowed to sleep. A and so is still richly miserable-looking place. making rapid strides numbers and Sibir one of the most valuable jewels prosperity. a great trade still exists in that article. the leaf brought to Kiakhta is long been exploded. where In its we have a so-called carts square to alight in a dirty inn infested with vermin. and which forms the bulk of the tea consumed in European Russia. From want of space we cannot return to Verkhneudinsk. gravitation of its development is towards the genial long road to the Pacific by in itself. . ' great wall of Kalgan). Neutral ground. and an incessant interchange of thought of a high intellectual order. where. south. bidding fair to render The Russian is already in the richly-stuclcled Crown of All the Russias. where a better exclusively quality is produced than in the south. Petersburg. the advantage of cheaper carriage by sea.
indicating the territories beyond the Caspian. between the Oxus Jaxartes.FROM A MS. has been more and more prominently brought to the notice of the British public in connection with SINCE and the country is now so well that none of our readers and physical political aspects will expect or require to derive any additional light from our sketchy pages. provinces south-eastern shores of the Caspian to Merv and the Afghan frontier. and merging on the north into the Russian advances focus in in the direction of India. within its steppes of Siberia. beginning at the southern limits of Siberia. bounded on the south by the dominions of Persia and Afghanistan. a terra then almost incognita. and bounded on the south by the governor-generalship the stretching from Turkestan. within which are comprised the lands great division east at the Tianshan and the. abutting on the east on the empire of China. MOSCOW. The time has arrived when we should set aside the vague geographical designation of Central Asia. and historically three distinctive and politically important. OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY IN THE PUBLIC RUMIANTSOFF MUSEUM. : of the earth's surface into the Transcaspian region. To our immediate forefathers the greater part of the country thus consolidation bounded was known as of Russian dominion in Independent Tartary. the days of the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny the question of Central Asia. CHAPTER X. CENTRAL ASIA. terminating on the the third : . includof ing the Aral Sea. but Central Asia has converted portion the this final large. the Khirghiz steppe country.
A KHIRGHIZ BRIDE. .
and for much other information tersely conveyed. separating Northern Persia from the Turcoman deserts and oases. Geddie's excellent work on The Russian Empire. this expedition the Hindu of Alexander when hunted the fugitive then. proselytized with and sword. which survived for to the Bactrian several Jaxartes. and Chinese. . centuries. advanced kingdom. crossed in . as the natives do even now.C. who. combined area of these three satrapies is over a million and a half English square miles. laid waste Maracanda (Samarkand). the fire overwhelmed the Bactrian empire. he passed Persians across the Oxus. and planted the roots of Mahometanism so deeply that to this day the most orthodox champions of Islam are to be found in the mosques of Khiva. J. 191 Mountains and the Pamir. Samarkand. the limits of Turkestan are marked by the Hindu Kush. 1 1 For this digest. early in the eighth century. They were succeeded by Arabs of the Khalifate. ruled afterwards Parthians. On the south. we are to a great extent indebted to Mr. region is afforded by the famous the year 329 B. the Scythians in turn by the Persians. while their total population is little more than five millions. which gradually merges into the Kopet Dagh range of mounThe tains. Our first glimpse into the interior of the Great. and Bokhara.CENTRAL ASIA. on inflated skins or trusses of hay Kush. and founded the On their way to the Indus. at the foot of the great tablelands of Thibet and Chinese Tartary.
in 1219. Mogul empires. from which they entered upon a deadly struggle with the nomads who held the steppes The Shahs who ruled over Kharesm (Khiva) established themor deserts. the but of great 'scourges in was Nadir Shah. as the ruling power in the country. issue in by Tamerlane (Timur-Leng. established to the onset of the Uzbegs. of the successors of Timur in Bokhara and in Kokan. latter the terror of the world. and fleeing ultimately through Afghanistan of the Great the and founded 'Empire India. behind the mountain screen of Persia. selves at Samarkand known took the as and Shah. in 1747. to withstand unable was himself at Samarkand. the Twice called the province of Ferghana. overthrew the rule and now again. and was assassinated Turcoman deserts in humanity' who overthrew the Persian and reared the height of his fame. his the half of the fourteenth century. had no title to the name as the seat selected and Turks burst in from the the until north-east. conquered Delhi (1525). peopled princiof Turkestan.RUSSIAN PICTURES. The subsequent national history of Turkestan is largely made up Another flood of invasion from the northern Mogul. Khiva. but the Mongol hordes of Chinghiz Khan. pally by races of Iranian origin. but he Ferghana. or the lame). massacred and slew. and chased the remnants of his Long and cruel army through the Afghan passes and across the Indus. countries traversed by the Oxus and the Jaxartes. wars. who made Samarkand steppes capital. the ruler of famous Baber. Seljuk The of their power Khorassan. the subjects of laid waste Bokhara and Samarkand. which thus became Turkestan. waged between the direct descendants of Chinghiz and their neighbours and kinsmen the chiefs of the Golden Horde were brought to an they defeated whom KOKAN. and Kokan. then.' of struggles for ascendency the last between the the Khanates of of Bokhara. .
In 1695.. on the roads to India. With an a military line of frontier to the west of Tsaritsyn. two adventurous Russians from Astrakhan reached Balkh and Cabul. Bokhara. entered into relations began lay with the neighbouring states of Western Europe and with the Sultan of In the reign of Ivan IV. after defeating the Turcomans who opposed his passage. Between 1669 and 1672. So inquiring at Moscow the early as 1520. and India. which he crossed flying the flag of St. and took This enabled him to advance provinces in which those towns were situated. Holland. army of men. and brought back the first direct intelligence of the wealth of India. his frontier to the Terek. In 1558 Anthony Jenkinson equipped a small war vessel on the Caspian. a annexed the Tartar with the Khanates of Central Asia. Ivan III. Meanwhile. whose silks had come into The mission of 1675 was instructed to report on the Oxus. a Genoese. and several unsuccessful attempts were made. was despatched gave the first strong impulse to It was his master-mind that first pointed out to his countrymen. great request. when the Tartar yoke was began to visit it. therefore. heard the Great had much of the Peter land of India. on which he planted a thousand families of Don forty thousand attacked prosecution of his plans required the conquest of the Caucasus.CENTRAL ASIA.. and foreigners Muscovy long finally ' countries of the Far East (the 1480. at the mouth Baku and Derbent. treasure in . Russian trade and travel Central Asia. Khiva. gold. Astrakhan. in 1537. Persia. on the Volga. to the court of Ivan IV. had been was broken surrounded. The o . with the English. 193 The gravitation of Muscovy towards the Russian Drang Nach Osten) began after thrown off. Muscovy sent her first Pekin. Peter I. and Siberia. In 1694. George. the Terrible. and the Italians were occupied idea of reaching India and China by an overland route. from and the other maritime nations brought home which the Dutch. the powerful and ambitious prince who then to the foundations of the Russian empire. the Chinese Wall. established the road now traversed by a military railway. the sea the approaches to those countries being then jealously guarded by the Spaniards and Portuguese. and to establish commercial relations with the Central embassy to Asiatics. Cossacks. and all further fear of a barbaric invasion of the rest of Europe was removed. a large caravan. he appeared suddenly. who had The geographical position kingdoms of Kazan. as the most convenient route to Bokhara. Portuguese.. those acquired by conquests brought Muscovy into commercial communication Foscarini. A similar object brought Marco Venetian. Balkh. with the of the Terek. abundance and in he. also with the character of a mission. He reached Bokhara with his merchandise. we find Paul Centurione. During the reign of Alexis. a scheme which though begun in his day was not completed until 1864. to When in Persia. and two missions to Bokhara. the Dutch. in 1722. into the possibility of trading to India by way of the Caspian and Oxus. down.' by which Turkey.
