and Pencil Series will remember that their contents is ' volume Indulgence must. and Finland. ST. be number of pages is the same. be claimed for the unavoidably incomplete character of a work that attempts to sketch by the aid of both pen and pencil the lands and peoples embraced in so vast an area as that which stretches from Poland to Kamchatka. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. PREFACE. and. PETERSBURG. John Murray to draw upon the information contained in the The thanks of Handbook for Travellers in Russia. the Ocean The to the 'frosty Caucasus.' execution of this task has been facilitated by the generous per- mission of Mr. The ancient illuminations that head the chapters of this volume have their It will be seen that been copied from M. character was the tenth preserved through century purely Byzantine . the country dealt with large or small. for his friendly contribution of a chapter on the Crimea and Caucasus.N. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. and from the Arctic uniformly limited. Buchan Telfer. on which he is a high and well-known authority. therefore. THE are object of this of the Russian ' volumes of the Pen to represent graphically the salient features Readers of the previous Empire and its inhabitants. R. Poland. Boutoffsky's Ornement Ritsse. the author are also due in a special degree to Captain J..

the more. of time. anything by pen and great position pencil that will not appear to a large class of readers to be more or less a rhhanfft of other travellers' notes and artistic labours. Nevertheless. Russia. at a time for a good part the printing press was already an active force. this relation will not afford the same beautiful of structures. the work may be introduced to its readers somewhat apin the words of an English writer at the end of the propriately seventeenth century 'Tis true. been great Reformer. Russia received its first strong impulse from Peter the Great. they may deserve our particular observation at this juncture By Dr. or to depict. Crull. and cities of Russia in both Europe and Asia. add something peoples. the more abstruse their history and surprising in the event. which was gradually much influenced by the art of India and Persia. Hence. by giving if somewhat scanty. and policy of the Italy Muscovites are from other nations of Europe. when the wall that had surrounded Muscovia had been considerably breached. statues. him accurate. . religion. information about the history. in the eyes and under the keen observation of states that of form been more or less and the solidified and in the advanced long spirit their civilization and government. The foreign criticism and animadversion to which Russia has been liable since the produced by consequence of the days. more especially of its racial or religious prejudice. gardens. lands. the more remote the manners. In short. so far from being a terra incognita. but also. has been the subject of such numerous literary productions that it is well nigh impossible to say. ' ' : . among a nation guided for the most part merely by instinct.' 1 I say. 1698. had become when ' ' It is therefore as in a glass hive comparatively easy and free from danger. and other niceties as that of variety nevertheless. by sea and by land. and consequently hurried on from one extreme to another. London. Dedication to The Antient and Present State of Muscoiy. J. have not They have been the natural which Russia acquired so late in her had political life. especially that part situated in Europe. while at the end of the eleventh century the Byzantine style began to be mingled in Russia with elements of native genius. to the interest he may already take in the subject. and when intercommunication with the rest of Europe. that the Russian bees have ever since been toiling under the guidance of" gifted and ambitious rulers to build up the colossal fabric we view to-day with an amazement which is not unmingled with disquietude. when only the area of the modern Russian Empire presents itself for consideration. and of the next. the hope is not forbidden that the book produced in these circumstances may not only please the eye of the reader into whose hands it falls.PREFACE.

. in the Public of Alexander I.. Petersburg of the Four- 30 St.. Petersburg Peter the Great St. Voronej . . St. MOSCOW. .. Public Library... . IN THE LIBRARY OF CONTENTS AND The LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Petersburg page ... II. . The Emperor The Empress of Russia of Russia page 14 15 CHAPTER WESTERN Russian Sledging and Coursing An Illumination from a Russian or Thirteenth . An Illumination from a Manuscript of the Thirteenth or Fourteenth Century. Petersburg Preface ... Petersburg from a MS... Moscow Map of Russia in Europe . from Library of the Synod. ST. Century. . St. in the Imperial .BYZANTINE ORNAMENTATION OF THE TENTH-ELEVENTH CENTURY.. Petersburg .. Views 31 in and around Petersburg at .. . An Illumination from a Russian MS. 7 IO EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.. 36 The first Fleet built by Peter the Great The English Quay. St. 44 49 51 The Fortress of Schliisselburg 54 . . in the Imperial Public Library. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL: The Column St. Petersburg . An Illumination Fortress and Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. teenth Century. . . Isaac's 38 41 Plan of St.. III... RUSSIA. FROM A MANUSCRIPT THE SYNOD. 19 Views in Riga .. PETERSBURG..... in the Imperial Frontispiece Library. . MS. Petersburg St.... of the Twelfth Lithuanian Peasant 24 27 Museum. Vilna 21 18 Moscow . .... St. CHAPTER I.. of the Fourteenth Century. St. Public /<y' in the 5 5 a Manuscript Byzantine Ornamentation of the Tenth-Eleventh Century. Cathedral.

in tage 57 61 64 CHAPTER Illumination from a Psalter of the Thirteenth Century. THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. Moscow .. . . . . . . Moscow Russian Peasants near Kuntsevo . VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. Moscow . 125 Nogai Tartar An Itinerant Shoemaker... Modern Tartars of 114 116 ..123 .. at Moscow Church of the Virgin of Kazan. The Pechersk Monastery The Battle of Poltava . in the Library of the Monastery of the Resurrection.. in the Sacristy of the Monastery of St. . CHAPTER An Illumination from a IV... .. . 83 SO 88 89 a Church or . near Cathedral.... near Moscow page 56 The Solovetsk Monastery . or New Jerusalem... ... . .. Moscow The Crown of Monomachus Cathedral of St.. An 98 99 105 Moscow .. 107 the Volga Astrakhan Boat Dog Sledge with Fish. . .. 69 70 71 The Great Palace. ... . Moscow 66 67 the Belfry the Ivan Veliki Tower. .... "7 . . An old Church at . of the Fourteenth Century. A Introduction of Christianity into Russia . Moscow - A Peasant collecting Jerusalem Plan of the Church in the Sepulchre General Patrick Gordon Officers of the Streltbi exact copy of the original Church of the The Streltsi of Streltsi of a later ... The Kremlin Wall. Pokrofski Village... . 1553 Archangel . A Nun collecting Money for A South Russian Woman a Convent 127 from a MS.. . An The Kremlin... Sergius) Monastery 96 CHAPTER A VI.102 ... . . .. . 93 93 93 93 94 Church of St.. ... near Moscow Moscow .. . ...... The Great Bell : On . 129 133 135 120 121 A Ploughing on the Steppes Peasant Girl of Great Russia . . ... at Holmogory. 77 79 So Si Novgorod The Monument at Novgorod commemorating the Thousandth Anniversary of the Empire The Patriarch Nicon The Church in the Monastery of the New . .. 1 10 12 Fourteenth Monastery of the Kazan Views in . . -91 92 . Sophia at Novgorod the Great . A Novgorod Russian Trader with his Tea Urn . . Moscow.. .. at Kief. Date The Troitsa (St... MS. Basil... A Ancient Pirate Raid on the Volga Cossack of the Volga 1 A Tartar An "3 . MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. New Jerusalem. 73 an 74 The Romanoff House The Sukharef Tower Church of the Nativity . in of the Thirteenth or the Mosque at Kazan . Lady ... . . 137 .... ..... Library of the . Landing of Richard Chancellor the White Sea..... . of the Fifteenth Century. RUSSIA. Holy 75 75 75 75 at Izmailot.CONTENTS. 119 CHAPTER SOUTH An Illumination VII. Nijni Novgorod Nijni . Tartar An Illumination from a MS. V. .. Astrakhan . Moscow One of the Porches of the Troitsa Monastery Cathedral of St. Money for .. .. New Jerusalem 1613 72 Monastery The Old Clothes Market. Century. . Nicholas. Sergius. in the Library of the Synod..

.. . . Entrance to the Tomb of a Scythian King.164 166 .. .. recently . in Library of the Troitsa Monastery.. A 171 Siberian Gold of Siberia Mine Saint Sergius. . pleted at Khersonesus A A . Tartar Bride and Bridegroom .CONTENTS.. CHAPTER An Illumination VIII.. The Iron Gate Market Garden) . 185 186 CHAPTER CENTRAL An Illumination from a MS.. . Bakhchisarai .... from a MS. Papanaky . Moscow . 174 . .170 173 Map . . FINLAND. .. .. . ASIA. n the Public Rumiantsoff Museum. . ... . . Moscow Helsingfors . MS. An Illumination from a in IX.. .212 213 the back of the Saxony CHAPTER An Illumination XII... . X. Peter. . . 151 Georgian Ladies Naphtha Wells at Baku ... CHAPTER SIBERIA. . The Church 204 205 208 of the Holy . Khiva 203 I9S 197 198 199 202 iSS 189 191 A Khirghiz Bride of the Khanates Map ... of the Tenth or Eleventh Century. Finlanders Finnish Fern Gatherers Viborg Castle . St... Tunguz Girls .. THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. Cross.150 . .. Ostiaks Spinning and Nursing . . . . . . Warsaw Kamenets. near Kertch page 152 Feats of horsemanship by Cossacks of the Caucasus 156 A Mingrelian Peasant 158 A Village in Svanneti 159 Inkermann . .. Petersburg page 140 Mount St. 210 ... Kiakhta . . The Cathedral of St. . 145 147 Batoum com149 An An . . University in the background . . The Burning A Siberian Merchant in Winter Travelling Dress 175 of Irkutsk in 1879 Gilyaks in Winter Costume on the Lower Amur .. . . Turcoman Women A Tekke Village Tekkes Samarkand The Grand Minaret.. in the . .. Tim's 163 .. . from a MS. in the Imperial Public Library.. . Kara'im Jew .. An Illumination from a MS... . .. . Vladimir. . Crimea 141 Yalta 144 .. 218 220 222 223 . . in Podolia tury. of the Fifteenth Abo 214 215 Cathedral Century. (at .. .. . . Warsaw. . of the Fifteenth Siberian Convict . 160 161 161 Imeritian Noble wearing the Imeritian Lady . Moscow . The Mosque Kokan 192 of Hazret-i-Turkestan CHAPTER XL POLAND.. in 179 i^o 182 184 Lake Baikal Winter .. .. ... of the Twelfth Century. Tobolsk . . . .. 177 Century. Library of the Troitsa Monastery In the Lazienki Park... with . Polish peasants... of the Fifteenth Cen. the Library of the Monastery 01 .

10 15LoncT itudeEast25fr'>mGrecmvicl. MAP OF RUSSIA IN EUROPE.35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 35 50 Typo KtOiins Co. . Sr.

sway On the north the Russian empire has an arctic coast-line that embraces more than one hundred and forty degrees of longitude.314. The vastness of these combined possessions.000 square miles). before the latter is carried westward across Central Asia to the confines of . ST.000 OCCUPYING miles of railway. eastern limits are on the Pacific Ocean. the Russian empire had. was spread over an area of over two million square miles in Europe. an estimated population of one hundred and nine millions. which forms also its southernmost boundary. from Behring Straits down to Its the frontier of the Chinese empire. and which fails to is reach the Atlantic only by the interposition of the kingdom of Norway. already covered with 1 7. of which eighty-four per cent. with a population almost three times Russian of the is now under the that which sceptre. one seventh part of the land surface of the globe. and about one quarter of its entire superficies.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MANUSCRIPT OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY. in 1886. the remainder being more or less permanently settled in Asia. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. PETERSBURG. on territories measuring about six and a half million square miles. CHAPTER I. exceeded only by the magnitude of the British empire as large as (9.

few of their The other mass followed the course of and became known as the South Slavonians. Croatians. These have played an Servians. and Moravia. or from an inherent nomadic tendency. struggle with the Roman empire. in succession to a previous German element exhausted by internecine conflict. by which the greater part of Europe has been occupied from time immemorial. and . into territory that later became the dominion of the first centuries after Christ they were cut Novgorod During woods and marshes. on the Caspian (practically a Russian lake). important part with regard to the entire race. The dominant population of Russia Proper is Slavonic the Slavs or Slavonians having been a branch of the Aryan or Indu-European race. on the opposite side of the Baltic. the Slavs extended eastward the Dnieper. the Slavs made a late appearance on the stage of history. in the early part of the ninth tribes. inhabiting the country beyond as the Veneti . descendants survive. Persia and to by Pliny the elder (A. One mass crossed the Vistula. Settled in a country so remote from the centres of Greek and Roman culture. after which the Baltic and Polish Provinces establish contiguity to the empires of Germany and Austria. by Dr. Vilhelm Thomsen. where the to earliest historical records the locate them. the Danube. They are referred . Cyril and Methodius preached the gospel in their mother tongue. inasmuch as they were the link between early Christianized civilisation and their own kindred heathen It was to the Danubian Slavs that. or by deadly Except in Poland. down to the Elbe.' Tacitus mentions them Vcnedi. or the Wends. composed of and Slovens. century. and in their northward Great. they began soon after their short-lived subjection to the Goths (in the third or fourth century) to spread themselves to the west in two distinct streams.12 RUSSIAN PICTURES. while the modern kingdom of Roumania has become a neighbour on the lower course of the Danube. Turkey. Whether from external pressure. and on the Black Sea. and the Teutonic tribes ' designated their early eastern neighbours as the Winecid. off. 79) as the the Vistula. the Esthonians. Bulgarians. and was day their racial brethren. the Scandinavian name for the same people the Philanders know Russia only as Venaja. and populated the tracts between the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic.D. countries with which the empire also comes into close contact. of which it holds the northern and eastern shores from the Danube to Batoum. who In King Alfred's Orosius the Anglo-Saxon designation survive in Lusatia. of Copenhagen. of the Slavs south of the Baltic is Winedas or Weonodas. from the events which at that period disturbed the greater part of Europe. the Grand Duchy of Finland is conterminous with Norway and Sweden. call To this it Vene? From the the Vistula. Bohemia. On the west. while in the eleventh and twelfth centuries Vender. : We and Scandinavia. severally. 1 use largely the best work on the subject The Relations between Ancient Russia the Origin of the Russian State.

ago. Servian. North of the Slavs of Novgorod were the CJihd or Finnish tribes that spread around the Gulf of Finland and the Lake of Ladoga. still used in the services of the Russo-Greek Church. Kief. now century of the Christian era a number of rude and yet they tribes around Lake with Ilmen. 2 earliest monkish historian of Russia. as well as A. however. later played so great a part in Russian while the easternmost Slavs were the Viatichi.' which by the spread of Christianity was.D. warring more and more among themselves as their numbers multiplied or as they approached each other's territorial confines. appertaining to it. patriarchal form of these this circumstances government. the Volga and the Slav territories. at Beyond part of ' these ' Russia Finnish tribes. Between northern find 969. whose capital. The most redoubtable of the latter the Khazars had in the latter half of the seventh century formed on the Volga a State ruled from a city near the site of modern Astrakhan. Nestor asserts that the Slavonian and Finnish Russian To The day anyone acquainted with the modern language has no difficulty in understanding a Bulgarian. the greater part of Southern 'Russia' fell into their hands. or Czech. some of them extant on our voyage down the Volga. in until centuries nations. the ' 13 old 1 Slavonic. thus find that We in the ninth century the extensive country we are dealing with was peopled by a number of ethnologically unrelated heathen tribes. and the Vcs. of the We ancient first hear in Nestor's 2 Chronicle of the Slavs the home. history which joins the Volga at Nijni Novgorod. of all in the alphabet composed a few the Slav by Cyril and Methodius. dwelt the Finnish tribes. . in the basin of the Oka. We shall Those who occupied absorbed lands nearest to the race. the period in question. together with the Lett and Lithuanian races to the south of them. principal limits of the primitive Slav world. completely excluded the Slavs from the Baltic and the waters by the Slavonic the Mcria. and nearest their boundaries became tributaries to them. the centre of modern Russia Proper. and the Dnieper. It is only the latter tribe that . and by hordes of Tartar or Turkish origin more or less by nomadic in their habits. throughout the part of what is now Russia. without any common political tie. One of the most important of those tribes was that sketching. the greater (a designation that long remained unknown) was peopled the Slavonic tribes Their power was. and who. and near the sources of the Volga. by the Rurik princes. Gradually. and having each a In 1 primitive. the Dvina. written slightly varied form. the a The same is language. vernacular. Slavs on their eastern side have long been and survive only in name as the Muroma. He part records that even in the western who remained in their country we are engaged in ninth were not a nation. but divided into of the Poliant.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. with Smolensk as their chief settlement. crushed. independent Novgorod as a capital. had reached.

a Slavonic name. in accordance with the law of Their adoption of the Greek Odelsret. but there is no order in it that another Thomsen monkish legend V. sailing over in his viking ships to the south coast of the Gulf of Finland. religion must have had some effect in estranging o o o them from their Roman Catholic brethren at home . however. and establishing himself. then for the first time be called a Russian monarchy. of the Britons by whom the been only as a conqueror that Roric. in the mouths places almost the same words Saxons were 'invited' to come over the sea. Dr. The Scandinavian character of the ruling race at Kief was probably not Roric's grandson already bore preserved for more than a few generations. from Rhos or Rnss the clan to which he belonged. A. had become essentially Slavonicized. 864.' over points out. ' : .RUSSIAN PICTURES. and by the year 1000 the reigning princes who succeeded to the throne of Kief in priority of descent. founded what could Clearly it could have THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA. us. to send the following message to the Scandigroups of the north combined whose Our navians.D. penetrated inland. from depredations they had already begun to suffer come ye and rule land is great and bountiful. at Novgorod.

That intimate personal relations were maintained. the daughter of King Harold. between the Princes of Kief and the country of their ancestors. even at the close of the eleventh century. '5 After the period to which we have brought down our observations. Their son espoused a daughter of Ingo Strenkelson. is proved by the fact that in about 1070 Vladimir (Monomachus) married Gyda. ' Novgorod long continued THE EMPRESS OF RUSSIA.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. King of Sweden. 1 Varangar (Old Norse : not Scandinavians in genera!. the stream of settlers ceased to pour in from Scandinavia. . after she had fled with her brothers to the Danish Court. Varangian thirteenth or fourteenth century to the Germans of the Hanse Towns. Vaeringjar] signified only the Scandinavian body-guard of the Emperor of Kyzantium. The term was later adopted by the Slavs in the form of Variag^ to denote Northmen. but it had by that time deposited so strong a contingent that a contemporary writer describes the population of Kief in 1018 as consisting 'chiefly of Danes. whom its lucrative trade was absorbed.' or men from 1 keep up its character of a and its Scandinavian element gave way only in the city. by to ' the north.

converted into Vira in Slavonian. For instance. through Anne. He was well read in Autocrat of all the Russias. compiled in the reign of Vladimir (tenth century). Paleologus. is derived from the old Norse or We have indeed found in Norway many more Swedish knut-r a knot.' the title of Tsar. sister of the Emperor Basil and Byzantine lore. Moscow. his arms the double-headed black eagle. The first Russian code of laws. or executed within recent times in Russia. Thus it introduced. penalties or compensation for manslaughter.' and in ' 1 ' and desired to be recognised by the Patriarch of Constantinople. Vladimir. its laws. after his marriage with Sophia His successor. pctchka.1 6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. with which criminals were punished origin. Russian historians are wife of Vladimir. for hearth or oven. the stove. we bring this chapter to a our rapid but extensive travels through the empire. under the name of Wercgcld. of the imperial Byzantine blood. and its internal government.' and added to (or Prince) of Novgorod. or whip.' covered in the Russian language a host of words (principally for household objects in incipient civilized life) that are unmistakably Scandanavian in their Even the word knut. and his son Ivan IV. in lieu of the primitive law of vengeance and retaliation. until the Russian sovereign ' power was concentrated at Moscow. (1505-1534) absorbed the principalities that had remained independent of Moscow. petch. Having thus sketched the development consolidation Russia down age of Peter the Great. (1462-1505) who assumed the title of Grand Duke and all Russia. Until that catastrophe occurred. was essentially Scandinavian or Teutonic in its principles. and Czar is a corrupt German spelling of the title. Even the Saxon Witenagemotes had been reproduced under the Slavonic name of Veche. the first Christian Prince of Kief. now agreed that the legend of Vladimir Monomachus having received investiture at the hands of the Emperor Constantine and is a mere legend of fabricated in the reign of Ivan IV. under which the successors of Roric fought amongst themselves for the paramount throne and facilitated by their dissensions the occupation of Russia by the Tartars during two centuries. and survived more especially at Novgorod and Pskof (in the form of Republics). pcis. Thomsen gives a long list of proper names of Scandinavian root which long survived the Slavonicization of the He has also disRuss. This was the origin of the Russian Udel system. the Terrible (1534-1584) found himself ' the position of being able to take at his coronation. . Dr. Vasili III. begin to the 1 close. the first in Russia. as the representative of the extinct imperial line. It was Ivan III. Russia had followed the general European path of civilization and development in its social life. or such words than the learned professor has cited. as the Norse Russian for is still. to whom he sent a costly present of sable skins. We have already alluded to the law of Odel. still prevalent in Norway.



Muscovite ancient on not we are miles ground. inhabited chiefly by Poles and Jews. Dreary as we may have found the of poplars. and finally 1569. by a in it 13S6. is of interest as the district. separates glimpse of the blue and gold dome of a Russo-Greek church. when we cross the brook Instead ot these we catch a two great empires. Prettily situated at the confluence of the Vilia with the great Niemen River. Kovno. their well- which the demand for our passports. notwithstanding last stronghold of paganism in c 2 . our first objective point is Berlin. and their trim avenues suddenly their neat homesteads. OF THE TWELFTH OR THIRTEENTH CENTURY. London from and in about fifteen hours more enter the Russian Empire at the frontier LIKE the great St. At partition of Poland (1/95). IN THE PUBLIC MUSEUM. but in the beyond.' Even at Kovno. which we reach can proceed the same night in about twenty-four hours. majority of British and American travellers bound for Petersburg. sixty to the Crown of Poland venerable Duchy of Lithuania. and scarcely plains of East Prussia. CHAPTER WESTERN II RUSSIA. that we are in But geographically we are only in a province of the Holy Russia. dynastically joined require ' to be reminded. in united with the that third kingdom in 1401. MOSCOW.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. we miss kept roads. in a fertile and pleasantly accidented its present squalor. We station of Wierzbolow or Wirballen. Kingdom of Poland. incorporated with Lithuania fell to the share of Russia.

on the Catholic church. on the Vilia River. the sun-god. . to In 1812 the town was devastated and pillaged have existed since 1503. relates that niches in the sacred oak of ancient Romnove contained effigies . on the River Alle. only nine were carried back by the French. and therefore represented as a grey-headed old man of deathly pallor. and its encourage a break in the journey. later for political objects. on the site of a sacred until the grove within which the pagan worshippers maintained a perpetual fire until Their chief priest. Strife and warfare. in rounded by rays and of Pikol. we halt of the Lithuanians in happier for refreshment at Vilna. was dedicated in the fifteenth century. by 'In following inscription on a monument which stands in the market-place The army 1812. messengers. Only eighty years ago. which was burnt sceptre. the Lithuanian grand dukes. and we shall later find a good display of them within the Kremlin at Moscow. George while the chapel of St. with a white band round his head. sources and fertility. the capital of the Kingdom of Poland. Peter and St. have not permitted the survival of any very ancient remnants of The church of St. the gocl of springs. the ' ' The beauty of its situation is the east. in Baltic. Dusburg. could be seen erect some of the sacred oaks of ancient days. a chronicler of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. the last mementos of the extinct but once paramount authority which had been wielded by pagan high priests over the greater part of the country between the Baltic and the Carpathians. and the Russians. the whose ultimate disastrous retreat is commemorated in the French. in which the Teutonic knights. now years after its stands a Roman end of the fourteenth century. Roman like Catholic edifice in Lithuania. the church of St. Paul at Kovno. having power the form of a beardless youth over death and misfortune. in the neighbouring province of Courland.000 men. days. Ten miles beyond it. Europe. the Little Paris and town a Russian now the chief of province of the same name.' We may add that out of eight hundred guns. or foundation. and one which held out three hundred Niemen. amongst hills that rise to not very apparent from the large and handsome attractions not being in other respects sufficient to we must be content to read in ' ' Murray . of Perkun.000. they were driven from their last and holiest shrine.20 AUSSSAJV PICTURES. originally in the name of the true faith. railway station. recrossed the frontier numbering 70. and to Warsaw. and forced its inhabitants to accept the religion of Christ. Russia was invaded by an army numbering 700. : Passing junctions of lines that lead severally to the port of Libau. secured the implicit obedience of pagan kings and princes. resided at a more ancient place of the same name Romnove in East Prussia. are mixed up to a degree that will not admit of any clear account within the limits of these pages. the moon-god. the Poles. Gertrude is known . with a red face sur- of Petrimpa. his whose iron when produced by when Boleslas of Poland invaded Prussia in 1015. south and west. the largest architecture.

repose in the church of St. at the fire antiquity. and part of The remains of the kindred in race to the Slavs. 1874. and partly by the inlluence of Muscovy. and of Alessandro Guagmno. 'the Miracle Worker.. whose Grand Duke. Ivan III. the fourteenth century. Tolstoy. John. ' Count D.' at Yilna. under Olgord. an in of Germany Herberstein. 1586) there were already thirty Russo-Greek places their time there and that the most illustrious houses in Lithuania belonged to that confession. crowns The Castle the of hill worship in days of remote which an octagonal red brick foot of which a fire was kept Roman Catholic uninterruptedly burning until the triumph of Christianity. notwithstanding of the that the inhabitants not the provinces of Vilna. Nicholas. Samogitia. and killed the martyrs of Lithuanian idolaters. the testimony is adduced of Baron Emperor Maximilian. They assert that even in the reign of King Stephen Bathory (15/5of worship in that city. of Greek orthodoxy in the present north-west provinces of Russia. .WESTERN that this RUSSIA. In further corroboration of such a wide and early establishment VILNA. Eustace. Sustained as it was by the advice after seceding from the Church of Rome. by Anthony. l>y the late Count D. had married the 1 History of Romanism in Russia. also was a centre of heathen (1323). tower still Jagellon remains. to the effect that were more Russian than Roman Catholic churches in Vilna. Italian officer in the military service of Poland (1560). their prince in Courland were first faith. and the personal visits of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Grodno. Vilna now of as the province is. ambassador from the (1517-1526). Tolstoy points with pride to the Lithuania by Russians at a period fact that the Gospel was brought to when Latinism was completely unknown.

printing presses. appointed by the king being frequently movement found Lithuania in this condition. often Russian noble of the period states that the clergy of that faith passed their time in drinking-houses. in Calvinists. John Chrysostom into Slavonic. and gave their churches. the Greek Church held its own. Some of their bishops were ' A gained over. the inhabitants not contrary to the Roman Church. who re-entered the the Church. The famed Teutonic knights had in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries done their best by violence to introduce Romanism into Lithuania . and by the liberty It was accepted with such of the press. drove the ministers of the Reformed Church from the estates which they held. By Dissenter' in the Polish Senate. powerful protector 1563. was only when Jerome of Prague visited the country (in the fifteenth The pope then century) that Rome began to achieve some success. at the same time. at the dawn of the sixteenth century. Vast estates were gradually conferred upon the King of Poland. the Jesuits attacked with increased activity the Russo-Greek Church established in the outlying Polish provinces. established since 1539 in Poland. under which. and that it was impossible to find one among them who could translate the works of St. the authority of the bishops The Reformation The upper classes were ready towards the middle of the sixteenth century. however.' pillaged their own churches. of Even the Prince Nicholas at Radzivill the Black. and submitted their Church to the pope. orders. later. daughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania. the great noble families having already left the Greek Church and embraced Romanism. both as a result of the preaching of John Huss. in to the dignity of them by pale of 1570. the year 1632 there was not a single ' Having suppressed the Reformation. Lithuania was flooded with Jesuits. a college at Vilna. which was a few years later raised a university. the rites and doctrines of the Greek Church could be preserved. who established. Senate soon became composed almost enthusiasm that the Lithuanian disputed.' Thirty years of Lithuania were professed en masse.22 RUSSIAN PICTURES. notwithstanding the proclamation of the union of the Latin and Greek Churches by the Council of Florence in 1438. and libraries to the Jesuits. been printed in the Polish language. who thereupon proclaimed the union of the two Churches. exclusively of Calvinists and Lutherans. without the preassumed the right of nominating and confirming bishops but it liminary consent of the Kings of Poland. for it. vindicated and exercised the right of filling the episcopal This led to the disorganisation of the Latin clergy and religious sees. The Roman Catholic clergy being unable from venality and disunion to struggle against the Reformation. as a measure of conciliation. passed over to Romanism. ' in so far as they were . and by the great nobles. and Moscow was absorbed by her own disastrous affairs. Constantinople was distant. The Greek priesthood was. the whose expense the Bible had. in a very degraded position. who.

snipe. which had been reduced. and Smolensk and Moscow on the other) at Dtinaburg. Teutonic knights. mere variety of wild fowl sandy swamps is tenanted by storks. and which falls into running sluggish course. leaving in one hospital alone 7. finally ceded by the Poles to Russia in 1/72. to use modern terminology. together with the tortuous stream Riga. like the rest of the country through which we have passed. The tide of the battle the struggle for political dominion in these for Christendom. and of every other the White Russia. line of defence frontier of Russia. Russians. condition ' more than months. the original combatants have disappeared or been rendered powerless. 650 by rapids. or. Except towards its mouth. which. connected. dimmed by of a the recollection of his ignominious in little flight in disguise from five the Grand Army. laid to the account of are in We ' now ' the ' ' ' . and Russian princes. for at navigated only by barges light draught which we momentarily see as we move on towards the great railway junction (with Riga on the one hand. 23 After this digression on the ecclesiastical history of Lithuania. have left many traces in the history of Diinaburg. and now one of her most important fortresses.. Although. In 1708 it was occupied by Charles XII. when he the residence of the Governor-General. politically. occasionally accelerated about miles.' the total number of sick and wounded abandoned by the King the of Naples having been 20. recently disasters overtook insurrection of 1831. rises in iron-lattice between after St. and the second the western of protecting are intended to render impossible an inimical occupation of the main lines . when General Mouravieff sternly carried out irom Vilna the measures which averted a threatened dismemberment of the empire. the city was plundered and destroyed in the seventeenth century by Swedes. the new interests and combinations that have supervened The works form part render the fortress of Dtinaburg of high importance.' as distinguished from province of Little Great and Russia. Poles. later. to the rabble piled like pigs of train. we notice some other After much suffering in wars with stirring events in the history of Vilna. and Muscovites. and in 1/94 it fell to the It was the centre of the French Russians. The memory Episcopal of Napoleon's occupied the is Palace. after a gallant defence. and Cossacks. this shallow and dotted with islands that become in spring. Teutonic knights. banks. ancient provinces. in the province of Vitebsk still. over the the Valdai the Baltic bridge next takes the train at a solemn pace Western Dvina. explanatory of the present predominance of Roman Catholicism. now triumphal entry into Vilna. Tartars.500 corpses lead one above the other. like the Volga and the Dnieper. Petersburg and a Moscow.WESTERN RUSSIA. Swedes. operations in 1812.000. when they joined the An imposing hills. however. with records of strife and bloodshed. and in Lithuanians. More Polish 1863 and 1864. and.

hemp. Scarcely twenty-five miles beyond is one of the most interesting political centres of primitive Russia. Olga. It is curious to observe that the earliest tions political institu- country were of a popular character. who partially introduced into Russia the Greek religion. the vechd bell ring out. Detached homesteads are now of less and less frequent occurrence. which is still extant. and saw the club (mace). and from Riga to Vitebsk. we are not yet beyond the reach of ancient Lithuanian and Polish depredation. in the province of Pskof. the town is also a centre of considerable trade in flax. The city and its territories formed earliest of the Hanseatic in the period of the great trade with part League The gradual Germany.D. at which the citizens deliberated (on one occasion in their shirts) and exercised their right of electing and These had good cause for alarm when they heard deposing their princes. of which Pskof was the first Russian outpost. Formidable as a place of arms. Pskof had its open-air t>ec/ic (Witenagemote). set up in the great square. and in 1581 was captured by the famous Stephen it Bathory of Poland. Great) and Khlynof (now Viatka). are still in possession. and timber.RUSSIAN PICTURES. which she had embraced at Constantinople about A. margins of forests of which bears. supposed to have been founded by St. tell the traveller that he is already in Russia Proper. of Petersburg. 1501 the Lithuanians massacred 4000 of the inhabitants of Ostrof. hundred of the most distinguished Pskovian families were at the . amidst the wailings of the citizens over their lost freedom. Witenagemotes. which is reached at Ostrof. The fortress that existed here in the In fourteenth its three of century survives only in towers of grey and red stone. emblematical of the majesty of the law. 955. Nevertheless. of of Moscow will these the Grand be Duchy absorption republics by in our account of We need the Great mention described only Novgorod. Pskof. forming villages of melancholy aspect. played an important part in the. and we learn that the broad cuttings through which we are conveyed are the railway from Warsaw to St. wolves. foundation of the Russian Empire. on the model of our Saxon 1/7 Like Novgorod (the LITHUANIAN PEASANT. Groups of grey and tumble-down-looking log-huts. and elk. who a year later caused to be built the church of St. here that the famed vech bell in the church of the Holy Trinity was taken of the down Three in 1510. tallow. Nicholas. sent by barge or rail to Riga.

but on both occasions the invaders were ultimately repelled. coffin Among is the a silver shrine with miraculous Its conspicuous of the numerous relics in this the remains of a godly prince who died in properties are assumed to be such that when the more Novgorodians. without doing any harm to the terror. preceded by severally more especially hallowed by the fact that St. 957. but not before he had caused the horse of Ivan to fall. Struck with Ivan left the city precipitately. in a chapel to the right of the altar screen. 1138. and exhorted him not to drink the blood of Christians. Capering about on a stick. the the sainted prince thereby fire signifying the original cross 1509. ruled. however. when Ivan the Terrible of Moscow. appeared before the walls of Pskof. . was used at the consecration of the Close by is the shrine of the sovereigns of Pskof in this cathedral.I). But the ancient spirit of independence had not been entirely quenched. . according fury by frequent examples in ancient as well as in modern Russia. even by the year 15/0. in which Olga raised at Pskof was destroyed by The tomb of of plain oak. the city was saved from his suspected of treasonable designs. and forms a square on which once stood the castle of the reigning prince. after ravaging Novgorod. a to monk. subjected. assumed rather than inherent. old suspended near the tomb. which again had been churches built in 1266 and Its site is. and ' his sword. while he was warning him of his death by lightning if he injured a single citizen. whose citizens he equally However. in the so-called Russo-Byzantine ' ' to an edifice raised in 1368. over could not be a desire whom had previously moved by human force. pursued mendicancy in the guise. In 1581 Pskof was besieged by the Poles. being given to seize the idiot. and on the west by the Velikaya. may gaze Their base on the east and north is washed by the Pskova River. Such are the latest vicissitudes We well ' The huge style. while Dovmont's Wall. a Lithuanian chief elected Prince of Pskof. he abide St. who. but to eat of the bread and salt to be On orders presented to him in the cathedral. springs from their southern face.U'ESTERX RUSSIA. Olga built a church upon it succession A. cathedral 1138. in was in Trinity almost fills the space enclosed by 1682. earlier.' offered him raw meat. is that to among his faithful Pskovians. 25 same time removed to the dominions of Muscovy Proper. as a token of submission. he suddenly and miraculously vanished. Cathedral It of the built the Kremlin walls. and in 1618 by Gustavus Adolphus. and replaced byian equal number of families of the trading class drawn from towns on the The Novgorodians had met with a similar fate thirty-two years Volga. of an idiot. St. Unfortunately. inhabitants.' constructed at the close of the thirteenth century. built in 1323. he addressed the redoubtable monarch as 'Johnny. claimed his relics. Dovmont. to which the ancient city has been on its stout Kremlin walls.

and other native bring products of the Although not the least Russian. There is the massive castle. although But this is a question of development perhaps somewhat too conservative. ' The empire may Livonia. rather than on new lines. vites. Esthonia and Courland. its population nations is only 1 70. performed and a small in discomfiture of foes attach to chapel in opposite in the bazaar is in memory of citizens who fell many ancient and interesting monuments an point insurrection out more especially the fortified 1650. no doubt. dating from the The effigy days when the Teutonic knights were paramount (1494-1515). as the second port in Russia. on ancient. at ancient municipal rights and privileges were guaranteed by the terms of that Commercially. and all which. have already seen in at discharge or Dunaburg the barges load that Dvina the grain. flax. reaching again. the sights at Riga are interesting. and being locally called reproduced in miniature in is the Dockc (which equivalent to the present Danish and Norwegian word dock in which suggests that we have here the origin of the The chairman of the Guild sat under in our own country. consisting of the Provinces of Livonia. marked out by tall poplars. the trial of offenders against municipal for a doll). although half of its trade is with Great Britain. the hall of the Great Guild. and we interior. and Musco- A We have space to say only that the civilisation and culture of those We are provinces is still undeniably German. branch off again into the to the highest importance ancient activity of Lithuanian Teutonic knights. in archways. in a land of farms and mansions.000. Poles. the neighbourhood. stand prisoners Dockmann administered the affairs of the corporation the Docke. with crenelated towers. and with a sea-board of population of more than two and Russian commerce. was finally ceded by Sweden to The exercise of the Protestant the Peace of Nystad. and as and other laws. linseed. more or less mediaeval-German in aspect. including. railway enables us to reach from Pskof the Baltic Provinces of Russia. as advocated by ardent Russificators. it There are also may re- nowned for its catacombs and for the sieges has sustained. and we monastery of Pskof Pechersk. the capital of Russia religion. ' ' ' ' . built by Bishop Albert in A. neat and solid.D. and must ever remain so. and of towns great and small. 1721 the official and judicial use of the German language. Russian in the country of good highways the since frontier. 1200. Riga.26 RUSSIAN whose service to the to this city sainted Nicholas Salos. Swedes. but fortunately for the inhabitants. with a a quarter millions. well be proud of the city of Riga. ranks capitulation.' Every institution is. one of the over will be found stone of the Holy Virgin. Traditions several of miracles other churches. still Germanic.' we have already recorded. in together with Esthonia. the Idiot. One here A down Russian couple the of thousand ships of all annually.