which is in reality only a lagoon two the year on the 1 Transkaspien und seine Eisenbalm nach Aden des Erbauers. A military expedition sent by Peter for the purpose of establishing the ascendency of Russia terminated in a disaster that confluence of the ' when ' ' : . supplicated his aid against the robber Turcomans. the 1 but in 700 and 1 703 the Khivans. From Siberia. and forts established at the ' ' ' ' the Or and the Ural and at Orenburg. Prince Bekovitch Cherkaski and his army were massacred. had. after the interchange of some missions since 1629. Great Horde all the tribes who held the submitted. and had also. the first Kokandian stronghold A flotilla also was Jaxartes. submitted to Peter the Great. O. 1888. and returned to Orenburg with the loss of one third of the troops . by the possession of Siberia Caucasus in the centre. liberated a great number of Russians whom they had kidnapped and held in bondage as slaves. by fortified places in the province of Orenburg and in the Ural Mountains. against Khiva but it was unable to overcome the hardships of crossing the steppes in winter. M. diplomatic. by careful study of the Khanates and the Not a year passed. the original base of operations against Central Asia. under General Perofski. By Dr. Annenkof. Heyfelder Hanover. A solid basis was now acquired for further progress in Asia in the in the south. the Khivans entered into negotiations for peace. established on the Sea of Aral.194 RUSSIAN PICTURES. . or perished miserably in Peter the Great left a legacy the desert between the Aral and the Caspian. without agents approaches to them. Gen. in 1714. Although thus confronted by an irresistible Khanates long and ignorantly disdained the power of Russia force. when the fort of Uralsk (Irghiz) was established in the Kirghiz steppe. and these found it necessary to carry out his behests slowly and deliberately. Kirghiz country between Siberia and the present possessions of Russia in Central Asia were brought within the sphere of Russian administration. the Russians began to descend systematically in the year 1845. Russia against their enemies the Kalmucks. from disease and exhaustion. being despatched by Russia. from 1718 to 1850. Frightened at last by the evident intention of the Russians to renew their attempt to reach Khiva. . scientific. and expeditions. encouraged the Central Asiatics to believe in their impregnability. Three years later another fort was planted on the Irghiz River. of vengeance to his successors. and by 1853 Ak-meched (Fort Perofski). in 1718. or military. by dominion over the north. Small war next built on the Sea of vessels were Aral. . was taken after a severe combat. Parallel with these operations in the Caucasus was an advance made The Kirghiz Kaisaks obtained the protection of eastwards from Siberia. Lieut. . By the year 1827. and agreed to admit Russian traders to Khiva. sorely pressed by the Bokharians. A large force was sent in 1839. and in 1732 the middle Kirghiz horde recognised the sovereignty of Russia.
such as Derbent and Baku (the emporium of petroleum). anciently defended by a wall against the inroads of nomads. these dismal shores only by wandering bands of Kirghizes and Turcomans. Bokhara. and Kokan The Kokandians lost their fortress of Chemkend length stan later. On the west coast the white walls of a few old cities. the bays and inlets on the But their dimensions are necessarily small eastern side being mostly shallow.' Cherniayeff and 1865 by beating the Bokharians at Idjar. it the city of river whom in the Middle Ages called the ' Gog and Magog. the capital of a Russian 'TurkeGeneral consolidated the conquests made in 1864 province. At about the same time the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Persian frontier at the Atrek became Russian. and Tashkent became. It Persian trading companies have no right to now bears on its frequently boisterous waters sail merchant vessels on (ninety-eight feet below TURCOMAN WOMEN. the level of the Euxine) a multitude of Russian steamers and sailing craft.CENTRAL hundred and 1858 all ASIA. overhang the blue waters. Its southern shores are visited belong and eastward of Arabian writers Astrabad. In Orenburg and the Jaxartes submitted to the directions of Khiva.' now O 2 . and Shahrisiabs in 1870. . to Persia. near which disembogues the Gurghen. and fringed with barren sand dunes and salt marshes. and the sea itself a Russian lake. Samarkand was taken in 1868. 195 sixty-five miles in the Kirghizes between and operations in became comparatively easy. in 1864. by forty-five miles in breadth. which still holds the port of Resht. Even it. Except where at long intervals a Russian fort has been built. a year Russia.
fortress which Scobelef captured from the we are Tekkes it in in proximity to the iSSi with great in Askhabad. for the route established by rail from Uzun-Ada. where those who have obtained permission to travel on this military line railway from his fortified position at Mihailofsk. almost tropical heat. The Times correspondent year. its extension from the original terminus at Kizyl Arvat was commenced in 1885. Tekke-Turkomans and Persians flocked to the earth-works until close upon eighteen thousand of them obtained employment. At the back of the rich slopes represented in effigy at the Guildhall. Some reverses and the necessity of them General Scobelef to recommend the construction of a impelled avenging the From head of Krasnovodsk of one the Bay. All the materials. the next slaughter. Built in 1 880-81. The old caravan route from Orenburg to Tashkent. St. including a passage of three days across the Caspian from As soon as Baku obtains direct railway communication with Astrakhan. Petersburg. imperishable credit Annenkof. 1 but one. has now been almost entirely abandoned. General engineering. London.' and the introduction of petroleum refuse from Baku for purposes of fuel and light. unpopulated wastes. over 1500 miles long. The greater part of the rails were manufactured and supplied by English . and completed in 1888 at Samarkand. the eastern coast of the Caspian began to be utilized as a basis of operations against the marauding Tekkes and the Khivans. the journey will be easily performed within a week. These necessitated the planting of shrubs on embankments. at the ' This ' is ' stop for refreshment at a European station in buffet. We have no space for a description of the enormous difficulties that were surmounted by the active and zealous general. of Ghilan and Mazanderan are the lofty ranges of the Elbruz. want of water. and their highest summits crowned with eternal snow. year 1868. Transcaspian Railway greatest feats of modern and reflects on its constructor. by occupied only in 1880. from sleepers to rails and rolling-stock. the boring of artesian wells and the establishment of other waterworks. Travelling at the rate of twenty-five to thirty-five miles an hour. when it became one of the bases of operations which resulted in the total discomfiture of the Turcomans. At Geok-Tepe. Samarkand. when Krasnovodsk was taken and fortified. such as shifting sands. and Bokhara. were Russian. to the ancient capital of Tamerlane (about nine hundred miles) can be reached in nine and a half days from St. the present starting-point on the eastern shore of the Caspian. the first of Russians in the Tekke forts seized the but permanently 1877.' Shy at first. Petersburg. and the absence of wood or other fuel. with their sides clothed with forests. the importation of labourers from Smolensk and Kief in aid of two Transcaspian Railway Battalions. and the extension of Russian dominion to Sarakhs and Merv. was occupied is mills near the the same 1888 says that decidedly the best built Sea of Azof.196 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the train brings us across the Ust-urt Desert to Kizyl Arvat.
The Queen ' once a vast and glorious city.CENTRAL place on all ASIA. According to the Merv of Tekkes warlike and the recent the most statistics. While as Taken together with other tribes. a the railway. The semi-nomadic and once predatory Turcomans are. such the Saryks. the total Turcoman population is at least 700. and surrounded by a brick wall. as their name number about 105. intersected by the Murghab the Russians built new the the old of town. name which Before reaching the station of Tedjen. etc. crumbling on the left bank of the Murghab. the Great. the sacred city of the Shiite Persians frontier of The their saint Mahmud Riza. Salors. and Pearl of the World. a Scotch schoolmaster. profusion of wild grapes.. Scobie. of Turkish race. a future station on the way to Herat.' Eighty miles beyond we are at Merv. has an area of only 2400 square miles. the memory of Scobelef. and we the burial-place of distant from Meshed. rendered fertile by irrigation. consists of several parallel streets and neat-looking houses of brick. The oasis of Merv. but differ in their characteristics the Persians. lull of shops. Khorassan has for some time been on our soon reach a point which is scarcely more than eighty miles right. Afghans and Kurds.000. '97 There are some very good streets. ruins remain by city.000 souls. A monument perpetuates and a fine public garden. supposed to have been built by Alexander A TEKKE VILLAGE. implies. the line crosses the river of that flows past Sarakhs. whose ancestor in Russia was Mr. energetic oasis River. as well as from their neighbours from the Bokharians and the .
they have so far left agriculture to their slaves thirst. attired in Turkey-red trousers and a shirt. They a fired from stand are also provided with other weapons. finest metal. beautifully embroidered. ornaments are in common use horses alone sharing with the women the . has horses. spinning. like the Jaxartes.198 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and to endure fatigue. and Mongols. From early youth the Turcoman is accustomed to long journeys on horseback over the desert. and Herat about three hundred and fifty miles from our outpost at Candahar. Devoting themselves to the chase and to robber raids. the Oxus of the Greeks and the Jihun of the Arabs. and produce carpets of such high quality in taste and texture that they are largely The men wear high sheep-skin exported to Russia. although there been a considerable intermingling of blood amongst them all. hunger. latter are The clever in and a wadded khdlat or robe. from the matchlock Their women are to the modern breech-loading rifle. falls into the Sea of Aral after a course of fifteen . they are capable of supplying the best irregular cavalry in the world. Considering also the excellence of their and women. from which hangs a sword. generally of the TEKKES. the Amu-Daria. and weaving. hats to preserve their heads from the sun in summer and the cold in winter. Persia. only two hundred miles from Herat. and France. Merv is which. The great Karakoum Here we reach desert is left on the borders of Bokhara at Chardjui. and not unfrequently in a jacket Gold and silver In cold weather a khalat is worn. distinction of being thus adorned. knitting.
in the new province of Turkestan and four stations beyond this we arrive at Samar. Below this well. is principal mosque. The and blue carried Sentences of death were formerly arranged in curious designs. built by Tamerlane. hundred miles. more than a thouplanted on a conical elevation within the Ark. the lower dungeons have been filled up and closed for ever and it is to be hoped that ere long the Khan will be compelled to raze these barbarous dungeons to the ground. Nearly four hundred mosques and over one hundred medresseh. Whatever may be the political and commercial aspects of the question. Bokhara is nominally independent. . under Russian pressure. . Writing in 1888. kand. Happily. than twenty feet long by ten feet broad. were executed in 1842.C. also mosque built by Tamerlane. who conquered 325. and approached by tortuous alleys and dirty thoroughfares. one of great commercial importance. At one side of the artificial hill that supports the citadel. with adjoins railway station. and pierced by eleven gates. he saw twenty more men huddled together with hardly room to move. two Englishmen. to be devoured by insects and vermin. ' the head of Islam. Sur- rounded by a wall of sun-baked mud. Close by is the from its summit. and square. was a still deeper one the hole into which our countrymen were let down. Constantinople. and theatre. as not more room. the steam mill. stand out from among low-lying. out . The Khan's palace. dirty prisoners. two great names Alexander of Macedon. and . attached to it is a minaret two hundred feet high. humanity has undeniably gained much from the establishment of Russian but it is to be hoped that the Tsar's mission of authority in the Khanates civilization will be carried out no less fully and rigorously than the establishment of his military power.CENTRAL ASIA. the condemned by hurling ancient of Mir and another Arab. which is from the quantity of native products floated down the river for land carriage at this point. one hundred and eighty-five miles from Bokhara. with a ceiling that nearly touched the heads of the visitors. in front of the palace. a Turkish bath at a of with mud on side like the dome one top building tiles.' Its history is it associated with B. At Sary-Bulak. or colleges. or citadel. The town of Bokhara is sixty miles further to the north-east. In a well. mud-built dwelling-houses ensconced in sand years old. it still contains some interesting buildings. but practically neither can have any other will than that of Russia. stands the prison in which It is a low Stoddart and Conolly. Like the Khanate of Khiva. The unsanitary condition of Bokhara is well worthy of the attention of Russian administrators.' as : Mecca ' is its heart. is that of Baliand. a church. we are again on territory not ostensibly but de facto annexed by Russia. again. 199 A Russian town. faced with glazed white gardens. approached by a small door in the right-hand wall of this chamber. is in the Reghistan. the Times correspondent described the in which he saw twenty-five half-naked. or Its dome is one hundred feet in height. namely. with fine columns mosque.
carved wooden pillars that support them. but it has suffered sadly from being a type of is that of Gur the destroyer's . or Tomb of Timur. mosques. and It was under his care that Samarkand became the centre of the colleges. The most interesting ruin Amir. The buildings are much out of repair with blue and white porcelain tiles. faced forming mosaic patterns and tints.' but the lofty portals and domes. learning The city preserves some remains of its ancient magnificence. make it worthy of the palmy era of Samarkand. the interior walls overlaid with arches and ceilings covered with pendent alabaster work. now outside its This attenuated precincts. who lavishly expended the pillage of the rich countries to the south and west in rearing and beautifying its palaces. Living King.200 RUSSIAN PICTURES. date 1868 which has passed is signified . and power of the Eastern world. the arabesques. Its chief architectural glory is the immense mosque of Shah-Zindeh. the and the finely by the title of ' marble and tiled staircases. Tamerlane the Great. the belief in mosques surrounding the whose re-appearance at a SAMARKAND. resting-place of a martyred is in fact a collection of prophet.
of the college or home of the astronomers attached by that ruler to his capital. Hindoos. prolongation of the line to Tashkent. is prettily situated on a branch of the Chirchik River. and even the great block of greenish-black stone which marks the On a hill in the cenotaph of the conqueror has been broken in twain. stretches out on the north can hire a real Muscovite drojki. This was restored by the Russian Government in and with 1888. Why you going to Tashkent ? all With these attractions.' Chimkent. ASIA. Nor have new Mahometan Governor-General. an excellent visitor pavement. is The city. still surmounted by a high minaret. avail himself of the benefits of in the Here the will get cup of fragrant civilization. consists of Iranian who Tajiks (Sarts). the officiating Imam on that occasion making an address descriptive of the benefits conferred by the Russian Government. and in great part composed subjects. and gipsies. now prettily laid-out garden that adjoins the residence. captured by Cherniayef in 1865. and is equally buried in verdure and intersected by streams It was taken in 1864. opened great ceremony in the presence of the GovernorGeneral. There are two large squares bright and an with orthodox church in the centre of each. and stating that never had the native population of Turkestan enjoyed so tranquil and prosperous an existence as now. occupying an area as wide as that of Paris. ' ' have no debts. Surrounded by gardens. centre of the bazaar we see the ruins of the Ulug Beg Observatory the first erected in Asia. flowers. should I ? I . a with side of a boulevard and citadel. about two hundred miles distant from Samarkand. tea. The well laid-out Russian town. population suffered of the hands A at the Cossacks. almost the only one of any antiquity is that of Khoja Akhrar. and its quaint and bizarre native quarter is separated by a ravine from the new Russian town. in which the finest building is the residence of the with turf and their numerous mosques of Tashkend. occupied Sogdiania before it became the land of the and of Turks. over four hundred years old. the Russians omitted to satisfy the religious requirements of Among the of them. and only a question of time.' Uzbegs of the Turanian tribes that were wont to descend upon ' the lands watered by the Jaxartes and the Oxus since the days of Chinghiz Khan. remember a young officer of the Imperial Guards being asked: 'Are also To which the significant reply was. severely large citadel now half ruined. and otherwise be interested European He the native population. The bazaars are also full of Persians. Jews. Tashkent has long been considered a place of exile or temporary retirement by the Russians who repaired to it. We however. lies eighty miles to the north of the capital of Turkestan. Within its walls are the crumbling remains.000. numbering about 30. the pride of the somewhat rivalled by the city is its park of a thousand apricot trees. the Green Town. the administrative centre of A the Province of Turkestan.CENTRAL hand. which. when the and irrigation works.
5 ? it. KHIVA. as therefore. and but little available for navigation.vi'. a Mahometan saint held to this day in mosque It an interesting and curious group of buildings. . one hundred and the Syr Daria.- . above towers place. or Jaxartes. Ji. rises in we approach the Celestial several streams in So much of its Mountains. its name to a province . which five miles to the north-east. for and waters are deflected that its middle lower courses upper irrigation are sluggish and shallow. it gave in the days of Tamerlane. is high veneration. and testifies to the ancient strategical importance of the At Turkestan. -.. Hazret-i-Turkestan. i" i^:v". j v . into the Sea of Aral. ' r > . along a which was called Jassy who in 1397 began the construction of a huge of in honour Hazret-Yusufi. All we have space to say of the ancient town of Turkestan is that. and falls. the old post road that we travel hence to Orenburg starting-point for Central Asia. THE GRAND MINARET. like the Oxus.. it.202 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Mf' .> . It is.