Grand Master and first (151 7-1587). ruffles. an ardent patriot broke with his clenched fist. The remains are perfect.) of France. of this historical wing edifice is the of the ancient mausoleum Dukes of the last Courland. so called from the device of a Moor's Saint Maurice. who was originally the VIEWS IN RIGA. the fourth equerry. and paintings. . it is asserted. and renovated in the sixteenth A letter from Luther to the Senate of Riga and a very ancient century. books. they adopted as their honour of head. The palace is also interesting from its occupation in 1 798 by Louis The (later XVIII. and contains among treasures of silver. when in also its castle (rebuilt was erected by Conrad von Medem. grandson of an The German Duke of Courland. lies 1271. &c. many ancient relics of the in Moors' heads distinguish the pews of the Blackheads the order. on the Aa River. Marie Josephine of Savoy. wig. Cathedral of St. in ' ' Bible are the of proudest the possessions Library. Blackheads. and his Queen. This city. built in the thirteenth. the unworthy favourite of the Empress Anne of Russia. which. in order that patriotic Russians might have the opportunity of reviling their enemy. beginning with Gothard Kettler. all but the eyes and the nose. the of Courland (incapital with Russia in corporated was founded in 1/95). and he actually requests visitors not to spit at the mummified body and thereby injure the well-preserved velvet clothing.WESTERN The Hall of the RUSSIA. or groom. City South-west of Riga Mitau. Grand Master of the Livonian Order of 1/72) In the left Knighthood. their patron. with the exof Duke ception of the coffin of Duke John Ernest Biron. to ordered by a were cicerone explains that remains the Prince Dolgorouki to be left exposed. was built early in the thirteenth century. heraldic distinction. Most the coffins were closed and secured by iron hoops about forty years ago. which. Mary.

the finest in It was a Esthonia. but we can only draw attention to the ruins of Padis Cloister. of silver interesting from many and a large English names of donors engraved upon one of the cups. we founded town of Dorpat. daughter of the unfortunate Louis XVI. and of Narva. Its Gothic features were destroyed Gustavus 1632 by Adolphus.28 RUSSIAN PICTURES. on being liberated from the Temple. Working back by the same railway in the direction of St. The Guildhall of the Blackheads contains the One of the oldest is now ' ' Knights plate of is the Sword (a Livonian the order). perched object.. the Due d'Angouleme.' the cathedral. the seat of a university. great Several subsequent conflagrations modernised the town. which is supposed to have been founded in 1030 by a Grand Duke of Novgorod. in Ritterhaus. travellers caught sight on this journey of the arrive at the picturesque in but the railway now skirts navigable Peipus Lake. Petersburg. on the top of a rock. one of the way prettiest places on the Baltic. Petersburg. for Memel. or of Town the churches. . In old posting days. twenty-three miles long at its to the it some distance on Reval. by represented by a few ruins of the cathedral. Petersburg and the interior of the empire. and enclosing and many houses of the ancient nobility. connection old ' by rail with St. at a distance of about twenty-seven miles from Reval. Rathhaus. with its splendid waterfall and its prosperous manufacturing industry. their eccentric host having suddenly made an alliance with Buonaparte. and of great commercial importance since its . while we speed on to St. at which the Abbe de Firmont. who attended the French monarch on the scaffold. a in fire and are 1598. the is a strikingly picturesque foundation archives collection of the town Hall. when the royal exiles were compelled Emperor abruptly to leave. the Baltic Brighton. The hospitality thus offered by the Paul ceased in 1/92. came here to marry her cousin. Its Danish castle. partly on foot. officiated. in a chapel of the palace. The environs are as pretty and as interesting as the town itself. capital of Esthonia. famed monastery even in the early part of the fourteenth century. dating from the a 1219. chapel attached to the Gothic. in mid-winter. This chapter must now be brought to a close with a mere mention of Hapsal.



weighted with the stones and rubble. of St. submerging the greater part of the capital. with which for many years he comThe chief pelled all carts and vessels coming to the new city to be laden. Isaac's. RISING their surface Lake Ladoga. PETERSBOURG. OF THE I4TH.' The crust itself in 'window' through which he is now secure enough. ST. IN THE BIBLIOTHEQUE 1MPERIALE. bear almost clear and on The main stream capital of the Russian empire. not to accept the possibility. the waters of the Neva rose thirteen feet four inches above their ordinary average level. but the city of St. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL in : III. is difficult being some day overwhelmed by kind.ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. but treacherous. it whose huge and heavy mass has Standing on the gallery under the dome of St. visibly sunk into the marshy subsoil. it is well resolute Tsar laid the foundations of his first buildings. Petersburg a still greater catastrophe of the same . the rapid. In danger to which the city has since been mainly exposed is inundation. waters after flowing a distance of forty-two miles. CENTURY. desired to ' 1/03. 1824. is confined within solid granite quays. as the site of the look into Europe. ST. long predicted. in succession to many previous floods. for it was well pegged down with the superimposed piles of wood on which the Besides. Petersburg rests on a crust of soil which almost floats on the water-logged marshes selected the modern by Peter the Great. of the Neva. PETERSBURG.

many buildings. and the impression of hugeness and desolation imparted to the traveller by the will vast open their spaces of which and wide rather streets. of all the known diamonds . His writing-table remains undisturbed. and artistic treasures of so great and exceptional with its a value. the great Palace. the study and bed-chamber of Nicholas I.. still covered with his military cloak. not only from but also from of the colossal character of its origin. his which bears name as by George Dawe. renowned in the more Portraits of soldiers of Russia. and his imperial mistress Catherine II. in the reign of the great Catherine. down to Alexander II. in the hall Russian who is depicted being attended by the Genius and statesmen. It is certainly a remarkable city. set in so vast a frame. There is one small. and to express a fervent hope that the dreaded combination of the : it now elements its never occur..RUSSIAN PICTURES. composed mostly only nearly one million. that scarcely any capital in Europe is more described by pen and depicted by pencil. The stucco. plain room which the visitor adorn the Round Hall. from being In this respect only is it typical of Russia. of such great interest. Unlike the huge spaces of which we have spoken this immense in converted into a neat park. Travellers are who succeed sometimes fortunate securely kept in an the imperial sceptre. and on it lies the last military report which the emperor received. cover the walls of a large gallery and those of the In the Alexander Hall is a portrait of Alexander I. they of materials brick and With a population population of more than one hundred millions. it contains objects parison every other country in Europe. after a fire building erected in 1762 and completed in 1769. The best starting-point for a tour of inspection is partly restored worthy of being square. the city itself in summer looks deserted. apirs nous le dtlugc we have only to deal with the city as is. . in should endeavour to see which he died on the camp bed. replete with works of art. Petersburg while equally good full-sized likenesses of succeeding emperors. as him to presented by the Pitt diamond of France is the most beautiful. and oppresses the visitor with a feeling of insignificance. an English artist of celebrity at St. The the best edifices are imposing from immensity. in purchased from an Armenian by Count Orlof. The huge so-called Orlof diamond in upper room. The noble halls and other apartments are edifice. is the largest. However. Field Marshals Hall.. on which stands the Winter which had consumed the interior 455 feet in length by 350 in breadth. of the 1839. modern annals of Russia. which. may be considered as emblematical of the magnitude of the empire and of the power by which it is governed and held together. than are from beauty are of their architecture. obtaining permission to inspect this palace enough to obtain a view of the crown jewels. and more especially with pictures of victories by sea and by land since the days of Peter the Great. is a desert in comwith Nevertheless.

be divided into two classes objects : ' Hidden in a great number of highest artistic value. is the famed Hermitage. from the Crimea and and others from Siberia and Central Russia. PETERSBURG. 1831. now in the Imperial Public Library. Museum. essentially Milesian. tions. men reconstructed floor is between 1840 and of letters. together with those of his favourite wife or queen (bearing on her head. building was Greek The ground occupied by galleries of antique sculpture.100. first Mongol invasion of the Russian plains in the thirteenth century. Its value is about . like the his attendants and horses. and Siberian antiquities. in the most perfect specimens. for it reveals. the royal tomb. in which Catherine II. It contained the treasures beside him. with his gold-hilted sword and other arms and the in which wood king lay. from the period of the highest civilisation of Greece to the time of the Mr. legends and types with those of the barbarians. of original drawings. Kertch. Alfred Maskell is of opinion that few of the various pieces of goldsmiths' work go back to a period earlier than the third century before Christ. principally west of Kul-Oba about four miles In that year. Diderot. Petersburg. D . Paul Dubrux. 33 adorned with noble jewels. with king. who. are naturally of the in pointed out the spots where important discoveries were made. the Greeks from Miletus engrafted their ancient civilisation on them. and 1850. built in 1/65. and in their artistic productions mingled The their mythology. was discovered by soldiers who were quarrying stone for fortifica- mouldered remains of a Bosporian king. is The emperor's crown mounted by a cross formed of five beautiful versation with philosophers. and surdiamonds fixed on a very large uncut spinel ruby. and The Crimean (Greco-Scythian) objects that most of them are much later. as brilliant in when the Greek artist 1884. Attracted Nomadic and Royal Scythians. remnants of the libraries of D'Alembert. and of some of The sarcophagus of carved and painted yewtheir clothes and trappings. existence was their first tumuli. buried in his richest robes and adorned with his most precious ornaments. and by a library of ten thousand volumes on archaeology. Connected with the palace.C. but entered by a noble vestibule from Bolshaya Millionaya Street. See his Russian Art and Art Objects in Russia (South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks). originally the Pavilion. without pretension to archaeological knowledge. in the artists.000. Scythian. in is this and unrivalled of collection process apparent unique objects of ' ' ' ' antique It art.THE MODERN CAPITAL: in ST. They date adjacent districts. the art of the Greek colonies which were founded on the northern coast of the Black Sea nearly six hundred years B. may principally in the precious metals. and Voltaire. The style. practically revealed by M. a mitre-shaped diadem). by commerce and by the wealth of the described by Strabo and Herodotus. The Kertch collection is alone worth a visit to St. now least stands in the Hermitage colour as 1 it was at two thousand years ago. spent her leisure moments in conEurope. of classical.

finest halls of the cannot be of later date than the fourth century B. . the tumulus was not sufficiently a crowd of people rushed into it and guarded. and on a band surrounding the centre are four groups like the Scythians with long hair and beards. On the ground floor of the Hermitage are galleries of sculpture and of Here also is to be seen the beautiful and matchless Etruscan ceramic art. discoveries of authorities. Kul-Oba tomb was found a very remarkable vase of electrum. We M. Mediaeval and Renaissance sections of the Hermitage. Polish and Bohemian but of high military standards. a large number of the thin as well as much gold plates with which the royal dresses were covered. estimated to have weighed it paintings golden of pounds. and warriors with bows and arrows. and other curios. Unfortunately. which form the collections of armour are Hermitage . somewhat incongruous. excepting the hood. and purchased by the Museum and in a newly-arranged annexe of the with the Campana and other objects. of lotah-shaped. and importance that he declared its possession was almost sufficient to It was found (1863) in a form a casns belli with the Russian empire. and subsequently melted down.34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and dressed very much Russian peasant of the present day. adulterated by a large admixture of Oriental trophies and works of art. in in the tomb bears another his tooth drawn. conspicuous among the treasures Kertch collection of the Hermitage so called from the Museum at Kertch in which Bosporian antiquities were amassed before the Crimean the In the It is War. by the alloying of gold find the same people represented in the with one-fifth part of silver. when not found in a natural state. scene is These represent episodes in the life of a chief. and nomadic occupation of lassoing breaking in wild horses on the wondrous which stands enshrined in the centre of one of the silver-gilt Nicopol vase. are reproduced in one of a the same tomb. who in one groups his having discovered leg bandaged. after the discovery of its rich contents. and also in electrum of dental metal obtained. presumed on the vase refer to incidents in the been preserved. figures of Greek men and women. on the Dnieper. But other of which only fifteen pounds were recovered by the sufficient was rescued to render the Kul-Oba even now. inches high. and is twenty-eight The work. Thiers was so much struck by its beauty Hermitage. and twenty hundred one other treasure. as it were in in statuettes found affliction. which has been introduced into Russia from the Caucasus within modern times. of tumulus near the town Nicopol. and under cover of night carried away. The costumes thus a photograph.C. or basklik. which is in the most perfect style of Greek art. Russian Government king of vases found at Cuma?. As it the is skull evidence that the incidents so skilfully repousse life of the king in whose tomb it has handed down the five small to us. after many a similar character. with of victories ornamented mounted on chariots.

Inigo Jones. although nominally the picture galleries of the Hermitage. we defer for a moment our proposed systematic inspection of the in A pictures. invidious the task.800 paintings. and Spain. ment the 1779 at Museo for . by Sebastian del Piombo. The stately grandeur of the apartments into which we are now ushered makes us feel at once that we are in an imperial palace. by Luini. In the Flemish collection we see much more to interest us.THE MODERN CAPITAL: interest. from a national point of view. Philip. of which a little more than one half are of the Flemish. Sebastian. Henrietta Maria. while Walpole its most valuable painlings to the same opportunity. and that of schools. Sir Thomas Wharton. Here we are Gallery. the British nation lost the chance of possessing the In addition to the great number of pictures sold to the Russian Governacquired from it nineteen of the best pictures now in that gallery. the number of Murillos alone being twenty. d'Olivares. the Earl of Danby. porphyry. and candelabra of malachite. of those of his minister. the most valuable. in the in which frescoes represent the progress of presence of all older Italian masters. The collections pictures purchased by Peter the bulk consists Great were chiefly Dutch and celebrated Flemish works.35. Queen Lord Wharton.000. the Louvre Madrid owes no fewer than 44 of collection. tazzas.' The so largely and after worthily represented in through the Historical immediately the passing Greek art. Josephine (Malmaison collection). the wife and daughter of Oliver The best of Cromwell. the Ladies Elizabeth and Philadelphia Wharton. which cover almost every available inch of the walls. of Charles I. Lord Walpole. ST. Archbishop these. Chaloner.. Indeed. the Descent from the Cross. from the sixteenth to the However early part of the eighteenth century. and fill the numerous stands and screens provided for the display of so great an abundance of paintings by the older masters of the principal schools in Europe. but of the now the mainly of the three the Marquis de Crozat. vases. brevity compels us to name only the St. Dutch. and several other specimens of the great painter. Sir Thomas Laud. The best of the six paintings by Velasquez are the portraits of Philip IV. PETERSBURG. 35 whole day might easily be spent in studying this department of the Hermitage alone. and jasper that stand on the highly-polished inlaid floors of the principal rooms. and German The art of Italy is represented by about 350 specimens. the collection of Spanish pictures is the best and most varied out of Spain. for it contains portraits by Van Dyck. ). Struck with admiration at the noble tables. and Empress The gallery contains about 1. were once the pride of Houghton larger Italian school pictures of the attract attention the Hermitage Hall. D 2 . The Spanish and Flemish collections are considered to be Spain by 115. lapis-lazuli. the many * finest By permitting the dispersion museum of pictures in the in of the world. the and the choicest of the equally numerous paintings by Rubens (in same room and in Room xiv.

After glancing at the productions of Franz Hals and Ferdinand Bol. The great Dutch and Flemish schools of painting may here be studied of the to advantage. as the galleries possess many of the finest specimens of all the noted masters. pictures by one of the Guido Reni. from the same brush. his He especially observe the masterly portraits of old Thomas ' Parr. 1634 respectively and 1666. of Lieven van and the Copenal. scarcely a picture in this room that is not admirable. The Continence of Scipio. is unfortunately unfinished two replicas in The but Cupicl unloosing the Girdle of Venus (known in here charms the eye. was painted for the Empress Catherine II. paid to the British school almost entirely neglected on the rest of the Conti- nentby given the compartment to it in the Gallery. J His Danae of art execution allow one to will .RUSSIAN PICTURES. in short. formerly Walpole collection. show his earliest dated and his is latest style. Two portraits.' a highly-finished cabinet picture on a stand by itself. Rembrandt's Mother. are magnificent specimens of every period of the art and subject of that great master. there is. In the far-famed Rembrandt Gallery. and treasures the Prodigal Son by Salvator Rosa. an allegory of Russia vanquishing the difficulties of its youthful state. England) French school has enriched the noble classical gallery with . . Sir Rembrandt Joshua Reynolds's Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpent. a chef-d'oeuvre of but the lover afford to cannot of escape pictures attention. for example. A magnificent Canaletto But represents the reception at Venice of the ambassador of Louis XV. an Englishman cannot fail to the recognise compliment PETRU RUSSORUM PETER THE GREAT.

that The casts on either of his wax mould and moustaches. so different from the conventional Byzantine style of ecclesiastical painting which gives extensive employment to the native iconograph. who may be said Its most important work 1759. was Lossenko. and with a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. carry with ease . The Creation of the World. the collar under which Catherine the I. who Mary Magdalene. 37 Moine. on the of seized point being by his gaolers for having killed a Swedish soldier who Ivanoff's Christ Appearing to spoke disrespectfully of Peter the Great. has a world-wide reputation. and presses crowded with valuable The chief interest centres in the relics of of every description. by Bruni. painted. by Poussin. Choice specimens of Russian painting and sculpture fill the two rooms through which we make our exit. are typical of the Russian realistic treatment of Scriptural subjects. he sometimes drove the horse now stuffed which he rode at the battle of nicknacks the founder We .THE MODERN CAPITAL: landscapes ST. which is not open to the general public. and the Election of Michael Romanoff and those by Matveyeff and Shebuef. Greuze. charming pictures by Claude Lorraine. and Peter the in two of his most extra- The Deluge. the heavy . by a pupil of Clouet. a Merchant of picture of huge size . I. The stuffed Danish hound in one of the glass cases still wears subjects. Vernet. by Brtilow. PETERSBURG. The to is Russian painter of any note founded the Russian school in considered to be The Last Day of earliest have Serpent. we cannot do better than mount the dome of hair at sittings . Poltava . like Vereschagin. which he gave the artist. Le Watteau. Pompeii. at Fotheringay. the the habit of placing petitions in centre of the gallery is a wax effigy of the great Tsar. who. other pictures by French artists adorn the Second Hermitage Palace. of from Hermitage. must be the exact image of him. for it was executed Having exhausted the manifold objects of interest in the Winter Palace and the renowned Hermitage. mathematical and other instruments. see the small gilt chariot in which of the Russian empire. it is Numerous supposed. and the latter Igolkin. clad in the it dress which he wore at the for coronation of Catherine side face. the forms part of life Great's Gallery is entered Here the Winter Palace. who embroidered his were taken from furnished with features after purpose. tools. with a notch marking his height at about his books. Novgorod. is a startling academical but the most interesting examples are the two historical pictures by Ugriumoff The Capture of Kazan. iron staff which his gigantic strength enabled him to a slender stick. but the death . turning seven feet of the teeth he had extracted from the jaws of suffering a collection and lathes.. is seen ordinary efforts. The Brazen is represented as a captive in chains at Stockholm. Aivazofski. The former has depicted Peter the Great questioning his son. although it we find objects illustrative of the and activity Peter the Great. and Bruni's Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane. was In in name of his canine favourite.

Catherine II.200. TETERSDURG. alone cost . and its three chief portals of gigantic bronze work are approached from the level of the vast square on which it stands by broad flights of steps composed of entire pieces of polished granite from Finland. ST. on the site of a wooden St. laid twenty-one feet long. It was erected between 1819 and 1858. of the modern cathedrals most remarkable of one of the opportunity visiting in Russia. Isaac's church built in i/io. forest on a of piles the total cost of construction . ISAAC'S CATHEDRAL.000. but commenced in the reign of replaced in 1801 by an edifice which had been Its foundations (364 feet by 315). This gives us also the for a bird's-eye view of the city. ST. while and decoration (not including the subsequent Its form is that of cost of propping it up) exceeded three millions sterling a Greek cross.RUSSIAN PICTURES.

these are to which miraculous powers are in not worshipped.' The cupola. O Lord. PETERSBURG. costliness of material and beauty of execution. on a flat surface is not a violation of the Second Commandment. instructive. remarkable for its tall gilded spire.' adoration. and enable barges of light draught to distribute their . is not solid. and with its two nearly parallel arteries governs the direction It is intersected by three canals that drain to of most of the other streets. at the back of the high altar. and of the Sanctuary beyond the Royal Doors. of malachite. and impress imagination churches. or produced in mosaic work. St. in miniature the central dome. contain bells fifteen to twenty-nine tons in weight. some extent the city. the of the visitor. Russian Strictly speaking. the several texts are : north. is not effect easily The Russo-Greek Church distinguishable from actual rejects as idolatrous any carved or moulded representation of sacred or saintly subjects for purposes of worship. three is of the capital. To the King feet of in Kings. the purposely-subdued light brings into relief the glittering sumptuousness of the ikonostas. mostly in mosaic work. we observe that from the so-called Admiralty. The to three and yield none in principal bronze portals are the largest in the world. was made in Germany. or screen. Women It is supported by eight Corinthian are not admitted into this inmost shrine. and of the ikons. in miles Nevski three the length. sail. Mine I House put my be called an House of Prayer. they support on each of the four sides of the edifice a frieze with a text in letters of bronze. Alexander Nevski be taken as its terminus.' trust let me never be ashamed . south. palace This is the main thoroughfare St. The view from dome is extensive and First of all. copper. like the lapis-lazuli. capitals of bronze. but holds that an Ikon painted. or which have its belief ' in images. although the ascribed. in which vessels are no longer built. and is pillars the only work of art within the church that the is not Russian.THE MODERN CAPITAL: The one hundred and ST. and crowned with massive Corinthian . the Ascension. if the monastery of Prospect. Lavish use of malachite and lapis-lazuli has been made in the adorn- ment of the Screen. ' The king shall : shall rejoice in Thy strength. The As in all interior of Isaac's to is well calculated to inspire feelings of solemnity and veneration. which adorn the walls and pillars of the temple. not been worked by human material hands. the entire height of the cathedral to the top of the golden cross that surmounts the elegant lantern Four belfries. but applied on The stained window representing copper tubes fitted over cast-iron cylinders. with cupolas resembling being three hundred and thirty-six feet. ' In Thee. do and west. covered with thickly-gilt is sixty-six diameter and two hundred and ninety-six feet high. 39 twelve polished granite monoliths that support the four are feet in height and seven feet in diameter peristyles sixty weighing one hundred and twenty-eight tons each. which. surmounted by a ship under full The one nearest the great streets radiate like the ribs of a fan. Translated. ' O Lord ' ' ' . east.

which has no through railway connection with the other In summer communication with the opposite parts of the Russian empire. which is freight. This was the raw produce. like the Nevski. to which we shall refer later. of stone and iron. Samuel Bentham. and flax. has supplied an enjoyable shade to a once cobble-paved square that extended from the huge Senate and Synod houses on the left to the Winter Palace and the Etat Major buildings on the right.' greatly accelerated the progress of the work.' under the impression that they were engaged in a pronunciamento in favour site of the ' . recognisable the two in front of it. the third of the canals before us. so called from its being the starting-point for a journey to the adjoining Grand Duchy of Finland. or as a naval commander. a lieutenant-colonel. or Finland. flat-bottomed barges that have to be broken up for firewood come from after the innermost parts of the empire. the first being. Turning in the opposite direction. was actively employed in Russia during a part of the reign of Catherine II. Off it are anchored. full of handsome buildings and shops. from the rough. and abuts on the Fortress. in mid-stream. The activity revolution in 1825. a brother of Jeremy Bentham. either as an agent of the British Government for building ships of war at Archangel. principally fuel.. the big steamers which. The Vasili Ostrof is. discharging their duties as carriers of long granite quays are lined by other steamers that ply to Cronstadt. Of course we are speaking of the short summer months of the North. establishes communication with the Viborg side. Petersburg. Sweden. massive Columns Rostrata: Beyond is another by which stands the British floating bridge that starts from the square on Embassy. within the last ten or fifteen years. thanks to the Cronstadt Canal. In front of the Cathedral is the Park. The last bridge.40 RUSSIAN PICTURES. when the deluded soldiery shouted Constitutia. and connected with the the Bolshaya by the handsome Nicholas Bridge and the floating bridge that leads from the Winter Palace to the colossal Exchange. so far as commercial is concerned. we face the Vasili Ostrof. hemp. In winter the scene. an architect. Sir construction of the new Fontanka Canal. the commercial quarter of the city. relieved only by the numberless sledges in which the inhabitants of either side of the ice-bound river are being silently but rapidly conveyed to and fro on terra finna. is one of comparative desolation. the largest island formed by the numerous branches of the Neva. in order to put an end to the pile-driving ' habitual skulking of the labourers. Light steamers also ply on these canals. A machine which he devised. are now loading grain. The first and second streets that run across the main thoroughfare are (Great) and Malaya (Little) Morskaya (Naval) streets. side of the river is further maintained by the innumerable small steamers that have replaced the quaint-sterned ferry-boats which were formerly so prominently mainland depicted in illustrations of St. practically. which. and a general inventor in In one of his manifold capacities he had charge of the the Russian service.


We approximation to general to those in search of European dress peculiarities. attract us in by their their while peculiarity. vehicles. may perhaps origin of to advanced linen shirts in this century covering trousers has come over the aspect of the country than the outward appearance change In most of the of its cities and towns.42 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the rural districts. the first remarkable monuments were designed and executed by Frenchmen of Peter the Great. wiry animals. is national evident. the architect of the Cathedral from which we are looking down on those wonderful works. if not too isolated or distant from are too early Russian civilisation. although a clear bargain as to the charge for a in order to avoid ultimate disagreement. the of Grand Duke Constantine. The horses are active. although few have its sufficient systematic their first patience arrival. also. as in of Scandinavia. with all details on In make themselves acquainted summer the drojkies. erected 1 . except to to some extent the class who make it their special business ' convey only ' are bent on pleasure. to the its primitive national aspect. the summer dress It of the peasant. the second by Montferrand. although disappointing Nevertheless. regardless of expense. by Falconet. The Nevski travellers Prospect is the next point to of attraction. deprived him of the right of succeeding Alexander and placed the throne of All the Russias in the hands of his brother Nicholas. under perfect control. exactly the same sound is used in the island and we take the fact as a corroborahorses Skye in tion of far in stopping the Scandinavian . see many mujiks clad in sheepskins. by his own consent. and descendant especially the summer head-dress. well acquainted with the sound of Ptrm. and that of their inhabitants. are a very decent set course is necessary of men. relegated of Moscow wore rural it districts. although only ten seeing those Moscow who in generally. . essentially Asiatic or Indian. continues to predominate. stands in front of the Winter Palace. by which their eager course is at once arrested.' Prominently standing out from its environment of trees and shrubs is the well-known equestrian I. The indigenous head-covering to same season is still almost the counterpart of the but it is now which Paddy is wont to carry his dhudeen . in contrast with drivers we find ethnographical on which we gaze with the interest we would bestow on a Hindu or a Chinaman in London. 'the Divine figure of the North. or No more striking as far as the knees. years ago the drojki drivers satisfaction of those who revelled in The Isvostchiks. urban centres. Stranger still. whose morganatic marriage to a Polish lady had. strange to say. which is clearly a modernised of the 'beef-eater's' hat brought to Russia by the adventurous Englishmen who discovered hat in the for sea-board the of Muscovy in the sixteenth ' ' century. by the great Catherine in grand monolith of polished granite that commemorates the glory and the Both of these virtues of Alexander I.. statue The 782. and in other types winter the European sledges. Their dress is almost a mediaeval survival. and.

colonnade of granite monoliths. but of great utility on long journeys. the police circumscribes recipient of such articles. retook from the French it ' Don the to its present use. . at some of the or traktirs. hard. and showed the native dealers that a European market was available for their goods. extends but. in the street that turns off from the Nevski from the upper corner of the Gostinnoi Dvor. However. to this day. during church plate they had looted. it is of silver. were frequently picked up at the stalls. which were not quite unsuspected of In fact. Peter's at Rome. with its colonnade in imitation of St. diately many costly votive objects and military trophies in this and the Emperor never fails to offer up his prayers here immehis departure on from the capital and his return after a residence at some other imperial seat. and to secure from among the mass of rubbish a valuable or pleasing picture. but the prices Torjok. or a bit of porcelain unchipped and bearing a genuine mark of note. PETERSBURG. precious stones of high value. restaurants. The Gostinnoi Dvor. and therefore a good opportunity presents itself of viewing national types of bazaar. and pretty sashes and ties deftly woven at Bric-a-brac hunters revel in the Apraxin Dvor. the ikotiostas is light and brilliant. two hundred and thirty-eight feet in length by one hundred and eighty-two in breadth. Built between 1801 and ST.' who. which have not yet followed the example of similar establishments at St. and those in which are sold or gold. but the better vigilance of and renders more difficult its nefarious operations. where the guests are generally served by Tartar Mahomedan waiters in European evening dress. Petersburg for any considerable number of years will be impressed by the It used to development that has taken place in the local bric-a-brac trade. The Kazan Cathedral. A although architecturally grand. There are cathedral. in four rows like the balustrade in front. and adds to its conventional clinginess. foreigners visit the excellent fur shops Russia-leather slippers embroidered in silver In the main every grade. cushions. the Stchukin and the Apraxin. and so decidedly Oriental in origin claims our attention after visiting the Kazan Cathedral. Cossacks.THE MODERN CAPITAL: c. Those who have not visited St. at Moscow. as a revival. for. it has internally the form of a cross. 43 be seen. Crowds of purchasers fill the lanes and alleys by which those markets are intersected. the market is a exhibiting the produce of robberies. . There are also two other markets. Petersburg. thirty-five feet from the four pillars that support the cupola high. asked are not those of the days before trading collectors had discovered this distant mine of wealth. is soon reached on the right-hand side of the Nevski. be an intense pleasure to ransack the shanties we found full of incongruous odds and ends. or bazaar so common to all Russian towns. and applied the campaign of the zealous offering of the 1812. Strings of pearls. this arrangement somewhat crowds the interior.

Kazan Cathedral. it. The Church in the Hay Market. PETERSBURG. Statue of Peter the Great. Winter Palace. 2. The German Reformed Church. 5. in front of with its riches. 4. The Admiralty. about thirty-four thousand. 8. with a the first VIEWS IN AND AROUND ST. Few libraries in Europe can compete number of printed volumes being over a million. The The Alexander Column. in addition to nearly eighty . is immediately beyond the Gostinnoi Dvor building we notice the Imperial Public Library. 7. the that of the MSS. The Palace of Peterhof. and statue to Catherine II. 6. I. Resuming our walk up the Nevski.RUSSIAN PICTURES. 3.

. Lastly. on Mount Sinai. Petersburg. from Gutenberg to the year exemplified but more to mankind than all the other treasures 1521. date of 1056 tion of Christianity into is The Ostromir MS. and the correspondence of various sovereigns. the most valuable of these being the books and MSS. languages. in 1859. since the beginning of the reign Emperor Nicholas. There are also thirty the that relate to the Russian. except history or geography of the empire. black with bears parchment age. purchased by a Polish gentleman in France The MSS. the famous Codex Sinaiticns. Mr. secret State documents. in his History of the Bible in Russia. is the complete series of the Bible printed in all the known languages and dialects of the inhabited parts of the British missionaries and British major part of this grand and lasting monument religious societies have raised to the glory of God and the His Holy Word. N. collection twenty-five them being of earlier date in all thousand volumes is than the ninth century. and sold by improvised auction in the Slavonic . consist of letters during the early part of the great Revolution. Catherine. Finnish. and character. and discovered by Tischendorf in the still A having been written in the MS. a complete copy of the Greek in the fourth century. Petersburg as well as at Odessa. bears the that is. The A brought down to A. Hebrew and Karaite MSS. . They were taken from the Paris archives by an infuriated mob. which capital comparatively had already become the property of the Polish State when Suvoroff captured Warsaw in 1 794. the volume of English royal letters from Henry VII.THE MODER^ CAPITAL: 7 ST. thus speaks of the influence of the Bible in Russia What has the Bible as the Word of 1 ' : God been to among them call ? our Russian people during the thousand years of its existence Has it not been " a light shining in a dark place ? " We its to mind the bright opening period of our 1 national life which had St. Greek codex of the four Evangelists. important almost globe. 1116. Further acquisitions were subsequently made in Poland. 45 thousand engravings and maps. from kings of France to their ambassadors. in Early European printing (Incunabula) about eleven thousand volumes. a monk at Kief. is equally The unique noticeable. the chief glory of this Convent of of of ancient St. the British and Foreign Bible Society has been engaged in the distribution of the Holy Scriptures in Russian. on its tenth is department. it was written about seventy years after the introducfor anything they would Russia.D. and other languages spoken by the subjects of the Tsar. PETERSBURG. 1889. Petersburg. of the Library put together. fetch. The nucleus of this prodigious collection in a so new was the library of the Counts Zaluski. to Charles I. Bible written older Greek century.. Astafief. and transferred its contents to St. being of especial interest to ourselves. proof of ninth or Chronicle of Nestor. and that it of the maintains an agency at St. containing the Evangelistarium. In this connection we may mention that.

endured cruel persecution at the hands of the obstinate upholders of old errors." in These Biblical labours activity in did not remain without influences people because of their high mass of the the quickening spiritual books of Holy society. . supported in every way Biblical labours. writers. sprang from the people and knew their needs. in consequence of the opposition of the adherents of the old style. at first but few in number. the Slavonic Bible. with his healthy purifying himself fell. ignorantly but honestly believing them to be truth. 1751.. the second in 885. who was deeply acquainted with and who highly valued the Holy Scriptures. in consequence of the desolation age of Christianity. went on. and what could not be completed during the his in lifetime of Peter was finished by Thanks to her energetic persistence. 3 or Ivan Theodoroff. accused the printers of heresy. who Moscow. and called into existence the Russian price. 3 He came Of to Russia in 1518. for the sake of making it more readily accessible. inviied to Russia from Italy.D. and the revision of the Slavonic text. 4 or the learned brothers Lichud. tenth century was bound up with the circulation of this Bible and the formation of schools to teach the people 2 to read it.D. the patriarch Nikon (A. not come to and from sophistical glosses. us of 1 those first so remind the 2 And then following this. caused by the Mongols. A. but in 1564 Ivan was driven out. though slowly and with interruptions. Peter the Great. long period of darkness when the Word of a rarity in the country. But a beginning had been made. imprisoned 1525 . owing to the want of popular schools. and at last. and in A. appeared the Ostrojskaya Bible. with revised and emended text. restoration. .The first died 869 at Rome. Both these obstacles were removed during the reign of Alexander I. endeavoured to revise the text by aid of the Greek MSS. 4 the Royal Printing Press. and the Press burnt. at last appeared " the so-called Elizabethan Bible. once when men like Maxim the Greek. printed at Moscow with some emendations. established at through the intrigues of the 5 MSS. the long.46 KUSSIAN in under the influence of earnest instruction glorious eleventh and twelfth centuries which birth the Word of God. 1 Cyril anil Methodius formed the Slavonic alphabet in order to translate the Scriptures into that language in The acceptance of Christianity by the Russians in the 855-7. it spirit. who established a complete system of secondary and elementary schools. The revision of the Slavonic text meanwhile went on in due course. nought. 5 who endeavoured to carry the light of life into the thick darkness of ignorance God was and superstition which surrounded them. but to the Scripture remained inaccessible. the first printer. 1652). 1236 A.D. and because of the little spread of education. in the year 1663. died 1556. who had grown accustomed As one who to them. and with unconquerable energy he from the errors understood the living significance of the laid the foundation for of copyists Word its of God. 1865 .D. He but the work begun by him as the daily need of the people did Others continued it. daughter the Empress Elizabeth. 1710-11 cherished the thought of translating the Bible from the Ecclesiastical Slavonic into the Russian language of the day.

selling them at low prices and distributing and at the same gratuitously into the Russian Bible the translating them . especially in their within made equal progress since the publication of the by the permission of the Holy Synod. agate. 47 Bible Society. being a of St. the residence of their It was built in 1744. internally with In a sumptuous shrine Persian pearls.000 copies were printed in twenty-six languages and dialects. battle fought on its site defeated built the in 1241. will be seen the Anitchkoff Palace.000 to 800.D. Alexander Nevski. used in the Russian empire. of those days. Petersburg. and full of pictures and costly objects of art. one of the most important in Russia. now the property of the Grand Duke Sergius. the activity Now of the Lavra. On the opposite side of the square to which the front of the Public Library is turned. school this system has received a wide extension amongst circulation present time the and alongside of the among the people of the Holy Scriptures of every one.421. Past the Moscow Railway Station. has A. 1 weighing twenty-nine hundredweight lie the remains of Alexander. During its existence 290 auxiliary committees were established in all parts of . as elsewhere. and on the other side of it the former Beloselski-Beloserski Palace. recent efforts Much ' has been ' done by the circulation of tracts and other Christian literature. the capital degenerates into Its rural suburbs are reached at the Monastery an ordinary Russian town. Russia. PETERSBURG. and evidence has not been lacking to show that in Russia. brought from the Cathedral at Vladimir by Peter the Great. In its first ten years the receipts amounted to 3. marble. Italian The principal silver church.000.' the reach own at a price native language. The . the glad tidings of salvation by faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ enter the sinful and of the Holy Spirit bring to it penitent heart. Scriptures or parts of them were translated into fourteen new languages 1.938 roubles. by Peter who in Duke a great the Great in honour of a canonized Grand Alexander. Siberian and Teutonic knights in decorated 1/90. and by the blessing and aid pardon and cleansing and peace. which had for its object the circulation of the books of Holy Scripture as generally as possible. for the Empress Majesties when at St. and we come to the rough stone paving. Founded 1812 ended 1826. by Count Rastrelli.THE MODERN CAPITAL: 1 ST. Nevski begins to flag. at which the Nevski practically terminates in a huge and slovenly-looking square. to The spread Religious Tract Society has also largely helped throughout Russia the knowledge of the Gospel. inferior in precedence only to the Lavra It was founded of the Trinity at Moscow and the Lavra at Kief. or seat of a Metropolitan. Russian Bible. over which carriages and drojkies have to rattle when off the wooden blocks laid down for them from the Palace Bridge to the Anitchkoff Palace and along the whole length of Bolshaya Morskaya Street. On the Elizabeth. the great architect celebrated are the two close to the equestrian groups by palace bridge Baron Klodt. 1876. is Swedes and of massive St.000 copies were distributed in Slavonic and Russian. of which probably 700. time it a commencement in the us. made At language.

With the aid only of a nail and a angel and cross on the spire in 1830. the ' : ' ' and a theological college promising scholars theological schools. and several other ministers of the brilliant On the mausoleum of the Naryshkins is epoch of Catherine the Great. The monastery contains also a seminary. an episcopal staff Portraits of the turned by Peter. St. of which an Italian architect. Peter. on imperial fete days.. and a great number of other valuables. sister of Peter I. and to the population of the lower parts of the Consecrated in 1733 on the site of a church coeval with the fortress. are suspended on the two opposite the Altar. although blood spurted out from under his finger-nails as he ascended. St.. founded in 702. in Latin his mother having been a member of that ancient noble family. who died young. in which sons of the White Clergy (as distinguished from the Monks) are prepared for the priesthood. 1 crypt are buried Natalia. Excepting Peter II. which has also a large collection of mitres set in jewels. Among the six other churches within the walls of the Lavra is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. where he was buried. and also for giving notice of the rising of the Neva to inhabitants of cellars. Peter and is Petersburg and its neighbourhood. the summit being 302 feet above the level of The foundations of the fortress were laid by Peter the Great the ground. founder of pillars Petersburg and of Catherine II. and glance at a few of the other places The Cathedral most worth seeing of St. Petersburg. but the present grim stone work was executed in 1706 under the It is used as a State prison. in 1/03. Perugino. the Kensal Green of St. It is for instruction of a selected for the vocation higher order of tutors and to to the more in professors now time to leave the in Nevski. hanging gradually on A rope. who died of small-pox when only fourteen. Some of the Ikons are good copies after Annunciation by Raphael Mengs and Guido. to the raised edges of the copper plates with his fingers. Paul within the fortress on the right beautiful gilt bank of the Neva conspicuous by its spire terminating in an angel bearing a cross. his son. at Moscow. inscribed ' . died are among the most interesting objects shown in the Sacristy. pontifical robes of gold brocade.. a Russian initjik (peasant) climbed to the top.48 RUSSIAN PICTURES. who died in a sudden and mysterious manner in one of its dungeons after his ' Its guns are used for saluting purposes examination on a charge of treason. Alexander's crown and the bed on which Peter I. behind which is a remarkable picture of the St. In its From their race came Peter the proud device. after having been three times damaged tale of singular daring is connected with the repair of the by lio-htning. all the members of the imperial family have . of superintendence the earliest notable occupant was Alexis. Great are paid by the upper and richer classes for permission to sums Large repose in the adjoining cemetery. the eldest son of Peter I. the cathedral was restored in 1757. Rubens. Rumiantsof. Suvoroff. city.

dedication the use of the mineral waters of Olonets.. on the Moskva near the cathedral. we~pass. more than ten feet high. ST. almost at the foot of the floating Trinity Bridge. PETERSBURG. reposes alongside of him. that 1722 1726. the white stands in front of the ikonostas. near Lake Ladoga THE FIRST FLEET BUILT BY PETER THE GREAT AT VORONEJ. which is of wood. the opposite aisle that of the Emperor Nicholas. It a boat constructed by Dutch in carefully preserved a brick Quitting for the river-bank. and in sepulture.' river in 1668. Catherine II. Alexander II. with which traditions of Peter the Great strongly associated. under the direction of a Dutch shipbuilder that he acquired the nautical of the tastes which resulted in the construction of a fleet and the extension the fortress by its eastern gate and making Russian dominions. in its autograph of his found to later within Almighty God in gratitude for the benefit recorded he had derived from ball An 1724. the work of four Russian carvers between superbly carved and richly gilt and The ivory candelabrum. whose martyred son and successor. is carpenters. cathedral. 49 Petersburg been interred under the floor of this marble tombs above marking the places of their Close to the south door is the tomb of Peter the Great. lies to the right of the Altar Screen. was found by Peter the Great when yet a and it was by sailing it lad. are also a small wooden church. was the turned centre by Peter I.THE MODERN CAPITAL: since the foundation of St. building The 'Grandfather of the Russian Navy. at the country residence of his grandfather. It he erected between replaces a church which 1703 and E . the Emancipator of the Serfs.