are in the citadel. but requires passing notice as the of a large. homes. found a A Russian military expedition in 1873 put an end for ever to ready sale. and Russians. and travellers (Kostenko and MacGahan) have described it stagnant water as containing more cemeteries than Its mosques and medresseh gardens. Afghans. and earthquakes many places fissured this seventh wonder of the world. semi-independent Khanate. Under the influence of Russia. like hara. occupying an oasis bordered by the left bank of the lower course of the Oxus. and within easy striking distance from the Russian military station on the opposite side of the river. of its outer walls have from the Russian cannonade suffered inscriptions directed have in 1864 against the citadel in which it stands. or on the tablelands of Persia and Afghanistan. that traffic. and gave liberty to 37. Its fame is that of a which slave mart market in Asia at the chief slave chiefly Persians. flanked here and there by pools of foul. within which dwell the Khan and his principal officers. . and the only mosque with any pretensions to architectural beauty is that which holds the tomb of Our illustration shows the minaret Polvan. the patron saint of the Khivites. kidnapped by the Turcomans on the shores of the Caspian. who. but only a relatively small THE MOSQUE OF HAZRET-I-TURKESTAN. prisoners has brother of Bok- The city is little more than a collection of hovels of baked mud.CENTRAL ASIA. the torturing his of quite recently been forbidden by the Khan. is now constrained to be on his best behaviour. 203 The glazed bricks and incised evidently unfinished by its Persian architect.' in ' Khiva Russian is not legitimately within a the scope of our sketches capital of the empire. in front of that mosque. . These are almost the only buildings of brick at Khiva.000 slaves. sur- rounded by a low earthen wall. They were attacked by disease or massacred by the Turcomans on their march in small detachments across their number reached original the desert.
their language differing but little from that of the Russians. asserting that the descended on the Polish coast of the Baltic. that Polish Szainocha. and co-operation with Western civilization.157 English square a population of eight millions. Servians. Czechs Contact (Bohemians). of Poles. XI. Bulgarians. have an aggregate area of 49. Northmen begins. MOSCOW.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. kingdom created at the great settlement of political accounts in 1815 has been officially styled 'The Cis.' ever since the absolute incorporation with the Russian empire in 1868. permitted the Poles to work out their own development on lines so widely question. Germans. with Scandinavian invasion a reliable authority of the present century. apart from those pursued amalgamation of these practical impossibility. like that of Russia. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. and other aliens. the complete been a matter of two great Slav branches has long by their Russian brethren.. as in history . and became. composed to the extent of sixtyand miles. CHAPTER POLAND. five per cent. and settled chiefly in towns).Vistula Provinces. Lithuanians. Russians. and escape from Tartar subjugation. and other odd kindred remnants. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TRUITSA MONASTERY. . The Poles (the Polacks of Shakespeare) are a branch of the Slav race. but the consti- ten in number. The provinces in tutional THE Czar still bears the title of King of Poland. the remainder being Jews (in the proportion of thirteen per cent.
1 ft S^^s^aWi^ .
which thus became own pagan dynastically united (1386) with that of Lithuania. Boleslas I. son of Sigismund III. who He conquered Dantzig and gave a solid foundation to the Polish State. elected Jagellon (baptised Magna Charta. and to convert his Duke offered to unite his extensive and adjacent dominions the nobles. could not keep Kief and Little Russia for the Poles. it is on record that Russia. The was still further diminished. Sobieski.POLAND. by the bestowal of benefits on the peasantry. King to of Hungary. 964. the by Vladislaf (Ladislas) the Short. After Pomerania. Louis. of the Swedish Wasa family. was retained as part of the Coronation Oath so long as there were Polish kings to be consecrated. who had saved Vienna for the Austrians. and at a time when Poland enjoyed more religious liberty than any other country in Europe. the first Grand Duke of Poland (about A. Moravia. Moscow had been occupied in 1610 by the Poles in the name of Ladislas. and it was a sovereign of the same House. 207 On the other hand. in Casimir Cracow. reign. He was the last sovereign of the Piast period. who with those of Poland. in succession to Sigismund II. Augustus. the Brave. After compelling his daughter to marry.. A. of Lithuania. elected to the Muscovite throne by the Russian boyars. where the Polish kings were ever after crowned. not William of Austria. but soon expelled by the patriots. already limited by and the crown became elective. subject to alterations made at Diets. the Great. in 1572. introduced in the next . of Sigismund II. who founded a dynasty that was superseded only in 1385 by the Lithuanian was introduced by the fourth of the Piasts. On to his death. of France. While occupied in besieging the Huguenots at Rochelle. . reunited at Polish Justinian (1334-1370). the power of the king. and by the limitation of the power holders. 842) was Piastus. to 1320. the throne of Poland. but Jagellon. in virtue of their to under the name of Ladislas) subjects to Christianity. the last of the that of two chambers. who were of the nobles.D. in accordance with the principle that long obtained were of Poland territories the component neighbouring Russian principalities. Henry of Valois but he quickly was elected to the throne. which. that of Stephen Bathori. absconded from Cracow in order to become Henry III. under Minin and Pojarski.D. whom she loved. a peasant. Jesuits. brought and one of the reasons that led the Cossacks strong intolerance with them. who established his capital. gained for himself the title of Rex Rusticorum. -was called its the throne but in order the ensure in all continued possession compelled re-instate nobles their privileges. or freeadscripti glebce. two centuries. Jagellons.. On the death. of the Polish Ukraine to solicit Russian protection was the inferior position Roman to which their Greek religion had been reduced in relation to The Russians and Poles had been at war with each other for Catholicism. . as far as the Dnieper. Jagellons. his sister's son. under a he was Pacta Conventa. and White Russia. Silesia. ancestors of noble houses. Christianity in the being partitioned..
during which he was superseded by Stanislas I. in which sovereign. obnoxious to the dissidents and other of Lutherans. and . rights Roman Catholic Church played a great part. resulted in the intervention of ' the reign of the question of in the Prussia and Russia. with an interval of five years. under which even Warsaw was absorbed by Russia. IN PODOI. and in 1772 the first partition of Poland was consummated. and Sweden. in the third Previous to these several partitions.208 RUSSIAN PICTURES. which had taken alarm at a liberal constitution voted by the Polish Diet in 1791. Such was the outcome of disorders and revolutions in the wars with Muscovy. under an arrangement between the same countries. Calvinists. Cossacks. KAMENETS. The second followed in 1793. the ashes of the Prague suburb. especially as it had provided for the emancipation of the The struggle made by Thaddeus Kosciuszko ended in the adscript! glcba. Turkey. succeeded Sobieski. In addition to the kingdom proper. Augustus III. as well as with and of Tartars and Frederick Augustus II. and entry of Suvoroff into Warsaw over dismemberment (1795) of ancient Poland.IA. Poland occupied a territory much more extensive than that of France. Elector of Saxony. it included the province of Posen and part of West Prussia. Dissension and anarchy became next still more general ' the Civil war.. Cracow. and reigned until 1733. State.
stronghold against Turkey north its frontier extended almost to the walls of Riga. the survivor of the Aurochs (Bos primigcnius). 209 Lithuania. and now form the last retreat in Europe of the Bison Europoeus. appeared to offer to the Poles the prospect of no inconsiderable influence over the independence began to manifest itself. and forest. and the lynx. with wide expanses of sand. the bison are strictly preserved from the hunter. the most populous to Austria. Polish provinces that had fallen to the share of Catherine II. Notwithstanding the wide measures of Home Rule introduced by Alexander II. revived a Polish state out of the provinces that had been seized by Prussia and Austria. which is supposed to have been the original stock of our horned cattle. anciently Polish. and part of the In 17/2 Dantzig was a seaport of Poland. the national army abolished. not without encouragement from Napoleon III. and which. and in 1815. an insurrection broke out at Warsaw. Interspersed among these barren or soil wooded tracts are areas containing some of the Europe. Silesia. This was first constituted into a Grand Duchy under the King of Saxony. and are therefore not likely to disappear like the Bos Americanns. with the result we have indicated at the head of this chapter. into the administration of the kingdom. and Posen to Prussia. Warsaw became The old again a kingdom under a constitution granted by Alexander I.POLAND. supplying from time imcorn-bearing memorial vast quantities of superior grain for shipment from ports in the Baltic. the bear. Moldavia. and in 1862. Kaminets. province of Grodno. It is produced on the larger estates of two hundred to fifteen hundred acres.. and the Polish language proscribed in the public offices. Galicia. at the partitions remained incorporated with the Russian empire. in its while to the west and border Podolia. heath. Dense forests stretch down from the Russian. present province of Kief. The country is generally level and monotonous. The finest in . the provinces of Volhynia and Podolia. and the most commercial short distance Prussia. Napoleon I. Outside Warsaw and its immediate vicinity there is little in Russian Poland to interest the tourist. belonging to more than eight thousand proprietors. when also the constitution of 1815 was withdrawn. when Galicia (with Cracow) was restored to Austria. In still earlier times. or buffalo. spirit destinies of the Russian the old of national States. but were not fully to subjected to a Russian administration until after the great Polish insurrection of 1830. These successive partitions gave the most extensive portion of Polish territory to Russia. and to within a . in combination with many liberal and pregnant reforms in Russia Proper. Bessarabia. Although much worried by the wolf. which has so long been ruthlessly slaughtered in the United empire. from Moscow. and Livonia were embraced within the Polish possessions. and it is only towards the north and east that the ground may be said to be heavily timbered.
Petersburg or Moscow. Consequently we confine ourselves to Warsaw. replaced Cracow as the residence of the Polish kings . visit affording no accommodation that would render possible the of even the least fastidious traveller.210 RUSSIAN PICTURES. their mode of agriculture being almost as rude as that of the Russian peasantry. the seat of the appanaged Dukes of Masovia. contribute who next hold more than 240. WITH UNIVERSITY IN THE BACKGROUND. THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS. WARSAW. frequently industrial. and their habits of life but little superior. Warszawa. Towns. and. others we may say the great majority are poor and squalid.000 farms seldom exceeding forty acresto nothing towards exportation. Founded in the twelfth century. Russia. peasantry. large and occur than in more and while some are rich and small. during the Piast period. especially in the matter of drink. which we take on our way by rail to or from St.
the Beyond great Sapieha and Sierakovski Barracks towers the Alexander Citadel. a Warsaw. Across the broad sandy bed of the stream. and spacious gardens. We drive 1830 to get rid of their hence in less than an p 2 . built in the thirteenth century. Opposite vantage. as a penalty for the insurrection In the same direction. its has sixteen never thousand A vast panorama and spreads melancholy dirty point of is the Zamek.' and which is on its way from the Carpathians to the Baltic. when it was twice stained with blood. or castle. and animated stately lines of streets. ever-changing. mostly Roman Catholic. Contiguous to the Lazienki Park are the extensive gardens of the Belvedere Palace. churches and chapels. a pretty spot on the Vistula commanding a fine view. or Champs private residences. stands the cathedral. built in in is 1832-35. are numerous and so are the monasteries and convents (twenty-two). Warsaw its with chiefly built. Crossing a large square. formerly by Suvoroff in 1 794. from Sigismund III. Its pictures and objects of art are now at St. Petersburg and Moscow. not including the Russian officers and men. is high. The left bank of the Vistula. by and enlarged and restored by several of the Polish kings. the country seat of the consort of John Sobieski . A still more ancient sacred edifice is the Church of Our Lady in the Nove Miasto.500 capital of Poland. viceroy. in which the Poles attempted in the Grand Duke Constantine. (eighty- The five). which. or Old Town. a population of about 445. The hung ceilings of this chateau were painted by Bacciarelli. and the military hospital at Uiazdov. bordered by fine lime-trees we find the Avenues. and restored on the last occasion by King John Sobieski.POLAND. Kaskada. strongly old German in aspect. and its walls are with portraits of numerous beautiful women. with its outlying fortifications. and the pretty. when to fortified. on the election of Sigismund III. at the expense of the city. this . here shallow. The square in front of the castle was the scene of the last Polish 'demonstrations. and divided as Poland itself. were in out indiscriminately put every direction from the sword. in Near Novi Sviat (New World) Elys&'s. or New Town but it certainly retains no traces of deep antiquity. In the Stare Miasto.' in 1861. 1830. is ' picturesquely disposed along the brow of the cliff and on the plains above. a country seat of much elegance built by King Stanislas front of elegant Augustus. also Mariemont. Street. wide squares. on which city. in which the troops are exercised. built the Dukes of Masovia. and therefore as the (1586). but a considerable distance from the town. formerly a castle of the Kings of Poland. and the old royal apartments are occupied by the Governor-General. On page 205 we give an illustration of the prettiest portion of the grounds. place of entertainment much frequented by the inhabitants of and Bielany. It 211 has now is garrison of 31.000. and now the residence of the Emperor when he visits Warsaw. gay. we reach the fine park of Lazienki. is the recovered from inhabitants the assault Prague suburb. to Stanislas Augustus Poniatovski.
built the Castle by John Sobieski. now repose after driving the Turks from the walls of Vienna.212 RUSSIAN PICTURES. victory. On the same For want of more strongly attracted by an original known in England. many palatial among which is one to Copernicus. and several noticeable residences. monuments. This is hour to one of the most interesting places near Warsaw. who died in it. again we must plead guilty of omitting of . and other curiosities. of Villanov. objects of art. historical is full of of Countess the property Potocka. In the gallery Seneca pictures although we are is of we notice an admirable Rubens the Death portrait of Bacon. sought this To suit of armour presented by the Pope to Sobieski in memory of his great \ ' *#* POLISH PEASANTS. of which the most interesting is the magnificent in retreat he and here arms. portraits. which but little to describe space. the Polish founder of modern astronomy. brought back the trophies of his mighty deeds The chateau. The apartments . of his beautiful consort are of great elegance.
much of her industrial prosperity. . and buried John THE IRON GATE MARKET (AT THE BACK OF THE SAXONY GARDEN). the public so buildings. to whom Belgium owes Evangelical Cemetery. gardens.POLAND. ground 213 we pass in over of handsome which. is cemeteries. one Cockerell. theatres.
In both these respects Norway very closely. the people are more thriving.FROM A MS.. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. of the and who are almost as much driven to emigration as the Norpopulation. occur but inland. Fertile plains. who form about eighty-five per cent. Along the coasts. to the peasantry. ' XII. are second only to those of Norway. present a succession of fiords and rocky headlands similar to those of Norway. 144. wegians. THE millions. in the North of It has a superficial area of Europe. Land of a Thousand Lakes. MOSCOW.255 English square miles. sustenance . streams. formed by the recession of the sea. CHAPTER FINLAND. In 1809 Sweden ceded to Russia her rights over Finland. possesses physical charms which. the Estates swore allegiance to the Emperor as the Grand Duke of Finland. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TROITSA MONASTERY. long coast-line on the Gulf of Bothnia. from the Swedish frontier on the Tornea River. the poor stony patches of soil afford but a scanty occasionally. and a good part of its sea-margin on the Gulf of Finland. for the sea gives them lucrative occupation. and after a separate negotiation between the Finnish Diet and Alexander I. or resembles The The hilly interior is intersected by a vast number of lakes and grand. deep. and a population slightly in excess of two or about it sixteen inhabitants to the square mile. but not equally wide. a peculiarity from which has been derived the poetical designation of the country.' as Finland is poetically called by her loving sons.
and they are carried chiefly by the national which merchant navy. with a sucking-pig to squeak by twisting his as a lure. so different from all other European tongues. and enjoy not life which comparatively few tourists have witnessed. composed of four Estates (nobles. when a Parliament of two Chambers was established in The maintenance of the Lutheran religion with all the Extensive powers are reserved to the sovereign. The latter are dealt with by the by the Imperial Foreign Finlanders . are : Among the most important privileges thus enjoyed a separate budget. together privileges. that There read out under is cannot scarcely a the Bible. The Finnish language.FINLAND. 2 17 and the integrity of their conand stitution. in the shape of salmon. upon forest and attempts to seize his prey. A committee composed of a Secretary of State and four other members acts at St. carried the well-ordered country An excellent system of education is zealously superintendence of the Lutheran clergy. and an independent of the fluctuations of the Russian rouble liberal than that of Russia. as in Sweden until 1866. administers the affairs of the Grand Duchy. trout. which. and placed mother under the Russian War Department. in recent years under a system of general military conscription. nominated by the Crown. excepting only its foreign relations. gives employment to more than twelve thousand men. He is represented at Helsingfors by a Governorincluding the right of veto. and therefore best calculated to sustain a sound system of finance and to promote trade and navigation. and made the wolf darts out from the dark which tail. Timber. These are already highly developed. tar. bearing no imperial charge or . which continues to this day to be In virtue of it. which renders the Finnish marc. In winter he can shoot as many wolves as he chooses to pursue on a The pig is kept in a bag. deceitfully represented by the wisp of straw smeared with. and grayling fishing. were assured to previous rights the Philanders in a solemn manifesto. and peasantry). or franc. Petersburg as a kind of delegation of the Senate at Helsingfors. Office. sledge. the Finlanders have reason to be proud of the results of the legacy bequeathed to them by their old Scandinavian the principal masters. and dairy produce much more are exports. of the national army. lard that is attached to a long rope at the back of the sledge. a great stumbling-block But the Finnish interior. established is also who Commander-in-Chief General. burgesses. country. contribution independent tariff a distinct coinage. they have a Diet their jealously guarded Charter of Rights. but enterprising and also excellent sport. who do not or in man woman that admit to the Communion any person who is unable to read or write. In regard to religion and education. to is the the exploration of the less frequented parts of with a handbook only scenery and intelligent traveller armed or a dictionary can easily make his way. clergy. char. The accommodation outside of the towns is of a somewhat rougher .