Peter's cruelty and self-indulgence were strangely blended with his innate 1710 in he was in statesmanship and the devotional feeling he so frequently displayed in a Next to his prejudice against beards. an architect ' whom many of the finest edifices having made a grant of . unfortunately rendered very bare and cheerless-looking. which accompanied Peter in his battles and conservative Muscovy. Those who take an interest in the life of Peter the Great should visit the three or four galleys of his period preserved in the Galley Haven. his cicerone in London. which at last became obnoxious to the tax-payers. is the outcome of the to work of reconstruction carried out in in St. is a chapel of the Queen's Ambassador. in which he also dined. They are kept in the gallery that runs round the cottage. defrayed from :the funds accumulated by the so-called British Factory. and of reading the Gospels on the anniversary of the battle of Poltava.50 RUSSIAN PICTURES.10. He said to Lord Carmarthen.000. The Anglican Church stands on the English Quay. generally crowded with worshippers. and of . A short walk which he built in 703. their combined size being about 55 feet by 20 feet in breadth. effected the discomfiture of Charles XII.5. at a cost of . and in which habit of singing as a chorister. and I believe I shall hang one of them the moment I get home. and injurious to our trade. once almost exclulike the street in the rear of it. commemoration of the foundation of the St. then typical of practical manner. the palace which he superintended the building of his new capital it contains only two rooms and a kitchen. ' 1815 by Ouarenghi. Company. at Poltava! Among the other of relics of civilisation at forcibly sovereign path is a boat which he built.' Within this church are several objects which belonged to the Great Reformer or were made by him. between ' princes its a race nearly as extinct as that of the mammoth. attracted chiefly by an Ikon of the Saviour. Parliament Russia Company a contribution Anglican establishments in Russia.4. A boys' school. by British merchant sively occupied. and on other great feast days. Petersburg.' in the form of a compulsory tax on British shipping.000 towards that purpose. it the who hurled Russia into Western and the outer building by which the cottage and its interesting contents are preserved from decay. and an extensive circulating library for the benefit of . The capacious and valuable premises enjoy the boon of ex-territoriality. notwithstanding the addition of stained windows. origin.000. has been converted into a chapel. was his hatred of lawyers. which has outwardly the appearance of only a private mansion. whom he had asked who were the men in wigs and gowns bustling about Westminster Hall I have Lawyers but two in all my dominions.' in the estuary of the Neva. and from brings us to his cottage. ' : ! ' ' 1 . and the wooden bench on which he sat his door. The church owed in to the 'Great Russia The 1/53. on the ground that the chapel. like our other ' Petersburg are due. and the In 1873 the interior was renovated. The bedroom on the left.' present edifice.

through which the we have of fragrance passed.THE MODERN CAPITAL: the ST. and for the spiritual render made by our countrymen colony. become acquainted with the sensation of falling out of a high and the song of the nightingale. at St. and in fact led a life of jollity without even getting an ear or a cheek frozen . and yet E 2 . more . light. PETERSBURG. In complete arrangements and moral welfare of the British summer all St. ST. bursts suddenly into beauty. PETERSBURG. We may have skated trees. window by going clown montagncs russes a refined and toboganing driven in pleasant company in sledges drawn superior at wild kind of speed by three thoroughbred horses abreast. and the darkness THE ENGLISH QUAY. Nature. Petersburg is out of town the migration to suburban palaces. and wolves with local sportsmen. and the return tide sets in towards the end of September. shot bears. villas and cottages commences in the early part of our June. converted for the purpose into an Arctic arcadia. the warm hospitality and the healthy sport of All the Russias. even though we have enjoyed of a winter season at the capital on the Neva and in the Yusupof Gardens. two thousand are also British subjects who reside Petersburg the and its vicinity. and rewards us amply for the frost and snow and life. on the premises. elk. or less dormant for nearly eight months. the young birch all We hail with delight the warm sunshine. to festive establishments on the outskirts of the city. Nothing can be imagined as more enjoyable than a Northern summer.

' spires sun. are still perpetuated. and on the left and domes of the we see within At this glowing hour the road witching capital crowded with vehicles as the Epsom Club is on Krestofski Island. . and especially to who have known many winters. To the right the banks of the Little Neva are dotted with picturesque chalets standing out to see the ' ' from a background of measurable distance the with the to last ' sombre lofty gilt pines . with charming grounds and a delightful view. the stamp of the French school being veryIn the study of Peter the Great hangs his apparent on every canvas. The more accessible villas are on drive a little the islands of the Neva. and gives a considerable amount of life to In the the branch of the Neva on which its large establishment stands. and the Marly Pond. and even its original yellow colour. The interior is replete with interest. collection of 863 portraits of beautiful young girls painted by Count Rotari for the Empress during a journey which he made for that purpose through No two are alike either in position or the fifty provinces of Russia. . little inferior The Samson. adorned with fountains and other ornamental water-works. palace. wainscoted with some of his carvings. Novaya ex-village and Arcadia a of Livadia more sober resort Gardens. of banks are the on the of the Little Derevnia. and from it runs a boat canal that We cannot. unfortunately. and its walls are Beneath the palace is the celebrated garden. through Peter's Park. plainly seen from : of water-engineering here offered to our bare mention of some of the buildings in the Peter I. There is an imperial chateau on this island. articles of vertu. tazzas of porcelain. as well as in pictures representing chiefly the naval victories of Orlof and other Russian In one of the apartments is a generals during the reign of Catherine II. was wont to contemplate his infant its terrace. magnificent jet d'eait eighty feet high. from which moored off Cronstadt. and although many additions and alterations have been subsequently made. in the centre of the grounds. Neva. is a to those of Versailles. expression but it is more than doubtful whether they are true to Nature or the ethnology of Russia.52 RUSSIAN PICTURES. slop to terminates on the shore of the gulf. reaching the 'Point' of Yelagin Island time sun go down in golden glory. portrait in mosaic. malachite. . for it abounds in beautiful tapestry. elevation of sixty feet. those the Elysian season will prove to be that of summer. pleasure Zoological But we must now leave St. while evening will be found in Gardens behind the the fortress. laid out in terraces and walks. describe the view. is almost as The River Yacht road on Derby day. its general character. and marble. the red rays of the setting which partly runs Point. to which in we before sunset. was built under the directions of Peter I. and many other marvels we can only make grounds fleet Marly.. Petersburg. and make excursions by rail or and we begin with steamer to some more distant summer residences an Its which Gulf of Finland from overlooks the Peterhof.

is that Cronstadt will before long cease to be the Europe. ' Suffer little children to trip come unto Me. in order to . when of fine pictures. . severally. with a contrivance in one of its rooms by which dishes and plates are made to descend from and ascend to the dinner-table through grooves in the summer-house in the Dutch also built in the . the long. a mother bringing her children to the Saviour. saying to the more prosaic railway carriage at Sergi. and we can terminate our drive and take But we halt here awhile. and fronting the estuary of the Neva. and feet a uniform centre of twenty-two depth dredging.THE MODERN CAPITAL: ST. or carriage with three horses abreast. cottages in Nicholas around roof of one of them the Emperor watched with a telescope the movements of the Anglo-French the front of Cronstadt. We proceed to the capital. to see were begun by Peter I. Petersburg in a swift troika. so well known to our readers already. of Her Majesty Oueen floor. we have the opportunity of seeing Michaelofski and Strelna. of many notable families are full of tokens that the dead have not been Over one of the tombs are likenesses from life of forgotten by the living. seventeen and a half miles running along the followed by the steamer. moreover. both as a place of busy trade and as a fortress defending in an impregnable manner. needless to say. amongst many others. and Alexandria. of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. a . elegance and comfort which few other Russian churches possess. dressing-room. . so far as modern science can possibly effect such imperial residence. the canal is one of the most remarkable works of its kind in Its result. it has an air of It is. another ancient by steamer direct to Cronstadt. the sea-approach left to of the natural and partly twenty feet Petersburg. and become a purely military harbour. however. still summoned by a bell be fed with rye flour. which since 1885 enables see. or Our next an object. founded in 1/34. shallow channel to St. to visit the monastery of St. in 1/03. style. whose bed. and more especially the church that stands at the back of the grounds. vespers singing The sepulchral vaults (on Saturdays) is particularly fine and impressive. and its stalls of oak. PETERSBURG. steamers drawing commercial outport of St. none of his wooden . taken altogether. when he dispossessed Swedes but. Victoria . night-cap and slippers are exhibited in it the Hermitage. dispense with the presence of servants at intimate feasts the Pavilions on the Tsaritzyn and Olga Islands the English Palace. portrait. full the Emperor and and with Empress several reside in privacy it. the properties. built in a with 1781. in accordance with his directions Monplaisir. reign of Peter. who receives them. for its celebrated monkish whose at choristers. With its open roof. By constant is maintained in it. The fortifications we have come the Petersburg. 53 to which he caused to be stocked with carp and chub.' must be either by rail via Oranienbaum. in the at lower garden. great ship canal. Sergius. From squadron By taking from Peterhof the good macadamised road to St. where Peterhof.

on which seven strong batteries have been raised. These are mostly built at St. 1 r walls remain. consist of several parallel lines connected by encircles many naval which and earthworks. and brought down to Cronstadt to be fitted. A very good statue of Peter the Great whose genius created . not inferior to Keyham in its mechanical appliances. is a military harbour. In the vicinity of the the chief station in the Baltic for the Russian fleet. of batteries recent date. The southern of stones. and are formed by three lines of forts running channel THE FORTRESS OF SCHLUSSELBURG. In the town the storehouses and workshops is bordered with granite. splendid steam factory. defences are the strongest. and by a tall iron railing begun in 1721. The dry docks are capable of admitting some of the larger vessels of war. The the land defences. Petersburg. I. from canal west to east. for reasons the still unknown. Nicholas since Sir The formidable-looking stone forts elate from the reign of They have undergone considerable alteration and improvement of the the clays Crimean to War.A USSL4 A PIC TURKS. when. through a his Charles Napier failed take advantage of passage on the northern side of the island discovered by a couple of That channel is now effectively guarded by a substantial dam smaller ships.

In whom he had been Elizabeth. so ST. and the now son of Empress father. Nihilists has since been used as a State 1756. on the ground that she was not in the habit of selling her old clothes. near the governor's residence and the of what we have so the back of Summer Garden planted by Peter. is a busy place of trade. . and a zoological garden on part of the ground now covered with palaces. both beautifully ference. a hot-house. were covered with gold leaf at a cost of more than a million of ducats but. eighteen miles in circumprivate villas and as an imperial park.' of the able to capital a mouthful of fresh and to enjoy the music of the excellent orchestra that plays every afternoon.. built in 1744.66. which the munificent Empress declined to accept. originally by Catherine I. the Lithuanian I. Ivan VI. He was killed in an attempt made for his rescue by an officer of the guard. and rush away from the within the the same time the for ' summer encampment resort of those who are air.THE MODERN CAPITAL. in the roccoco style of was restored and embellished by her. at of the Neva. and alternately. Tsarskoe of its Selo. is also a Petersburgians. originally at of Dunaburg. the source Schliisselburg. Pavlofsk. all the statues and the capitals of columns. passed of to some time in in the fourteenth century into the hands. after is much full contention. . the favourite since it respects to that of Peterhof. three miles at distant. who had confined himself to building a small cottage. however. imprisoned prison. PETERSBURG. which issues here from the Ladoga lake. being at the mouth of the famous canal that forms part of a fluviatile system that connects the Baltic with the distant Caspian. (together with his and conspirators. into is divided the Old and the New Garden. is second in some has not the fountains and the cascades But it is much larger in extent both as a town of The latter. ' alone gilt. either outside or commodious Vauxhall attached to the railway station. rest of Ingria. knights and of the Swedes. and later at a lonely spot on the White Sea.' The dome and the cupolas of the Palace Chapel are now Catherine II. pavilions. by the Regent Biron).. The present aspect of this beautiful spot is. The Old Palace. it Like the of the dominions of formed anciently part Novgorod the for Great. engaged . mainly due to the care bestowed on it by marine rival. Originally the structural ornamentations. at 55 much the far seen stands on a square middle harbour. the consort of Peter.. laid out and well wooded. formerly the Swedish fortress of Noteborg. is often the object of a day's excursion by steamer. and a variety of other attractive buildings. imperial residence. architecture. the gilding the contractors in the restoring palace offered having worn off. forming rapids easily navigable. on the left bank of the river. spent the remainder of his life on this insular Bastille. It who finally delivered it Peter 1/02.000 for the fragments of gold leaf. The town of Schliisselburg.

AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. and . OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. while Norway. of Archangel and Vologda form together an immense sparsely-inhabited plateau. after a dispute that had lasted for five finally its total population is centuries. long coast line. the stations. active Kola. into which the region discharges its abundant waters. woodless. a Russian Naval Station. to which attention is being more and more directed with reference to the possibility of establishing in one of its commodious and never-freezing bays. scarcely that of the city of Manchester. together with the integrity of Sweden. CHAPTER THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES ' IV. This is the Murman (Norman) coast. was almost in summer. sloping down to the Arctic Ocean. destroyed in 1854 of a its administration by an wide English district. and guaranteed. which commences at the Jacob River on the borders of settled in 1826. The province of Archalone has an area larger than that of Great Britain and France ' THE The Governments angel combined. as the seat of the gunboat soon arose out of its ashes. slopes rising from a background of bluish-purple hills. it but. NEAR MOSCOW. civil has now resumed though comparatively pleasant aspect in an amphitheatre of green. SERGIUS. by Great Britain and France in 1855. connected At present there is but one town with the rest of the empire by rail. is broken by the gulf and the straits that give access to the White Sea. a few private whaling and fishing and it. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY IN THE SACRISTY OF THE MONASTERY OF ST. only (800 inhabitants) upon town in question. .

LANDING OF RICHARD CHANCELLOR AT HOLMOGORY.' Si. Petersburg. IN THE WHITE (Reproduced by Permission front the illustrated ' SEA.} . 1553- Niva.


here somewhat tempered in its frigid severity by the Gulf Stream. which determines the frontier of Siberia and the limits of European Russia in the North. a native in of Bristol.' Explaining. Sir Hugh tons. which were the The Russian name of Samoyedes. Chancellor cast anchor in the bay of St. self-eaters. was Willoughby. at a village called Nenocksa. and severe Confidentia. Bonaventure. They hunt and fish over the vast hyperborean region that extends from the White Sea to some distance beyond the great Enisei River of Siberia. which had inherited. Nicholas. in Chancellor. although of Venetian parentage. by means that remain unknown. appointed in the Bona Esperanza. The design was conceived by ' ' Sebastian Cabot. There had been no maritime intercourse between Western Europe and Muscovy. death. of one hundred and twenty and of commander. politically. Sir Hugh Willoughby with his own vessel and the Bona Confidentia ultimately reaching with Cornelius Durforth the Bona A much his difficulty a companions. It is here we begin to find. the coast is still more dreary and uninviting. 1553. until the sixteenth century. namely. still more or less secretly worship their primitive idols of stone and wood. been explored except constituting almost one by the Lopars (Lapps) huge mossy bog and the Saamy. has literally the same signification as Esquimaux. and on the other by the White Sea. by mere accident in 1553. and delighting in the ringing of church bells when they have the opportunity. is known as Russian has Lapland. The peninsula thus 59 bordered on the one side by the Arctic Ocean. or Samoyedes. original home of this Ural-Altaic race. men who subsist principally on raw flesh. all these lands from Novgorod the Great. where he and The Bona- August. not far from the Korelian mouth of the Dvina. bay near Sviaty Nos.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. and seeking nothing . while wearing orthodox crosses round their necks. storm in the North Sea separated the three vessels. by the chartered Mystery Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands.' for the purpose of finding a northern sea passage to China and India.. having from him in commandment the 241)1 ' ' On else but his amide and things to deliver to their King. little The interior. frozen during more than half the year. were frozen to coast. the Samoyedes.' by which they are known to the civilized world. that they were Englishmen sent unto these coasts from the most certain excellent King Edward VI. the under him one hundred were placed Richard and sixty tons. and ascertained from some fishermen that he had reached Russia or Muscovie. and to the foot of the Altai Mountains. but in decliningnumbers. when. Eastward of Cape Kanin. on the opposite side of the Murman coast. venture alone escaped. the coast of the White Sea was reached by an adventurous expedition fitted out in London. who. right away to the spur of the Ural Mountains. on the Lapland sixty-five in number. of ninety tons.

and depots at Novgorod the Great. they It is were fast being ruined by the execution of so many of their debtorsindeed true that the life of the early English settlers in Russia was not an They had to contend with civil commotions. Kazan and Astrakhan. . whereby your country merchants maie with all kind of wares and wheare they will make their market in our dominions. they carried everything before them. after he had friendship. The important right of coinage was also bestowed upon them. wax. with a letter to King Edward assuring him that his shippes and vessels may come as often as they please. 1 1 From Factor^ an agent. then Tsar and in the zenith of his glory as the capturer of Kazan and the Suzerain of Siberia. English merchants were now in direct and privileged communication with the country which supplied those valuable a later treaty with Queen Elizabeth secured to them the commodities exclusive right to carry on the new trade in English ships. gave the three Englishmen ' a cordial and distinguished reception. pestilence and easy one. not far from Archangel). It is not surprising that under such advantages the Company prospered. and sent them back from Moscow in March 1554. on the contrary. obtained Ivan the Terrible.60 K^SS/AW PICTURES. and sold their goods at a to native complaint. ' ' Holmogory is evidently derived from the Norwegian Holnigaard. Kostroma. seven miles above the mouth of the Dvina. and the Bay of St. on the strength of an open Royal Letter with which each of the three vessels had been provided. amounted to two and three profit which. they retorted that. according hundred per cent. Yaroslaf. The engraving on page 57 represents him and his two principal companions merchants named Burton and Edwards being received in state by the Governor and other high authorities of the province.' great was Chancellor kindly and hospitably received by the equally astonished natives. A charter then granted by the Tsar enabled the Company to trade throughout his dominions without paying any taxes. and even permission to seize and despoil of his goods the subject of any other Power who might attempt to reach India. Persia or China by way of Russia.' A new Company was thereupon formed in London by special charter. then on the throne of England. permission to repair to Moscow in the ambassadorial character which he had assumed. hemp and tallow of Muscovy from Flemish and Lithuanian traders by way of the Hanseatic towns. Instead of getting the furs.' and requesting that one of His Majesty's Council should be sent to treat with the Tsar. When Ivan the Terrible complained of these proceedings to the English Ambassador in 1569. whereby they doubted not but that commoditie and profit would grow to the subjects of both kingdoms. ' . Nicholas soon became an important place of commerce. and obtained firm hold of all the most important centres of commercial With a head agency at Moscow. a Factory at Holmogory (fortyRussia. and tniffique with his people. Pskof. and in 1555 Chancellor returned to Moscow with a reply from Philip and Mary.

and meanwhile enemies. in to enter desired into a treaty to of mutual defence against common skilled He the Queen allow ' navigators and persons warlike ratified shipbuilding to come to Russia. who was not averse to the alliance. and long fingers.' was politely rejected. Skilful RUSSIA. however. a straight nose. negotiations.' suggested the Tsar should marry Lady Mary Hastings. not only restrained the impatience of the He desired to marry Queen but also filled him with high hope.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN famine. Above all. 61 when fifteen English Moscow was destroyed by the Tartars in men and women perished in the flames. one of her maids This would probably have of honour. Tsar. refuge in the country of the other in case disturbances in their own realm The matrimonial part of these proposals should compel them to do so. her chief defects being In the midst of this delicate 'red hair. it was to be by oath between her and himself that either sovereign might take stores to ARCIIANlIKI. Elizabeth. and artillery and other be sent from England. but Elizabeth negotiation. the boyars informed the merchants of the Company that ' their . daughter of the Earl of Huntingdon.. and their agency house in 1571. been effected had not a special Muscovite ambassador reported unfavourably of her age (thirty) and of her personal appearance.

and for a considerable time after. foremost organisers "and commanders. and William Drummond of Cromlix. As in the case of the army. with Captain |ohn and who.KL'SSIA\ PICTURES. English admirals. now the third. the credit for them. The most famous of those officers were Thomas Dalzell (or Dalziel) of Binns..' Muscovian rigour of Dalzell's military administration in Scotland. British officers were the first and In the reign of Catherine the Great. Orloff got although beginning. in fact. . Her first regular in the reign of Peter the Great's father. and saw There were popular murmurs against the nothing but tyranny and slavery. Russia to obtaining the Tsar's in permission his to return to Scotland ' in whose nickname ' own country became Old Tom Dalzell. Next. were in the succeeding reign permitted to participate in the commerce of the country. long jealous of the English renewed. and lieutenants were engaged in creating her fleet. Cronstadt was fleet Elphinstone.N. so in that of the navy of Russia. especially the Dutch.' is spoken of in Kirkton's History of tlie C/nirc/i of Scotland as a man whose rude and fierce natural disposition had been much confirmed by his breeding and service in Muscovia. destroyed the Turkish at Chesme. the English spirit of enterprise in had not benefited Muscovy this direction alone. Captain Roxburgh. and he was railed against as ' a Muscovian beast ' who used to roast men. so far as numbers are Dalzell and Drummond concerned. in condemnation of the people who had put their Charles to death. in Europe. where he had command of a small army. notat made the Earl of Carlisle the a efforts Restoration. 'lent' to Russia in 1/69. of Muscovy. Englishmen was derive immense proceeded advantage from the opening of her seaboard to the commerce of all the maritime nations of Europe. with about three thousand men.' the English were relegated to Archangel and. had passed into the service of the Tsar after the defeat and imprisonment of Charles I. renewal of their ancient privileges was never obtained. Meanwhile. Their exclusive privileges were therefore not English Tsar was dead. and some British volunteers. 1665. who profited in no smaller degree by similar aid. monopoly. Many of them were Peter the Great's ablest coadjutors in the extension and the reform of the empire he left to his successors.' Generals (created Baron Strathallan in 1685) were credited Muscovite instrument with with the introduction of the thummikins. A volume might be well filled with the exploits and services of our countrymen in Russia. Lieutenants Dugdale and McKenzie. R. subsequently Admiral. by withstanding ' .' and other nations. a legion. so far as eminent services are concerned. Their names are. Even in the reign of Alexander I.. aided mainly by Commander.' a which Covenanters were made to suffer. They won the earlier naval battles of Russia. captains. who had great difficulty in Although the important in its trade thus established by thenceforth altered character. Greig. who. by Scottish formed were regiments and English officers.

In further support of this view. We might add name upon name which to in matters. Petersburg was also a Scotchman. His chief physician was Erskine. Huguenots. civil and and regeneration. visited for The cathedral may be the . undergoing the same regenerative process. and Germans on the more modern development of the equally vast empire of Great Britain. An Anglican church. and the visits in summer of some fifty British steamers to the port on the island of Solombola now alone attest out- common wardly the former importance of Archangel as a place of British trade. erected at the beginning of the present but no century. There are plenty of other domes and spires. tion of races. Nor was the art of war alone that our James Wylie. while the founder of the Russian Medico-Chirurgical Academy at St. when strictly kept within narrow bounds of nationality and consanguinity. excepting in ecclesiastical of Peter the Great was able in his great work of is to British skill. practically a 63 colony of British naval it officers and artificers in the service of countrymen taught good and enduring results. Peter the Great's first school of mathematics was under the direction of Farquharson.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. The houses of the early English merchants which stood in the Cathedral Square met with the of timber fate. Archangel. bears at present little evidence of the importance it acquired in the sixteenth century. capital that much of the present No greatness of the Russian empire is due. Flemings. and habits of industry and. whose foundations were laid by a conglomera- effectually political even the strong hand grasp while he was engaged not it proof that. built in 1/84. in which One of the themselves in great numbers. in no smaller degree. gilt or coloured. enterprise. and a relative of the Earl of Mar. a Scotchman. which. the Russians with such Sir Russia. and on which he made the century. The colonies of Great Britain have long been individually results attained in the . a friend to the cause of the Pretender. longer used. but none of the Russian churches are of any antiquity. are undeniably liable to become effete. by the blending of races. the starting-point of the modernisation of Muscovy. from the oldest extant the Archiepiscopal Palace. The decline its of trade the to city dates removed British the more is merchants houses building still established reign of Peter the Great. the older that having been destroyed by one of the many fires ravaged Archangel during the last century. to their immense advantage. at Moscow. being not older than the last purpose of seeing the large wooden cross preserved in it as the handiwork of Peter the Great after he had escaped from a storm on the White Sea. disparagement to native genius. learning. learning. we may instance the United States of America by the immigraastounding tion of multitudes with acquired skill. who accessible port of his new capital. . so undoubtedly abundant. is meant to be conveyed by this assertion any Panslavist who may be inclined to take umbrage at it will do well to study the influence of Jews.

A large number were executed later. landed in 1702. by the Patriarch Nicon. when the holy fathers walked in procession round the walls while the shells were flying over their heads. It was founded in 1429 by St.' the native point of view. under Zosimus. Sabbatheus. the brotherhood refused circumference.. of planks and skins. On the sides of the gateway are models of the two small vessels in which they crossed from Archangel. churches were rebuilt in stone. following inscription in Dutch: In Western eyes. the Peter the Great. after a long siege.' Russia. and broke into a rebellion that lasted It fell at last by treachery. to which some ten thousand pilgrims are annually conveyed in a steamer commanded and manned by monks. and in to wealth and from the began grow power year About a century later the 1442. and between 1590 and 1594 the monks enclosed them within in a wall of granite at boulders. Built of wood in 1438 and rebuilt of stone in 1558. and further on we come to an obelisk commemorating the harmless attack made on the monastery by the British \YhiteSea squadron in 1855. the Cathedral of the Trans- . It is. as the late Mr. and many of thi monks were put to the sword. ' From the city is a magazine of oats and tar. the remainder being kept in awe and submission by three hundred Streltsi. by his son Alexis. however Archangel is the revered water-gate to one of the holiest places in Russia the famed monastery of Solovetsk.64 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and intervals thousand feet round and by square towers. or sent into exile. secure themselves Deeming in 1667 to receive the revised I THE SOLOVETSK MOXASTHRY. thick. nearly three supported twenty to thirty feet high and twenty feet in their stronghold. The visitor is first shown the chapel erected over the spot on which liturgy sent nine years. accompanied six churches of this fortified monastery that will chiefly interest him. one of its first abbots. ' Dat cruys makcn Captcm Piter van a C/it. however. Hepworth Dixon said in his Free 1694.

and a large collection of ancient Russian and other weapons. and an imposing ikonostas.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. ornamented with pearls of unusual size presented to the monastery in 1550 . miles broad. linen gave the gold reliquary adorned with pearls In contrast with those gorgeous vestments is the plain also who chasuble of Zosimus. put up in 1697. have yet although grandeur to the Imatra Sweden. In the vicinity are two chapels (1753) containing the tombs of Germanicus and of other reverend fathers of The Cathedral of the Assumption was consecrated in 1557. patriots who expelled the Poles from Pojarski. and restored or renovated in the church dedicated (1667) to height. did good same cause. service in the in who was one of the most active Moscow in 1613. at Old Believers. The remaining two and the Church of Nicholas Thaumaturgus in 1590. its gold. fishermen and seamen in the White Sea. lies about half-way between Onega Bay and Lake Ladoga . There trophies forgotten in this the armour of the comrades of of a monk. Metropolitan of Moscow. 65 figuration contains the ponderous silver gilt shrines of Saints Sabbatheus and Zosimus. and char. and precious stones. Only a few Russian travelit has been immortalized in one of in the best is also poems of Derjavin. . and of military banners bearing the emblem of the cross. on rich its western shore in is copper. ' as is indeed the whole of the region we have so imperfectly described in this fifty The Lake of Onega. local repute. At its southern end the White Sea forms the Bay of Onega. the sword of the Prince alliance with a butcher of Nijni Novgorod.' who the head of which stands Kern. one hundred and fifty miles long and chapter. throughout the province of Olonets but few scientific fishermen have as yet taken advantage of its wealth in trout. There abundance of bear and other shooting in this neighbourhood. reject It is also a place of political exile. Outside the wall is the eighteenth century. Nor are military is museum of otherwise sacred objects. is iron Petrozavodsk. the capital of the province of Olonets. grayling. as and seen Trolhatten it. Philip. Onuphrius the Great. and . once Civil Governor of Petrozavodsk. Solovetsk was used as a political prison so recently as the reign of Nicholas. who. a settlement of the been very active as since and who have the innovations of Nicon. with a belfry 125 feet in The artistic treasures of the monastery. silver. part of the relics of St. About forty-two miles north-west of and mica. are carefully preserved in a special Sacristy. churches enclosed by the walls were founded severally in 1596 and 1687. by Ivan the Terrible. Among the objects of highest value are the sacerdotal vestments. equal in Petrozavodsk Falls lers in the \Vaterfall of Finland. and precious stones contributed by Tsars and nobles. buried in this monastery. Kivatch.

Ivan III.' as the republic became styled. a central mart of great importance and prosperity.. For a considerable period the Novgorodians were able to boast that no one could in 'contend against God and the Great Novgorod. and capital. r CHAPTER Moscow : V. The city once covered an area forty miles in circumference.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A PSALTER OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. until from 1136 they assumed the right of electing or dismissing their prince at a vccJic or witenagemote. Trade with the Hanseatic towns. and. When. before they took their viking ships down the Dnieper to Kief. however. THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. soon rendered the Lord Great Novgorod. It is here that the Northmen under Roric established themselves A.D. and . Kief became the seat of the grand ducal throne of the Scandinavian (subse- ON the quently called Varangian) conquerors. and water ' communication with the North and South of Russia. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE SYNOD. MOSCOW. the citizens of Novgorod gradually acquired political power and independence. families I'cche of the merchant own together with their Bell. 862. in order to destroy effectually their fifty spirit of independence. removed to 8000 boyars or nobles. the cradle of the Russian empire. annexed their possessions to the Grand Duchy class of Moscow his . way to Moscow a special excursion should be made by rail to Novgorod the Great. the founder of Muscovite dominion.' but at last 14/8. impelling them to internecine warfare for its possession.



which is reproduced also at Kief. 1223. Archbishop of Novgorod. Archbishop of Novgorod (d. and traces painting canonized princes and ecclesiastics of the same kind of (twelfth have above the thronos. The ruin of the city grand completed in 1570. facing the altar. with its figured Internally cornice is a remnant of the work of the seventeenth the century.MOSCOH': THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.D. old was The glory of the city survives only in its constructed in 1050 by Byzantine artisans after Cathedral the of St. are those of Peter and (a Byzantine copy of the eleventh century) and St. their son Vladimir 1052). oak. those of St. More ancient still.clerical. and precious stones. founder of of Mstislaf Cathedral. 1030. with two similar pillars at the altar. who but died the 1653. and (d. who had contemplated a transfer of their allegiance to the Prince of Lithuania. were thrown into the River Volkhof. of Kief. most ancient of these are relics (d. supply the usual form of a Greek cupola supported cross. which is of century) been preserved in the apse. consort of Yaroslaf the the A. 1180). and Nikita. Paul (brought from Khersonesus by St. in countless treasures gold. The most modern of the saints in . dates from 1050). Thousands of its inhabitants. and the roof of the cathedral. of Brave 1 1 (d. Enshrined in silver or bronze are the remains of numerous saints. of John. original ikons The ikonostas dates The most ancient in it CATHEDRAL OF ST. Sophia at Constantinople. in 1820 and 1837. expired record of deceased Archbishops and Metropolitans of Novgorod is brought down to iSiS from A.D. is by eight massive quadrangular pillars. 1341. which. is the Byzantine mosaic work behind the altar. daughter of Amongst the most venerated King Olaf of Norway. Only two of the inscriptions over the 86. Sophia. princely and . and probably of the same age as the cathedral. Anne I. The belfry tower dates from 1439. model of the famous St. from St. 1108). when even its monasteries and churches were sacked by Ivan the Terrible. The Sophia St. Vladimir). silver. have not deprived it of the distinguishing features of one of the oldest churches in Russia. or seat of the Metropolitan. SOPHIA AT NOVGOROD THE GREAT. Later additions from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries and complete restorations. In curious fresco the galleries above are representations of .

respectively 1178 At the western or principal entrance to the cathedral are the exceptionally fine and interesting Korsnn (Khersonesus) doors. a Magdeburg production of the twelfth century. is quite equal to that of the door of Zenone at Verona. or the fifteenth of like Novgorod the tall One tower the city them by. palace built in and the government stone A. archiepiscopal A. in the form of principalities. which St. although the notwithstanding are of wood fecit over The legend Rigvin me explanations were probably added later.7 RUSSIAN PICTURES. is alone sufficient attestation of the German and Roman Slavonic Catholic character of the work. Close the cathedral renovated by Peter the Great the splendid bronze monument erected 1862 to commemorate the thousandth anniversary of the existence of Russia. They are dated and 1218. bearing fifty-four inscriptions in Latin and Slavonic. the head of a man in German dress.D. that their Byzantine origin has long been disproved. The life-size . resided subjugation 1302. after the are several other churches within of the walls of the Kremlin. Sv ' ' AN OLD CHURCH AT NOVGOROD.D. to in of by Ivan the walls The walls. with tongs and a pair of scales in his hands. has in existed since close which III. Petersburg into an empire. independent or confederated. offices are within same place of wooden is erected Rebuilt in in in 1490 by an 1 Italian architect. or as the Grand Duchy of Moscow. the Governor which were 1104. by which those principalities were absorbed whether and ultimately welded at St. still so called. century. There Acropolis. they were 700. numerous tombs of Novgorodian princes are now legible. They overlaid with bronze plates.

It was founded in 1657 by the Patriarch Nicon. we must confine ourselves to a short mention of the famous situated New Jerusalem not far railway from Moscow. figures on the history. and much as we should wish to say something of the other ancient towns that lie between the two capitals. h rni~ ' . . ifr^Tlriii^tor ffl if-.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL... monument are emblematical of these several periods of Russian But our object is to reach Moscow. '- "^ '^\ VS .. . jtt THE MONUMENT A'l NuVUuKuI) Ll'MMI. about fourteen miles from a station .MOKATING THE THOUSANDTH^ANNIVERSARY OF THE EMPIRE. who caused the neighbouring accidents of country to be named after various sacred sites monastery.

attiring himself in the habit of a monk. New and the Tsar was induced. a Metropolitan was temporarily invested with the patriarchate. of the Eastern patriarchs convoked at Moscow disposed of his pretensions. to banish him to a monastery in the province of Novgorod. a river to represent the title equal in dignity in to that of the Tsar. withdrew to New Jerusalem. with the gift of the Holy Ghost to work cures. and. and in the pictorial representations of in matters Byzantine purity His arrogance became so great that he exercised jurisdiction sacred subjects. he A council alleged. he publicly threw off his pontifical sakkos and mitre. . while a small chapel built on a mound was called Eleon. ceremony of riding through led by the Tsar him- For to typify Christ's entry into Jerusalem. dral on one of the great festivals of the Church but Nicon was far from being daunted. although unwillingly. for example. in 1658. and in public documents assumed a Palestine . of whom he fearlessly sermonised the patriarchal cathedral. a village close by was dignified In with Nazareth. laid down his crozier. and remained in that condition until 1749. analogy Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. In 1/23. As a mark dissatisfac- the Tsar absented himself from the cathe. having been ordered.RUSSIAN PICTURES. self. the principal tent-like cupola collapsed. in brook was made was converted into the Jordan. to erect an all it his wealth and all the energy exactly similar structure. In spite of Nicon's protest that he was still a Patriarch. yet internally it remains more like the edifice in which the Crusaders worshipped at Jerusalem than is that church itself since its destruction by fire. his former friend. Nicon a model of the more the render to order procured complete. in a dream. devoting to the attacked he had previously with which clergy for their intemperance and He also endeavoured to restore the Russian Church to other irregularities. and. of ritual. in civil as well as ecclesiastical matters. six years Nicon was a recluse at but in 1664 his worldly ambition reasserted itself. . tion. and it was not finished and consecrated until some years later. The monastery of the New Jerusalem was thus left uncompleted. and replaced the primate his retreat at the even in the high Moscow on an THE PATRIARCH NICOX. Although the of the church was in these circumstances somewhat original plan departed from. ass. and he Jerusalem made his appearance suddenly in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Moscow.. arrayed once more in his pontifical robes. when orders for its restoration were given by the Empress Elizabeth. an artificial Kedron. and began. relying on the speedy repentance of the sovereign. to resume his seat on the patriarchal throne.

MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. a traveller who has seen the original can THE CHURCH IN THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. intricate built probably any other in the world. he wore on his breast. 1869. at the foot of the Golgotha. suspended from 1 Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. which. London. the various members of the But internally it is so imperial family in after times. late We cannot : describe ' it more graphically than it the words of the Dean Stanley still Externally. arrangements Chapel of Melchizedek. down to our own day. that. and of the same form dimensions as the church at the actual precisely as the arrangements of that church are. has the an ordinary successive Russian cathedral.' ( show the present outward form and the internal Nicon is buried in the of this highly remarkable structure. further complicated by the aspect addition of of chapels by. . and in its 73 renovation in 1812. or in honour of. find his way without 1 difficulty through every corridor and stair and corner of the copy. with a brass cross. close to the corre)ur illustrations sponding spot in the actual church of the Holy Sepulchre where lie the Over his tomb hangs the iron plate remains of Godfrey of Bouillon. beyond Jerusalem. as penance.

and after being laid on a bier in front of the altar screen. is anointed with ointment supposed to be identical with that used PLAN OF THE CHURCH IN THE NEW JERUSALEM AN EXACT COPY SEPULCHRE. On we ' reaching at Our holy mother Moscow. and finally freed Peter the Great from those illdisciplined and even mutinous bands. ' Moscow all the is white-walled. the original supply of which has been maintained by the continuous admixture of analogous ingredients. shoes. Pilgrims come in vast numbers to the monastery. OF THE ORIGINAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY by Mary Magdalene. which is in an upper gallery. or hermitage.' truly 1 are in the are political centre the of that less Russian. his neck by a heavy iron chain. to assist at the Easter Eve service of the Russo-Greek Church. and many other interesting objects. and sheepskin coat. . embroidered on a cloth. The body of our Saviour. Much interest also attaches to the skiit. Endearing epithets applied to the city by the Russian people. and in which he wrote his Chronicle of the Church of Jerusalem.' and ecclesiastical life. is lowered by means of long strips of linen from the Golgotha Chapel. a four-storied tower from which Nicon watched the building of the church. We once struck by the busy 1 more or irregular streets. In the sacristy are kept his hat. In 1698 General Patrick Gordon defeated the rebellious Streltsi in the vicinity of the monastery. his portrait. the original wooden model of the church of the Holy Sepulchre. Large numbers of them were decapitated by the orders and under the superintendence of Peter. This is the Descent from the Cross.74 PICTURES. which is preceded on Good Friday by a ceremony that is not performed anywhere else in Russia.

the value of which he still totals up on a Tartar abacus. not our object to describe hotels and the details of travelling in Nevertheless. and a small round hat gaily adorned with peacocks' feathers. We are received by to which we are bound. together In their stead driver. porters in national dress. high boots of polished leather. and the ill-filled that respect different St. tage by even the luxury of cities of . STRELTSI OF A LATER DATE. laden with every . as in 75 crowded in in summer so as well winter with vehicles and pedestrians. we cannot omit a passing reference to the comfort OFFICERS OF THE STRELTSI. which to cover a cloth coats shirt pretend long of dazzling red silk. are well-appointed car- riages and swift proliotkis (a miniature victoria) which rattle us over the long cobble-paved streets that lie between the Nicholas Railway Station and the Slavianski Bazaar or Hotel. seen only at the neck. (trader) : The are kitpcts thoroughfares and squares of sheep-skinned innjik (peasant) and the wily. that is to say. and trousers. and the Hermidepreciated paper rouble. larger a of The Slavianski Bazar.ATOSCOll': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. tall It is Russia. GENERAL 1'ATRICK GORDON. and inviting passers-by to enter and view his goods. the other standing at variety of raw produce his shop door. cloth-clad here in their aboriginal from condition looking the one driving long teams of roughwaggons or sleighs. Petersburg. THE STRELTSI OF 1613. and the accommodation now obtainable in all the and also to its relative cheapness. in these days Russia. The old drojki has a sort of knife-board on four wheels its tattered and grimy with disappeared. will served shirts waiters in white Restaurant.

under Ivan I. Moscow had regained the and monasteries position of a flourishing capital. plunder with which it second chapter. and by the plague. It was he who built her first wooden walls. which latter encountered a rival in Riazan and it was only towards the middle of the fourteenth century that the Grand Duchy of Moscow became paramount. favourable comparison with bear any other corresponding establishments in Western Europe. when a and 1547. Rising from 7 . a century later it was burnt down by the Tartars under Baati. the grand- A son of Chingiz Khan. Their advanced guard. consisting of Polish and Prussian lancers. Alexander Nevski.000 men. 1 9th with S5Q pieces of cannon. and 100. city. who. and for three days the flames raged with terrific fierceness. with a horde of three hundred thousand men. who was the progenitor of the Kief had in 1158 lost its subsequently mighty race of Muscovite princes. the remnant of the host of nearly half a What became of this million with which he had crossed the Niemen. devastated on that occasion the southern and central parts of what we now call Russia. and gave to the space they enclosed the Tartar name of krcmlin. sketch of the history of Moscow must precede any description of its Chronicles record its existence as early as 1147. and strengthened by a moat in 1394. its governor. Passing over other disasters by fire in 1611. and we left Moscow. or fortress. notwithstanding great and the assault of the Crimean Tartars in 1572. the Russian was succeeded by principalities. and pre-eminence amongst the city of Vladimir. led by Prince Murat. This was city on fire. has already been mentioned in the French occupation disastrous of of some the incidents the refer to can only his September. after failing in an attempt to negotiate October he left Moscow with an army consisting of 120. They were replaced in masonry A. and Napoleon made the moment chosen for setting the . On the September.I>. in order to clear it of the invading legions under Napoleon. Moscow became. Napoleon withdrew to the Petrofski but returned to the Kremlin on the 2oth of the outskirts on the Palace.000 of its the reduced considerable part city of these continued to fires in inhabitants perished in the flames or by the sword. after the sack of the city in 1382. when the Poles took possession of the city. 1536 of was to ashes.76 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and the number grow. 1812. of the and Grande of the small remnant Armte. About principal buildings. 1367. took possession of the Kremlin on the i4th of population we come had ceased to solemn entry next day. when the ancient city be the capital in 1771) was fired by the orders of (which Count Rostopchin. towards the end of the the seat of a principality (or Grand Duchy) under Daniel. which to in 1771 greatly reduced the the great tragedy of 1812. when the Tartars left no building standing that was not constructed of brick or stone. a peace. thirteenth century its ashes. . with many fine churches the younger son of . By the early part of the fifteenth century.

the centre. Encircling these adjoins it. in 77 our description of the churches and other buildings connected with its history. Spread over a circumference of twenty-five miles. anciently exempt from taxation. is part of the population having been located in the Earthen City beyond. together with the wallecl Kitai Gorod (Chinese Town). .MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and. Black or taxable is the White City. which the heart of the city and its chief attraction. Moscow has now The Kremlin stands exactly in population of three-quarters of a million. MtjSCUW. a its THE KREMLIN.

stands on a granite pedestal at the foot of the tower. the numerous cicerone who infest the basement. and which was brought from Smolensk in has 1647. uncovering the Streltsi in front of it. flows the river which standing its humble origin in one of the morasses of the neighbouring province of Smolensk. and proceed to enjoy one of the* most striking and unique views in Europe. our eyes Church were made to pay toll it with are dazzled by the glitter of the gilded or star-bespangled spires and domes that surround us on every side. its 1733 huge and other which the treasures the of ladies Moscow jewels composition by streets . They are 7280 feet in circumference. If the day be clear. Close under the southern front of the Kremlin walls. The King of Cast Bells. 1812. called so from the wall of earth which formerly surrounded it. however. given to it the character of a Porta Sacra. once of the head. and which has since been converted into boulevards. who executed rigorously enforced. thus named after approach the renowned tower its architect Under the guidance of one of (in 1590) John. the principal of which is the Redeemer Gate. more or less embedded in trees. we ascend by some four hundred and fifty steps to the highest of the five stories of which it is composed. A much venerated ikon of the Redeemer arch over the of the placed gate. Peter the Great.7S RUSSIAN PICTURES. for which the tower is as famous as for its great height. whether walking or driving. weighs sixty-four tons. when Napoleon and his marshals surveyed the city from it. or Ivan. rebuilt in 1367. five times as heavy as the celebrated bell of Erfurt. and the eye ranges over a vast expanse of coloured house-tops. which is three hundred and twenty-five feet to the top of the cross on its gilt cupola. monasteries and convents. The largest of these. Viliers. with their quaint towers of glazed green has given its name to the great city. we Passing through or belfry of Ivan the Great. and not even the it without conforming to the old custom. bared heads. notwithtiles. therefore. Our attention is next directed to the bells. and the season that of summer. chapels. The tower over it was constructed in 1626 by an English clockmaker in a style (Gothic) discordant with the Italian battlements. The Kremlin fortifications. a out of the metal of ancient but in weakened in bell. trace the main We and ancient circumvallations. and tell of the existence of nearly four hundred churches. named the Assumption. and are pierced by five gates. two years after Gordon's victory over them. and is. but which have been much restored and extended since they left the hands of the Italian architects by whom they were designed. and four times heavier than that of It was re-cast after the partial destruction of the tower in Rouen. also made use of the gate as a point at which dissenters from the Orthodox emperor can pass through if they wished to preserve their beards. were replaced between 1485 and 1492 by the high and stout battlemented walls and towers we now see. on the east face of the Kremlin.

nearly two hundred tons. the large piece (seven that feet high) now rests against the pedestal. the Vir- gin Mary. Alexis and it the Empress Anne appear upon in on the are t i relief figures. of the the broken piece. and which weig tons. and the Evangelists. side in by the it falling of upon heavy some rafters. circumference - sixty seven feet eleven and its inches. a pious inTsar the lost i Kolokol of its out 737. 79 had the thrown liquid into metal with tent. maximum two thickness The Tsar feet. and scroll below o n representas of the Saviour. its is height twenty-six feet its four inches.MOSCOU': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. . alone eleven minus h s The weight bell. by Another monster of which the Muscovites ON THE BELFRY : THE IVAN VELIKI TOWER. all surrounded cherubim.

weighing forty tons. is unfortunately not ancient in It stands on the spot upon which. left it. Palace. on the banks of the Don. imposing in aspect. has which the been sub- The present which the French edifice replaced. Incongruous as is its exodd from the various mixture of periods and forms of architecture which it exhibits. proud is the Tsar Pushka of the Kremlin. age or in style. a cannon of enormous It size. is seen defeating the Tartars at Kulikova. halls the gallery at the top of the noble staircase that leads to those apartDimitri. Prince of Moscow. hundred feet. II. The first of the series of magnificent in is dedicated feet to the military order of St. the Moscow princes and tsars built their habitations. These suffered destruction at the hands of Tartars and Poles. and later The Great of brick.8o RUSSIAN PICTURES. in 1380. while its the shining white walls are inscribed in letters of gold the names individuals of all ranks and of the regiments decorated with the bravery or 1769. and were not unin frequently destroyed the many accidental con- flagrations to Kremlin jected. which was founded by Catherine in is bestowed only for distinguished acts of . a palace built by Cathe- rine II. A THE GREAT BELL. from the earliest times. great episode is in Russian trated history illus- on an immense canvas ments. guards the corner of the arsenal. than fifty-eight height is no less order. cast in 1586. and success in the field. It measures two George. in 1849. the great beauty and grandeur of the state apartments within render the Bolshoi Dvorets a residence fully befitting the mighty Autocrat of All the Russias. the entire front of which is decorated with cannon taken during the retreat are of the French. On of the by sixty-eight feet. burned down had a f t e r Napoleon terior. originally of wood.

and Nicholas I. elating probably from of the fifteenth century. and a host of At the private apartments.Af OS CO IV: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. In the Granovitaya Palata. From the THE GREAT PALACE. and which are taken to represent the seven councils. to this in character the Tsaritsas of Moscow received the boyars. 81 must. with its fronts cut G . or Gold Hall. interesting parts palace. into which open rooms allotted to maids of honour of the We more imperial court. MOSCOW. a large square building. and foreign ambassadors on great occasions. the clergy. it is supposed to have been an audience chamber of the but it is on record that in a chamber similar patriarchs and metropolitans . the chapels. however. setting perforce the Picture Gallery. but restored in the style of the in seventeenth century the reigns of Paul I. the early part is the Zolotaya Palata. seven recesses and seats along the walls. leave the modern and magnificent for the antique and of the aside the Winter Garden. end of a gallery.

sable. Attached to the palace is the ancient (restored) building called the Terem. which all the Emperors of Russia have assumed at their coronation. severally. The Earl of Carlisle was received in it in 1664. prompted Ivan. and other regalia. a Tartar Khan. the middle of the sixteenth century is seen in the Crown of Kazan. the entire decorations are Oriental. belonged. the dome of the cap on gold stems. to Ivan the Boris Godunof. Germany coronation of Ivan and Peter as the joint successors of Theodore III. resting on a broad border of dark and surmounted by a plain cross terminating in large pearls at each A topaz. Most Terrible. (1682). Ancient armour and weapons. turquoises. and the diplomatic personages who have taken part in the great ceremony. originally twelfth-century work. after he had conquered the Tartar kingdom of Kazan. diamonds. while upon the cap itself are four emeralds. in token of the ancient descent of their Peter I. and elegant gold arabesques of a work of . who had been charged by the Streltsi with the control of State affairs. Three thrones of studded with Persian workmanship. German and Russian. and pearls. The Treasury. however. is the double of throne vermeil in made for the curious. and the two upper ones were added in 1636. brought to Moscow in Its ivory is beautifully carved with representations marriage with Ivan III. is the depository of a vast number of historical objects and of treasures hereditary in the reigning house. vast power. of the labours of Orpheus and the legend of Thrace. A good specimen of Moscow four rubies. The most ancient of the thrones is that of the last Christian Emperor of Con1472 by Sophia Palaeologus on her stantinople. bestowed by Ivan the Terrible. the nobles. and who in 1689 resigned his share of the government to into facets. an aperture is seen through which Sophia. their sister. and yet it was in the Tercm that the first Romanoff sovereigns gave audience to foreign ambassadors. Here on the richly gilt throne of silver the monarch sits in his coronation robes. The Round Room is full of thrones. Among the crowns we single out the jewelled cap of Vladimir Monomachus. The ornaments and the and elevated to the dignity of a vassal Tsar. and Alexis. a true restoration of an audience then only seventeen years of age. we find chamber built by Italian architects for the Tsar of Moscow in 1491. upon Simeon. and dines with the sovereigns and princes. around which is stacked the imperial plate when an emperor is crowned. and twenty-five pearls of Ormuz. a sapphire and a ruby all of large size spring from extremity. Its high arches rest on a central pillar. The rooms are all very small.82 RUSSIAN PICTURES.. and which we cannot avoid observing from the palace yard. fill the first two rooms. Its two lower stories were built in the early part of the sixteenth century. rubies. whom he converted to Christianity. on lifting the drapery at the back. who was both mentally and physically incapable of governing. which forms the right wing of the palace. crowns. It is in fine gold filagree work. the superior clergy.

and cap. the : the griffin. and with only a few objects of the fourteenth and fifteenth separate case are some Stuart specimens of English work. but Emperors the III. and we must preface our description of the more notable cathedrals with a few observations on the origin of the architectural features of those edifices. the one reputed to have been sent especially Basilius and Constantine. in the of most style Greek of at- The to plaques coloured enamel.' Moscow abounds in churches. a The furthest room is museum of gold and THE CROWN OK MONOMACHUS. beautiful art. 988.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. adorn is it. tached of brocaded the the are represent episodes in life of David. summit. for its large jewels to I. In a good Queen join. together with eight horses.D. and the unicorn. decidedly or the Persian character. Its panels are ornamented with allegorical allusions to a crusade the Tsar had proposed to make against the Turks. and the rises top is surmounted by an enormous cap of maintenance. in magniVladimir by reality made for Ivan eighty-nine two baniu. symbolical figures of Bythe eagle. a strip silk. ' We very early phase of the great Eastern Question. Some of the orbs of great St. Many topaz. generally classed as Russo-Byzantine. The They are escape notice. rubies. presented to the Tsar of Moscow by the sovereigns. to the Tsar Boris Godunof. mostly of the seventeenth century. A. both of Byzantine workmanship. silversmiths' work.. besides a great number of emeralds and pearls. It is studded with fifty-eight diamonds. or collars. cannot the fifteenth century. part of the regalia of the Russian sovereigns up to the time of Peter I. but in which thus see in this relic the record of a Bess refused to centuries. Next Peter it the tiara-shaped crown. than nine hundred the in addition numerous rubies and are to in fixed on pliant stems. made A no diamond cross fewer to from immense uncut ruby on diamonds adorn the body of emeralds ficence. G 2 . Among the old state carriages preserved in a room below is a coach which Queen Elizabeth sent. and divided by the four principal zantium lion.

adapted their work in accordance with it. of wood. or Cathedral of the Assumption. ancient churches of a Byzantine An abundance of timber caused them to purity ever existed. height. which at the same time lent itself more easily to the its construction stone. the . Their Russian disciples varied again that style according to their own taste. in the centre of the the most venerated pile in Russia. Nevertheless. the the outlines of The Uspenski Kremlin crowned in it Sober. with a later combination of the Polish. gained the prefix of Aristotle 'on account of his cunning. it rather than a cathedral. for it is that of a object prelate who had the courage to rebuke Ivan the Terrible publicly for his atrocities. and created a special type of ecclesiastical architecture in a mingled Italian and Persian style. since its sovereigns continue to be 1479 on new foundations by an Italian architect named Fioraventi. For this offence he was dragged from the altar at which he was in the cathedral is and ultimately put to death. in their architectural details they are Italian rather than in characteristic their apses.84 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Byzantine influence was already very feeble. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael. As a matter in the material or the in all no churches of the early Christian age survive in Russia It is even doubtful integrity of their original forms. It has been restored several times. Indeed. separated from the Assumption by a small paved square. when the original edifice of 1333 was rebuilt by a Milanese architect. ordinary interest. similar to that of the Grim representations of martyrs moderate the glitter that would walls. including the central cupola. as Dean Stanley correctly dimensions what in the West would be called a chapel architecture. of fact. a careful study of the Russian churches style of construction. and brightness being features previously unknown in Its five domes. Nevertheless. were covered with copper-gilt plates only in 1684. national is size. The after 1812. essentially Italian. especially officiating. dates from 1509. They are supported internally by pillars covered with frescoes on a gold ground. its grandeur. built between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries will show that non-existent in Byzantium. the silver shrine of Philip. Metropolitan of Moscow an of more than 1566-1569. when the French used it as a storehouse. Among the many tombs in observed. we shall ecclesiastical architecture reproduced in of Russia or arrive the conclusion when stone predominate over constructions in timber (in the fifteenth century). Moscow included. otherwise have given more light to the interior. the older at subsequently that we examine closely Proper still extant. features of the latter style surviving only Byzantine. who. and that the Italian architects called in by Ivan III. succumbed to the Oriental taste of brick buildings began to the Russians. whether type in be built Central Russia. If of tent or cone-shaped pinnacles. under the influence of Georgian as well as Persian forms. according to Russian chronicles.' a wonderful It was considered was built in structure.

and purhave been a portion of the ointment used by Mary Magdalene. made but the richest another room. In the old residence overlaid Alabastron. against each sepulture. rebuilt in 1489. the Patriarchs. emeralds. under the mistaken could save his erring soul. Notwithstanding its Persian form and distinctly Russian workheld to be the original receptacle of the chrism obtained from with Constantinople porting to A on the introduction of Christianity into Russia. emperors consecrated at their coronation. or dalmatic. the necessary quantity of oil and white wine. and Russian The Metropolitan of Moscow. in Ivan the Terrible after the murder of his son. The 'great mitre. the entire compound the contents of the Alabastron. Close by is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. assisted by his higher clergy. having been perfectly restored to its ancient appearance of a mausoleum of the Rurik and Romanoff dynasties from Ivan I. manship. or all the many cinquecento panagias. interior is 85 extremely interesting. of the Metropolitan Peter. already quoted. ornaments and vessels. No fewer than forty-seven princes of those families repose in the tombs that literally Frescoes on the walls. covered Of the seven mitres. the most interesting of the latter being a long-necked vase. The only emperor buried in it is Peter II. restored after a fire in 1547. A essential and spices are added to great variety of gums. it is in and called the mother-of-pearl. names and features.' out of four that belonged to Nicon. Many of the ikons within it were acquired at the sacking of Novgorod the Great by Ivan IV. balsams. part of the Synodal Buildings within the Kremlin. and causes it to be distributed among the bishops oils of the several dioceses. belief that it having been who also covered the nine domes with of gold. 1 1 They are well described in Mr. in being The most then hallowed by a drop or two of venerable of the robes that hang the sakkos. is numerous glass cases in . ami cannot stay to point out studded with precious stones of great value.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. record their altar lies Ivan the Terrible.. . ' ' few drops only are annually used in the preparation of the sacred oil with which orthodox children are anointed at their baptism. the monastic vow nil the cathedral. notwithstanding O the canons of the Church. one is that of the Metropolitan Dionysius 1322 an expiatory gift of with rubies. Maskell's Russian Art. with whom the male line of the Romanoffs became extinct in 1/30. prepares a new supply of the mir every two or three years at the season of Lent. and other precious ornaments of fine workmanship which the sacristy of the Patriarchs offers to We our view.. is a large and curious collection of ecclesiastical vestments. to Peter the Great. His tomb is covered with a black pall. the most ancient belonged to the Patriarch Job (1595). and diamonds (1583). portable pyxes. to denote that he died a monk. cloisonne gold. and thoroughly renovated in 1867. Next the his numerous offences against administered to him on his death-bed. is diadem-shaped.

by which we issue from in the Kremlin. Much churches stand side treasure of a similar kind is preserved in the sacristies of the that within the side by at Chudof Monastery and the Ascension Convent. BASIL. the Redeemer Gate. Basil the Beatified. are at once struck by the eccentric appearance of the Cathedral of illustration : St. Our of ' it Theophile Gautier It is description given of the edifice by without doubt the most original monument in the justifies the . MOSCOW. where we 1 CATHEDRAL OF ST.86 Xl/SS/JV PICTURES. We are now the great Red (or beautiful) Square.

as legends assert. 87 nothing that one has ever seen. Mosque' to be destroyed. a thing which has neither colossus. In one of the lower from the heavy iron head-piece on which he was wont to carry buckets of The Prowater as an exercise of charity. Napoleon. a crystallised style. this curio disappeared in 1812. Ivan the Idiot. it recalls . In another renovated in in 1784. but was not completed until the end of the sixteenth century. 1668. the 1737 great conflagration and all the vessels and domes with its the church. a stalactite grotto turned upside down world . It has as now eleven domes. and again thoroughly and treasures within it. although the edifice suffered to the extent of being robbed and in the confusion used as a design.- THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and in 1626 a fire which broke out in the dome of one of its chapels spread over the whole of Moscow. Again. with the treasure he had ' wooden church dedicated rebuilt in to in the stone A. ask if it is Hindoo. in the form of heavy iron chains is famed for the relics and the Another penitential weights chapel penance. the great cupolas of Basil the in fire that devastated the Kitai Gorod destroyed all Beatified. an edifice formed of clouds It might be taken for a fantastically coloured by the sun. which the movement of the air will presently cause to change in form. chapels eighteen destroyed Restored seven years later. his orders. and belongs to no known One would imagine it to be a gigantic madresore. reposes emblems his venerated of costly shrine little in harmony with the equally and crosses which he wore for austerity. idiotic taken from the Tartars. were not carried out. not Thibetan pagoda.' of cast iron of ' ' labyrinth of passages. one is tempted to a whimsical will-o'-the-wisp. and ordered 'that drawings. and the innate compassionate feelings of the people are . after conquering Kazan.' Ivan the Terrible. of Astrakhan. a for Christ's sake'). by an Italian whose eyes were certainly not put out. found in present form. built on this site (anciently a cemetery in which was buried Basil. or vanish into nothingness. connected by a in a chapels Basil. chapels were added to it. It was pillaged and defiled by the Poles early in the seventeenth century. when it became known by its present name. stable. 1555. prototype nor similitude. or In looking at this impossible church.' who acquired also the epithet of Big-cap. in order that he Seven years later. and the edifice. testant reader must bear in mind that idiocy is a form of mendicancy very common in Russia. It was commemoration of the additional acquisition architect whose name remains unknown. such as it is after subsequent alterations. Fortunately for later visitors not of iconoclastic temperament. the tutelary saint. each separate places different in colour and surmounting many of worship.MOSCOW'. a prophet and miracle-worker. Chinese. and danger of the French occupation of Moscow.D. side should not produce another structure of equal merit. Intercession of the Holy Virgin. it in its strict accordance with ancient 1812.

feature these is the A the Red Square will be replaced by a building more and of of the the in monument front of erected site. is no same observation The may be made with regard to the appearance of the civic population. it. recent years from a style of from the imits provement of pal streets.88 RUSSIAN PICTURES. most othercities and towns in Russia. and the old Gostinnoi A some length of time. in the porches of its churches and chapels. which is certainly betterdressed and more European-looking than even fifteen years ago. Dvor (Great Bazaar) on Apropos of markets. and at the neighbouring monasteries. longer correct. however. as well as from the planting of trees in squares and boulevards. perhaps more painful. much moved by Another common. worthy (1818) in memory of Minin and Pojarski. princi- which are now better kept and lighted. in striking erection of arcades or passages. in which ladies improvements can do their shopping without discomfort either in the heat of summer or the excessive cold of winter. couple of years more. appeal to charity fire. we must not fail to mention the al fresco mart . Also. it. monks and nuns to be seen in the streets of the city. Moslike cow has gained much in more imposing building. be admitted by any recent visitor to Moscow that the must. accounts given by previous travellers as to the great number of mendicant men and women. the butcher and the boyar who drove the Poles out of Moscow in 1612. consists in the exhibition of sores resulting from accidents by and It it is not unusual even to see beggars going about barefooted in winter. The and 1 thoroughfares in about the Kitai are scarcely re- Gorod if** cognisable by one who has not seen Moscow for A PEASANT COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CHURCH OR MONASTERY.

whether THE OLD CLOTHES MARKET. MOSCOW. The assemblage is of a decidedly uninviting character. is well repre- It view the of sale animated scene and purchase in every possible description of merchandise. 89 ~ ' - ' - under the walls of the Kitai Gorod. .MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. of which we give an illustration. and the rawest material of Mussuffices to covy sented in it. in odour as well as in appearance.

and from its attendance at the weddings of the affluent.IX 1125. Savage man is seen on a and stones sticks a mammoth taken in huge fresco. of being &c. A chief lies dead in a boat. this unique and comprehensive museum will rival objects.' or hideous idols details which will not bear reproduction here. and we a pit-fall. busy throng. at the various epochs of man's times. and models of interments in the South Russia. Some of its stone walls are alone of undoubted antiquity but. represent After this come monuments at of religion in the Iron Age of Russia. and at frequent ceremonies of blessing a new Emperor always stops to pray before its popular belief in annually realised house or public edifice.. on the outskirts of the surging. The between to the its adjoining gate is the principal entrance into the Kitai Gorod. and typical of Russian ecclesiastical art down to A. in fame and interest the Kremlin and all thereunto belonging. rich and poor. in the shape of mammoth tusks. with The Babi. three apartments are relics of the Stone and Bronze Ages. shudder at the ghastly frescoed representations of an interment at Bulgar on the Volga. whose in ikon. implements. art. horses and dogs are being slaughtered preparatory to the burning of the boat and its contents. ' Ekaterinoslaf. in Varvarka Street. worrying The next room brings us to the end of the Bronze Age. was brought from in Mount Athos 1648. and from the visits paid by the ikon to the houses of the sick. Christian not later than the tenth century.90 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Sophia Kief and from those of other Russian churches. so far as it can be denned. earliest arms. honestly or otherwise acquired. the frescoes. and sacked by the French. and two arches we find the Iverskaya Chasovnia. One of the most remarkable of the modern buildings in Moscow stands at the end of the square opposite the Cathedral of St. are in two rooms full of early Slavonic When completed. it was rebuilt in 1859 in the style of noble Muscovite dwelling-houses of the . here deposited. objects illustrating the Helleno-Scythian period. mounds that are found scattered over to death with Early Arab geographers give graphic accounts of those sacrificial rites. Basil. ravaged by fire. existence. found in great numbers in the province of of stone in human form. and the miraculous powers is so great that a very large sum is from the donations of worshippers. Indian and Persian in history of illustrated design. this huge edifice of red brick is a the human species in what is now Russia museum is in which the in course by specimens of workmanship. stone arrowheads and tools. from A room decorated with age down to modern and ornamented in a style of coeval In the first represents each such epoch. . This is the most venerated image Moscow. at a respectful distance. or chapel dedicated Iberian Mother of God. within the Kitai Gorod. with copies of contemporaneous the state Frescoes copied from the walls of St. and his wives. frescoes found in catacombs. the it ere he enters the Kremlin. Another secular building of high interest is the Romanoff House.

and including reception-room the bed-chamber. to sights of the Kremlin and the Kitai Gorod are now are attracted towards the grand go farther a-field. the first Tsar of the The present dynasty. in a house of the same kind. As Granovitaya Palata. complete the arrangements of this storey. was born on this spot. An oratory. was . and the household assisted at matins and vespers. bearing the offensive and defensive weapons of the Romanoff coat-of-arms a short sword and a shield. We in diameter) in it Founded commemorate the deliverance of the city from the French. The principal exhausted. Above is the THE ROMANOFF HOUSE. 1839. and a small study. above the cellars. whose huge gilt dome (ninety-eight feet and attendant belfry-cupolas shine pre-eminently over Moscow. in which priests offered their congratulations on great Church holidays. Tcrcm. a nursery. which has also plate many secret recesses for the concealment of treasures. with adorned with rich wood. carvings built in of wood. the family on great occasions in this apartment. in which are shown two brass ink-bottles like those used in the in the was exhibited days of Chaucer. a room for female servants. sixteenth century. a is in form of west surmounted by a vane the griffin. and The turret on the affording a charming view of the city from its windows. it boyar's apartments. and a large room called the Chamber of the Cross. and we Temple of the Saviour. a panelled stamped leather. or banqueting hall of the palace. and offices. kitchen.AfOSCOJf: THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. consist of a vestibule. being on record that Michael.

' is the inscription over the on native material and labour.RUSSIAN PICTURES. thirteen were meant to resemble the bow and the stern the extremities Structural accretion has destroyed all trace of a contemporaneous flag-ship. is magnificent and elegant The ' beyond all description. entrance to the principal portico. representing the mast. supported by thirty-six marble columns. the direction of which was entrusted by Peter I. he caused this structure to be built in the form tall of a vessel. while THE SUKHAREF TOWER. Lombardic and Gothic and two hundred and feet high. edifice with which. at a cost of two millions sterling. introduced in 1829 from a source twelve miles distant. the stone from which Moscow derives one of her most endearing popular appellations. the Sukharef claims our attention. it is as dazzling in summer as the sheen ' of the dome and bare-looking the interior of the casket the four cupolas that surmount this otherwise inelegant and But block. his enthusiasm for matters. the main of British capital. has played no unimportant part in the cation development of the Russian empire. of Peter the Great in almost exceptionally. created. the activity is connected the ancient empire naval he moved by capital of the In 1695. and within recent years perfected by the appli- Farquharson. not the only as a but as an conspicuous object. haul reliefs and other ornaments notwithstanding. of such resemblances. Outside have now Tower precincts we visited. like the military and naval enterprise of our countrymen in more ancient days. to a Scotchman named building has been used as a pressure tower or reservoir in connection with a supply of water. Being of white sandstone. quarried near Moscow. spent exclusively God with us. and after serving as the location of a naval school. dark. highly-polished Labrador' marble. which. and the surrounding galleries the quarter-deck. brings into relief the gold with which the walls and pillars are abundantly de- corated. in a mixed style. the tower. . completed only in 1883.

The superposition of the cross on a crescent so often seen on Russian cupolas is not emblematical of triumph over Mohammedanism. NEAR MOSCOW. There 93 are monasteries in numbers all about Moscow well worthy of if not described mentioned. in our pages. I'oKROFSKI VILLAGE. From the Donskoi. and Simonof monasteries delightful views of Moscow and its multitudinous cupolas are obtained their churches and sacristies being also well worthy of inspection. 1 FOUR CHARACTERISTIC RUSSIAN CUPOLAS. It typifies the connection between Mary. Danilofski. and the cross. CHURCH OF THE VIRGIN OF KAZAN. NICHOLAS. but it is almost superfluous to being say that a host of other buildings and institutions of high interest must remain un. for the device was used ages before the expulsion of the Tartars from Russia. CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY AT UMAILOF. MOSCOW. AT MOSCOW. 1 .MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. NEAR MOSCOW. CHURCH OF ST. recorded . CATHEDRAL. the mother of our Lord. she being represented in ancient Greek pictures with her feet resting on a crescent.

The well-known Sparrow Hills afford. on Tsars in the . on a glorious northern summer's day. which Napoleon first beheld from their summit. of which. we can well realise the feelings of the French invaders when they caught sight of the Kremlin walls and the glistening domes before us. Grandsire of the Kolomenskoe. RUSSIAN PEASANTS NEAR KUNTSEVO. In the palace.RUSSIAN PICTURES. and was occupied by Napoleon after the Kremlin had become too hot for him. which we reach towards the hour of sunset. on an island of the lake.Kursk Railway. Standing on this slight elevation of the left bank of the Moskva. Peter the Great studied the art of war. ancient seat of the St. the finest view of the ancient capital. however. the is another Petersburg. however. a village about six miles from the centre of the city.' a boat now preserved at in a shed the ' Moscow. nothing remains except the church. and it was here also that he discovered Russian Navy. rebuilt in 1679. It was built between 1775 and 1800. is an ancient domain of the Romanoff family. Moscow ' ! Moscow and ' ! Another favourite trip by carriage or tramway is to the Petrofski Park Palace. and exultingly shouted. vicinity of Moscow. Izmailovo. In the seventeenth century the Tsars had a well-stocked menagerie as well as an aviary at this residence.

It was established in 1342 by Sergius. Here. farmers. son-in-law of the boyar Cyril Naryshkin. One about six 95 of our miles pleasantest drives on a recent occasion was to Kuntsevo. and to his extremely rude methods of husbandry. we find Russian peasant proprietors threshing corn with the Biblical flail ' ' ! The instrument is used throughout the rest of Russia. representing a In of at least owed 500. T .000. w hen Ladislav of on Prince Dimitri Tartars. Few travellers fail to devote is within easy a day to an inspection of the Troitskaya-Sergieva Lavra. and is of little interest.1818.' viewed Moscow from Kuntsevo. Laid waste by the Tartars in 1408. engraved from a photograph taken on the spot. and situated in pretty woodland scenery dotted with off. shows not only the character of the contemporaneous town life dwellings of the inhabitants of the central part of Russia. except in the southern provinces. quantity of Russian agricultural produce. silver. King saving of Prussia. A. and self-denying Sergius to canonisation. glad to find a primitive Russian village still occupied by stalwart specimens of the true Slavonic type of Moscow. Frederick William III. but also that of one of their agricultural processes. or Monastery of the Trinity. the Canterbury of orthodox pilgrims. where the corn of the peasantry is generally threshed by the A large and increasing equally ancient method of the tramp of bullocks. The estate came to the Naryshkin family from the Tsar Alexis. was rendered all the stronger by the appearance to him (as recorded in the annals of the Russo-Greek Church) of the Virgin Mary and the Apostles Peter and John. and twelve brethren. To the blessing he bestowed is ascribed the great victory gained on the Don over the and treasure in Lands. . gold. within a few miles of Moscow. a nobleman of Rostof. population fealty and quit-rent to St. thanked Moscow. The 1608 the monastery was besieged.000 male serfs. Our illustration.000 Poles.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. which are naturally detrimental to the quality and the . One of the most remarkable of the holy places in Russia reach of Moscow by rail. were consequently bestowed on the monastery. 1388. who was also the father of Peter I. The mansion is of a somewhat later period. same enemies appeared before its walls a few years later. which her for is At so short a distance from modernised.D. when its principal cathedral was erected. the monastery was re-established fifteen years later. and jewels. and German colonists but the serf holds doggedly to his primitive plough and flail. quantity of agricultural machinery is sold at the two capitals to the larger landed proprietors. unimpaired by contact with so rapidly becoming we are and factory labour. Sergius. having his kingdom.. but the inscription on a granite pyramid near the conservatory is worth recording : 'On the 4th July. and the claim of its abbot the pious. and such by the middle of the eighteenth century more than 106. after his death in 1392. villas. but unsuccessfully. by 30. Thirty minor that vast estates monasteries were later attached to it. simple.

of whom 100. nearly completed in 1547. circuit. Poland disputed and the most venerated site and doings of St. incidents in the military of The the history monastery. not over clean. typifying the nine celestial hierarchies. the interior interesting nature of representation alone of brass. and somewhat unsavoury from character. of the is its rendered attractive only by the costliness and the In the archbishop's stall we find a contents. as much in connection with atrocious crimes as with prodigal The incorruptible remains of St. at which monks sell ikons. portico full of stalls. burdened nearly with jewelled ikons. pictorial tapers. with nine cupolas. Sergius being the principal subjects represented in pictures and photographs. the the tutelary saint. oil. gift of Ivan shrine of one thousand pounds in pure in whose name recurs so frequently Russian history.96 RUSSIAN PICTURES. but curious chiefly for its . and we a enter ground. weighing the Terrible. monastery. which stands on the of the original edifice raised by The entrance is level with the Sergius. were repaired byPeter the Great. the most ancient insurgent are the last is the Cathedral of the Trinity. acts of piety. the These rights of the newly-elected Michael Romanoff. certain small parts of the body being left uncovered. use or the life the presence of way-worn pilgrims. Of the twelve churches which it contains. the figure of Judas being is Close to the ikonostas. and on coarse enamel and deft wood-carving. to whom in his youth they had afforded shelter against Streltsi. is larger.000 repair annually to the THE TROITSA MONASTERY. a mile in walls. for the applications of In a glass case inserted in the altar the kisses of the orthodox faithful. in Last Supper solid gold. Sergius are exhibited in it. The Cathedral of the Assumption. and a variety of other articles of ecclesiastical crosses. the silver. ' ' screen are seen his pastoral staff and other paraphernalia. Dingy. and built in 1585.

headed eagle the throne of in wood commemorates is Boris Muscovy. and other ornaments. who have elected to breathe the pure air of heaven perhaps only once a year. but the extraordinary richness of those at St.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and over which. pious or mundane. which edifices important three hundred feet in height. in which their thin linen and cotton clothing had not been removed. Peter I. Chief sacristy. founded by the late Metropolitan Philaret as a retreat from the cares of his high office. and a large twohis escape. Sergius seem to be worth all the treasures in the cathedrals and monastic establishments at Moscow and About a mile put together. next to the house in which he lived. to wipe a streaming brow. It is nearly edifices we need only notice the church of St. established in 1783 and learned Metropolitan of Moscow. in those less tidy days. The sight is a strange one on a hot day in August. or Hermit's Cell of Gethsemane.' not him who comes in here carry out the dirt short distance ' A ii . while the ardent worshippers look and feel as if they had emerged from a steam bath. jewelled crosses. Evangelists in it is attributed to the early part Of the other sacred of the thirteenth century. A of the copy manuscripts. buried here. and in reality Not a hand can be raised in the densely-crowded edifice far from pleasant. painted in 1609. which contains a library of four thousand old books and Sergius Radonejski. designed by in Russia are due. Female worshippers are admitted once a year into the church at Gethsemane. to whom so many was completed in 1/69. Godunof. earlier date than the seventeenth century. We are to some extent prepared to see a large collection of imposing ecclesiastical garments. and emblazoned with a large cross in rubies of fine colour. and we are still more impressed with its austerity when we descend to the neighbouring catacombs. the elegant Count Rastrelli. in which vows of perpetual are being fulfilled by human beings in the garb of monks. usurper of We cannot but admire belfry. Streltsi were seeking to wrest him 97 from his was concealed under the altar when the sister Natalia. an object Its treasures are of paramount of mostly is not among them a resplendent copy of the Gospels. The binding is beautifully ornamented with floral and arabesque patterns in enamel work. effectually walled in. he caused to be inscribed the significant admonition. The interior of the church is remarkable for its simplicity. buried at the western entrance. given by the Tsar Michael in 1632. after the profuse gorgeousness of the churches we have just viewed. recluses hardly ever leave their subterranean cells. In some catacombs beyond. frescoes. a half from the monastery is the Sfciif. seclusion beyond is the Bethany Monastery. Let finds he within. A detached building contains the curiosity to pilgrims. contrasted with emeralds and sapphires of great size and beauty. dedicated to the Ascension of the Virgin Mary. an renowned He is equally by Plato.

we are inspired by the Vniz po Matushki. down the Volga) made familiar in their childhood as a were Muscovites of tion middle-aged song inciting to deeds of daring.' by century came the Tartars. but with little accuracy. the Rha (great river) or Volga. and to the exercise of untrammelled liberty but because we desire to see the celebrated fair of Nijni Novgorod. task. to Vladimir of the paramount In the thirteenth throne. OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. as flowing through the country of the Scythians and Sarmatians. and the Russian empire. Kalmucks. and Khirghizes) to the banks of the Volga. in 1158. TIIK VOLGA. established by the Northmen at Kief. vniz po Volge (Down popular Russian robber-song a song with which the present generathe Little Mother. were in their turn subdued by means similar to those which have brought The the modern Russians to the frontiers of Afghanistan and Persia. Khazars.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. tinder Rurik. IN CHAPTER A VOYAGE DOWN VI. and Bolgars subsequently formed powerful states on it. the bands armed of a Russian commenced observes writer. MOSCOW. after the foundation of the powerful Russian principalities of Suzdal and Murom ' ' (eleventh century) and the removal. The Huns. These (Bashkirs. sixteenth power had been destroyed in the sent fresh masses of nomads China century. Ptolemy and other great cities on the main water-artery of the WE are bent on descending the Volga. but were gradually subdued and absorbed by the Great-Russian race. and after their Central Asia and ' ' . not because ancient geographers mention.

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and of gaily-painted chests and other articles so extensively iron (most of under water. Rybinsk. at Yaroslaf. to tion. now taken refuge in the Russia. of brought from the northernmost parts of the in the provinces of Moscow empire.' But although thoroughly Russianized. its travellers Few it where first position in that respect dating from the middle of the last century. of cotton. the river than at take Yaroslaf. while another sacred edifice in it is adorned with two Tradition says it was built (in leopards. everything else nationally peculiar in Russia. One of the finest specimens of Russian architecture is the Church of John the Baptist. becomes navigable by small steamers. in honour of our own country. now in larger and larger quantities from chiefly sea-borne. are concerned. it We certainly found in in 1888 the same huge stocks of consequence of a severe flood). the depot in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the English goods imported at Archangel. brought and skins furs Central Asia. at the time when the celebrated So much has already been written about that great fair is being held. from a small lake near the town of Valdai. most important commercial entrepots of the empire. or even at Yaroslaf. by an English merchant. oppressive . cosmopolitan gathering that it would serve no useful purpose to devote much Neva. ior been completed by detachments of Cherniayef and Scobelef. particularly the Mordva. means of canals communication was established between the Volga when by and the About 5000 craft and 100. A recent visit confirms an impression long space to a description of it. especially for grain. have the patience to embark on the great river at Tver. so far as language.A VOYAGE Suzdal has DOWN THE the VOLGA. the Chuvashi. But most travellers are content to make the easy railway journey from Moscow to Nijni (the lower) Novgorod. ' produced by the ' village industries of Bokharian. the assimilation that results from modernized intercommuniinevitable process of cation by rail and telegraph is rapidly depriving Nijni Novgorod of its older since mercantile features. of textile goods manufactured chiefly and Vladimir. modern arcades which protect his customers and himself from The formerly itinerant however. administraand to a great extent. namely inclined. of tea. still afford rich materials for the study of the aboriginal races by which they were held. has. rain. religion. the great inland Caspian Sea. and the Cheremyssi of Finnish or Ugrian origin. on its course of 2320 miles. who waived his claim to the treasure.000 labourers find employment on the artificial waterway which thus connects the Caspian with the Baltic. and desired that it should be employed in the We could. formed. or Armenian. to which higher up This is one of the a branch line runs from the Moscow Trunk Railway. Persian. if so service of the Almighty or in some benevolent object. and now a great centre of manufacturing industry. like that. the banks of the Volga. 1652) with the proceeds of gold which a Russian trader had discovered in a cask sold to him as containing paint.

and blinding dust. be dwindling are in Nor the in craft appear numbers. Even the multitude of stalwart Tartars. more Turkish than Mongolian in features. . propelled by the use of and commodious substitute for wood ago. and we might fancy ourselves at Leipzig. they are unloading so quaint engaged and mediaeval-looking as they were only a few years ment of steam transport as fuel.BAZAR : .~-:v3^^evi-. ' 3 and trim iron petroleum refuse as a cheap. or at any other continental mart. cheap and inferior. and who are always mentioned in< VIEWS IN NJINI NOVGOROD descriptions to of the fair. to the before the Beggars exhibiting repulsive sores fear to withhold their donations lest their superstitiously charitable. The wares exhibited in those galleries are as a rule German.102 RUSSIAN PICTURES. mercantile transactions be who in- fluenced by the evil one are likewise types that are fast disappearing under . great developbarges. abundant.

at one of the many restaurants are hunger by all inevitably bring us. Shelter and food are abundantly provided for the absolutely indigent. . 103 and enlightened administration of General Baranoff. but it is not . Under the guidance of an officer of the civil service. and the small amount required as covering during the hot At another of these refuges. or less than a penny. and a cigarette in his mouth. our sorely tried olfactory nerves will soon Among discover the masses of dried or salted fish that have been brought from the rich fisheries on the Volga and Caspian. while the poor are fed at a nominal charge per meal.' Siberian Line For the sum of five copecks several soup-kitchens well worthy of a visit. in a room of large dimensions. or piled on board the floating part of the fair. benevolent merchant named Bagroff. to which the pangs of Nijni Novgorod. soup buck-wheat porridge the staple food of the Russian masses. at a The financial deficit charge of three copecks. The average consumption of bread alone is one and a half pound per man. such as they are. but open merry-go-round. specially deputed the obliging governor. Count Ignatief. from the peasant nightly entertainment for all sorts in a It was a novel spectacle to see a Russian untjik sitting upwards.} and of about one pound of kasha. to show us the holes and corners of the fair. with a bottle of beer beside him. Their clothes. travelling dclicatesse towards the source of the supply of caviar that delicious which no one can properly appreciate until he has tasted it almost We make our first real acquaintance with it at fresh from the sturgeon. its first great tributary out of thirty-seven others. supply some of the needed softness for body and head. we visited some very curious places of after a long stroll will and conditions of men. an ample dinner consisting of in with labourers are them supplied (about \\d. the present governor of the province. or and black bread ad libitum. in which six to seven hundred of the poorer labourers find a resting-place and glad enough are they to take advantage of the wooden ledge and the cast iron cylinder offered to them as a substitute for mattress and pillow. on the strength of old acquaintance. No capable of disposing of three pounds. for the consumption of the fastshall This alone is a trade of colossal proportions. is the honorary patron of one of several night refuges. rye bread is supplied gratis to the Near the that skirts the Volga are miserable casuals. ' ' ' at all spirits rare to find a labourer or ale are allowed. Here again. charitable fair. of Panslavist celebrity. not in the air. which takes its name from the city and its fair. how important a part it plays in We the occupations of the population on the lower course of the Volga. but tea is available throughout the day.A VOYAGE the active DOWN THE VOLGA. see as we descend to the Caspian. and we keeping orthodox. on these arrangements is made good out of the revenue yielded by the the masses of goods stacked on the banks of the Volga and the Oka. supported by a nights of July and August.

' pass over the common episodes of Tartar invasion and princely internecine strife. George. Persia and India. It was for the purpose of arresting the incursions of the godless Bolgars. They after a great fire. the Dmitrofskaya and the walls The Kremlin we Tverskaya. the removal to confluence of the ' Oka Low with We it of the ancient Fair of Makarief. who had already. near the mouth of the great Kama. the Cathedral of the Arch- angel. Macarius. accompaniment by detectives in plain clothes through the Kunavino quarter was sufficient proof that the tranquil surface exhibited to us was in a certain measure delusive. Andrei Alexandrovitch Titof. not take it amiss if we record our gratitude towards our good Mr.' Out of the forty odd churches outside the Kremlin.' inhabiting the country now known as the province of Kazan. distinguishable by its eccentric colouring and dates its existence . namely. The old walled city of Nijni Novgorod has in itself strong claims on to friend. so called from a privilege granted in 1641 a monastery dedicated to St. however. there was not much. who may already be known to some of our readers as a learned archaeologist and comsummate connoisseur in matters of Russian ecclesiastical lore and art. could see the process of we European assimilation at work. and come down to the great turning-point in its history. There is no doubt that in this respect we were under deep obligations to the enlightened official who had supreme charge of us. and is remarkable only for its octangular. in 1219. is substantially a structure of 1227. the intelligent traveller. see towering on the cliffs of the right bank of the Volga were built in 1511 by a Venetian. The neighbouring unsightly Church of the Transfiguration from 1834. crossed that sea in a ship that bore the red cross of St. who incorporated in them two towers which dated from the fourteenth century. and he will. the deliverers of Moscow. although in one of its painful and demoralizing phases.104 RUSSIAN PICTURES. we need only indicate the Rojdestvenskaya. There was no disorder and national the student of to shock anything. seventy miles lower down the great river. in imitation of our countryman. that the Prince of Suzdal took. their city of Oshel. if life. by way of the Caspian. and founded a ' strong settlement at the the Volga. a tributary of the Volga. much reduced in height and circumference Although restored in 1620. However. Altars on either Tartar-looking belfry on the opposite side of the street. but our be hoped. of Rostoff Yaroslavski. Anthony Jenkinson. were. it is no brawling . which he named Novgorod the New Town of the Countries. which they enclose. still prominently extant about In the same century. and consequently of high interest. Nijni to ' ' became conspicuous as the place at which a company of Holstein merchants built the first war vessel ever launched in Russia under a charter for opening a trade with Central Asia. side of the ikonostas are dedicated to the patron saints of Minin and Pojarski. to whom a monument in the form of a granite obelisk was raised opposite the cathedral in 1826 by 'grateful posterity. in 1558.

when it was ravaged or tion by Purgas. in all attributed. to Korsun. the is most ancient the Annunciation. Of the monasteries Novgorod. erec- Critics trace its 1371. 105 peculiar It was built in 1/19. or terrace at the extreme end of the city. to in some 1229. cases of swarthy representations. and be must therefore the most ancient it holy image in Russia. 993. according authorities. Before proceeding on our voyage. and which existed. overlooking the . A inscription on testifies that it was in painted A. Count by Gregory Stroganof out of a portion of vast riches acquired by goldmining at Nijni in Siberia. or drive to we walk the otkos.A VOYAGE architecture. on the banks of the Oka. or Khersonese workm a n s h Greek it i p. who probably Holy as pre- the ikon Virgin. not far from the floating bridge.D. DOWN THE VOLGA. by the Metropolitan sented to of the it Alexis. Prince of the Finnish Mordva to t ribe.

or wide.' as inscribed autoFew were the languages in which he could graphically in our note-book. so called after His Excellency Nicholas Novoselski. Our good fortune has secured to us a commodious berth on board the Novoselski. now so There is not one of the abundantly supplied from Baku on the Caspian. The absence of smoke and of attendant soot was soon explained by the fact that the steam by which we were not ' propelled owed its origin. expansive mind and habit. the other the should be the trimmer. in the matters of punctual speed. not to wood or coal fuel. Subsidised for the carriage of mails and exiles. an aboriginal of the coast of Croatia or Dalmatia (evidently the scene of his nativity). clotted here and there with forests. but to the refuse of petroleum. and over all was below. hundred Volga steamers of all kinds and dimensions American riverwith propellers.lo6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. tolerable accommodation. A majority of our party had travelled from Australia. charge of a couple of men. see a far-reaching alluvial plain. and our own personal insignificance in relation to the great works V 7 We of the Creator. Volga. Led by the attentive captain to the we found in it engine-room.' for his duties ' ' more appropriate name of the consisted solely in setting latter alight. with the cuteness and droll levity of a Yankee.' description were appropriately garbed in the American-English of to which this real salt-water tar had traded during the greater part of his life. the founder of the steamship company. and of finding a charmingly and eminently intelligent and communicative commander in the person jocose of Sea Captain Felix Alexandrovitch Pietroschiewich. The steamer was one of the many vessels that have American-typed supplanted the earlier pioneers of the Our cabins were our saloons above them. and the originator of several of the greatest and most successful enterprises in Russia. the Caucasus and Mercury Company are in a position to offer superior in relation to other on the advantages steam-ship companies Volga. are favoured to the extent of We on board during our stay at Nijni. olga from its junction with the Oka.' The engineer. in the service of the Russo-American Company. and all the blunt outspokenness of a Russian Slav with a shirdkaya natilra. extinguished some years the cession of the Islands to the Aleutian United States of America. criminal and political. sleeping ' convey either his serious or his merry thoughts. and culinary requirements. ago by He was a real cosmopolitan. and are impressed by the monotony of the landscape. on which we paced or settled ourselves comfortably whenever the great heat of the sun was tempered by a kindly breeze or moderated by a welcome cloud. the spacious top deck. or stern wheel iron steam barges and tugs that now uses any other description of fuel. one being the five craft stoker. Those of the latter Frisco. and confessed unreservedly that they had never been better taken care of than by the merry commander of the Novoselski. as when we travelled on the Volga some fifteen years before. bv .

recourse. All had more or less a well-to-do appearance. camps of their own. including priests. on the other hand. All sorts and conditions of men and women above the trader stratum of Russian society were assembled in the saloon cabin. knpcts. the jet of petroleum refuse conveyed under each of the lour boilers and set free by the turn of a cock. themselves. divided for that purpose into two parts. gazing .A VOYAGE means of DOWN THE VOLGA. his samovar. like companions. turquoises. notwithstanding occasional disembarkations. sufficed to arrest at a stopping-place the further generation of steam. The petroleum is furiously over the bottom of the boiler by a jet same nozzle. each passenger more or less snug at night on mattresses and felt rugs. or tea- he the had aid frequent with and comA RUSSIAN TRADER WITH HIS panionship of his prikastclii or clerk. scattered into spray as it issues from the supply-pipe. and Tartars formed Bokharians. who. and excepting only a village priest. were huddled together on the second deck. sleeping. They in rows and batches. apart slept soldiers. who were merchants or cotton. madder. ing. We were travelling by one of the best mail steamers. on the ground of not having paid his fare. was very soon put on shore. The was accompanied by to which urn. the closing of which. which was spent in eating and drinkand on at the busy activity numerous places of call. and subsequently increased to nearly seven hundred. from their more lowly in Christian not. including some of a soldiers TEA URN. and the rougher classes of the Russian population were consequently in a minority. There were few races in Europe or Asia that were not represented among the five hundred passengers embarked in the Novoselski. crack regiment of guards on furlough. or trader. distinguished by their cleanliness and their stores of pillows and warm coverings. Persians. 107 a rag saturated with naphtha and ignited by a lucifer match. There was but little talk among them during the daytime. The Asiatics and the and made to burn of steam issuing from the lower classes. and peasants. Russian silk. the fair of Nijni was yet scarcely on its decline. more than usually indigent and untidy in his outward appearance.

slaying to protect . dancing frantically round each hut. and next day touched at Cheboksary. and.io8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the they occupy.000 of them left favourable industries living in out their last the district. on the outbreak of murrain among cattle. on the right bank of the river. Every year also the young girls of the northern forested region of the Volga beat. and we soon get accustomed to were being towed up shifting monotonous to attract the Volga through after its strings of barges that shallow. the unremunerative character of the simple them. this day. subdued it. With these fellow-passengers. accelerated as it has also been by the prevalence of goitre and other diseases. that a foreigner acquainted with the language is often placed in a condition of some embarrassment. the criticisms state of affairs which he cannot help hearing being generally very strong against the present and the powers that be. and it is equally interesting as the capital of a barren district in which another ancient ' ' Finnish people the Cheremyssi are evidently There are not more than 100. with a for this is the strong admixture of a handsome and vigorous Tartar element ancient capital of a Mongol kingdom which flourished between 1438 and 1552. The abnormal number of idiotic and deaf and dumb children is another symptom of the moribund condition of the Cheremyssi. the channels. and often retired. the bounds of newly-sown fields. and the unsanitary state of their supplied with chimneys. with an army of 150. The days. There indeed no part of Central Russia where these have been better preserved. and whom they pursue with wild cries as an impersonification oi death. until we approached Simbirsk. This is the town of towns of the Chuvash race. is To belabour unmercifully any one who may come in their way during their weird operations. . un- climatic barrenness of the that soil conditions under which they have so long struggled. and entertained and instructed by the vigorous discussion of political and social questions. the old women of a village sally out at night unclad. which are not nominally Christian. At Kazan we find a very different population. we dropped down the Volga at the rate of nineteen miles an hour. they are in reality more than half pagan. them from drought and destructive insects. was much attention. a town of 5000 inhabitants. and especially of the Volga provinces. when Ivan the Terrible. It is so far the cool. have contributed to this result. too The scenery. The reverse outside the precincts of hotels and restaurants. dark and the atmosphere that commenced. It was the ladies had the night become economical sociability condition of the country. was then discussed with a freedom that would astonish those who had been led to believe that in such matters Russia is a country of mutes. and have contributed greatly towards keeping alive among the population of the middle course of the Volga the customs and superstitions of remote ages.000 men. Although are to known dwellings. under similar conditions. It is Russian. representative of different sections of society. over which the secret police is supposed to keep close watch. winding.

Although adorned with a diamond crown presented by Catherine II. and to the left of the causeway our attention is directed towards a pyramidal monument raised on a small mound over the bones of the Muscovites who fell at the capture of Kazan. We pass the Admiralty suburb. to visit the city in a carriage that A stoppage of four hours enabled us had been ordered by telegraph. The site of their graves. grapes of which voraciously with the delicious fruits we bought a small sack full for a few coppers at the long row of stalls Hurrying back to displayed that until close to we had made the sun went And glad landing-stage. our steamer. especially great part thrown of stables are into ravines. is visited on Wednesdays and Fridays for devotional exercises by crowds of pious Tartars. apples. and its some of its ancient appearance only in its Kremlin Sumbeki Tower. by and we were astonished to find that the material used for that partial repair. five miles in is connected with the which the river bank. we refreshed ourselves melons. so good a provision. The most interesting of the churches Annunciation. walls The city retains in (of 1568). Chief among the numerous public institutions of Kazan is its University. for the heat the we subsequently were became so intense caviar that down we supported ourselves principally on and . built Its altar within the Kremlin is that of the in marks the city. parched and grimy. after the model of the Assumption in Moscow. along the high causeway. where the Russia. 109 all troops of the Tartar Tsar. spot on which Ivan IV. although Oriental languages were formerly the principal As at most other Russian objects of study at this seat of learning. 1562.' to which deliverance of 1613 was attributed. pears. while far away to the right we see the mosques and minarets of the Tartar rattled. under the rude and obstinate sweepings belief that the land is not in need of any stimulant or restorative.. and attended by about six hundred students. It was under city length. the costliness of its ornamentation is insignificant compared with that of the copy we have seen in the Kazan the Poles Moscow from Cathedral at St. who thus keep alive the memory of their ancient rulers.A VOYAGE the DOWN THE VOLGA. chiefly of surgery and medicine. in ! we half-smothered suburb. It is supposed to have been originally the minaret of the mosque (demolished in 1552) in which the Khans or Tsars of Kazan were buried. in which Peter the Great built a flotilla for the Volga and the Caspian. on the west face of the tower. founded in 1804. planted a cross after he had stormed the the original In the church of a convent close to of the ' the Kremlin walls the is ikon Virgin in of Kazan. a Lector of the English students have the of the benefit universities language. and in it dust. Petersburg. The latter is an object of great reverence to the ten thousand Tartars of Kazan. Similar waste may be observed over a purpose was rich stable manure of within the zone of black earth.

the Kama River. washed down by cool cups of Badminton. and other produce of the interior of Siberia. manufactured out of Caucasian or Bessarabian wine. rebellious of the Cossack Don . who preferred The tanks being filled by means of hose with a supply of oozy petroleum and after embarking a fresh refuse. bringing to it a vast number of vessels and rafts laden with salt. suffered in greatly 1670 from the bands a robber of Stenka Razin. insurgents. over a course of 1 1 60 miles. Numerous on the villages and groups of storehouses river bank tell us thatwe are passing through the great corn-producing districts of South-eastern Russia. iron. but nevertheless its fortress the ultimately arrested victorious march of the A century later the IAKTAR MOSOUE AT KAZAN. At about fifty miles from Kazan. perched chief on a of cliff 560 feet 'above the level It the river. itself the contingent recipient of the waters of five hundred and seventy-four affluents. hot tea. joins the Volga. a of travellers. water-melons. and we reach one of the centres of the grain trade at Simbirsk. to the wonderment of our less experienced sipping fellow-passengers. the Novoselski sped again down the muddy waters of the Volga. whole .no RUSSIAN PICTURES. a city of the seventeenth century.

An ordinary map of Europe shows the Samarskaya Luka. freely after subdue the rebels. Volga between Stavropol and Samara. (suffocated some ten years previously).000. village on the right had who previously. has for some time past been recognised in England. A . or fermented mares' milk. We had long watched our approach to the shining silver domes of the red brick cathedral and belfry of Samara. or bend formed Here begins the . for its buildings are mean except in the main thoroughfare. which is about the only one that can boast of what is called which. There is nothing of interest in Samara. by noble landlords. with thickly-wooded hills beyond. yet it is a city of great commercial importance. through which men and cattle have to trudge until the sun has reasserted the supremacy of dust. and being connected by rail with Moscow on the one hand and Orenburg on the other. and the Empress had been brought to her in an iron Pugatchef army to its only really pretty part of the Volga right bank rises in cliffs of curious formation. to the trade of Samara in grain and tallow is the supply of celebrity which the adjoining steppes offer to kumyss. and had imagined that its in Russian towns. like so many other Ermak. by the estate of a population of 65. surroundings would be in keeping with such imposing resplendence. HI country at this part of the Volga joined another rebellion. and we can say from personal experience that. be its is alleged far curative properties. like province Simbirsk. that sparkles like champagne. It required an breathed more cage. is the capital of a rich agricultural of the same name. It bears no evidence of being inhabited. who personated Peter III. from being a repulsive beverage even to the sound and healthy. Although this did not prove the case. while the opposite side of the river is one continuous cornfield or grass meadow.A VOYAGE of the DOWN THE VOLGA. This is the magnificent Count Orlof-Davydoff. and only a few remnants remain of the walls of the fortress by which the inroads of Next in Cossack robbers and nomadic tribes were eventually arrested. Its efficacy those who are afflicted with diseases of the lungs and kidneys. except when a copious shower has converted them into the deepest and blackest of mud. whose late father devoted to its cultivation and improvement the knowledge he had gained in Scotland. as a student at the University of Edinburgh and as a practical admirer and copyist of all good things that were British. the steamer leaves Samara and passes Pretty landscapes open out after bank has been named after the Sulphur Hills. also a Don Cossack. whatever may mares' milk. with paving Clouds of dust hang over or pervade its broad streets. and seriously threatened to wrest Moscow from Catherine II. the conqueror of Siberia. in the seventeenth century have long been extinguished. under Pugatchef. much of the trade and intercourse of Russia with Central The memories of Kalmuck and Cossack ravages Asia passes through it.

persecuted by the succession of their bishops as stoutly as it does that of our own Anglican prelates. where they had taken refuge when being This still denies the apostolical Russian Church. Near Syzran. until in banks we reach Orenburg.} of limestone that have the appearance hermit cells of Cheremshansk. with patches Petersburg to are the AN ANCIENT PIRATE RAID ON THE VOLGA. magnificent in run uninterruptedly from St. containing the largest deposits of next to those of the Abruzzi in Italy. (From a contemporaneous pritU. or dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. asphalte Europe. one of whose principal settlements is Khvalinsk. It enables trains to design and execution. the of snow. Beyond prosperous domains of the Old Believers. We religious are not centre an ethnographical and long in reaching. the broad Volga is spanned for the first and as yet the only time by a railway bridge. at Ekaterinenstad. to Irghiz River begin stretch the neat and thriving German colonies . a town situated at the foot of a hilly background. our next great station. so called from the fact of their having been permitted to return from Austrian Poland. the principal goal of the migrating peasantry. Within the of the district are the Palestine seceders to the Austrian Confession. From the mouth of the of a widely different character. a Cossacks. Other villages of piratical origin dot the the Cavern Hills.112 RUSSIAN PICTURES. been Volga pirate.

whose Russian modes of husbandry.A VOYAGE by Catherine Russia. planted with the agriculture in their primitive That result has object of improving the condition of so far not been attained beyond the boundaries of the colonies. and retain strongly their prejudices against the Russo- Greek and particularly against intermarriage with those who profess it. 300.000. . while neighbours adhere doggedly to the Lutherans keep themselves A COSSACK OF THE VOLGA.. II. entirely aloof socially. at least In the provinces of Samara and Saratof these colonists number religion. DOWN THE VOLGA.

frowning undulating ground within an Saratof is a handsome and amphitheatre important of bare of and city 112.114 RUSSIAN PICTURES. In 1700. render city most European-looking on the Volga. and visitations of cholera in was pillaged by the rebel Cossacks of Bulavin . is passed on the but the most important a bank. notoriety is prominent Razin Another connected with robber deeds. cases has a and in some cliff of name its own. A TARTAR LADY OF THE VOLGA. It was a subsequently ravaged robber bands of Stenka Razin then held century it thriving place on several occasions it so far back by 1635. lighting They have reason to be proud of the Museum of Art with which the city has been endowed by Professor Bogoliubof. agricultural Surviving Its all these misfortunes. fine tallow. whose gallery of pictures. the citizens rose in reforms of Peter the Great.000 it inhabitants. in the as but was The until 1671. mostly of the Stenka period. 1668 instigated by the Don Cossacks. and the excepadvantage of waterworks con- structed with the aid of British capital. Russian and foreign. broad and paved tional streets. with a breadth of nearly three right bank and are occamostly perpendicular. a celebrated painter. it contains. and eighteenth and Nekrasof The redoubtable Pugatchef bombarded it from the Falcon Hill. couple of hours after leaving Saratof stopping-place is at Kamyshin. in wheat. From Saratof the Volga takes a direct southerly course for a considerable distance. a town which was founded and fortified . with an extensive trade in grain. miles. bluffs The on the are large left colony. 1830 and 1848. tobacco. German in by Colonel Thomas Baillie. Like all the other towns on the middle and the suppression of piracy. Kalmuck Tartars. Built on hills. and murdered all those who rebellion against the shaved in compliance . its history is one of bloodshed. Saratof is now a prosperous emporium of trade produce. and it may be hoped that the citizens will not much longer delay the of their streets with gas. and to this long list of disasters must a neighbouring bluff 560 feet high be added the ravages of the plague in 1807. Each sionally intersected by ravines. linseed. lower courses of the Volga. There was evidence it the and promise of still greater improvement. (1708). one of the numerous British officers Its fortifications proved very useful in then serving the Tsar of Moscow. and highly other its many public and private buildings.

Ragged children and in fine sand. and the fine shops it is only and ware- houses in the central square. the colonists pursue a variety progress. Don (the Russian rivers of which the waters are not naturally or artificially connected) has diminished the importance of the place. At Sarepta. Tsaritsyn (the of 36. belonging to the Nobel and other companies is brought from Baku on the Caspian in iron vessels. and our passengers rush on shore to obtain a supply of the healing and invigorating cordial.000. connecting the Volga with the Don. where the goods are shipped the for Rostof. 13.' is well worth The oil stored on the river bank in the long rows of iron cisterns seeing. yet its former prosperity is to a great extent maintained by its steam mills. immediate vicinity. great number of Jews. DOWN THE VOLGA. strong balsam is also made here out of industries. and hanged all its inhabitants in 1774. so called after the enterprising Swede who started the industry. two great and tanneries. and delivered at Tsaritsyn into naphtha-cars. looks as if railway and steam communication had roused it too early from the slumber of a Russian provincial town. I 2 . and a considerable. yellow sand). the little town of Dubofka. raised in Elton Lake. short railway. potteries. which were subsequently abandoned. after which Catherine II.A VOYAGE with his orders. Not less important is Nobel's Town. the south of Russia owes much of its material development. and gives our well-known Colman but little chance of competition. We can now only mention. which can be seen travelling in vast numbers over the rail net-work of European ' Russia. This is a neat. in the petroleum or kerosine trade of Tsaritsyn. having proved in practice to be inconsistent both with real liberty and with founded in modern of In addition to agriculture. among other large and thriving villages trading in wheat and in salt. This to further whom. which squalid pigs roam about in most of its dirty unpaved streets. we find ourselves suddenly a bright patch of German civilization. and the new large storehouses on the river bank. that is attest importance of the place. growing commercial from the presence of a apparent whatever Jew-baiters may say to the the great and contrary. caused it to be repopulated. of which the most important is the preparation of mustard. carries large quantities of salted and dried fish (a species of corigonus) from the Caspian. our next stopping-place but one. Although the railway that only with now formerly the capital of the Volga runs between the Volga and the Cossacks. prosperous colony of Hernhuter (Bruderunita) in t 1770 on communistic principles. Sarepta mustard is used all over Russia. ' ' A mustard seed. at the head of the Sea of Azof. and or Moravian Brethren. and justly acquired the title of the Naphtha King. with a population mosquitoes.000 inhabitants. Almost buried flies about in clouds like the indigenous Tartar Sari-chin. stone-built. 115 Pugatchef took the town. A amount of timber to Kalatch on the Don.

and.RUSSIAN PICTURES. out of a population of 70. the Tartars. the capital. which Ivan the Terrible There is not It is now half Asiatic. after parting with the range of hills that had so long accompanied its right bank. and Cossack settlements. the Central Asiatics. conquered in 1554. the later capital of the Tartar kingdom. but it extent of about seventy-five per cent. on account of their . the Persians. which many travellers are induced to in order to witness the religious rites of that once mighty Tartar race. held lower course of the MODERN TARTARS OF THE VOLGA. half cosmopolitan. and the Armenians who are most en evidence to the European eye. to the .' of Muscovy as the Beyond is ' In four and a half days from Nijni Novgorod we end our voyage at Astrakhan. in alliance with the the wild Bashkirs. flows through a vast uniform steppe. and perhaps in the world. in which such concentrated. 1655. Subduing the of Nogai Tartars. A little further down on the same side we come upon a short line of railway abutting on the Boskunchak Lake and The right bank is on the border of the Kirghiz steppe. The Volga now makes a sudden bend to the east. founded by the Kipchak Tartars. saltworks. of the kingdom of Astrakhan. and forming the province of Astrakhan. declining gently towards the Caspian. At the place we have visit. in the twelfth century. another town of races is in Russia. Tsitrakhan. The Russians predominate a medley numerically. although be found dotted over with Kalmuck encampments or kibitkas. To our left the country appears unpopulated. mentioned remains their chief temple. comparatively lively. between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries.000 is the Kalmucks. known in their later invasions Golden Horde. they at one time. subject to Russia since but who. is occupation chief is Kalmytski Bazaar settlement the the Mongolian Kalmucks. for we pass villages (locally called Vatagas). ruled supreme over almost of Central whole the Asia. Volga in such force as to be able to threaten Russian towns so distant as Penza and Tambof. in which the it when explored will principal fishing.

in we find ourselves within the precincts of the ' Admiralty and . of Holstein established with the countries on the opposite side of the The last local rebellion occurred in 1706. Peter the Great reached Astrakhan with a large force. 117 The forest of masts which bursts respectively peculiar dress and features.A VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. not only made secure the possession of Astrakhan. but gave to Russia the sovereignty over the Caspian Sea. Mazanderan. who in 1665 checked depredations the trade which frequent by their by permission of the Tsar Alexis the Duchy SrrSS" AN ASTRAKHAN BOAT. and six years later Caspian. belong to a variety of quaint craft well worthy of the artist's The history of the city has already been foreshadowed in our reference to Cossack rebels and marauders. and after the capture of Derbent and the acquisition also from Persia of Baku and the provinces of Gilian. on our view as we approach the vast harbour between the main stream and the Bolda branch of the intricate Volga delta will be found on closer inspection to pencil. and Astrabad. of the Caucasus and Mercury Company If we land at the pier Astrakhan.

of 800 and even rapid rate measures run up to 1600 pounds. and spring. They are mostly taken partly in nets. name for this delicacy is caviale. are kept the yacht which he sailed. completed in 1710. At Astrakhan the most valuable product of the Volga is the sturgeon (Acipenser stnrio and The average Acipcnser huso] and the smaller sevriuga (Acipenser stellatus]. founded by Peter I. in the salting and drying of the fish. and 1. again.000. escape the ground-lines with which the many small Nor have the fish any repose even in winter. shore and cleaned on the spot. but excavated 1 744. and to a weight .000. in a Baku. important a source of wealth. sacristy has one of the richest collections in Russia of vestments A Persian mosque stands in the principal street. Their extirpation has been proceeding at a many years past. spinal marrow of the sturgeon. for they are then harpooned in The larger fish are drawn on shallow places through openings in the ice. the boats.' RUSSIAN PICTURES. which is intersected by the Varvazzi is originally in liable. At least forty thousand men and women find such employment at the Volga fishing stations. thousands of labourers flock to Astrakhan to take part in its rich fisheries. partly on in of the delta which are too shallow for lines those branches ground navigation.500. channels of the Volga delta are practically barred. although averaging nineteen feet in length. 100. but transferred as a naval station in 1867 to small Here. a collection of old arms and specimens The most striking edifice of the tools used during his reign in shipbuilding. which. as a precaution against the inundations to which the city autumn. produced by a process of drying from the inner part of the from its bladders. and mitres. and no fewer than In twenty-five thousand men are engaged in the five thousand and odd vessels and boats that pursue the same industry on the Caspian. at with in are carried hauled up to high landing-stages. to be soaked for about twelve hours in brine. generally unbaited.n8 Port.000. whence they to store-houses. while those of more convenient size are dealt present very difficult for any fish to with closely set hooks. is ikra. winter. and in the preparation of caviar. the boat in and house built for the great Reformer. deepened by a Greek of that name in 1817. thirty We may observe in passing that the Russian yearly from Astrakhan alone. and the time is evidently approaching when be adopted by the Government for the preservation of so It is for the sturgeon. The thirty gear used is of the strongest pounds for will in weight. annual catch of these three descriptions of sturgeon is respectively 300. caviar being a corruption of the Italian of the only an attempt to reproduce the sound word word . or in and then stored Isinglass is an ice-cellar. The in the city is the Cathedral of the Assumption. Canal. and a fine fish-glue is obtained are despatched barrels thousand which of The roe yields caviar. owing to the silting of the estuaries of the Volga. as well as models of ships.

with the aid of sentinels. sieves that retain the in which the roe is conis membrane passed through tained. the hand off. ASTRAKHAN. and. a semicircle. it ripe. and gradually enclosing it in a shallow bight. DOWN THE VOLGA. semi-transparent greyish colour. and can seldom be found in in the daily menu of the labouring classes ' ' .. so far as the rest of Europe is concerned. the roe is taken in Southern Europe.A VOYAGE haviar. in DOG SLEDGE WITH FISH. in strong brine until it in balls. but the grainy on the Volga no taste and with of fish or salt. Fishing in the delta of the Volga is also pursued on a large scale by Spying. is reserved for the tables of the affluent. after which. 119 by which the Turks and Tartars knew it ages before its appearance After the fish has been cut open. drained is and put under a when its superfluous moisture has been made of the bark of the lime tree (bast) packed bags The commoner sort of caviar replaces bread strong press. a school of small fish. . the quantity of dry salt until it can be taken out by . rest is and packed left in tins or barrels with is a small i. the sentries being also in due proportion rewarded for their vigilant services.e. they form pelicans. while the inferior is merely salted and packed in ' ' The higher sort small barrels for consumption by the less wealthy classes. Petersburg. swoop down in It is a tradition thousands to gorge themselves on their artfully-earned prey. the best being converted either into pressed or grainy caviar. perfection beyond St. birds these clever that of the fishermen the disgorge the fish Volga among make a fair division them down on the sand. they have pouched. laying of the total catch. out and divided into two qualities. a of quality.

SOUTH RUSSIA. after Little Russia (the more southerly districts watered by the Dnieper) submitted to the Tsar Alexis. the centre of a rich agricultural district connected by rail. OR NEW JERUSALEM. Kursk in 1032. three hundred and thirty-five miles from Moscow in an almost direct line. outpost ceased only towards the end of the seventeenth century. and in 1095 it was held by Isiaslaf. . with Riga on the Baltic. from whom it passed alternately to the Princes of Chernigof In the thirteenth century it was razed to the ground by and of Pereyaslavl. and the Tartars. from the north. the first town of any importance in Southern is Kursk. or black soil country. CHAPTER VII. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY IN THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE RESURRECTION. the railway passing through the cities of Tula (the Russian Birmingham) and Orel. and on the southAuthentic records attest the existence of east with Tsaritsyn on the Volga. In 1586 the southern frontiers of Muscovy were fortified. We are now almost in the heart of the Chernozem.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. on the west. MOSCOW. son of Vladimir COMING Russia Monomachus. Kursk became one of the principal places on that line of defence against Its disasters and sufferings as a military the Crimean Tartars and the Poles.

in fact. There is. although it long denoted in anything he chose. rather. It is a great relief to the eye to see at last a handsomely-built city like Kursk. a man free to do been used by the Tartar hordes to designate the From the princes of the House of Rurik southerly districts passed into the possession of Lithuania. PLOUGHING ON THE STEPPES. 121 loam of which its surface is composed to a These vast plains were known to depth of two and three yards and more. or ancient border country. relatively to the surrounding flatness. Its semi-nomadic population obtained in early days the designation of Cossacks. and ultimately incorporated into provinces. it had lower class of their horsemen. and. perched. a term now used only to denote the Southern Russians as distinguished . however. The more southerly part of the province of Kursk is in the Ukraine. No great part given fixed geographical limits can be assigned to either of these designations. and other ancient geographers only in their present steppe. and for as the borders or especially to the Ukraine of the Poles or the Muscovites . and almost smothered in the verdure of numerous gardens.SOUTH so called from the rich black RUSSIA. Strabo. later. but Turkish and . marches became safe and populated. or. on an elevation. or flat and woodless condition. for even the churches are mostly not older than the second half of the eighteenth century. those of Poland. Little Russia was another arbitrary name anciently a to of what has been also known as the Ukraine. This word is not Slavonic. Herodotus. they were absorbed by the dominant Little Russia is. not much to see within it. power. these into Russia a free man.