we have a pretty view of via Gothenburg and hours we the city.218 RUSSIAN PICTURES. while the steamer passes through the moderate waves of the open part of the Gulf of Bothnia. with this fascinating country. and such of its university (established as had been spared from many previous conflagrations. in from each other. It is disappointing. to find an air of desolation A and destroyed two-thirds of the city. but with a well-assorted stock of absolute necessaries (including insect powder and mosquito netting). description than in Norway. As we steam up the small and shallow Aura joki. In fifteen Stockholm. a valuable library. personal acquaintance can soon be made. public buildings taught the citizens the necessity of rebuilding their public edifices and private raged the for two days in 1827. to the quay where our passports and luggage are examined. and the willingness to brave slight discomforts. or river. and by the deserted appearance of the thoroughfares. Although the Cathedral of St. This is reigning over the place. enjoyed. by the prevalence of low wooden fire which houses. yet its rude and heavy Gothic exterior has been preserved. roughly-paved streets. cross over from the Swedish capital to Abo. its interior renovated without detriment houses at considerable distances . on landing. Henry was completely gutted on that occasion. including 1640). after the charming landscape we have ABO CATHEDRAL. imparted by the wide. in smooth and sheltered water except for about two and a half hours.
The present site from its pagan consort of Eric XIV. of her misfortunes and in The secular Finlander. excepting the Residence. . embellished by a stained window allegorical of her love for Sweden and Finland. from the interior in peculiar boats made of thin planks. The sun may be seen at midnight from Mount Aavasaksa. the creation of Count Per Brahe in 1649. with a good deal of shipbuilding and a considerable amount of The tar is brought down trade.. or Vasa. its walls after their consecration by Bishop Magnus in A. near the Myllyranta Ironworks on Lake Ulea. number of charming excursions can be made from Abo. and descend the river in a hired boat. the present terminus considerable amount of shipping of the railway from St. an Englishman. in tar and deals. especially at the largest and midway rapids of Pyhakoski. Svertschkoff. and is one of the principal ports in Finland. designed by V. founded in 1558. . 1857 by Kristinestad. and salmon fall into the Gulf of Bothnia. A large and now occupied by government officers. . at the mouth of the Kumo and not far from which is a River. The scenery. and the frescoes in the chancel by which is one of the chapels. a lies peasant before she wore the Swedish diadem. one of the most progressive towns in Finland. .FINLAND. first preached Christianity in Finland in the two neighbouring parishes of which the Finnish national costume is still though exceptionally worn Nikolaistad. Henry. but whose name betrays a Russian origin. chiefly with Great Britain. A fishing abounds in most of the rivers that of affords the several to Tornea water opportunity inspecting snug trip by little ports. a large block buildings of the city are unimportant. when shooting the numerous rapids of the Those who are in search of excitement cannot do better than drive Ulea. an old royal domain now dotted with villas. Petersburg. Uleaborg lies at the mouth of a great and rapid river which flows out of Lake Ulea. which bend as if they were made of pasteboard. and black-haired Philanders (all others being very light) Brahestad. a (transferred after 1827 to Helsingfors). some sixty miles distant. for the IV. the border of ancient Osterbothnia a stone wall. University by (Adolphus) opposite Ekman. with a Russo-Greek church commanding a splendid view Gamla Karleby. a native of Abo. and possessing a and lastly Uleaborg. is very fine. an active-looking town of the gulf and the islands on it of tarred roofs. . built Gustavus the cathedral. when the girl city itself was removed up the to its foundations a short distance river. to a place called Vaala. .D. 219 to The first episcopal chair of Finland was previous architectural features. . such as Bjorneborg. add to the interest of the cathedral. fore- most among which is the trip to the pretty island of Runsala. The stained windows. in which Bishop since surrounded wooden house. and there is in reality no danger of death by drowning on such an excursion. within instituted 1300. or in one of the tar-laclened craft that have so fragile an appearance.
and who yet would like to gaze at a phenomenon which not only fascinates the eye by its strange grandeur and by the weird effect of light it produces. they derive 23rd-24th of June (St. from which of the night Eve and Day) swarms of travellers arrive to see the midnight sun. and skins of the animals their whole support while in summer. the Manchester of Finland. the most northerly town in Finland. at the junction of two lakes which supply an immense water power to cotton.' from its brisk trade. leaving only the most energetic to post fifty miles to Mount Aavasaksa. hams. when daylight ' lasts only three hours. As a contrast to this coast trip the railway may be taken to Tammerfors. In winter. until 1809. from which the sun is visible at midnight for fourteen days. John's to sell the tongues. in which a goodly number of Englishmen are will employed as foremen. with their swift reindeer and sledges. is separated from the Swedish town of Haparanda by a dried-up branch of the Tornea River. although it does not remain entirely above the horizon for more than seventy-two hours. Tornea. and many other industrial establishments. it is visited by Laplanders. The extension of the railway from Uleaborg to Tornea F1NLANDEKS. . with the Swedish capital. no doubt deflect from the present yachting route to the North Cape the many would-be travellers who dread the sea. and was once distinguished by the appellation of Little Stockholm. flax. on the . As almost everywhere else in this country of wood. however calm and sheltered.22C RUSSIAN PICTURES. but also impresses the mind most deeply and with more awe than any other cosmic marvel among the great and glorious works of the Omnipotent Creator. and paper mills. or cabin accommodation ever so roomy and convenient.
owing altar. situated in the midst of enchanting their character. ascended at a round trot. and a far-seen landmark from seaward. with a central hall. an echo repeats the discourse. There is but little to see in this town beyond a church in which the altar is placed The clergyman in the centre of the edifice. with a large seminary for teachers. not as Sharp the pitches in the hill next the driving in Finland may be called furious. Just before reaching it. 221 water. one of the largest in Finland. with the pews radiating from it. On the south side of the same square we find the Alexander University. and the since 1827. railway brings us to the southern extremity of Paijanne Lake. exemplified as is in ' . and well taken care of as the Norwegian animal.000 volumes. although perhaps not as small boys who drive them. used on great occasions. are very handand no finer view of Helsingfors and its pretty environs can be obtained . . Its style is that of the Renaissance. the views obtained on this journey are lovely. our attention is called to a modern castellated villa lying in a pretty park to the left of the line. about 150. over and above the 50. Norway. and a good part of The small horses are as quiet. Facing this church. and from which Kuopio. is the Senate House. from the top of the splendid dome. on a mass of granite fifty-nine feet high. his back the from the with towards but. raised (1830-52) in Senate Square.' Norwegians are also taught the same maxim. Jyvaskila. preaches congregation to the curious acoustic properties of the edifice. Hurry only when catching fleas. Resuming our railway journey. In summer the Imatra hotel. seat of a university political connection of the city. Duchy since 1819. reached by flights of steps. is the Church of St. The most prominent object in some than porticoes of Corinthian columns. and the Russian form of a Greek cross The two distinguishes it from the usual architecture of Lutheran churches. and rock. we soon come to the picturesque old town of Tavastehus.000 books in Russian and Polish. hardy. in a two-wheeled in trotting capacities of its horses. and The University Library contains attended by nearly a thousand students. Nicholas. The speed at which the by Finlanders travel is curiously out of keeping with the general dilatoriness of intelligent it one of their favourite proverbs. charming little town.FINLAND. and owes much of its prosperity to the Finland with Russia. whose life-sized portrait hangs in each of the rooms occupied by the several administrative divisions of the Senate. the seat of a bishopric and Station At Lahtis the a district renowned for the by road But. which form a separate collection. which can easily accommodate three thousand worshippers. being eighty miles long by about eighteen at its widest part. but little inferior to the Norwegian carriole. constructed in 1832. can be reached cart. and in which stands the throne of the Grand Duke. road are descended at full gallop. and par- ticularly the view from the bridge that spans the Helsingfors has been the capital of the Grand Tammerfors Rapicls. Steamers run hence to a pretty place a and to called Heinola.
who no heed of the deafening taking Sunrise is the best time to see the Imatra-Koski. Europe and America. Viborg can be reached either by returning to the railway at Villman- . all parts or rapids. is scenery. when. grinds into small fragments the empty watch barrels that are thrown into it for at the last edification of visitors. this awe-inspiring work of Nature is seen through a for hours the seething water. not only from St. the mist having risen.222 RUSSIAN PICTURES. giving a difference of sixty-one feet between the top and the end of the rapids. Petersburg. who come to see the Imatra formed by the Vuoksi rushing through a narrow chasm between two steep granite rocks. but with a gradual slope over about half a mile. but from Falls. The rush and roar of the It waters are very grand and imposing. golden light. The fall is not perpendicular. noise it produces. crowded of with tourists.
both in Europe and in Asia. with a considerable trade is artificially represented Here we may being full of fine statuary and monuments. within a narrow compass.FINLAND. or i- inhabitants. the home park VIBORG CASTLE. by pen and pencil. appropriately terminate the labour of attempting to describe. in in its port in Mon is miniature. CENTRAL CIRCULATE CHILDREN'S ROOM . Repos. where by taking the pretty canal route from Lauritsala. built in 1293. s now a town of seventeen thousand strand. Trangsund Bay. stands an old castle. shipped from the domain of Baron Nicolai. Its show place where the scenery of Finland timber. 223 Viborg. the principal features of the great Russian empire.