Cossack forefathers. like those of all Slavs. and and make the most of those qualities by adorning thembeauty grace. Little Ethnographically. entirely spent in card-playing. full. surrounded by and kept internally in order and cleanliness. the every-day Except. The upper classes of South Russia. is the mode Slav of life. Poles and rebels. and not without a vein of romance are. there are well-appointed country seats in the South of Russia in which the long summer days are only for meals. and with frost and snow that left scarcely four months in the year for labour in the field. and same an equal proof the as insouciance to the material future. thatched. Vitebsk) Malo-Ros (Little Russian) is physically a better. He is taller. with swamps women of Little Russia fertile which had to be drained. enriched by the cultivation of large and fertile estates. although nearer akin to the Muscovite than to Russians become the Polish tongue. to sport (principally coursing). however. exhibit a similar superiority over the bulk of their compeers in Great Russia. of the larger landed proprietors. and The women have both less rude and primitive in his domestic surroundings. and later with internal enemies. or Ho/iol. Their lives are altogether more happy. tinge pensity to reckless hospitality. with wild beasts which had to be destroyed or guarded against. refinement of the ease of their lives in a is attributable to the comparative a with climate more country. or Great Russian. resembling strongly those of the Roumanian and Transylvanian peasantry. gradually . generally. the fused with the White Russians of the north-west (Mohilef and The and with the Slovaks of the other side of the Carpathians. social jollification. of vermin and cockroaches but wattled. and even the race. man than the Veliko-Ros. and favoured in their social development by long contact with the ancient Western civilisation of Poland. finer-featured. full of deep feeling. in the case life of the Southern Russian There is a strong bears a strong resemblance to that of the Irish squireen. although their songs. but courageous men engaged in a life-and-death struggle with nomadic The greater hordes. There the Great and the White Russians had to contend with a soil much less productive. selves in neat and picturesque costumes. The language of thought of these two branches of the Little Russian.122 RUSSIAN PICTURES. from is principally the Great Russians of the more the central part of the empire. is a cross between the Polish and the Russian. who were not freebooters like the old Cossacks of the Volga. also. Indeed. Their houses are not like those of other parts of Russia log huts. though a less muscular. with interruptions There are . genial than that of the more northerly parts of the empire. gardens. and to a great extent to card-playing. and whitewashed cottages. The men sing of the daring exploits of their plaintive and in the minor key. There a strongly-marked difference cast in outward appearance. as he of the con- temptuously called by his more vigorous northern brother. with thick forests which had to be cleared.

indeed.SOUTH horses in RUSSIA. cracked. ' ' . progress to the immigration of landed proprietors from the northerly and eastern districts of the Black Soil Zone. parched. on journeys to estates or towns often fifty to one hundred miles distant. Country life.' Kief is the resort of the more ' towns.' Proper. while Kursk and Kharkof owe much of their riches and . A PEASANT GIRL OF 'GREAT RUSSIA. and dusty one day. and ever since the Emancipation of the Serfs and the accompanying extinction of the power and authority of the proprietary classes. to the advantage solely of the principal provincial Europe. and of certain capitals and watering-places in Western Thus. offers but few attractions to the surface presenting the next ladies. absenteeism has been largely on the increase. and vehicular locomotion is therefore resorted to only as a matter of necessity. 123 and vehicles of every description to which but they can be harnessed taking a drive through endless cornfields natural roads or tracks. has no great attractions in any part of Russia plenty in the stable. and along a of black mud.

gives a very circumstantial account of the conversion of Vladimir in A.D. Scandinavo-Slavic character of the great city was lost during the occupation of the provinces of which it was the capital. the Canterbury of the Russian empire. we proceed to give. Conflagrations. an account of the great event which made it glorious and memorable to all ages. Regent of Kief. together was only at the second partition of Poland (1/93) that all the districts which now constitute the South-western Provinces of Volhynia. 882 it became. after the conversion of Vladimir to Christianity.124 RUSSIAN PICTURES. towns. Its close intercourse with Constantinople. From century that time also Kief has continued to be the Jerusalem. which they reached by descending the Dnieper and crossing the Black Sea in 200 About A. Sophia. and to become the founder of the Russo-Greek Church. It with ' ' of the Russian people to Christianity nine centuries ago. Nestor. commotions. and so his marriage with the to its sister of the Emperor of Byzantium.D. swept away the grand monuments of sieges Christian antiquity which the city once possessed. Partly from motives of policy. who lived between 1050 and 1116. the conversion Muscovy regained Kief. when by a treaty with Poland the Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnieper. strongly and favourably by Northway Novgorod the Great to Byzantium. Olga.' Mother of Russian planted men on their from the seat of the paramount throne of the Variag (Var&gr) principalities. 988. had embraced but it was left to her Christianity at Constantinople about the year 955 . from here quote a few passages. Traces of them are to be found only in the much-restored Cathedral of St. To the question In what late Dean Stanley's Lectures on tlic which we shall ' . to induce him to abandon pagan worship. 1496. who urged him to believe in their religion and to honour Mahomet. viking ships. and a very interesting epitome of it exists in the History of the Eastern Chnrcli. first by the Lithuanians (from 1320). as we have previously mentioned. 1500. But interrupting here for awhile our description of the city. In Kief we see the districts. intestine and Tartar wars. Mussulmen from the Bolgar kingdom on the Volga. south-western ' princely landlords of the affected by Polish culture. prosperity and importance that in the nth no fewer than four hundred churches stood within its walls. Podolia. in and 1240. In the year 986 envoys from the different religious bodies of the then known world came to Vladimir. at The first to arrive were Kief. viz. grandson Vladimir to establish the Christian religion in his dominions. and Kief (of which Kief is the seat of administration) passed finally under the Russian sceptre.. and then by the Poles until 1667. and in the ruined stonework of the gilt gate which Boleslas the Brave in the nth century opened with a sword (now in the cathedral at Cracow) that was contributed much The original long after used at the coronation of the Kings of Poland. as concisely as the subject will permit.

' Next came the representatives of Western Christendom. their religion earth. says the late Dean Stanley. nor What. He derided the religion and . 125 does your religion consist ? they replied that they believed in God. who explained their belief. 'we cannot live without it. perhaps. and every living creature. under a general feeling of desponhaving at that epoch.' with the objection ' : did they receive it from the Pope. : accept the prohibitions.' said Vladimir. you wish to teach others you whom God has rejected and dispersed ? Do you wish. whilst thy gods are of wood. however. ' ' A ' Philosopher from Greece ' came last. The rude prince would not.' he said. and eating and drinking only in honour of God. and after death life in a harem. were also dismissed law. abstinence from pork and wine. the prohibition of drinking. in a summary manner.' Some Jews. and also in what the Prophet taught circumcision. moon. one ' : We fear God. They had been led to confess that they had been fathers ' Our did not believe in your religion.SOUTH ' RUSSIA. Drinking is the great delight of Russians.' On learning that the law of the Latin Church commanded fasting. that we should suffer the same ? ' . who made the heaven and was the true the stars and the INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY INTO RUSSIA. the requirements of their and their dissidence from Christians and Mahometans. and above all. Vladimir told them to go home. the Papal See become the prey of ruffians and profligates. which was then ' fearfully ' expecting the end dency.' They came from the Pope to tell him that of the world. dispersed for their sins throughout the world.

Kyrie eleison ! They were told by the wily Byzantines that these were angels who had come down from heaven to mingle in the service and wanting no further proof of the trueness of the Greek religion. was baptised A. Under the stern orders and Christianity. subjecting to a similar fate the Byzantine capital 1 Lectures on the Eastern Chttrc/i. they hastened back to Kief.' It is curious to ' ' . ' early evidence of an innate human yearning to the impressive with religious worship.' These reported in A. founded by Heraclean Greeks. 147. deacons issuing from the sanctuary with torches in their hands and with white linen wings on their shoulders. 2 See p. Sophia. the sister This sacrifice was made. that the Russian emissaries witnessed a service which had This yearning appears to have been purposely been rendered more than ordinarily magnificent. The prince painted are those who on are the woe to the impelled to exclaim. For this purpose he scene ' . and even their idols were coarsely hewn out of wood or stone. envoys. practice of the the Mahometans. which surpassed all others in the grandeur of its form of worship. at that celebrated the of for its ceremonial both of Church and period splendour It was in the Church of St. at 2 Khersonesus. and that their stench was insupportable Roman Churches they represented that although they were better than the Mussulman mosques. condemned world the celebration of Mass by the Roman Church Churches triumphed which was of with unleavened bread the had been in the point on which the two greatest torn asunder and explained why the the Jews to 'Germans and Greeks' believed over the ' Him whom by had crucified. p. . then all State. now replaced by a splendid cathedral in commemoration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to This was effected wholesale. 300. both of not ' . There is no record of any adornment in the rude temples of the Pagan Northmen and Slavs. They were struck but what most by the multitude of lights and the chanting of the hymns filled them with astonishment was the appearance of the deacons and sub. 988 in the Church of the Holy Mother of God. ! sent wise men 'to examine the faith of each and the manner of their worship.D. 987 that the Mahometans prayed with their heads while of the German and covered. a marriage between himself and Anne. Happy right sinners who are on the left But he would not consent to be baptized until he had been more fully instructed about each religion. find in this objection such combine the beautiful and fully satisfied at Constantinople.126 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Vladimir did not long hesitate to act on the recommendations of his But he first besieged the rich city of Khersonesus in the Crimea. they had no ornaments nor beauty. and at whose presence the people fell on their knees and cried. He on was other the envoys of exhibiting Vladimir a tablet the Last Judgment. and Vladimir of the Emperor Basil Porphyrogenitus. and of his immediate conversion to Christianity. and then made as a condition. gorgeous with gold and mosaics.D.

during the reigns of Peter I. doctrine. and cast into the river. or ' Equal an Apostle.. Perun. predestination. whilst the priests procured from Constantinople read the prayers. or command Both the late Dean of Westminster and the late Count D. an AugusBoniface. . Catherine and more recent sovereigns. principally by Nicon. and It remains essentially Eastern. II. the author of religion spread gradually over Russia. England. the development of the RussoGreek Church through the four periods into which its history is divided. the huge wooden idol. that the holy bread must be leavened. of course. women. Suffice it to was that it consolidated between the say beginning of the fourteenth century and the middle gradual of the seventeenth. and children at Kief were bathed some sat on the banks. and reformed to a certain extent A NUN COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CONVENT. Gaul. scourged by twelve horsemen. swam. in regard to the . others in the waters of the Dnieper . and Germany were Chris- tianized respectively tine. whilst admitting the doctrine of transubstantiation. in close . influence. whose doings we sketched on our way to Moscow. was dragged over the hills at a horse's tail. it It does not. recently deceased). it was without the agency of missionaries. 127 threats of the prince.SOUTH RUSSIA. on whom the Russian Church has conferred the same tine the title as that of Constanto Great : Isapostolos. almost effected exceptionally in Europe. by of the lesser princes of the Rurik line. namely that. recognise the and in respect of matters of faith and spiritual supremacy of the Pope denies that it the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son. connection with autocracy. subjected to changes in matters of liturgy. Romanism in Russia (the eminent Minister of the Interior. and dispensations of complete submersion of the body at baptism. From the Roman Catholic Church differs strongly on many points. Another important distinction is that. all the men.' that it must have been ' From this centre the Christian the example. but there was no in Russia corresponding apostle except Vladimir. We may well agree with Nestor a sight wonderfully curious and beautiful to see. some plunged in.' It would lead us too far to describe. however faintly. on the secular or . Tolstoi. and a by a Martin. except in the case of danger to life and under other urgent circumstances and affirms. indulgences. Eucharist. point out the prominent fact in this conversion. rejects holds the necessity purgatory..

so much modified the Russian ancient has. who declared that his kindness to the priest was much more than she had expected even from his known amiability The services of the Church are conducted in the old Slavonic. who parishioners in their happened took in to ' know little was mistaken for an excessive politeness. and communion between these two have to pass before the Russian clergy attain a high level of culture. in some degree. she divulged that she would like to ask the village priest to dinner And yet he was no ordinary rural pope. marriage priest. although a second marriage is forbidden also retains the Gregorian Calendar. and after much genuine hesitation on the part of the lady. and observations was so great that ' the interest he Time propagation of Christianity in Russia without the aid of missionaries. into which the Scriptures were translated after Cyril and Methodius had introduced the semi-Greek alphabet. This was an advantage which Pagans converted by the Latin Church were not permitted to possess. however. the Not very many years ago a young Englishman was house or mansion of one of the greatest and most To his surprise. for the the father's it ! Russian. the lady of the house highly-educated noblemen in Russia. in his oft-quoted work : ' Maskell of the Greek Church is excessively complex. said to him one day she had a great favour to ask. are unreconcileable with those some of of the the principal points of another great stumbling-block against official Churches continues to be the denial by the Russian Synod of the apostolical succession of the But even if these points were Anglican bishops. for which he was profusely thanked by the hostess. and which accounts. Many generations will Russo-Greek faith. co-operation could be established between the Churches for any useful purpose. scrupulously clean. cannot compress even a superficial reference to the services of the Roman Russo-Greek Church into fewer sentences than those used by Mr. and the symbolical which it the represents meanings by dogmas of religion are everywhere made the subjects of " minute observance. well informed also on lay matters relating to his own country. that the Church Slavonic is now practically almost as different as Latin is to the vernacular of We Catholic countries the purest in ethnological descent. uneducated masses with which they are socially blended militates against their worldly Their position in the social scale is well exemplified in the regeneration. but a man of orthodox learning. As doctrine regards the Anglican Church. which is still used with some modifications. took a seat beside him. or associated with his staying at country ' ! love of vodki . During the greater part of the Mass the " royal doors (in the altar screen) The ceremonial . ' ' white clergy. is to a widowed The Russian Church obligatory. Their almost entire material dependence on the rude.128 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and clad in a handsome cassock of mauve silk. following anecdote. it is difficult to see what practical harmony and conceded. language. The Englishman.' his to do own tilling and compelled harvesting.

. far above the barbarous that are to be heard in Greek and other churches of the East at the present moment. Now the doors fly open. in the deep bass tones of the men mingling with tive the ol is plain- trebles younger indescribIt voices which able is in its harmony. unlike any other lies yet underneath original the tinge of Orientalism. crossing himself and responding ' officiating priest K . barbaric music. unable to follow and in ignorance of the meaning. tones now used Church long been written as in in the Russian are comparatively They have clef.SOUTH are RUSSIA.' The cords religious music dis- of Russia ' has a peculiar charm of its own.' the modern four lines style with five lines in not the Gregorian. the treble clef. and is the . no is instrumental music of any voices Bass permitted. now and again entering for a short or pope popes pass throughout the church. accompaniment.' on which each member of the crowded congregation falls on his knees. Now from one corner comes a chant of many closed . Then they are the thick the celebrant rolling clouds of incense. of extraordinary It is depth and power are the most desired. in turn the voice of the officiating priest is raised within. . amongst the crowd. 129 most part without. that the in said A SOUTH RUSSIAN WOMAN. now from . From time time a voices. through glimpse is gained of To a stranger. the deacons remain to for the time. the wailing tones of all No kind. the most gorgeous ceremony of the Russian Church is that of Easter Eve. . and a fleeting another a single one intones. effect is bewildering. the closed again suddenly. modern. in on the tenor or bass Next to a coronation at Moscow. incensing holy pictures answered in deep tones by the deacons without. There is a sweetness and attractiveness in the unaccompanied chanting of the choir. when as the clock strikes twelve the announces that Christ is risen.

tells heavily The exchange of dyed or painted eggs at the time of paschal salutation is a general custom throughout Russia. to inordinate indulgence in on the public health after Easter is over. then give to each other three kisses. with the result that this dried mushrooms. by which which rolls furthest his and he can also win the competing eggs own well-directed egg may touch while rolling.' The choir . and therefore win the wager It is curious that the which may be the damaged egg or a small coin. to break the fast which a majority Bread of them have kept.' and. or hymn has not been in Russia its merriest peals. and the Podol. bursts out the Church bell in The churches are on the largest and sweetest in tone of any in the world. will be found even in the lowliest cottage. beforehand. until the salutation has been hand. and hard-boiled eggs dyed mostly red. Those with the testing of the relative strength of eggs. with Christ is risen. is bound to carry in his Friends. Picturesquely perched on bank of the Dnieper. The latter is the commercial quarter. continue to the paschal salutation. while the tables of the higher and middle classes groan also with viands and refreshments of a more solid kind. as a matter of fact. in the beautiful simultaneously every city. days. the city is divided into (being therefore one of the greatest the Old Town. . meat and drink. Easter-tide game is existence Monday. beer and vodka continue ' ' to flow throughout the country for sudden break from subsistence on several fish. ' day. Another favourite on the smooth floor. steep elevations of the right after a course of more than 1000 miles Sea Black the into falls which rivers in Russia). It is now. verily Easter He has risen. and no one who village rings out can realize the impressive effect of the ringing of so many bells. congregation adding wax taper which each worshipper. irrespective of sex.' or Easter less curious No is it to know that a competitive tapping of dyed eggs at Easter-tide prevails also in some parts of Sweden and Norway. prince or pauper. and groats mixed with hempseed oil. the site of the famed monastery of that name. on Pace-egg of very similar games with eggs 1 has recently been reported from Northumberland. however. April 27. sotto voce. both consecrated and a kind of conical cake made of curds. more or less strictly.RUSSIAN PICTURES. the Pechersk. chandeliers. or Town on the Cliff. the ancient Borysthenes. the people rush back to their homes. the hardest point crack the weaker shells. for the previous forty days. As soon as the service is over. and is regularly laid out with broad streets worthy of the handsome houses 1 St. \Yine. ' exchanged with each friend or acquaintance. lustres. town. 1889. as a rule of 'Yea. do so for some time after Easter Sunday. James's Gazette. time to return to Kief. and so are the games played with those such as rolling them down a hollowed-out piece of wood raised at one end ecrgs The victory is to the owner of the egg a stand about twelve inches high. and huge this great occasion bathed in light from of illumination from the no small amount the candelabra. .

and shaded with fine old trees. the Sophia. and thoroughly restored in 1826. to wean the Ruthenian or South Catholicism Roman made by attempt Russo-Greek Russian peasantry from the Church.U. Above the Metropolitan's stall are figures in mosaic of Byzantine prelates of the third and fourth centuries.Hungary and the Balkan peninsula. Sophia at Constantinople has been much altered by repairs and additions. Basil. K 2 . This edifice is only erected a Christian church dedicated to St. with the relics of a Metropolitan who was decapitated by the Tartars in 1497. is between the Pechersk the latter was quarter and the Old Town. is Another remarkable a superbly executed representation of the Lord's Supper. 989 by Greek artists and artisans. the most ancient basilica in Russia of the Byzantine style. 1 The Lithuanian Perkiin. 131 which line them. the above Equally interesting Metropolitan's hemispherical vaulting are the Greek frescoes on the wall-supports and partly in the upper galleries. ritus Greed]. Some of their beautiful mosaics remnants of the work of Byzantine artists. which. nominally Here also is the great Cathedral of 1695. enclosed within earthen ramparts anciently the site of the Pagan Pantheon from which Perun (or Jupiter) was . and in a lower tier. mosaic floor in front of the principal altar belonged to the original church. convex surface of the figure in mosaic is that of the Virgin Mary. is considered to be an exact reproduction of The Its the original. Church of St. is among the principal treasures of St. have been preserved on the altar walls and in places on the wall-supports and the arches. founded in A.' The tomb of Yaroslaf. 1017. in the place of Perun's temple. 1 ignominiously dragged by Vladimir. Tartars. St. on the stall. who. Vladimir. divided from the upper by wide bands of ornamentation in similar work. wearing the These effigies bear witness to the Catholic tonsure and with shaven chins. Sophia.I>. stands in a chapel dedicated to St. containing the principal official and other residences. All these were discovered in 1843 under the whitewash which had been applied to them while the cathedral was (1590-1633) in the possession of the Uniats (Catholics. The Uniat Faith is spreading among the Slavs of A us tro. and the ancient structure has in reality been preserved only where we also find internally some in the centre of the existing mass. Tithes Church. The best part of the city. 1390. whose priests are depicted on the pillars that support the dome. in the twelfth century and again in it for was reconstructed extant. built A.SOUTH RUSSIA. its adherents having been re-united to the Russo-Greek Church by official 2 conversion and 'administrative measures. and they have survived the results of those labours. This. which in early ages contained chapels. repaired 1385 a reduced copy of the Its original form and renovated once more in 1850. is erected on the site of a sacred edifice bearing the same name. destroyed two centuries later by seventeenth in the and restored between century. although consecrated only in 1842. for the Uniat Faith or Church exists no longer. the founder of the cathedral.

and an Orthodox Ecclesiastical Academy. the and coloured and of domes the spires monastery. predicting that on hills about there shall be a great city. The belfry alongside is more than three hundred the hill . Greek Church that took place at Kief in July. the ruins Ill of St. the first shall hereafter shine cross seen in Russia. Christianity. Vladimir. The monastery is entered by a gate ornamented with frescoes of St. ' of the Pechersk quarter of the city. brought into strong gilt relief by the massive fortress walls and bastions. . were found the tomb. or the first in rank in and the most Lavra. 1888. Early in spring. owing to an assembly in London of the Universal Episcopate of the Anglican Church. Andrew. which was while on the left are the shining cupolas of the formerly a Jesuit College for Ascension Convent Women. It is easy among such surroundings and such memories to realise the of the spectacle great gathering of the prelates and priests of the Russoand of the Eastern Churches in close communication with it. the Apostle of Greece and of Scythia. according to an ancient legend. with a handsome cathedral built by Mazeppa for the use of the Uniats. in the South of Russia. and standing on the spot on which St. the view from St. Russia. built in the elegant proportions of the style of Louis XV.132 RUSSIAN PICTURES. with seven gilt cupolas. the first two abbots. and is intended to serve as a basis of operations. For a view of the Podol quarter we must repair to the terrace of the Church of St. Approached from the east. and at once arrest attention from We en mention passant that the huge arsenal which the fortress shelters supplies all the troops in South Russia with arms. when the Dnieper huge assumes in front of Kief the dimensions of a vast lake. with only the head. on the occasion of the celebration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to Even the Archbishop of Canterbury was present in the spirit. enclosed within the immense fortress that crowns ' . Andrew. Theodosius. flanked by the cells of the brotherhood. Pecherskaya Monastery. effect. planted. sympathy. and goodwill to the Metropolitan of Kief. while its barracks are capable of accomKief is the most important strategical point modating thirty thousand men.' We have left to the last our mention of the most interesting sight in This is the Kief. Its principal cathedral. and God shall cause forth the grace of God many churches to rise within it. Anthony and St. in 1 744. of These are now deposited under a block of grey marble within the latter the new church. it had been found impossible to send a bishop to Kief to represent the Church of England. for his grace addressed a letter of congratulation.' To the right we now see the gilt domes of the Bratski Monastery. have a strikingly picturesque almost every part of Kief. and one for which the city is well worth visiting. Andrew's terrace is more than ordinarily striking. in which also regret was expressed that. is reached by a fine avenue of trees. ancient in origin (1055).

church THE PECHERSK MONASTERY AT KIEF. although the veritable tomb which contained vessels. Vladimir. and . and pectoral crosses of great value and religious interest. in the shape of ikons. the limestone of the high They extend a considerable distance in passages blackened by the torches of visitors. sacristies have been described that we must pass over the many already light even by the of the innumerable tapers which are treasures of the Pechersk Monastery. and who are So certainly not fewer than two hundred thousand in number each year. which the cathedral claims to hold in a side chapel. 133 internally. kept constantly burning by pilgrims who come from every part of the empire. and the ancient stalls of the monks perpetuate its somewhat Roman Catholic appearance. however. The richly-decorated ceiling is scarcely seen . in river-bank. Anthony and St.SOUTH feet RUSSIA. the style of architecture is neither elegant high nor imposing. Theodosius. of its The monastery owes excavated part celebrity and of its revenues to the neighbouring catacombs of St. it is undoubtedly in the Tithes Church of which the principal we have spoken. chasubles. An object of special veneration is the true head of St.

between these primitive works of man and the achievements of the skill and labour of the nineteenth century. to gain the kingdom of heaven. they are not held in equal we find here also the remains of ten monks selves ' veneration. Anthony. at the extreme end of the gallery. brandy.000. 6755 feet in length. with palls of cloth and silk their mummified hands are so placed pilgrims. by girder bridge constructed by a Russian engineer. Theodosius. and at voluntarily took food.' and corn. with South Russia. the annalist. when Poland finally seat of trade population of 160. and of its connection by rail with the shores of the Baltic and those of the In 1/65. on either side of which lie worked in gold and silver for the intercession of the sin. to the south of those of St. in ' martyr being buried almost up to his still who had immured themOne order. Nevertheless. is the being a centre from which the a and manufactures ' . through the small windows from which we turn away with a shudder. Englishman. saints in . In proximity to it is the splendid Mr. and the Christian character of also remains. principal to the east in of Kief. and We are shown St. open coffins. died from his neck for some months . and in that posture body Other ancient catacombs have recently been discovered under the city Numerous itself. lies in the first catacomb. in fulfilment of a vow of continence. which has also reason to be proud of its university with upwards of six hundred students. the interments is evidenced by the pectoral crosses that have come to light. as they believed. is considered to be It was built between 1848 and 1855 a noble monument of engineering art. of Northern and Central Russia are spread products throughout the provinces to the east and south. and as they contain only forty-six bodies (the others have seventy-three) of departed saints of a secondary order. his small chapel and the cell in which he passed the last fifteen years of his life without breathing the fresh air. Sugar. Kharkof became the capital of the Ukraine. Anthony. are on a smaller scale. Nestor. its founder. Charles an Vignolles. but their origin and history have not yet been ascertained. is exhibited who. down even to the Caucasus. are largely sold at the five fairs held each year at Kharkof. until they died. largely produced in this part of Russia from beetroot and bounty-fed. Black and Azof Seas. wool and hides from the central provinces. over which the railway What a contrast passes. Kharkof. for as to be able to receive the devotional In kisses of the who individually apply distinct saint most renowned removing some one cell are the remains of eleven 'martyrs/ who besetting and one and the same time immured themselves in it. human remains and coffins have been found in them.I 34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. typified in the two grand bridges by which the Dnieper is spanned close to Kief! The Nicholas Suspension Bridge. after having been a Cossack outpost town since 1647. The catacombs of St.

whether from the Crimea or the shores of the In the province of Kharkof are found those remarkable idols Caspian. is familiar to us in connection with the defeat of Charles XII. At Ekaterinoslaf we are again on the great Dnieper. 135 ceded the province to Muscovy. It was only a the river from Kief in a stately village when Catherine II. of stone which we have seen in the Historical Museum at Moscow. King Stanislaus Augustus Poland and a brilliant suite. of Austria. and later the high road of -the Tartar invaders of Russia. consecrated only in 1835. and a vast number of tumuli. Anciently. also a place of extensive trade.K or POLTAVA. On that occasion she laid the first stone of a cathedral which was not destined to be completed on the imposing scale she had projected. and which has been reduced to one-sixth in the edifice that was The town consists of only one row of buildings. particularly of the Khazars. this was the camping-ground of nomadic tribes. by Peter the Great in 1 709. Two monuments commemorate the victory. almost with concealed Dnieper. and cattle.. horses. descending of barge accompanied by Joseph II. principally in wool. in gardens and the Catherine's running for nearly three miles parallel Palace. Swedes is marked by a mound which covers the remains of their slain. raised it to the dignity of a town bearing her own name.SOUTH RUSSIA. Poltava. which have yielded coins establishing the fact of an early intercourse both with Rome and Arabia. a bronze statue which represents . The centre of the field so disastrous to the THE KAI'I I.

and to be buried in a hole under. ordered the remains to : be exhumed. striking feature of which. Catherine 'Dedicated to the Saviour of the human race by Catherine II. or Ingul with the Bug. on which typhus fever supervened. Next to Odessa. and descend In commemoration of her visit. in her clad Roman armour and crowned. on which are abiding-place. in the year 1790. temporarily neglected by the naval claim to that proud position after the fall town in New in 1769. constitute the sights of Ekaterinoslaf. son of the admiral of Scotch parentage who. Ad Sepulchrum Stas. part of the country was called after its conquest Chesme . 1 789. horseback to visit a lady at some distance on the banks of the Dnieper. however. to Kherson. with the aid of some equally gallant countrymen. the Emperor Paul. number of she caused to be inscribed in Slavonic over the Cathedral of St. the founder of the town.' died and was buried in a village about four miles north of the month of November. drive 1 settlement. somewhat relieved in its monotony by numerous ancient tumuli.136 RUSSIAN PICTURES.' By her directions. won for the Russians the naval battle of Sea. Nicholas. at the junction of the It was the site until 1775 of a Cossack setch. Alios Salvos Fecit. and restored to a more fitting marble. died on the 2oth January. Nicolaef re-asserted its It owes much of its present affluence to the sound administraof Sevastopol. over his grave is a block of marble surmounted by a sun-dial. and in 789 it received its present appellation in commemoration of the capture of Otchakof from the Turks on the feastDestined from the first by Potemkin to be the harbour day of St. the ' inscription 1790. according to his last wish. but her son. was buried in this cathedral in 1791. at the delta of the Dnieper. A fortified of a Russian fleet in the Black authorities. marked by a tombstone of white Church of the Assumption is a simple obelisk. and the garden of her magnificent Prince Potemkin. and es.' is : Johannes Howard. painted blue and red. in 1787. considerable in a special quarter between the river and ' ' A them pursue the favourite Jewish occupation of money -changing. We now follow the route taken by Catherine II. he caught a cold. he set out from Kherson on philanthropist In Kherson. huddled together the bazaar. Within a high circular wall near The great English Vixit propter Alios. in the 65th year of his age the ' recorded his principal achievements. the more favourite. Ouisquis Amici. with a sun-dial on one face and a portrait-medallion on the An inscription on it in Russian and Latin tells us that Howard other. over forty miles of steppe. Being lightly The monument clad. and the Ekaterinoslaf Prospect is dotted with their stands and their moneychests. from which they were again disinterred in 1874. Prince Potemkin. tion of Admiral Samuel Greig. brings those who do not proceed by steamer to the great naval station and commercial port of Nicolaef. is its Jewish population.the floor of the crypt. Nicolaef is the handsomest as this Russia.

although steamers have at a considerable distance from it. Alexander to anchor the is died in 1825. about five millions sterling. &c. wool. which now mostly in grain. has been connects this important harbour of with Kharkof and other rich agricultural centres. Taganrog. and. greatly promoted by the railway.. The annual value of its exports of corn. as at Nicolaef. tallow. British shipping is chiefly . Its large trade.SOUTH from the RUSSIA. owing to the shallowness of roadstead.37 Turks and Tartars. I. where A NOGAI TARTAR. 1. Of the six ports on the neighbouring Sea Azof. is the most considerable.

It was not until 1791 that the fortress of the Greeks. Ginestra of the and the Genoese. open-air or Odessa on the Black Sea of is the Odessns AN ITINERANT SHOEMAKER. an d is adorned with in a bronze monument or chief) to the Platof. but it owes its present prosperity . the chief centre of inland trade in the south-east provinces of Russia. immunities were later granted to the city. the La Hadji-Bey and the whole of the Turkish provinces of Otchakof were annexed to the Russian empire. which.' anciently the abode of Scythians. It is usual to bestow on the Russian heir-apparent the Cossacks.' Emperor in 1887. employed the Neapolitan De Ribas and the Frenchman De Volante (both in her military sen-ice. when confirmed. when renegades from Muscovy and vag- rants of every description formed themselves into Cossack or robber communities. famous Hetman leader (Ataman of the Cossacks between 1/70 and 1816. Sarmatians. Khazars and Tartars. Bolgars.) to construct a town and harbour. Huns. and one in which many industries (especially the manipulation of tobacco grown in the Caucasus and the Crimea) are pursued. Much of the produce shipped here comes from Rostof on the Don. Hadji-Bey of the Turks. at a assemblage. The present population Don dates from the sixteenth century. and in 1637 took the Turkish fortress of Azof. They attacked the Tartars and Turks. the capital of the Country ' of the Cossacks. Until the reign of Peter the Great the powerful and independent Cossacks were not much interfered with. was founded in 1804. A short distance above this great mart is Novocherkask. Catherine II. received in Various privileges and 1 795 its present modernized name of Odessa. but from 1718 they were gradually brought under subjection to the Tsar. in virtue of the Treaty of Jassy. employed in the trade. peopled mostly by Greeks and Albanians. all the ancient rights and privileges of the warlike Cossacks of the Don. title of ' Ataman ' of the Don the The last investiture with Cossack baton 1 took place also the reigning circle.138 RUSSIAK PICTURES. whom they powerfully assisted The town subsequent wars.

000. the Duke of Edinburgh. who in 1823 took up his between 1817 and 1857. with no small advantage to the states in which they were permitted to become free citizens and loyal subjects. trees and gardens of great beauty. a chartered a notice certain in body in the sea-bathing put up by years ago. when he was succeeded by Count Langeron. Nor is the ' ' establishment of which it contrived to dispossess the municipality. affairs. Limited. a French emigrf. city residence at Odessa as Governor-General of New Russia. of Odessa had grown from nine to twenty-five thousand. Odessa has now an atmosphere pure and bright. however. ' : The notice was words No clogs or Jews are allowed to bathe here. the population It is now 240. also a Frenchman.R. in a great measure to the privileges of a free port. through thirty-inch pipes. H. is hundred steamers. brought from the Dnieper. thirty miles distant.SOUTH chiefly RUSSIA. after The water administration of local the although it prevails in the great export trade of In of the Jews so considerable as it once was. baiting likely to disappear under the This culminated. we are not surprised to find that Odessa has developed into a handsome city of South European aspect. not many that community are periodically subject. harbour. as they did in days long gone by in England and in other countries to which they resorted. in the following . of which one-half are have the advantage of an institute and Consul-General Stanley. and with an export trade now valued at ten Its splendid millions sterling. Eleven years later. enjoyed by the Prince Woronzoff. established in patronage of H. Formerly enveloped in clouds of fine dust. The combination of Russian. carried on with great vigour and enlightenment the works of construction and improvement thanks Under such advantages contemplated by his foreign predecessors. least fifteen Their crews 1875 by reacling-room. 139 to the talents and energy of the Duke Emanuel de Richelieu. power city. only a secondary influence in the capital. to which the members of it is fact. to the disabilities under which the made for the be should allowance Jews have so long struggled in Russia. whose suffering sharewailing over the unprofitable (to them) investment of so much is hard cash. who became its first governor in 1803. being carefully filtered. and dependent for its supply of water upon rain-tanks and a few brackish springs. and ample means of quenching thirst thanks to the expenditure of over a million pounds sterling by the British still holders are Odessa Waterworks Company. and under the annually visited by at under the British flag. rendered secure by a breakwater initiated or designed by Sir Charles Hartley. devoid of any vegetation beyond a few shrubs and sickly acacias. Greek and Jewish sharpness that prevails at Odessa has not on the whole been favourable to the employment of foreign The Greek element has.' It is much to be desired that a more sober and correct view in regard and that clue Israelite community at Odessa should supervene.

ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. while many of its incidents must be fresh in the memory of the middle-aged. ST. customs and religion. CHAPTER THE CRIMEA AND is VIII. largely teeming with corn. except where the Tauric range. OF THE TENTH OR ELEVENTH CENTURY IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. as we shall discover in our observing their of this chapter. for Russia's network of railways. it is . consisting of about nine thousand square miles. speaking their own tongue and own been engaged with a great European power. energetically proceeded w ith throughout the empire. PETERSBURG. Like that part of the Russian continent with which r connected by the narrow isthmus of Perecop. no portion of the of surface of the globe more adapted mankind than the Russian empire. CAUCASUS. is one vast steppe. In those days the Crimea was a somewhat distant land whereas we may now pack up our traps and set foot at Sevastopol on the sixth day after leaving Charing Cross. is being . although all it many diversities human are brought into near contact. even though studiously strategic. from its having been the battle-field of the last war in which England has many continue to live. to a cir- THERE homogeneity cumstance territory . from the of its extension over so an almost boundless of the expanse of race level and yet. and government. journey over the Crimea and the Caucasus the subject The Crimea has a special interest for Englishmen of this generation. the Crimean peninsula. subject to similar rule may be said. still do apart. extending over a distance of forty-five miles.



sturdy pines and junipers looking like tufts of verdure as they overhang the perilous scape. who was publicly whipped for being stances. which afforded so we many good through valley. a place to which three ladies repaired. conceive. during the bathing-season. reminding one much of an English land- ot (carriage) road. crocus . Baidar the towards the Baidar one of the grandest that it is possible to a offered combination of mountain. Alupka. are seen from the road. none attractive in their architecture. we from time to time pass masses of gigantic blocks of granite thrown up at various periods by the convulsions of Nature. and sweet-pea. under different circumladies. even some of the luxuries things. shaping the most fantastic of sea-boards. Starting from Balaclava. Lower down. Woronzoff possession of life.. in the reign of Alexander I. concerned The residences of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. an altitude of three thousand to four thousand feet. while here constructed through a wealth of vegetation. embedded in the midst of sumptuous cultivation and as we proceed. sights by In front rise the bold cliff. Peter). are within a few miles of each other. Here the Tartar villages lie embosomed in the midst of truly lovely scenery. the seat of the late Prince Woronzoff.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. At Yalta we are in the most fashionable watering-place in the South of Russia. the peonia. where two Wellingtonife gigantece planted in 1869 by the Prince and Princess of Wales are shown. lilies geranium and orchids. at Livadia. the as the Countess de la Mothe. with vegetation varied suggestive 143 and rising to ensures climate beyond by the description. and Mishor. Countess Guacher. oak. The first genuine Tartar village is Kikeneis. at which point there suddenly bursts on the view From and there from fissures in the rocks strike forth again the and or the beech. to the inhabitants on the declivities that slope to the sea a of the and prolific Riviera. and the fir and beech which attain a very large size. which begins in April and continues to Excellent carriages and good saddle-horses facilitate excursions . The cypress and magnolia are beautiful in their development. where the irregular declivities pine juniper project into the sea. brooks. ash. and the banks are seen covered with the of the valley. veronica. to our beleaguering troops. copses. the road is brinks. was better known. its comfortable hotels and luxurious clubs attracting the wealthy from for the all parts November. this valley the road leads over a spur Gate. and beautiful region in close proximity to the sea. maple. juniper. and cornfields with green hedges. but all surrounded by perfectly fascinating scenery. and beyond is Gaspra. the indigenous trees comprising the Tauric pine. at the first west pass extreme of the the range. and of the Emperor. with luscious pastures. and violet. poplar. lorded over the Ai Petri precipitous heights by majestic (St. yew. One of those purpose of converting the Tartars to Christianity. elm. in the affair of the diamond necklace of Marie Antoinette.



up the smiling valleys, horsemen being enabled to visit the interior of the Yalta is peninsula by crossing the passes above Derekyuy or Uchan-su. the westernmost point of the wine-growing district, which includes Massandra, Partenite, where is a church of the eighth century, Gurzuf. and Alushta at the eastern end of the range, from which village the carriage-road turns sharp away from the coast, and leads direct to Simpheropol, the capital. The Russians are very proud of the wines grown on these shores, but connoisseurs prefer the wines of France and Germany. The yield, including the produce



Sudak on another

million gallons,

part of the coast, consists of Bordeaux,

amounts annually to about three Burgundies, Hocks, Madeira, and

some sweet wines
times have nations fought for, and disputed, the narrow classic as the scene of the strip of territory possession wanderings of Ulysses because of the golden harvests to be gathered from over the hills, and of its own even temperature. History asserts that the




Cimmerians were the first inhabitants of whom so little is known they were succeeded by the Tauri replaced, seven centuries before the
; ;









supplied their



from what had become known as the granary of Greece.' Then came the Huns, who were succeeded by the Goths, the earliest Christian settlers, and they held possession until the proud Republic of Genoa sent forth her galleys laden with men and arms to seize, if
during several

upon so












as Caffa,


settlements, appointing

subsequently every other point of vantage along consuls or governors, establishing

r*M .,.,jji &





an extensive and powerful hierarchy, and at the same time constructing those Sudak, Theodosia, and Balaclava, of which splendid defences at excite the of every passing traveller. to admiration remain enough to the south coast for the benefit of sea-bathing Visitors who throng travel by rail to Simpheropol, the chief town, and thence continue their
journey either

by way of Sevastopol, or take the but the more favoured route to Alushta


carriage-road already via Odessa, where

bi-weekly steamers convey passengers to Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia, and Kertch, continuing the voyage to the ports of the Caucasus. It was near Eupatoria that the British and French forces landed, on
I4th September,
1854, not to evacuate the peninsula until July,

1856, during



which period were fought the decisive battles on the Alma and Chernaya, at Balaclava and on the heights of Inkermann, and the fortress of Sevastopol was evacuated after a lengthened siege and bombardment. The country between Eupatoria and Sevastopol has been compared by travellers to that around the Dead Sea, owing to its sterile and uninviting aspect, but the Saki mud baths in those parts attract numerous patients suffering from rheumatism and diseases of the skin. The Bay of Sevastopol, four miles in length and nearly one mile at its widest part, is one of the securest harbours in the world, having an almost uniform depth of ten fathoms. The handsome town which stood on the of hill and the extended to the water's edge, was completely destroyed slope during the war, and has only of late years commenced to recover from its calamities, for it has again been decreed a naval, military, and commercial port and station, while the railway gives an immense impetus to export trade. The hotels are good, and guides are obtainable for visiting the sites of the several camps, batteries, and battle-fields, which, in a few years, will be inaccessible to the traveller, by reason of those localities becoming
enclosed within







the warriors


during the siege, they were laid within small enclosures inside the divisions and batteries of attack and defence in which they were serving, so that


evacuated by the contending parties it was seen to be dotted with numberless cemeteries, of which one hundred and twenty-six were inside the British lines. The Russians and French early availed themselves of facilities afforded for removing their dead to grounds

the land was

and raising to their memory mausoleums which remain objects of veneration, even to the destructive Tartar herdsmen, who persisted, year after year, in inflicting every kind of damage upon the memorials of our own dead until at length the reproaches of travellers of all nations and creeds stirred to action a small body of Englishmen,
specially set apart for the purpose,

with supported by the Prince of Wales monuments have been removed from the





our soundest

cemetery, called Cathcart's, after Inkermann the walls of the old

scattered enclosures to the largest the gallant officer of that name who fell at

are levelled, and the graves covered with two to three feet of earth, so that in a few years the very sites



be forgotten.


After a length of time the lab'ring swains, turn the turf of those unhappy plains,

Shall rusty piles from the ploughed furrows take. * * * * * *

Amazed at antique titles on the stones And mighty relics of gigantic bones.'


Quite near to Sevastopol stood the ancient city, Khersonesus, founded Grecian colonists seven centuries before Christ, and of whom it is





their independence,

and owed

their prosperity

state of civilisation during the space of one thousand years to the free institutions they enjoyed, and to competence for self-government. This

and high

became city to enjoy its



Russian Prince

empire, continuing, however, until taken municipal institutions, by siege by the Vladimir, who restored it to the empire as one of the conreceiving


of the





be seen

Christianity and built the church, the in the crypt of the cathedral lately

Vladimir marriage. foundations of which are








Khersonesus as

being a flourishing city



features of its neighbourhood exquisite detail the is the student able to verify with extraordinary minuteness so that coasts, most exact of geographers, and fix the graphic delineation of that

day, and describes in and of the adjoining




upon the


so delightfully illustrated by honest

In the Eight miles from Khersonesus, says Strabo, is Symvolon-limen. is mentioned as but it the of we it as the know Odyssey port Lsestrigons,










L 2


. obelisk in the tenth century. war are shown by the monks with unaffected satisfaction. and one respectfully preserved. George. on the left. as a rule. and coverlets richly embroidered in gold. now marked by an and a branch road to the right leads to the Monastery of St. The road from haddock. although intercourse with others. and a species of pilchard. and the females are not in the habit of holding monogamists. bream. the last capital of the thirty of the largest towns inhabited entirely by Tartars. its inviting situation presenting a very . because the larger the display. entirely from those of the men. the delight of the ancients. and of England too. Sevastopol to Balaclava almost skirts. different aspect to the sterile surroundings north of the cliff by which it is The apartments that were occupied by Florence Nightingale sheltered. during which period it is agreed among them that no festivities shall take place. and occasionally their teeth. upon which are spread reclining mattresses and bolsters in satin or velvet. silver. . locked harbour. or nobles. are Greeks. and the of the sole safe haven for our shipping. and well furnished with mattresses and pillows of every hue. . for the the during remembrance of that lady Sevastopol is Khans. miles from Bakhchisarai. but nearly every vestige The inhabitants. their staining certainly not to and advantage. mackerel. or silk. here engaged in the pursuit of fishing and salting their gains for import the sea at this part abounding in turbot. In their cottages the women's apartments are on an upper story. the latter freely decorated with an abundance of towels embroidered in gold. since it was the only port oi debarkation for all our materiel of war. affluent are These Tartars are very indolent. nor do they hesitate to receive aliens in their houses. the plain which was the scene of the famous cavalry charge under Lord Cardigan. Their children are fair to look upon age.148 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the floors are covered with expensive Turkey carpets. are They hospitable. they do not wear the yashmak. For instance. as everywhere else on the occupation has disappeared. of the Genoese. the cooking department and guest-chamber apart on the being ground floor. the cleanly more In the supposed to be the circumstances of the inmates. and never think of learning a trade they work in their gardens and orchards from the end of May to the third week in August. but equally removed from the fanaticism of Mahometanism. is of dyeing and uniting their eyebrows with a straight dark their finger.and toe-nails. houses of the mnrzas. shores of the Black Sea. that lies ensconced amidst luxuriant gardens founded and vineyards reaching to the sea.. and at all times willing to welcome the belated or worn-out traveller. or veil. etc. and for the rest of the year they remain idle. stricter is Sunnites than their co-religionists on the south coast. they are. nevertheless the females do not retain their good looks in adult whilst the practice line. should occasion arise. Some of the Genoese defences of the British fourteenth century remain.



be married, he goes about for three days with a handkerchief over his head, so placed as to conceal his face, for he is a man ami the bride during that same period remains with shame
a Tartar


' ;



screened off
body. mother's


in a darkened room, quite ready to sob if spoken to by anythe wedding-day, the bride, closely veiled, takes her place at her side in a carriage, a pile of gaily-coloured handkerchiefs being on

the seats in front, one of which

given by the mother as a wedding favour



who may approach

it moves left arm, along, in which that in other the relatives carriages following silently, turn out a the is the bride. Should the procession pass through people village, and stretch a rope across the road, as is the custom in the Vosges, and

the kerchief round his

to offer his congratulations and joins the procession as

that friend ties

slowly and

but there is no spirit in the procompel the bride to pay her footing And when the not one merry shout ceedings, no fun, no cheering, no bride finally alights at the door of her future home, she is seized by a crowd of women who are in waiting, and dragged or even carried into the house and de.'/.mi. ^j :.\l rA v \ j liverecl to the 'happy man,' after which
; !






exciting, but


immediately had assembled. Bakhchisarai
work, useful

noiseless scene, the guests disperse as silently as they





and ornamental,



supplies Tartar continues



his tastes,

be very remaining perfectly indifferent

every description of improvement intro duced from without, whether in manuto




trappings, centuries.
his native



and so we agriculture the same kind of shoes or slippers, belts, cushions, horseas have been in use amongst this people during many

The Tartar does not despise even cutlery, now also manufactured at

the old flint-lock gun, and prefers Bakhchisarai, but formerly made


Karasu-bazar, a place which, in its prosperity, used to turn out as many 400,000 sword blades annually, chiefly for use in the Khan's army, but also for export to the Caucasus. The great attractions of Bakhchisarai are the places of interest within
Jews' fortress,' on the easy distance, such, for instance, as Chufut-Kaleh, summit of a rock, said to have been a stronghold since 460 B.C., and the cradle of the Karaim, a sect of Israelites opposed to the Talmudist Jews, by whom they are looked upon as heretics. The Karaim reject all tradition and Rabbinical writings, adhering solely to the Old Testament, whence



Karaim, or readers readers of Holy Writ the plural designation, Kara, a reader. They esteem the high moral teaching of Jesus Christ,

no part, accusing more they took but they look for of having shed innocent blood especially the Pharisees the coming of the Messiah from the house of David, and for the rebuilding The Karaim are energetic and industrious, and hold the of the Temple.






where they number about 5000. Their largest part of trade in the Crimea, as much as thou wouldest, desire that do canst not 'If thou is precept

thou mayest do as much


thou art able to perform.'

The Karaim



the foundation of their sect from the period of the Maccabees, in the second of the century B.C., when traditional lore was introduced to the prejudice books of Moses but, according to the Rabbinists, who form the larger


of Jews, their reputed founder was one Anan-ben-David (Hannassy), Anan of the race of Betzur, in the eighth century of the Christian era. the since ever has been which a at erected great Jerusalem, synagogue Such centre of the Karaim, who acknowledge his successors as their head.














Turkey hold


Greek, and




It is computed that there are from 50,000 to 60,000 Karaim in various parts of the globe. At the foot of the is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, a Jews' fortress

the Arabic.



cemetery of great antiquity, in which every Karai'm would wish to be buried, and wherein is pointed out, with pride, the grave of Isaac Sangaris (A.D. The countless tomb-stones 767), who converted the Khazars to Judaism.
are very varied in form, some being in the shape of a sarcophagus, others like coffins or kysts, but the more remarkable are finished off with head

and foot


itself is pierced with a number of Katch-kalen, Cherkess-kerman, etc., provided, with reclining places, corn-pits, water-tanks, chimneys and other conveniences formed out of the solid rock originally, in all probability, together with similar the The more numerous localities, many dwellings of the wild Tauri. of these cave habitations are at Tepe-kerman, but the more remarkable are









near the summit of Mangup, where one chamber measures twenty-one feet by seventeen feet. The citadel of Mangup was


principal defence of the Goths of their prince, within its


and of the


still remains standing a wall, believed to be of the fifteenth century. Near Bakhchisarai are two pillars of calcareous rock of striking appearance, a liisns natures. The




her village, her daughter pursued her to bring her back, when suddenly the would-be apostate was turned to stone for wishing to desert the true faith,

was once a woman who desiring to become a Christian


whereupon the daughter, herself became petrified






Travelling in the Crimea, as in all steppe country, is dreary work, for the beds of the larger water-courses they cannot be called rivers are almost arid, not presenting even the appearance of those

summer and autumn

verdant meandering lines exhibited by the prolific orchards on the banks of such smaller streams as the Alma and Belbek, orchards from which Russia
annually supplied with a large variety of most excellent apples and pears In these streams are taken trout, something like ,200,000. roach, and dace, and salmon are speared at their estuaries, cray-fish being

to the value of

also abundant, but chiefly in pools and ponds. bustard, attains a large size and is in great


bird of the

steppe, the

profoundly of his mortal him rifle and who has to stalk with bullet man, shy enemy, unless he prefers milder sport such as quails, pigeons, snipe, and partridges, all plentiful enough in season, as are many kinds of waterfowl on the coast, especially to the north-east and north-west.

demand, but he



was a



wretched village Stary-Krim, in the east of the peninsula, called Solghat, that could count 100,000 men on a war

at Ak-mesjid, now Simpheropol, the chief town footing, the viceroy resided has become the neutral ground of Russian, It and seat of government

Greek, Israelite, Armenian, and Tartar traders, and of gipsies, who meet here periodically over and over again, but as if they had never met before, deporting themselves with perfect indifference towards each other, scarcely exchanging a nod of recognition as they jostle one another in the crowded bent market-place or bazars, and avoiding all mutual intercourse, but each on the hardest possible bargain with his neighbour. Occasionally, a





his appearance, his dealings, not

more reserved than the




boisterous, setting value upon time, and if not respected he is at least

town, the chief and central mart, roads converge from every part of the peninsula, its caravans of double-humped camels, where the railway has not yet been


introduced, being in constant communication with the south coast and

Kertch, the city and fortress at the extreme eastern point of the Crimea, where we must now hasten as being our port of embarkation for the Caucasus, of which there is so much

having regard to its extent and the interest ever excited by that
to say,

fascinating land. Kertch, as




peninsula, has a remarkable history,

like something time the from twenty-four centuries, when it first received a name that of Panticapceum to the clay when a handful of the allied forces effected a landing in 1855, to occupy and to hold! A unique feature in its neighbourhood are the countless barrows that extend in every direction dismal-looking hillocks, the silent and imperishable monuments



wealthy people, who, after they laid their dead, These tumuli or barrows vary in size, and thus piled the earth over them. hundred feet in one of the some when, largest, measuring one years ago, direction height and one hundred and fifty feet in diameter, was explored by of the Russian Government, it was discovered to be the tomb of a Scythian us by scrupulous left to king, verifying in every particular the account Herodotus, who relates that when a king died, his wife and attendants were

an ancient, great,


000 of four tribes of . nation's will. to wit. Circassia oppression which drove no less than 250. the same stubborn resistance. however. electrum. where tracts of once cultivated now present the distressing sight of tangled growths homes. perhaps by Venetian colonists in the fifteenth century. many of which are pronounced to be the most perfect specimens in These of the high condition of art Greece in those early times. and oppression was of Circassians to seek expatriation to Turkey. But besides the tombs of kings. the superb Kertch gallery at the Hermitage. are sometimes attended with the most unsatisfactory results. fourfold they appear Large as is the on the opposite with the lasting necropolis of Phanagoria. who. confirmed the annexation of his dominions to Russia The To possess Georgia. conciliated Conciliation. together with himself. The result denuded condition of Circassia. disputing each acre of ground with so much <_ tenacity. with the Straits of Kertch. carefully preserved. J O and are here there with the some natives that remain. warriors. as is known. whose labours. in search of treasure. page 33. was out of the and so the question. that the tombs have been rirled. will queen. the complete subjugation far from it. the remains of the king and to attention to the number shore of opening of tumuli tumuli around Kertch. of attendants. and the vessels of gold. and bid farewell to the Crimea. to the King of Georgia. when he discovers. those of victors. of which we now take leave. excavations are conducted during two or three months every year by a member of the Archaeological Commission of St. directed their Petersburg. was not to keep it. etc. at some early period. process of subjection was shortly commenced. find therein. after extensive and toilsome cuttings. St. recognized by the golden wreaths that had adorned their brows. a name that vies in its antiquity Panticapaeum. the brave mountaineers offering. 153 strangled and his horses killed.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. upon the supplication of that monarch that he might be defended against his enemies. that visitors their trappings. that were bronze. that they might be laid in his tomb. his weapons. happy and of vegetation O habitations in various stages of decay.' resorted to chiefly in the more accessible and densely-populated territory. ceded as it had been against the 1799. and priestesses have been brought to light. rendering abortive many a campaign. silver. the country into which is we perceptible in the are first about to pass after crossing lands. Petersburg. of horses and It has been already noted on golden vessels. and a profusion of exquisite golden ornaments and trinkets. it was soon discovered. though outwardly restored. year after year. that not until the year he was able to announce to the 1863 did the 'the commander-in-chief feel that Emperor But the country was not pacified Caucasus. protection afforded by the Emperor Alexander I. and recovered out of this very sepulchre. however. unless the seventy nations spoken of by in ' ' Strabo as holding the fastnesses in the o great mountain chain were either or subdued. Interspersed human German .

The late Alexander II. in 1792. consists of a single-breasted but reaching almost to the ankles. on the Zaporogian. tongue has never been forgotten by them. or Dukhobortsy. and they are now free to go whithersoever they will but how are these poor people to give up their homes.' From the Molokane (milk-drinkers) sprang the Uukhobortsy. sheep-skin hat finished slung off at its summit with a piece of coloured cloth completes the costume. 'Wrestlers with the Spirit' as the name implies. the type amongst the Zaporogians to Vladikavkaz. who style themselves the Real Spiritual Christians. and sword. each of a size to hold a cartridge. subsequently known as the Catherine mistrusted their power and influence.154 RUSSIAN PICTURES. treatment of animals.. of the Caucasus. since God's command to Moses was in these words ' ' . Russia. ' on the principle that all men are equal and a monarchy unnecessary. garment. by which they mean Thou shalt images. tightened only belt from which are suspended dagger. and specially district remarkable is for their kind The which chief town literally. of ' the Kouban gift. . sectarians originally deported hither by Alexander I. The number of Cossacks in Transcaucasia being very limited. trustworthy. The dress so universally worn by the male sex. waist. the back and a tall across is man possesses. Little of the is that still Russians. our Lord having said that He and His are not of this world and they dissent from the Orthodox Church. good agriculturists. long since Cossacks remain has adopted the dress of the even from boyhood. together with the adjacent Black Sea Cossacks.' as ' distinguished from all others. by means of a ' ' where they united with the descendants of the Grebenski The predominant Cossacks.' Ekaterinodar. and tempted them to the The first service of some Kuban with o grants of land and other l privileges. removed from them the ban of exile. for a few are stationed in each principal town. ' : make to thyself images. their cattle now ? They are steady and not . Catherine's from having been founded by the sovereign of that name and bestowed. and frequently pistol. in in all parts like a frock-coat. territory. o 20. whence their origin . maintained at half a million. the vernacular whose and to the customs of their forefathers.000 of those new warrior settlers consisted in barring all egress from of stations that extended first fortified line the mountains. which every or twelve sockets. true to the orthodox faith Caucasian mountaineers. their land. Grebenski continuing to preserve their identity with the natives of Great and although the whole of this imposing force. having on either breast a row of ten A rifle. and a few Molokane. chiefly as an escort to the closely at the with a a . who refuse to recognise any kind of temporal authority. a name signifies. because the true Church consists of an assemblage of such as are chosen by God to walk in the Light and Life without the use of any distinguishing signs or symbols. with whom they are not to be confounded. settlements.' etc. whom they indiscriminately call Worldly.



he will to enter into proceed eastwards. box. indolent and lawless race. except well-wooded hills. landscape like we are as struck at the the aspect afforded by the numerous whitewashed Mingrelians. and sitting astride facing the horse's tail. Caucasus. wheel. governor of 157 are performed by Chapars. hyaena. of being an the reputation. an and trained in like manner from irregular force. continued to be the seat of the Catholicos of Abkhasia until the twelfth century. the first amongst the Circassians blood of the they are the friendly relations with Russia to ' ' . thoroughly domesticated. Christianity was here introduced by Justinian. equally dashing horsemen. remarkable as being the place to John Chrysostom was banished at the instance of the Empress Eudoxia although the exile never strangers. for they are determinedly inimical to Their mountains abound in forests of magnificent walnut and where the enthusiastic sportsman will find the bear. hospitable to strangers. A favourite feat. early youth in those singular exercises and break-neck evolutions for which the Cossacks of the Caucasus have become so famous. but north of the great meet with the Kabardines. which the coast. or turn clean round. anciently given to piracy. are the Abkhases. at Pitzunda on converted by the latter into a military post. now addicted to thieving when the opportunity is afforded them. and is a striking object to passing vessels. a noble race. and extending some way inland irom the sea. amongst many others. are making of wine from their . is to throw their hat and rirle to the ground. had the Abkhases not destroyed them in their struggles against the Russians. is the principality of Mingrelia. their duties . incurably cottages their they in dot neighbours whom the given to indolence. the horse's fullest speed. and pick them up whilst going at the province. has been thoroughly restored of late years. and wolf. every such edifice being occupied and One church. Should the traveller elect range. and plenty of smaller game. and occupying about one hundred miles of the coast in the Black Sea. where we again tread classic ground.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. his destination having Abkhases are at present heathens. inasmuch as our wanderings have brought us to the /Ea of Circe and the Argonauts. the Earther south. Practically. The we have just quitted. . and in pursuit. Setting their horses at full gallop. then Pityus. who have enjoyed from time immemorial. Being the mother church in the Caucasus. reached escaped the general destruction. with the imaginary enemy fire as if at an enemy left heel resting on their steed's hind quarter. In a Mingrelian too. To the south of the Circassians. and useful breeders of cattle. Pitzuncla. keep up a rapid fire. who constructed many churches that would have been notable specimens of Byzantine architecture. with seldom a roof to cover him other than the vault of heaven but the ordinary traveller is likely to encounter difficulties and delays that he would prefer to avoid. they will stand on the saddle and fire all round at an or throw the body completely over to the right.

amid the ness. the earth is thus gorgeously arrayed. is the wealthiest of the dispossessed rulers : the foresight of his predecessor and his own European training having taught him the clanger of disposing of land and squandering the proceeds. every imaginable flower is seen in its wild state. minister. if they may be to so designated. with their The Dadian. Between Mingrelia and Abkhasia courses the Ingur. whose farther complete it they made valley of ten miles subjugation dates back no may be said than 1876. but in most their communities married. For or instance. vineyards otherwise abundant . They may certainly be included amongst the handsomest people in Transcaucasia. after the disposal of the body with over the grave. the mourners abandon themselves to feasting in first upheld was and brawls.' writes a snow. we should find ourselves amongst the well-known military station a very wild and singular people. most profuse vegetation. utters a sentence two. when a couple other at about to be hips their garments funerals are attached each the by the who . rather than preserving the property and contenting himself with a smaller income. in drunkenness the clay ending Christianity and Svanneti by the sovereigns of Georgia as early as the tenth century. although a formal submission in 1833. own priests. meadow.I 5 8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. They fifty occupy some forty or the Ingur. and all undergrowth even. and wife or at at several villages in the valley are churches of comparatively recent date . strange rites. in miles of the upper at no part exceedingare cut off from all and width. outside communication between the beginning of September and the end of May. the Svanni have been to keep to the observances of the Russian Church. say from to near its water-shed Sougdicli. and grand beyond description 4 ' . and if we ascended a journey easily accomplished on horseback.' the ordination of a priesthood in 1859. well-defined features and usually raven black hair. A MINGRELIAN PEASANT. hill-side and grass plot are literally covered in every forest with all that is most lovely and grove. and they thenceforth become man and burials. indeed wherever the pure air of heaven and its divine . continue is to officiate after ancient custom. their orchards. and bank. or prince. the Svanni. prolific through they are content to live on the produce of the interposition of a beneficent Providence rather than to any agricultural diligence on their part. is of great beauty and wildrecent traveller. light is Since required not obstructed. in con- sequence of the passes being blocked with The scenery in this valley.

the erect A VILLAGE IN SVANNETI. and yet they will cross as a caution to trespassers. each other. whose language is a very distinct dialect of the Georgian. that the price of blood shall be in of the murderer has to forfeited. but there being no be made up in cattle or land. but '59 they remain empty. Murder is rife.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. preferring rather to leave this strange . used as a place of refuge in The Russians have days of feud by a member or even an entire family. fully sixty feet in height. The Svanni fast on clo Wednesdays and Saturdays. the services being conducted mechanically by Russian or Georgian priests in a tongue quite unknown to the people. The price of a life is estimated hundred roubles. and keep Lent without knowing why they so . with which each cottage is provided. they fix the skulls of animals about the fences and walls of their habitations for the purpose of warding off evil influences. life inviolable law. but are ever ready to a tall staff surmounted by a do commit depredations upon not They steal from strangers. equal to the amount ~o to ^80. crime being met by the one paid or the at six circulation. filling the churches with the horns as offerings. money A very notable feature in their villages are the towers of defence. been careless and doubtlessly prudent in rarely undertaking to attack the Svanni in their isolated strongholds.

and oak the box. the ancient Phasis. Contrary to earlier experience. where Returning to Mingrelia military station and commercial port. we find it bounded on the Rion. its annexation since that has tended in no small degree. another principality. Ozurgheti. recent travellers speak in more favourable terms of the but as Svanni. a contingency that is certain as the result of frequent deaths through personal animosities. and yielding with . and of their hospitality Koshtan-tau. of their feelings towards strangers. a is situated from Guria. exported in large quantities. the great range. the hills and their declivities being overspread handsome returns. and other of the highest peaks . towards the development of the resources of this beautiful country. Batoum. the birth of a female child being usually deemed a reproach to its parents. population to its own gradual extinction.i6o RUSSIAN PICTURES. to Russia in 1878. regards their be desired. The upper years by the members valley reason of of its the Ingur has been the brought to notice of late of our having Alpine Club become have starting-point effected the ascent in from of which Elbruz. intersected somewhat pestiferous but important and good roads through valleys highly cultivated with maize. with barley. consideration for the property of others there is much yet to south by the River Mingrelia. corn. and the destruction of female infant life. which flows through the country whence was The Rion divides introduced into Europe the Phasian bird our pheasant.

dress generally in use amongst females of the upper classes. a thin white veil. fifteen reached in about hours. ancient at AN IMERITIAN NOBI. where he may tarry for a while may exchange. less frivolous. the chief town of the old kingdom of Imeritia. not forgetful that at one period or other their dominion extended over neighbouring territories. Imeritia. affect European assuming the bonnet or hat. attractively situated. but interest. right. and worn round the brow like a coronet it is embroidered with gold or silk thread. which lies over the front part of the head. WEARING THE of ^Etes any PAPANAKY. the train travelling slowly enough. beautifully situated little on the banks of the Rion. like Mingrelia and Guria. Passengers from Odessa and the Crimea landing at Batoum find the train in readiness to convey them to Tirlis. and is sometimes ornamented with gems. the men. the main for which will take him to Kutais. in loose folds. AN IMERITIAN LAI>V. and is fastened with The headstrinofs under the chin. here beauty. a city advantage. and Kakhety. a glory. to the left is Imeritia. was the residence of the rulers who lie interred at the ancient monastery and episcopal church. If so inclined. Although many of the well-to-do noted for their fashions in women.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. On highlands of the old kingdom of Armenia. Chemokmedy. to great rate Khytaea. a small lozenge-shaped piece of leather. chiefly in Georgia. silk. 161 the chief town. of the past. or velvet. the residence of great It is the . are the a Rion station. the capital of the whole of Transcaucasia. The natives pride themselves not a on the distinctness of their nationality. M . through a land of much the historically and pictorially. stiffened. may be de- scribed as consisting of a narrow black velvet band. cleverly arranged.E. falling from it Archaeologists would delight in an inspection of what remains of the . do not disdain to wear the papanaky. about six miles distant. branch at line. the traveller in the distance. antiquity.

law-courts. main thoroughfares lead to as many separate quarters. the chief seat of Government and one residence of the Governor- thousand souls. carrying away An old and equallywith them every movable decoration of value. the eleventh as cathedral. a restoration of the eleventh century. where are situated the best From the square three hotels and restaurants. in succession the public gardens. is hills. gymnasium. watered by the Kur and its tributaries. 1 many The groups are ornamented with cornices. to British capital . Having driven through the suburbs on his way from the railway terminus. The Turks destroyed it in 1691. interesting edifice is the Episcopal Church of Genath at Ghelaty. By Captain Telfer. Here is a town there can be no other designation for it conif such a term sisting of public edifices may be employed of large habitaeach being for others. but which a mixture the Armenian and Byzantine. which having a population of about hundred of perfectly barren at once brings him to the principal street. tions. and grooves have been cut. is obtainable. the by which time he will have 1 The Crimea and Transcaucasia. and but for unpleasantly situated between ranges the River Kur. Titiis. where he passes of the . openings for light. and the first is ever constructed of the style now accepted Georgian. smaller dwellings and and partitions. the European. having doorways. beams and pillars. on the banks of which it is built.N. would be almost uninhabitable. and is believed to have been the burial-place of the great Queen Thamara. public library. unquestionably for water-courses. Between Kutais and TiHis is the Pass of Suram. viz. it were well to halt at this station for accommodation fairly good the purpose of visiting the unique rock-cut town. museum. palace main guard-house. mouldings. have history of these remarkable excavations. and the market-place and Russian view of the city and an interesting sight is obtained from the eminence : . but faithful historiographers hitherto refrained from endorsing any of the tales that have been handed down by General. after which date it became the sepulchre of the sovereigns of Imeritia. six miles away. and the National Theatre. three thousand and and enterprise. reached Palace Street and Erivan Square. the romancers of Georgia. of a glorious while are separated by streets and lanes. at an altitude of twenty-seven feet. . Uplytz-tzykhe. and yet the whole has been entirely hewn Tradition is replete with incidents in the and shaped out of the solid rock. R. conveniently divided. some eight miles off. as is the entire railway. etc. the where the wealthy live in well-built nouses of elegant construction An extensive bazaar. the traveller crosses the Kur over the Woronzoff Bridge. limits Beyond this pass the train stops at Gori. situated at the Since plain.if>2 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Governor-General. over which are laid the lines of rail by gradients of one in twenty-two feet over a distance of about eight miles a triumph of engineering skill due. presumably for the great. native bazaars. an edifice of in century.

goat. of furriers. however. an allowance. buffalo. armourers. They love wine and music. greatly exceeded when. and ever seek to drive away dull care by indulging in their favourite Kakhety two bottles being the usual allowance to a man's dinner. called the Lezghinka. The Georgians are merry folk. and presenting the disagreeable appearance of carcases swollen after lengthened immersion in water. whence rise the confused sounds of human cries and the din from the iron. those of one trade congregate together. and so are passed a succession of silversmiths in their stalls. or eating and wine-shops. apart from other trades.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and copper-workers. brass. The Cathedral of Zion was formerly the church of the Patriarch of It dates from the fifth century. 163 crowned by the old fortress which immediately overlooks the Asiatic quarter and bazaars. the wine of the country being kept in or sheep-skins laid on their back. of an evening. rarely allowing themselves to be depressed by the troubles of life. As is the custom elsewhere in the East. friends meet together to join in the national dance. in the fourth relic with which the nation was converted to Christianity century nothing less than a cross of vine stems bound with the hair of M 2 . and encloses that most precious Georgia.

. Nina. 7124 feet . for having ignominiously betrayed them. but for the present the line is constructed as far as Akstafa only. the St. patron saint. and died shortly afterwards amid the execrations of his late subjects. so that identical with that of respects Russia. ~_.164 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Many of his descendants are in the service of Russia.. GEORGIAN LADIES. over during 1092 the twelve earliest centuries that elapsed from their election. and is the Georgian Church may be considered ^-. a day railway will convey passengers and goods the entire Some distance from Georgia into Armenia. for not a vestige remains. whence travellers on their way south have to content themselves with the post-road which goes over the Delijan Pass. - preached the truth replaced by a Russian ! The patriarchate in all Exarch.for Bagrations to if the rose . first 587 and allowance be made power in for will interregnums it be found that their reign extended years. The' palace of the kings has entirely disappeared. who first has long been suppressed. and are the representatives of one of the most ancient monarchies of the world -. George XIII. signed his renunciation of the crown the 1 in favour of Emperor Paul in 800.

defying Cossacks and custom officers alike.840 feet. since his tomb is reverently shown by the inhabitants. for Persia ruled here during a but at the bazaars one considerable period until vanquished by Russia meets with other nationalities. principal arsenal in Transcaucasia was gallantly defended in 1855 by Sir Fenwick Williams and a few British officers. or in the broad streets and unpaved quarter laid out by the Russians since their occupation of the province by a boulevard and gardens fair to look upon. At fairly Erivan.' in 1829. relics ! Another priceless brought hither by the Apostle Thaddeus in the year 34 is carried about which relic is the hand of St. special sea. . a beautiful Gregory. so is Armenia essentially the land of legend and tradition. As Georgia is the land of wine and song. available by carriage-road. excellent carriages are obtainable at Erivan. and rising to an altitude of 16. and Turkish dealers in search of good horses. even though enlivened .by the southern slopes into the plains of order for post-horses may be obtained at any post-town. that mask the dwellings within like the defences of a fortress. upon which they will the frontier. the traveller will find good accommodation. The population is Armenian and Persian. are Alexandropol and Kars. the first abode of Noah after he came forth from the ark. such as Tartars from the steppes. and so called the only-begotten Son of God here descended and appeared to because The convent.' the founder. ' ' edifice standing within high battlemented walls presenting the appearance of in its treasury one of the most extraordinary of sacred encloses a fortress. the largest city in Russian Armenia. Kurds. the identical spear-head with which our Lord's side was pierced. and probably also his last. who eagerly escort strangers to see it. the former being the largest and most powerful fortress and the the latter. 12. peerless among the mighty works of the Creator. above the Armenia. Lesser Ararat. long a Turkish fortress town. until the garrison was starved into surrender by General Mouravieff. their Ararat. but the place is dull enough.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. Kars was finally ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. and the post-station nearest to the Persian frontier. fly across Within a short distance of Erivan. As in most Russian towns. .916 feet above the sea. the cradle of the Gregorian Church. An and frequently cause immeasurable inconvenience to the ordinary traveller. but orders granted to officials or others on duty always take precedence. for which must be held in great part responsible the magnificent mountain that exhibits itself suddenly at a dip in the road Well may the Armenians glory in long before the plains are in sight. where crooked lanes are lined with high walls. whether in the Persian quarter. Gregory. almost symmetrical in its outlines. whence a two hours' drive over a good road brings the visitor to the Monastery of Etchmiadzin. Greeks. looking almost dwarfed by the side of its ' ' mighty neighbour. 165 descending. is Nahitchevan. Other still more important towns in Armenia. surnamed the Enlightener. in a silver-gilt case.

the sea. some handsome residences and well-paved the principal being the busy quay..166 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Baku presents a distinctly picturesque appearance. and the palace of the princes of bygone days old towering above the piled the one above base. and from being of greystone masonry. so called from its begrimed condition. citadel. plains. where we must now from the creation. where the . The some early printing-press issue in various parts of the globe. and in it for the is also employed the consecration of the patriarchs. all religious books for the use of Gregorian congregations library contains and from the A Caspian. where neither Viewed from NAPHTHA WELLS AT BAKU. constructed of massive blocks of naphtha. Tartar city brought into prominence of late years through the introduction of railways is Elizavetpol. is embarked for transport to the interior Russia by the Volga. the wealth of Baku. with its sombre numerous minarets. to journey pick ourselves up after having retraced our steps by rail to dismal-looking Baku a town of recent approached through a desert of sand and stones. streets. or for conveyance across the Caspian to Central Asia. Numerous refineries. purpose of healing the sick and performing other miracles. worth inspecting. vegetable nor animal life can possibly find an existence. at the west end of Baku compose the Black Town. town. on the line between Tiflis and the MSS. being Gospels and devotional works. of where the the houses look as it they were the other and lining the shore new or Russian quarter being at the Modern Baku contains the pretty little bay.

the richest vineyards being in the Valley of It is with the wine of Alazan. until. shot down their enemies in scores as they advanced in column up the narrow defiles. because of his prosperity. the last stronghold of the brave Shamyl. are good tacticians. ' Then are we the waves that will carry away that sand. they call themselves distinction to the Tartars who occupy the declivities and plains. are second to none in bravery. some even perpetually indeed. Nominally. who is no favourite among the different populations. as far as the slopes of the great range. plain from time to time. ungovernable tribe. ago by the increasing number of speculators engaged in a trade which has now completely driven out of the market all American produce. which. occupy the mountainous region known as Interior Taiil in and Eastern Daghestan mountaineers. selves on the heights. in Georgia. 167 Since a remote period has ever enveloped in clouds of the densest smoke. continued to be guarded by fire-worshippers from Yezd in Persia. The Chentchen are a wild. three afforded . the Armenian is careless about . Kakhety. giving it the preference over the wine of Mingrelia. Stretching and even from the shores of the Caspian. the . The two principal towns in this wine country are Telav in Upper. grateful even in the days of Strabo. they were hustled away some ten years . because of the many naphtha springs that were constantly burning. The Lesghians. whom the strength of Russia was unequal to subdue during the space of thirty Do the Russians say that they are numerous as the grains of sand ? years. from the province of Baku. and Sygnak in Lower. sexes. Georgians are rarely met with outside the confines of their country proper. and cool under fire. red and white. whilst in truth their religion consists of a love of independence and an unconquerable aversion to Russia. agriculture. more especially the Lesghians. After a predatory fight. with the connivance of the Government. the vine is successfully cultivated in the Georgian district of Kakhety. In Daghestan is Gunib. watered by the river of that name. is the work of its own people. the foremost and most enterprising trader encountered everywhere being the Armenian. is and acid. this neighbourhood been considered holy by fire-worshippers. who invaded the and carried off females and the young of both these marauders are called.' said the great Tartar chief when addressing the numerous tribes who placed themselves The mountaineers posted themunder his leadership to repel the invader. hidden by trees. where still stands the wall constructed by King Heraclius as a defence against the frequent attacks of which thin the mountaineers of Daghestan. a suburb of Baku. for they cannot forget that they were employed by Shamyl to assist him in subduing them. as Lesghians are Mahometans. that the Georgian makes merry.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and. Kakhety. the fires at Surakan. which he owes entirely to his own industry and thrift and from being strictly a trader. who never fail in their hostility is towards others. when the opportunity them. and even from India.




years ago only, with their hated neighbours, the Chentchen resorted to an that of amputating the hands of their wounded ancient and cruel custom Other tribes and them to the doors of their dwellings. enemies, nailing and Kysty, the Ingush are scattered to the west of the Chentchen











Chentchen, not a little


singular mixture

Mahometanism, the

of Christianity and Paganism, tinged with talismans they wear about their persons

being inscribed with passages from the


Adjointhe Ingush and Kysty, and near the Kabardines, whose acquaintance made in Circassia, are the Ossets, a numerous tribe to the west of the



Arabic or Persian.

River Terek and in the valley of the Ardon, whose origin and history, long a subject of debate amongst ethnologists, has finally resulted in an almost general admission that the Ossets or Osses are descended from and inhabit the same parts as were anciently peopled by the Alains or Alans, mentioned for the first time by Josephus. The Ossets occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Terek, in the hilly parts where they adjoin the Hefsurs, Ph'tchavy, and Tushines,

rude tribes of puzzling religious tendencies, and exceedingly superstitious. The Hefsurs are a proud and supercilious race, inimical to Russia, as are


and Tushines, so that they rarely quit their impregnable homes in the most inaccessible sites on the mountains, and live much the same life they led a hundred years ago. The great thoroughfare between Transcaucasia and Russia is from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, the terminus of the Moscow-Rostof railway, by way
of the Dariel road, a stupendous engineering success completed in the reign This road winds over a pass 7977 feet above the sea, and is of Nicholas.

and clear for traffic in winter by the Ossets, whose country it which service they are exempt from all taxes. The traverses, post stations are the best in the Caucasus, and the distance, 126 miles, is The first usually accomplished in something less than twenty-four hours. station at which horses are changed after leaving Tiflis is Mz'hett, the site of the most ancient city in Georgia, its first capital, and residence of its
in repair in return for

Pharnawaz, 302-237 B.C. The cathedral, restored in the seventeenth century, in which many monarchs and patriarchs are interred, is worth


For ages was here inspecting as a perfect example of Georgian architecture. preserved the seamless garment of our Lord, the handiwork of the blessed

but unhappily when the Persians overran Georgia, the precious relic Virgin was sent for safe custody to Moscow, where it has remained ever since. From another station on this road is obtained a near and beautiful view


of Kazbek, ascended, twenty years ago, to its very summit, 16,546 feet, by several members of our Alpine Club, notwithstanding local traditions which
assert that the

peak of Kazbek, being a holy



inhabited by a


and that the

man who




by an unseen power

arrested by a storm, and compelled to retrace his steps. of the station the road, keeping the right bank Mr. Douglas D. through the celebrated Dariel Pass, of which











The bold and broken forms of the gigantic mountaineer, says arrest the attention of even the most indifferent observer of The mere fact of the existence of a carriage road is some detraction
' :







had nothing


yet we agreed gorge from a comparison with the finest





defiles of the Alps.'

completed the journey from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, he will have arrived at the depot and point of transit for all goods brought by rail from Russia, and there transferred, for conveyance to the Transcaucasian provinces, to clumsy, unwieldy carts or vans drawn by those in charge of the caravans never being in a hurry, horses or oxen as to when they start, or when they arrive at their indifferent completely destination, and rejoicing in a lengthened stay at Mlety station, after having accomplished the most toilsome part of the distance the ascent and descent Vladikavkaz was founded in 1785 on the site of an Osset of the pass.




and became the headquarters and chief military depot of the Russians during their lengthened struggle for supremacy with the stoutit is now the chief town and seat of government for the hearted hillmen The population province of Kuban, and still an important military station.

of Circassians, Armenians, and Russians, and a few Ossets at The chief industries are the bazaars, for the natives made off long ago. the manufacture of silver and gold lace, arms, burkas, the Caucasian's allThe hotels are fairly good, but there weathers cloak, silver ornaments, etc.

made up

being nothing at Vladikavkaz itself sufficiently inviting to encourage a longer stay than is absolutely necessary, the following choice of routes lays before He may post through Eastern Caucasus and embark at the stranger.
or take the Petrovsk for Astrakhan and the tedious voyage up the Volga route to en Moscow or travel rail to Novorossisk by railway to Rostof
; ;

on the

Black Sea,



Ekaterinodar, post thence to

embark Tanian and


following that line as cross the straits to Kertch.
and Bashan.



Travels in the Central Caucasus







in fact,

have, within the compass of a very few pages, to sketch the leading features of Asiatic Siberia, which, having an area of nearly five million English square miles, is almost three million square miles larger than It comprises, the whole of European Russia, including Poland and Finland.

one thirteenth part of the globe. On the other hand, the population, sparsely scattered over eight provinces, is scarcely that of London, for it amounts to little more than four millions, giving less than one inhabitant per

For thousands of mile, against forty-one in European Russia. miles Siberia has a northern seaboard on the Arctic Ocean, and an eastern







degrees Europe, and on the south its limits come into contact with the empire of China and with the dominions of Russia in Central Asia. A gloomy desert of frozen tundras, or mossy boglands, on the north,

of latitude.