63 Ardon River. description of. conquest of. 157 RADZIVILL. history of. 185 Viborg. province . history French in. the. 56 Archangel. . 134 Kherson. 104 Kremlin. Pityus. of. 115 Dukhobortsy. 43 Imperial Public Anitchkoff Palace. 28 Paijanne Lake. 23 White Sea. description White Russia. description of. . 196 Astrakhan. 32 Hermitage. 143 Mz'hett. church architecture. 179 Derekyuy. 136 Khiva. Inkerman. 188-192 Tushines. description of. Monastery of. 49 character of. 50. the. 149 Kasbek. 45 Bjorneborg. Vasili Ostrof. 37 St. 69. 153 Gori. 157 Abo. use of. 86. of. 145 Eustace of Vilna. 144 Amu-Daria. 65 Kizyl Arvat. description of. Alupka. -222 KABARDINES. AT EKATERINO- Old Believers at Kern. Black Sea. the. 116 Tula. the. 80 Granovitaya Palace. dangerous situation Winter Palace. Museum . Nevski Prospect. 108. 161 . 33 Kertch. 167 Lithuania. description of. conversion of. 143. in Samarkand. 116 Brahestad. 138 Crimea. Russia. 151 187 Elton Lake. 219 Gautier. 160 its Tarn an. 23 Dvina. . description of. 222 Kursk. the. St. 112 Cheremyssi. the. convicts. 161 Ingur River. the. 112 Kiakhta. Stary-Krim. Vologda. 168 Ostrof. . 143 Kysty. 22 Jews' fortress. province of. Valley of. 168 Kazan. English factory at. 78 . 157 Poland. bridges. 127 . 87 Imatra. . 25 sieges of. 55 and . 149 21 John of Vilna. 169 Molokane". 59 Utchan-su. 48 Nevski. 218 Agriculture in Holmogory. . 101 . 116-118 Azof. 24 bell of. . 115 Novgorod the Great. the. 174 political history of. Isaac's. 115 Sary-Balak. 129 Mishor. the. 168 Armenia. 167 Gurzuf. 165 Alle River. no Neva River. . 167 Alexandropol. the. the Tithes Church. . 161 . 136 Caucasus. 164 Alazan. 35 . 154 . Kour River. defeats Tartars. 19 Wirballen. 221 Tchapars. isthmus of. . of. description of. 112 . 25 Pskova River. the. in Stenka Razin. 165 Eupatoria. 81 the Terem. Rembrandt Gallery. 167 Tepe-kerman. 181 Tomsk. 151 in. the. 203 Orlof diamond. 60 Howard. 74. 154. the. 118 Cemeteries. of. 152 Symvolon-limen. 154. 21 welcomes Chancellor. 168 NAHITCHEVAN. the. the. So Dorpat. in Russia. 97 Bible. 59 Kars. sacred at. Kamyshin. description. 129 Ekaterinburg. Pechersk Monastery. description of.Karthen City. 95 Moscow. Karaim. . Church. . of the Saviour. 53 Sevastopol. 25 Pugatchef. 90 beggars in. 140 Perm. 53 Orel. Bay of. climate of. 174 . rebellion Streltsi. 53 Mingrelia. 167 Tedjen. . 116 Kama River. 85 Red robes. in Samoyedes. Cape. 143 Alushta. nego- Ararat. 154 Dunaburg. description of. 108 history of. 203 Khvalinsk. 144 VALDAI. 21 FINLAND. 115 Tsarskoe Se'lo. description of. . 153 Cossacks. 185 manufacture of. CENTRAL CfRCULATI CHlLUHEN'S ROOM . 136 Nicon. 162 Koutais. LIMITED. 97 Solghat. 108 Kertch Collection. the. 138 tombs in. Khersonesus doors at. 25 Isinglass. 132 Kirghiz Steppes. the. . martyrdom . 157 PADIS CLOISTER. 63 Solovetsk. 162 Gouria. . Kertch collection. 59 Samara. 101 209 to. 28 Rybinsk. galia. Sophia. 135 Pskof. 70 Kremlin at. 144 Dimitri. 165 Karaim. 71 Nicolaef. 42 drojki 42. 101 UKRAINE. 124. 168 Tiflis. 160 Ph'tchavy. 138 Novorossisk. 146 202 Chimkent. 167 Tashkent. 60 Russo-Greek Church. 197 Turkestan. 34 Kulikova. the. 95 Kuopio. 143 Baikal. Cheremshansk. 149 Jews. . 161 Kovno. 219 Ural Mountains. markets of. 55 Ivan the Terrible before Pskof. of. Church of Abridges. 200 Samarskaya Lake. Kouban district. 106 . 132 . 153 Caviar. 152 Akstafa.. 85 Square. 28 Hefsurs. 121 . 1 20 Swanny. 179 Simbirsk. 164 Demidoff mines. 121 . 59 Cheboksary. the. 143 Ak-mesjid. 124 Olonets. 143 Yaroslav. 198 Cathedral of the Assump84 tion. 118 the. . . Bay of. 85 tron. galley slaves. 92 Sparrow services of. king of Georgia. 36 . 168 Tver. 157 Kakhety. 108 the. 160 Great Russia. 137 m Chernozem. John. Monastery of. no Skiit. in Crimea. the. description of. 154 Monastery of the Trinity. Lahtis. Russian charity for. 223 Vilia River. . . 219 Black Sea Cossacks. 70 buildings of. 94 Moravian Brethren at Sarepta. 181 Ekatcrinenstad. 43 bazaars. 219 the. 104 churches and monasteries. Russia Company. 170 natives of. 219 66. Mangup. description of. 55 Sergi. Cathedral of St. Library. 40 . Lake. and Alexander. 148 Bakii. 165 Askhabad. 197 Telav. . 158 Ingush. 154 LONDON: WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. 115 Erivan. 169 Kul-Oba tomb. Great's Gallery. in Russia. St. 168 Heinola. the trines of. no ODESSA. 82 . 84 Cathedral of Archangel Michael. 19 Kristinestad. the. 187 ^ Bethany Monastery. 78 Bells of. 160 tiations with Elizabeth. description of. doc128 Sukharef Tower. 24 Kremlin of. 42 38 streets Transcaspian Railway. 222 Imeritia. 151 Jesuits. 202 Syzran. 166 Baltic provinces. province of. WARSAW. the town. 94 . 167 Kalmucks. 165 Narva. fisheries of. 112 Kief. description of. 28 Perecop. martyrdom of. 26 Balaclava. re- 80 . 160 EHzavetpoI. 168 31. history of. 47 Grandfather of the Russian Navy. 72 Niemen River. NICHOLAS. Chuvash. 147 Batoum. 139 . Tatars defeat Kumyss. manufacture of. 158 SLAF. Rion River. 103 . 59 Sarepta. . 162 Tiumen. the. 114 Kanin. 101 Vasa. the.. 120 Chersonesus. 19 YALTA. the. . 222 Panticapa5um. 154. &c. 151 Terek River. 160 Rornnove. 169 Novoselski. 179 Peter the Great founds Petersburg. 19 Nijni Novgorod. the Black Prince. 181 Torne.i. 33 pictures . 55 Peipus Lake. 49 . 59. 90 Romanoff House. description of. 90 . 162 . history. 168 Basil. 27 Abkhases. 157 Mil HI. 168 Phasis. Orenburg. 106 of. Don. description Elbruz. 201 Tartars of the Crimea. . 23 Vladimir. the. Allied. 198 Anthony. 20-23 . 176. expedition of. conversion of. 76 77 Chinese Town. 185 Bakhchisarai. 86 . 40 drivers. 51 Yelagin Island. 59 ZAPOROGUE. 152 Stavropol. 88. 165 Archangel. 20 Temple Hills. dress of people. monuments of Peter Tsitrakhan. Peter the . description of. 50 Anglican Church. the. . 22 Riga. 65 Oranienbaum. 91 . people of. 136 IDIOTCY.. the. 20 Rostof. Vitebsk. 144 Pavlofsk. 32 Orlof-Davydoff. UleSborg. 52 Krestofski Island. Pass of. at Kherson. 52 gardens of. the. description of. 221 Taoul mountaineers. 64 Sougdidi. tomb of. 28 DAGHESTAN. Herat. 179 Nobel's Town. 199 Boskunchak Lake. the. Rd. 52 Petrofsk. 169 Ai Pctri.INDEX. . . the. 56 Jehoshaphat. Kayan Cathedral. the. 146 Siberia. story of. 101 ST. Ossets. 167 Schlusselburg. Sophia at. Dubofka. the. Turcomans. Geok-Tepc. 94 Koshtan-tau. 50 31 Petersburg. 138. 169 Tammerfors. 55 at. the.. 65 Onega. in Massandra. 23 EASTER IN RUSSIA. 144 HAPSAL. the. Waterfall of. in Lithuania. Great Palace. grave of. 104 Nijni Taghil. 52 Peterhof. fishing. 44 47 Monastery of Alexander the Fortress. the. 33 . 108 Sygnak. 134 St. 144. 31 diamond. Cathedral of the the AlabasAnnunciation. nt Pytzounda. 167 Souram. 60 94. 187 Troitsa Monastery. STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. voyage on. 147 Syr Daria. 168 . 118 Ivan vi. 214 French invasion of Russia. Petrofski Park and Palace. 196 Troitsk osavsk. 53 River. . . 200 Schamyl. 103 Sturgeon CATHERINE II. . 120 Kikeneis. 53 167 Darial Pass. 112 Ekaterinodar. the. 84. 76 Kremlin. description of. 95 Tsaritsyn. 140 Cronstadt. 169 Ekaterinoslaf. 144 Merv. 122 Gunib. Jews 74 Oka Stretna. . 220 at. 1 20 135 Lesghians. 98 . conquest of. 221 . in Kuntsevo. on Cathedral of Basil. description of. 56 Kolomenskoe. the. religious history of. 135. 24 TAGANROG. Count. 95 ikon. martyrdom Jyvaskila. 131 . 65 Olga. Russian pictures. death of. 115 Miirmon Coast. 222 of. Valley of. Tchentchen. description of. 59 Saratuf. 39. 181 Tobolsk. 77 . imin. 148 Tavastehus. 154 Bokhara. 196 Georgia. 60 Izmailovo. 146 Irghiz River. 146 Chancellor. 19 Vilna. Belfry of Ivan. 152 Solombola Island. the. 56 of. 158 Sourakan. AA RIVER. 222 Helsingfors. 20 GAMLA KARLEBY. 154. 21 Little Russia. 169 Volga. description of. defeat of. 219 Verkhneudinsk. 114 JACOB RIVER. 138 BAIDAR VALLEY. 31 New Jerusalem Monastery. 56 Music. 116 Kalmytski Bazaar. province of. halls of. White City. 124 Vladikavkaz. 197 Michaelofski. ruins Circassia. 196 Kola. the. provements 88 . 116 Kivatch. 82 . 27 MIety. 86 German colonies. 169 Delijan Pass. Andrew. . 88 . 152 Kharkof. description of. 169 Petrozavodsk. 152 Purtenite. . description of. gold mines. capture of. 157 people of. 166 LADOGA LAKE. 65 Pharnawaz. 167 Sympheropol. 70 Novocherkask. the Patriarch. Grebensky. Etchmiadzin. 26 Rion. 80 of. description of. expedition Wierzbolow. 37 . 165 Ermak. 204 Poltava. 32 Orlof of. Nenocksa. rebellion of. description 130 : Cathedral of St. Prince. . 112 Irkutsk. people of 122 MAIMACHEN. . 131 .
gilt edges or 35s. WllVMrER and others. clotn boards. . COACHING .Ss. With a large Map and 107 Illustrations from Photographs and Sketches. elegant. DRAWN WITH PEN By & PENCIL.ILLUSTRATED BOOKS OF TRAVEL. in morocco. HOWARD WILLOUGHBY. Engraved liy E. Imperial Svo.
M. gilt edges. TAYLOR. JHE j5v^<E!\HOLTKLUBBEN. and others. cloth beards. With a glance at Sweden ana Canal. Illustrations. the Goth* BY RICHARD LOVETT. Sm Ss. Imperial R.A. NORWEGIAN PICTURES. With a Map and One Hundred and engraved Twenty-seven E.ILLUSTRATED BOOKS OF TRAVEL. OR |3lRD . Drawn with Pen and Pencil. by WHYMPER.
With numerous Illustrations from Objects of. K.ILLUSTRATED BOOKS OF TRAVEL. Imperial J \ 8ro. the MARQUIS OF LORNE. elegantly 8s.. SIDNEY HALL. ENGRAVED BY EDWARD WHYMPER. morocco eteeant. . bound in cloth. . CANADIAN PICTURES.T. Pencil. Drawn with Pen and By the MARQUIS OF LORNE. and Photographs in the possession and Sketches by. gilt edges. etc.
PLOVELLY. M. . gilt edges. G. By the Rev. handsomely bound. Editor of the "Leisure Hour. DRAWN WITH PEN AND PENCIL. MANNING. and LL.. ENGLISH PICTURES. UXIFORM WITH THE ABOl'E AV STYLE AXD PRICE. Rev. GREEN. S. D D. With Coloured Frontispiece and Numerous Wood Engravings. Drawn with Pen and Pencil.D.. &s. By James Macaulay.ILLUSTRATED BOOKS OF TRAVEL.D." 2$s..A. morocco elegant. Iinfeiial Sva.. S. M. SEA PICTURES.
morocco elegant. 8s .D.SCOTTISH PICTURES. gilt handsomely bound. Artists.. 25s. . edges. Illustrated by Eminent 8vo. D. DRAWN WITH PEN AND PENCIL By SAMUEL Imperial G. GREEN.
morocco. D. .. morocco. LUTHER'S J-}OUSE .D. Green. Pencil. gilt edges. Samuel G. Samuel G. Illustrated Green. 8s. Bound in handsome cloth boards. With upwards of 150 Fine Engravings. elegantly lound in cloth. PICTURES FROM THE GERMAN FATHERLAND. Imperial &vo. full gilt. Profusely with superior Engravings. 25^.D. .FRENCH PICTURES. By the Rev. 3s. Drawn with Pen and D. By the Rev. 2J/.
Morocco. .. Imperial %vo. By the Rev. Egypt and Sinai Illustrated by Pen and Pencil. gilt edges. THOSE HOLY FIELDS. With Numerous Fine Engravings.fluiNS OF A SYNAGOGUE AT SHILOH. elegantly bound in cloth. LL.D. Samuel Manning. COLUMNS OF TEMPLE AT THE LAND OF THE PHARAOHS. Samuel Manning. 25$. By the Rev. . Numerous Fine Engravings. Zs. LL. Palestine Illustrated by Pen With and Pencil.D.
2$?. rlf^ant. 8s. handsomely ci. DRAWN WITH PEN AND PENCIL. 25. . LL.. Profusely Illustrated in the best style of Wood Engraving by eminent English and Foreign Artists. WILLIAM TJRWICK. %ilt edges. Iwitiitf. . By the Rev. .?. gill fJga. cloth. DR^WN WITH PEN AND By the Rev.D. PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED BY ENGLISH AND FOREIGN ARTISTS.A. . elegantly bound in morocco. yVlADUPvA. M. Ss. PENCIL. JANK AND JEMPLE.ILLUSTRATED BOOKS OF TRAVEL. SAMUEL MANNING. Imperial 8w. Impcrhl Si'?.. Jnbian pictures.