Sea of Okhotsk that embraces nearly the west, the Ural Mountains separate


the rest of this vast country is in some parts green and fertile as the prairies and pampas of America, in others mountainous, with alpine lakes, glaciers, and snow-clad peaks. The principal rivers are the Ob, the Enisei, and the Lena, which, after being fed by numerous tributaries, discharge their mighty waters into the Arctic Ocean, on points of the seaboard practically inaccessible



shipping for the steady and reliable prosecution of trade. Railways will soon be constructed to bring the rich produce of the great Siberian rivers to a westerly harbour on the Polar Ocean, more free from ice than the fjords,

On the south, Siberia has a convenient waterbays, in the Kara Sea. way into the Gulf of Tartary, namely, the great Amur river, with its tributary, the Usuri, which


diplomatically acquired from China in 1859 and 1860. So far, Asiatic Siberia





that from Perm, on the European side of





Ekaterinburg and Tiumen, it will not be long before the Ural chain is





southerly point Great Siberian



which was opened as far as Ufa,




Omsk, Tomsk, Kras-

and Irkutsk. and the Russian coast on the Pacific are




railways or under


points of construc-






rality of our readers only as a land of penal or


from early impressions conveyed by



or the Exiles of Siberia, and

more recently from the reports of
to the Russian convict system, be said to be a land flowing with

who have devoted
in the



Siberia, except

extreme north,


milk and honey,' requiring only the energy of man and the resources of civilization to raise it to a condition of great affluence. The sparseness of its population is an obstacle which greater facilities of communication are rapidly removing.


strong tide of immigration has set


from Central and Southern Russia,

even towards the distant basins of the Amur and the Usuri, where the Russian peasant finds himself in contact, not with bears, but with tigers. The natives whom the Russians have displaced as masters of Siberia are no longer to be dreaded, and their numbers are dwindling rather than
Ethnographically, the aboriginal races are grouped as the Arctic, roaming on the frozen lands of the Arctic Circle, from the mouth of the Lena









with settlements also at the


Amur and

the island of Sakhalin



of Samoyedes and of Ostiaks, and other Finnish tribes,






north-western part of Siberia, principally between the Ural

Mountains and the Enisei, from the shores of the





Enisei, from which, however, they are cut off by strong Slav

sources of the



the districts


E nisei sk and Kras-

noyarsk; the Titrkish, which
supplies fishing and hunting Yakuts to a large tract of

country intersected by the Lena, and nomadic Khirghizes,

Nogais and Bashkirs,


west of the



represented by Buriats

Mongol, and

Kalmucks, who, starting as a narrow ethnological wedge from the Arctic shore east


tribes of the

extend southwards until they meet the Tunguz and Lamut MancJiu race, dominant from the head of the Sea of Okhotsk to the Russian outpost at Vladivostok, on the Gulf of Tartary. The origin of Russian dominion in this part of Asia is worth tracing. In the most remote times, the Slavs, and mainly the Novgorodians, had

. and on a second expetraders dition. was known to ancient Arab merchants and missionaries. and capital present city of Tobolsk. having annexed the wide dominions the Asiatic slopes of the Great are known to have Novgorod. or Siberia.' of the that to lands within of the ' the basin ' Ob. in 1581. A Cossack robber band under Ermak followed in the footsteps of the and trappers. and Tiumen. long but the construction of fortified Cossack posts at the confluence of resisted rivers. the Koriaks. ganoff derived great riches from its Siberian trade. and established their power at Sibir (the name which the Russians gave to Isker).SIBERIA. which had exploited long been of the Stroby agents which family. Ural territory. after Ermak was soon and the the Irtysh. Kanda. '75 commercial intercourse with the tribes settled on Ural Mountains. and in mountain passes. style to began Lords themselves ' of the territories of the ( )1> and is the say. of which site of the the principal mart was at Isker. but with the loss over half Cossacks crossed drowned in who the had Ural. Early in the sixof teenth century the Muscovite Tsars. at portages. in suc- ceeded of capturing of the Isker. demoralized also by the danger of their position in the face of inimical native tribes. on the Irtysh. and other aborigines. a little above the a Tartar of the was Isker kingdom. The Buriats on the Angara. Tobolsk. A SIBERIAN MERCHANT IN WINTER TRAVELLING DRESS. eventually reduced them to . and traders from Novgorod the descended the tributary streams of the Ob river in search of furs. Cossacks. were forced to later abandon a conquest which was virtually effected Muscovite The Tsars thus became masters of the Transby troops.

submission. on the sufferer in this respect was the tocsin Volga. began to supply Siberia with a new class of exiles noblemen and ex-favourites. branded or maimed in tongue. perished settled in villages along the 1 Russian revised Edition ol Rechis. just annexed to Muscovy. Boris Godunof. Tobolsk became the central seat of government. are now in the Mongols and Tartars inflicted such well-nigh suffering. on Chinese territory. and sent to guard. arrested her in a development invasions. nose. and condemned. Russia. Dimitri. factories at spite of that treaty. in isolated forts. the Tsar was compelled to order the evacuation of the settlements formed by Cossacks on the Amur. to lose its tongue and ears. In 1689. of teenth whom we exiles. and ultimately. and Cossacks. under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. Strange to say. victims of Court intrigue.176 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The sovereigns who more immediately succeeded Peter I. were exiled in batches to Siberia. Many of them. by first only from the sevenboth criminal and political. to which we are indebted for much information in a concise form. and nine points dealt with. for the offence of ringing out an alarm while the emissaries of Prince the usurper. political. from which Russian dominion was consolidated and extended. numerically The Russian but later trappers. and by the small remnant of the tragedy took place. . of which the population was later increased by Dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. in 1860. or Sibir. having been swept away by a flood. Poles. representing the Slav traders. in Russians and Siberia. Amur was gained. or ears. Towards macious Little Russians Streltsi whom the most Peter the Great had spared. The plains of Mongolia. and portage connecting that river with De Castries During the Crimean War the left bank of the two extremities of the Bay. have spoken. preponderate century. contuof the Ukraine. of the territory through which the Celestial empire is now dangerously vulnerable. whom and the of government at Moscow. which was formally banished in 1591 to Pelym. or perpetrators of fraud and crime against the State. in the Gulf of Tartary. from which had issued. in the thirteenth century. But a desire to entire possess an outlet ' in the in Pacific for the huge continent of Siberia led the establish. to at 1851. near Tobolsk. by skilful diplomacy and the Chinese Government made a formal cession. as in the law having thus been the remainder was we have already said. Isker. . distant confines of his empire. were Ivan the Terrible. in Russian Government. like a human criminal. 'trading the mouth of the Amur. the militarily occupied. were succeeded. Some of their descendants are 1 banks of the Lena. son of exiled to doing to death the young Among of the earliest in State criminals Siberia were the citizens the town which that the end of the seventeenth century. the first bell of the town of Uglitch. by successive established a semi-Asiatic form hands of those on ineffaceable injury race. the hordes that devastated common to the rest of Europe. a century and a half previously.

' who are only one fugitive skin. Catherine II. while his the leanest his coat. about 900 Poles. 972 were sent as convicts. vols.ind tundras of Siberia. deported to the same wilds large bodies of Poles. when it more especially to 1 ' the crowding of political offenders and criminals. even if pardoned. tied. to sent join their countrymen performed the same dreary journey after the of 1863.' SIBERIAN CONVICT. which has Buriats. with by tearing out their nosUntil 1864 they were branded a hot iron on the forehead . were last I. and the tender mercies of the beyond left to Tunguzes and reported to prefer the chase of an escaped convict to that of a wild goat. and on both cheeks but at present runaways are simply placed the pale of the law. Russian edition of Reclus. who had served under the in In the reign of Alexander banners of Napoleon. and the considerable contingent of Polish exiles suppression of the insurrection 1500 as settlers certain circumscribed dis- Like the ordinary criminals of every grade who have been poured into Siberia for the last century exiles and had. still escape obedience to the call of ' General Kokushka. Of these. where. the custom to guard against the escape of convicts trils. where no friendly hand could help them. drawn attention to the dreadful sufferings still endured by exiles in Siberia. the messenger of glad tidings was generally unable to find them.' that the cuckoo 2 The Howard Association has recently proclaims the advent of spring. other parts of Siberia. . Kennan's articles in The Century. Siberia. or chained in It took gangs to long iron poles. the four political until recent journeys miles of days. xxxvi and xxxvii. ' See Dr. them two years to reach places of banishment in the Trans Baikal as well in as province. to make or five thousand on foot. Nevertheless many is. in days happily gone by. a half. 177 miserably in the forests . with the coat The long worn by peasants. it was. and where. 685.SIBERIA. has in three shirt. p. kaftan? and some kind of sheepskin entirely. and about within tricts.

' No can accuse a of . Corporal punishment having been abolished in 1863. of intentional deportation mitigate the although of present government or the superior cruelty or negligence in the matter of very great deal has already been done to the felons still sufferings condemned and banished a large revolutionists. in filthy prisons. plunderers felons. owing to the continuous cordially received influx of educated exiles. innocent wives and children of the former.. the penalty of death is now inflicted only in cases of political and other crimes requiring special measures of repression. Russia but. of banks and a to free. As regards the generality of political exiles. criminals to the that the worst are now observe deported We on the Gulf of Tartary.i 78 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and perhaps luxurious life at Tomsk or lenity Tobolsk.' which save him from the full the habitual rigour of the law. die. thanks ' proneness. present punishment by exile might be made more impressive and more effectively of activity in centres remote deterrent of crime. even. doom of labour in the mines of Nerchinsk should have a considerable amount of may. Tomsk and the university recently and Russian no doubt.' and the punishment for the most atrocious murder or series of murders does not by jury. and to their a unable to acquit prisoner clearly culpable. we may interest our readers by mentioning in 1863 met. to give him extenuating circumstances. a Russian Howard would undoubtedly find field watching over and improving the system in its details. than that of the population of European Russia. except in its polar region. when the benefit of of Russian juries. to whose steppes he banished gentleman Without pretending to . after they have once reached the places of their banishment. bring forward a typical case of comparative that a Polish felicity in exile. however. is now a very hard one. They are by the local inhabitants. will. Polish established at that level. honest and more than ten per critic cent. at In some respects. and it has trial great amount of crime thus escapes punishment in become a serious question to Russian statesmen whether A suddenly introduced in 1865. and to numerous other happy.. here salutary terror to prospective criminals. of the inmates are conlargest of which ' stantly officials ill . in ocean steamers which embark their miserable and dangerous freight at Odessa. who lead Siberia is a pleasant land to convicted other public institutions. ' In this respect it appears necessary that a exceed twenty years' hard labour. Russia. and are able to find occupation and recreation of one The intellectual level of the Siberians is markedly higher kind or another. do much both to sustain and to raise . themselves to a great extent the descendants of exiles. it cannot in truth be said that their lot in Siberia.' in one of the more than twenty-five per cent. has not done more harm than good to the moral condition of the people. the from the eyes of philanthropic governors. among the Bashkirs. island of Sakhalien.

and at Aziatskaya station begins our descent into Asia. 179 was relegated. down the eastern side of the Ural Mountains. Although within across railway to Ufa is have to reach the the confines of Europe. visit some of the principal Until the great country on the River Nijni the Ural. Kama. St. the Crimea. It is an important centre of we Here metallurgic industry. The great specimens of the many iron works of Neviansk are some thirty stocked with N 2 . Petersburg. we we have been sketching via Perm. an Irish taught him the English exile liberated settled at . a voyage of four days from Novgorod by steamer.SIBERIA. in proximity with the famous Demidoff copper mines. of which there eleven. At their foot lies much are Nijni Taghil. we find a minerals found in museum well Siberia. We Siberian carried must now towns. irregularly disposed. and to retire after a very few years with a considerable fortune. resuming work in his original profession of an advocate and the knowledge he had acquired from his Irish friend enabled him to undertake English business. army Recalled after a couple of years. take rail to Ekaterinburg. Not far from the principal works. who the of hawking. its low wooden houses. the aspect of a Siberian city is given to Perm by A SIBERIAN GOLD MINK. from which malachite is raised. and with whom he followed in the sport deserter from the British language. started by a Stroganoff in the sixteenth century.


but as they are more than a hundred miles away. Sophia is the most handsome. in large numbers. the capital province of the same name. distant East. it must suffice to take note of the fact of their existence. Our railv/ay journey ends. a town founded in 1586 on the site of an ancient Tartar city. city. by descending first the and then ascending the Ob in a steamer. In addition to iron and copper works. beryl. of elk. We are told of the emerald mines that belong to the State. after a somewhat monotonous voyage between low and flat banks inhabited by Ostiaks and other aborigines. jasper. or more than a quarter of the total gold world (estimated at about 144 tons). wolves. as we also do of the presence. like that of many an exile. opals.000). 181 miles beyond. lapis lazuli. the oldest and most populated in Siberia. aqua marine.extensive mining mines. for while Ob. thirty-two (^4. on the Tura River. topaz. and at our feet spreads out the joined lower town. Although the Ostiaks in these regions still live in tents. There is also a laboratory in which the gold raised in Siberia is smelted into ingots. Close to it is a belfry in which hangs fortress of front. jacinths.SIBERIA. and a number of other stones more or less rare and precious. alexandrite (crimson by day and green by night).600. Irtysh. and to several gold washings in the neighbourhood of the city. the Cathedral of St. precipitous not far from the city by the Tobol. through its great affluent the also the goal of caravans from China and other parts of the Irtysh. This is the most important commercial centre in Western Siberia. and the British and Foreign Bible Society have consequently selected it as the most suitable place for a thorough and systematic dissemination of the it has water is communication with the it Word of a of God among Steamers run the political prisoners. and the the exiled bell of Uglitch. and bears in the forests that have not yet disappeared under the great demand for wood fuel used in possesses The Crown a factory in local gems and stones. of and . at Tiumen. such smelting ore. named by Peter the Great after Catherine in of gold production in the tons I. The upper town Tobolsk occupy a commanding position on a hill with a and from which we gain an extensive view of the Irtysh. was yielded by Siberia.. 1884. was founded 1723. and is a handsome districts. and in their immediate in neighbourhood In are the first gold washings to which we come Siberia. bristling with domes and spires. . from Tiumen in a day and a half to Tobolsk. Ekaterinburg. already referred to. and seven times as large as Great Britain and Ireland. there is a mine of gold quartz at Berezof which most travellers are induced to inspect. In eight days more. Exiles are distributed from this point over Eastern Siberia. we find ourselves at Tomsk. Of the twenty churches that stand out from among the modest wooden houses of Tobolsk.' and in a:s great importance as the centre of rich the seat of the State 'administration of the it which are cut and polished garnets.

Its prosperity and revive now that it has become the seat of a university for . and have not. of subjugation and annexation until the towns of Eniseisk and Krasnoyarsk were founded importance for the will same purpose on the Enisei River. via Irkutsk. takes a fortnight neighbouring Enisei . along roads (in the as any in England. both of to reach China and the At present Irkutsk with province) as well made and kept post horses. like their congeners on the Built in 1604.-A TOBOLSK. retained their Enisei. and is it can also look forward to the benefits it of the in it great railway which destined sooner or later to pass through Pacific coast. the direction.182 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Tomsk remained a centre ancient dress. Siberia. they are more or less Russianized.



&c. also This sheet of water. soap. lies on the It has far off in Lake Baikal.SIBERIA. which mountains is surrounded and occasionally attain a height of 7000 by is crossed At the station from which it feet. more rugged part of the valley. the Angara will be found rolling down a four miles in length. is the junction of the roads . and the transit trade in tea. the seat of the administration picturesque Angara River. 185 Irkutsk. and other trees. and before a great of Eastern Siberia.. rises picturesquely in the middle of the A rushing waters. held sacred by the followers of Shamanism.000 English square miles. being made under the impetus of Its leather. cedars.000. on the opposite side. 400 miles long by 20 to 50 in breadth. Holy Sea. The road winds along the wooded part of the Angara hills crowned and covered to the valley. also tenanted waters. and occupying an area of 14. and never passed by them without an act of devotion. THE BURNING OF IRKUTSK IN 1879. is one of It is 1364 feet above the ocean. the largest fresh water lakes in the world. however. which rises not a population of 36. which are by the ocean seal. fire 1879 was the finest town in Siberia. by a steamer the depth close Fine fish in great variety abound in its in shore is a thousand fathoms. and candle works are being continued industry and trade. called the A beautiful view is soon obtained of Lake Baikal. Travellers bound to Kiakhta can reach it from Irkutsk in four days by post and steamer. At Verkhneudinsk. great mass steep decline and forming rapids nearly of rock. in large after the establishment enjoys is likely to attain a considerable development of railway communication. from Kiakhta which it on a scale. Rapid recovery is. and presents magnificent views of After passing a foot of their slopes with pines.

bank of the Selenga are still extant some of the outbuildings of the house in which they lived. Selenginsk. lead that and at severally to Pekin and to Vladivostok on the Pacific a small and miles we modern 110 reach the scene town. to the conversion of the Mongolian Buriats. . and in an enclosed cemetery we find the graves of Mrs. is left . Sixty miles further on. Mrs. beyond. II. between 1817 and 1840. of the labours of the devoted themselves English missionaries who. YAKS IN WINTER COSTUME ON THE LOWER AMI'K. Stallybrass.1 86 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Yule. On the (. at the end of a heavy and sandy road that runs along a parched and undulating tract of land covered here and there with a little grass. and three of their children.

. for there has been a great mingling of blood in this new country. where In its we have a so-called carts square to alight in a dirty inn infested with vermin. a town inhabited palisade of Maimachen. and Chinese by three thousand male Celestials. drawn by oxen. 220 is yards wide. under existing arrangements with China. bidding fair to render The Russian is already in the richly-stuclcled Crown of All the Russias. in from becoming rooted to the being rigidly excluded (from beyond the order to prevent the subjects of His Chinese Majesty soil. ' great wall of Kalgan). on the other hand. making rapid strides numbers and Sibir one of the most valuable jewels prosperity. 1728. Petersburg. already for the the icy north. notwithstanding that its cathedral is Buriat endowed with gold and jewelled church properties. 187 Troitskosavsk. separates entered through a gate the in Russian the The latter empires. which can no longer be considered as the land of made of Siberia. nor as mingling with in exclusively the land the honest banished. and an incessant interchange of thought of a high intellectual order. a great trade still exists in that article. and thereby becomes As a matter of fact. Neutral ground. the leaf brought to Kiakhta is long been exploded. resulting in a spirit of freedom and a broadness of view. a A Lamasery is among the principal sights of this place. where a better exclusively quality is produced than in the south.SIBERIA. since its free in population. where. The theory that tea carried overland is superior to that which aroma. the advantage of cheaper carriage by sea. in strong contrast with the comparatively low level of general culture in the European parts of Russia Proper. and mounted on wooden discs instead of walk along a macadamized road brings us to the Russian frontier town of Kiakhta. and which forms the bulk of the tea consumed in European Russia. A and so is still richly miserable-looking place. even Russian It was founded as a fort about officials are not allowed to sleep. we stop to gaze at the corn and hay market Mongolian wheels. and follow the travels deteriorated in or way of the grand country of the Amur a vast and one also of high importance to Russia from a strategical kingdom Our readers must be content with the sketch we have point of view. of the is ' ' exile. the growth of the northern provinces of China. south. seen to greater advantage in it than on his native dreary plains. gravitation of its development is towards the genial long road to the Pacific by in itself. has strength by sea.' women Notwithstanding the competition of sea- borne tea. From want of space we cannot return to Verkhneudinsk. which enjoys. imported via Odessa and St.

bounded on the south by the dominions of Persia and Afghanistan. between the Oxus Jaxartes. and bounded on the south by the governor-generalship the stretching from Turkestan. has been more and more prominently brought to the notice of the British public in connection with SINCE and the country is now so well that none of our readers and physical political aspects will expect or require to derive any additional light from our sketchy pages. terminating on the the third : . OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY IN THE PUBLIC RUMIANTSOFF MUSEUM. To our immediate forefathers the greater part of the country thus consolidation bounded was known as of Russian dominion in Independent Tartary. and merging on the north into the Russian advances focus in in the direction of India. The time has arrived when we should set aside the vague geographical designation of Central Asia. MOSCOW. within which are comprised the lands great division east at the Tianshan and the. abutting on the east on the empire of China. and historically three distinctive and politically important. a terra then almost incognita. provinces south-eastern shores of the Caspian to Merv and the Afghan frontier. : of the earth's surface into the Transcaspian region. includof ing the Aral Sea. CHAPTER X. the days of the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny the question of Central Asia. indicating the territories beyond the Caspian. CENTRAL ASIA. beginning at the southern limits of Siberia. the Khirghiz steppe country. but Central Asia has converted portion the this final large. within its steppes of Siberia.FROM A MS.



the limits of Turkestan are marked by the Hindu Kush. centuries. on inflated skins or trusses of hay Kush. crossed in . Our first glimpse into the interior of the Great. advanced kingdom. and founded the On their way to the Indus. 191 Mountains and the Pamir. and Bokhara. who.C. laid waste Maracanda (Samarkand). separating Northern Persia from the Turcoman deserts and oases.CENTRAL ASIA. early in the eighth century. we are to a great extent indebted to Mr. at the foot of the great tablelands of Thibet and Chinese Tartary. Geddie's excellent work on The Russian Empire. the fire overwhelmed the Bactrian empire. 1 1 For this digest. which gradually merges into the Kopet Dagh range of mounThe tains. region is afforded by the famous the year 329 B. . this expedition the Hindu of Alexander when hunted the fugitive then. and Chinese. ruled afterwards Parthians. while their total population is little more than five millions. he passed Persians across the Oxus. and planted the roots of Mahometanism so deeply that to this day the most orthodox champions of Islam are to be found in the mosques of Khiva. They were succeeded by Arabs of the Khalifate. and for much other information tersely conveyed. combined area of these three satrapies is over a million and a half English square miles. J. as the natives do even now. which survived for to the Bactrian several Jaxartes. Samarkand. On the south. proselytized with and sword. the Scythians in turn by the Persians.

overthrew the rule and now again. issue in by Tamerlane (Timur-Leng. conquered Delhi (1525). but the Mongol hordes of Chinghiz Khan. and was assassinated Turcoman deserts in humanity' who overthrew the Persian and reared the height of his fame. countries traversed by the Oxus and the Jaxartes.RUSSIAN PICTURES. selves at Samarkand known took the as and Shah. as the ruling power in the country. in 1219. which thus became Turkestan. but he Ferghana. Mogul empires. then. in 1747. pally by races of Iranian origin. the but of great 'scourges in was Nadir Shah. who made Samarkand steppes capital. and Kokan. . of the successors of Timur in Bokhara and in Kokan. latter the terror of the world.' of struggles for ascendency the last between the the Khanates of of Bokhara. Seljuk The of their power Khorassan. and fleeing ultimately through Afghanistan of the Great the and founded 'Empire India. Khiva. massacred and slew. behind the mountain screen of Persia. The subsequent national history of Turkestan is largely made up Another flood of invasion from the northern Mogul. or the lame). and chased the remnants of his Long and cruel army through the Afghan passes and across the Indus. to withstand unable was himself at Samarkand. peopled princiof Turkestan. from which they entered upon a deadly struggle with the nomads who held the steppes The Shahs who ruled over Kharesm (Khiva) established themor deserts. his the half of the fourteenth century. had no title to the name as the seat selected and Turks burst in from the the until north-east. the ruler of famous Baber. the subjects of laid waste Bokhara and Samarkand. waged between the direct descendants of Chinghiz and their neighbours and kinsmen the chiefs of the Golden Horde were brought to an they defeated whom KOKAN. the Twice called the province of Ferghana. wars. established to the onset of the Uzbegs.

He reached Bokhara with his merchandise. heard the Great had much of the Peter land of India. and all further fear of a barbaric invasion of the rest of Europe was removed. the sea the approaches to those countries being then jealously guarded by the Spaniards and Portuguese.' by which Turkey. Astrakhan. Cossacks. the Terrible. a annexed the Tartar with the Khanates of Central Asia. Peter I. great request. So inquiring at Moscow the early as 1520. therefore. from and the other maritime nations brought home which the Dutch. army of men. he appeared suddenly. when the Tartar yoke was began to visit it. Portuguese. and Siberia. into the possibility of trading to India by way of the Caspian and Oxus. to the court of Ivan IV. gold. the Dutch. In 1695. Persia. With an a military line of frontier to the west of Tsaritsyn. with the of the Terek. A similar object brought Marco Venetian. on the Volga. down. 193 The gravitation of Muscovy towards the Russian Drang Nach Osten) began after thrown off. in 1722. also with the character of a mission. and several unsuccessful attempts were made. on the roads to India. at the mouth Baku and Derbent. and brought back the first direct intelligence of the wealth of India.. the Chinese Wall. The o . entered into relations began lay with the neighbouring states of Western Europe and with the Sultan of In the reign of Ivan IV. In 1558 Anthony Jenkinson equipped a small war vessel on the Caspian. two adventurous Russians from Astrakhan reached Balkh and Cabul. a large caravan. had been was broken surrounded. During the reign of Alexis. Khiva. abundance and in he. to When in Persia. as the most convenient route to Bokhara. and foreigners Muscovy long finally ' countries of the Far East (the 1480. a Genoese.. George. and took This enabled him to advance provinces in which those towns were situated. Muscovy sent her first Pekin. we find Paul Centurione. which he crossed flying the flag of St. on which he planted a thousand families of Don forty thousand attacked prosecution of his plans required the conquest of the Caucasus.CENTRAL ASIA. Holland. those acquired by conquests brought Muscovy into commercial communication Foscarini. and India. with the English. In 1694. the powerful and ambitious prince who then to the foundations of the Russian empire. and the Italians were occupied idea of reaching India and China by an overland route. Ivan III. a scheme which though begun in his day was not completed until 1864. Meanwhile. Balkh. and to establish commercial relations with the Central embassy to Asiatics. Russian trade and travel Central Asia. treasure in . in 1537. and two missions to Bokhara. established the road now traversed by a military railway. his frontier to the Terek. Bokhara. was despatched gave the first strong impulse to It was his master-mind that first pointed out to his countrymen. after defeating the Turcomans who opposed his passage. who had The geographical position kingdoms of Kazan.. Between 1669 and 1672. whose silks had come into The mission of 1675 was instructed to report on the Oxus.

and by 1853 Ak-meched (Fort Perofski). and these found it necessary to carry out his behests slowly and deliberately. the Khivans entered into negotiations for peace. of vengeance to his successors. . against Khiva but it was unable to overcome the hardships of crossing the steppes in winter. the Russians began to descend systematically in the year 1845. by careful study of the Khanates and the Not a year passed. 1888. Heyfelder Hanover. A large force was sent in 1839. and forts established at the ' ' ' ' the Or and the Ural and at Orenburg. Prince Bekovitch Cherkaski and his army were massacred. encouraged the Central Asiatics to believe in their impregnability. Three years later another fort was planted on the Irghiz River. by fortified places in the province of Orenburg and in the Ural Mountains. the first Kokandian stronghold A flotilla also was Jaxartes. Great Horde all the tribes who held the submitted. M. Frightened at last by the evident intention of the Russians to renew their attempt to reach Khiva. the original base of operations against Central Asia. . from 1718 to 1850. diplomatic. . being despatched by Russia. or perished miserably in Peter the Great left a legacy the desert between the Aral and the Caspian. sorely pressed by the Bokharians. was taken after a severe combat. Parallel with these operations in the Caucasus was an advance made The Kirghiz Kaisaks obtained the protection of eastwards from Siberia. and agreed to admit Russian traders to Khiva. Gen. or military. submitted to Peter the Great. O. By the year 1827. when the fort of Uralsk (Irghiz) was established in the Kirghiz steppe. which is in reality only a lagoon two the year on the 1 Transkaspien und seine Eisenbalm nach Aden des Erbauers. in 1718. after the interchange of some missions since 1629. and had also. and in 1732 the middle Kirghiz horde recognised the sovereignty of Russia. Annenkof. established on the Sea of Aral. in 1714. Although thus confronted by an irresistible Khanates long and ignorantly disdained the power of Russia force. From Siberia. Small war next built on the Sea of vessels were Aral. scientific. By Dr. supplicated his aid against the robber Turcomans. the 1 but in 700 and 1 703 the Khivans. and expeditions.194 RUSSIAN PICTURES. by the possession of Siberia Caucasus in the centre. Lieut. had. A military expedition sent by Peter for the purpose of establishing the ascendency of Russia terminated in a disaster that confluence of the ' when ' ' : . from disease and exhaustion. Kirghiz country between Siberia and the present possessions of Russia in Central Asia were brought within the sphere of Russian administration. A solid basis was now acquired for further progress in Asia in the in the south. Russia against their enemies the Kalmucks. under General Perofski. and returned to Orenburg with the loss of one third of the troops . liberated a great number of Russians whom they had kidnapped and held in bondage as slaves. without agents approaches to them. by dominion over the north. .

such as Derbent and Baku (the emporium of petroleum). overhang the blue waters. and fringed with barren sand dunes and salt marshes. and Shahrisiabs in 1870. it the city of river whom in the Middle Ages called the ' Gog and Magog. Its southern shores are visited belong and eastward of Arabian writers Astrabad. and Kokan The Kokandians lost their fortress of Chemkend length stan later. a year Russia. in 1864. and the sea itself a Russian lake. which still holds the port of Resht. Except where at long intervals a Russian fort has been built. In Orenburg and the Jaxartes submitted to the directions of Khiva. these dismal shores only by wandering bands of Kirghizes and Turcomans. anciently defended by a wall against the inroads of nomads. On the west coast the white walls of a few old cities.CENTRAL hundred and 1858 all ASIA. It Persian trading companies have no right to now bears on its frequently boisterous waters sail merchant vessels on (ninety-eight feet below TURCOMAN WOMEN. the level of the Euxine) a multitude of Russian steamers and sailing craft.' now O 2 . Even it. Bokhara. and Tashkent became. the bays and inlets on the But their dimensions are necessarily small eastern side being mostly shallow. . At about the same time the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Persian frontier at the Atrek became Russian. Samarkand was taken in 1868. to Persia. by forty-five miles in breadth.' Cherniayeff and 1865 by beating the Bokharians at Idjar. the capital of a Russian 'TurkeGeneral consolidated the conquests made in 1864 province. near which disembogues the Gurghen. 195 sixty-five miles in the Kirghizes between and operations in became comparatively easy.

196 RUSSIAN PICTURES. want of water. London. when it became one of the bases of operations which resulted in the total discomfiture of the Turcomans. including a passage of three days across the Caspian from As soon as Baku obtains direct railway communication with Astrakhan. the boring of artesian wells and the establishment of other waterworks. the train brings us across the Ust-urt Desert to Kizyl Arvat. to the ancient capital of Tamerlane (about nine hundred miles) can be reached in nine and a half days from St. Tekke-Turkomans and Persians flocked to the earth-works until close upon eighteen thousand of them obtained employment. Built in 1 880-81. when Krasnovodsk was taken and fortified. and their highest summits crowned with eternal snow. and completed in 1888 at Samarkand. Petersburg. by occupied only in 1880. were Russian. the present starting-point on the eastern shore of the Caspian. for the route established by rail from Uzun-Ada. of Ghilan and Mazanderan are the lofty ranges of the Elbruz. Samarkand. from sleepers to rails and rolling-stock. year 1868. the importation of labourers from Smolensk and Kief in aid of two Transcaspian Railway Battalions. the first of Russians in the Tekke forts seized the but permanently 1877. and Bokhara. St. We have no space for a description of the enormous difficulties that were surmounted by the active and zealous general.' Shy at first. the journey will be easily performed within a week. imperishable credit Annenkof. Petersburg. with their sides clothed with forests. These necessitated the planting of shrubs on embankments. unpopulated wastes. All the materials. and the extension of Russian dominion to Sarakhs and Merv. At Geok-Tepe. such as shifting sands. was occupied is mills near the the same 1888 says that decidedly the best built Sea of Azof.' and the introduction of petroleum refuse from Baku for purposes of fuel and light. The greater part of the rails were manufactured and supplied by English . has now been almost entirely abandoned. almost tropical heat. 1 but one. Travelling at the rate of twenty-five to thirty-five miles an hour. where those who have obtained permission to travel on this military line railway from his fortified position at Mihailofsk. The old caravan route from Orenburg to Tashkent. General engineering. its extension from the original terminus at Kizyl Arvat was commenced in 1885. and the absence of wood or other fuel. The Times correspondent year. over 1500 miles long. At the back of the rich slopes represented in effigy at the Guildhall. the eastern coast of the Caspian began to be utilized as a basis of operations against the marauding Tekkes and the Khivans. fortress which Scobelef captured from the we are Tekkes it in in proximity to the iSSi with great in Askhabad. Some reverses and the necessity of them General Scobelef to recommend the construction of a impelled avenging the From head of Krasnovodsk of one the Bay. Transcaspian Railway greatest feats of modern and reflects on its constructor. at the ' This ' is ' stop for refreshment at a European station in buffet. the next slaughter.

the line crosses the river of that flows past Sarakhs. rendered fertile by irrigation. as their name number about 105. Afghans and Kurds. as well as from their neighbours from the Bokharians and the . According to the Merv of Tekkes warlike and the recent the most statistics.000 souls. The oasis of Merv. lull of shops. While as Taken together with other tribes. supposed to have been built by Alexander A TEKKE VILLAGE. implies. a Scotch schoolmaster. and surrounded by a brick wall. The Queen ' once a vast and glorious city. a the railway. name which Before reaching the station of Tedjen. profusion of wild grapes. the sacred city of the Shiite Persians frontier of The their saint Mahmud Riza. the total Turcoman population is at least 700. but differ in their characteristics the Persians. intersected by the Murghab the Russians built new the the old of town. The semi-nomadic and once predatory Turcomans are. ruins remain by city. whose ancestor in Russia was Mr. and Pearl of the World.000. such the Saryks. crumbling on the left bank of the Murghab. and we the burial-place of distant from Meshed. consists of several parallel streets and neat-looking houses of brick. A monument perpetuates and a fine public garden. of Turkish race. the memory of Scobelef. the Great.CENTRAL place on all ASIA. Scobie. a future station on the way to Herat.' Eighty miles beyond we are at Merv.. has an area of only 2400 square miles. '97 There are some very good streets. etc. Salors. energetic oasis River. Khorassan has for some time been on our soon reach a point which is scarcely more than eighty miles right.

knitting. Considering also the excellence of their and women. from which hangs a sword. hunger. hats to preserve their heads from the sun in summer and the cold in winter. spinning. and France. They a fired from stand are also provided with other weapons. and Mongols. and not unfrequently in a jacket Gold and silver In cold weather a khalat is worn. they are capable of supplying the best irregular cavalry in the world. latter are The clever in and a wadded khdlat or robe. and weaving. from the matchlock Their women are to the modern breech-loading rifle. like the Jaxartes. Devoting themselves to the chase and to robber raids. Merv is which. the Oxus of the Greeks and the Jihun of the Arabs. although there been a considerable intermingling of blood amongst them all. has horses. finest metal. beautifully embroidered. the Amu-Daria.198 RUSSIAN PICTURES. only two hundred miles from Herat. falls into the Sea of Aral after a course of fifteen . distinction of being thus adorned. and produce carpets of such high quality in taste and texture that they are largely The men wear high sheep-skin exported to Russia. they have so far left agriculture to their slaves thirst. generally of the TEKKES. and Herat about three hundred and fifty miles from our outpost at Candahar. and to endure fatigue. ornaments are in common use horses alone sharing with the women the . attired in Turkey-red trousers and a shirt. The great Karakoum Here we reach desert is left on the borders of Bokhara at Chardjui. From early youth the Turcoman is accustomed to long journeys on horseback over the desert. Persia.

CENTRAL ASIA. built by Tamerlane. Close by is the from its summit. and approached by tortuous alleys and dirty thoroughfares. and pierced by eleven gates. as not more room. Happily. . and . is in the Reghistan. Like the Khanate of Khiva. The unsanitary condition of Bokhara is well worthy of the attention of Russian administrators. in the new province of Turkestan and four stations beyond this we arrive at Samar. with adjoins railway station. with fine columns mosque. but practically neither can have any other will than that of Russia. The town of Bokhara is sixty miles further to the north-east. in front of the palace. was a still deeper one the hole into which our countrymen were let down. ' the head of Islam. were executed in 1842. the lower dungeons have been filled up and closed for ever and it is to be hoped that ere long the Khan will be compelled to raze these barbarous dungeons to the ground. under Russian pressure. Bokhara is nominally independent. the condemned by hurling ancient of Mir and another Arab. Below this well. the steam mill. Writing in 1888. or citadel. Constantinople. hundred miles. or Its dome is one hundred feet in height. The and blue carried Sentences of death were formerly arranged in curious designs. a Turkish bath at a of with mud on side like the dome one top building tiles. a church. more than a thouplanted on a conical elevation within the Ark. one of great commercial importance. two great names Alexander of Macedon.' as : Mecca ' is its heart. two Englishmen. stand out from among low-lying.C. we are again on territory not ostensibly but de facto annexed by Russia. again. it still contains some interesting buildings. At one side of the artificial hill that supports the citadel. one hundred and eighty-five miles from Bokhara. namely. approached by a small door in the right-hand wall of this chamber. also mosque built by Tamerlane. humanity has undeniably gained much from the establishment of Russian but it is to be hoped that the Tsar's mission of authority in the Khanates civilization will be carried out no less fully and rigorously than the establishment of his military power. In a well. Whatever may be the political and commercial aspects of the question. is that of Baliand. kand. out . Sur- rounded by a wall of sun-baked mud. faced with glazed white gardens. 199 A Russian town. with a ceiling that nearly touched the heads of the visitors. he saw twenty more men huddled together with hardly room to move. or colleges. At Sary-Bulak. which is from the quantity of native products floated down the river for land carriage at this point. dirty prisoners.' Its history is it associated with B. than twenty feet long by ten feet broad. is principal mosque. stands the prison in which It is a low Stoddart and Conolly. mud-built dwelling-houses ensconced in sand years old. The Khan's palace. who conquered 325. and square. attached to it is a minaret two hundred feet high. Nearly four hundred mosques and over one hundred medresseh. . and theatre. the Times correspondent described the in which he saw twenty-five half-naked. to be devoured by insects and vermin.

Living King. or Tomb of Timur. faced forming mosaic patterns and tints. but it has suffered sadly from being a type of is that of Gur the destroyer's .200 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Its chief architectural glory is the immense mosque of Shah-Zindeh. learning The city preserves some remains of its ancient magnificence. The buildings are much out of repair with blue and white porcelain tiles. the interior walls overlaid with arches and ceilings covered with pendent alabaster work. the and the finely by the title of ' marble and tiled staircases. the belief in mosques surrounding the whose re-appearance at a SAMARKAND. make it worthy of the palmy era of Samarkand.' but the lofty portals and domes. and power of the Eastern world. date 1868 which has passed is signified . the arabesques. who lavishly expended the pillage of the rich countries to the south and west in rearing and beautifying its palaces. resting-place of a martyred is in fact a collection of prophet. Tamerlane the Great. now outside its This attenuated precincts. mosques. The most interesting ruin Amir. and It was under his care that Samarkand became the centre of the colleges. carved wooden pillars that support them.

occupying an area as wide as that of Paris. captured by Cherniayef in 1865. which. and in great part composed subjects. still surmounted by a high minaret. Nor have new Mahometan Governor-General. stretches out on the north can hire a real Muscovite drojki. the administrative centre of A the Province of Turkestan. tea. the Russians omitted to satisfy the religious requirements of Among the of them. and gipsies. ASIA.' Uzbegs of the Turanian tribes that were wont to descend upon ' the lands watered by the Jaxartes and the Oxus since the days of Chinghiz Khan. lies eighty miles to the north of the capital of Turkestan. We however.CENTRAL hand. of the college or home of the astronomers attached by that ruler to his capital. and only a question of time. opened great ceremony in the presence of the GovernorGeneral. severely large citadel now half ruined. and otherwise be interested European He the native population. an excellent visitor pavement. numbering about 30. Within its walls are the crumbling remains. avail himself of the benefits of in the Here the will get cup of fragrant civilization. the officiating Imam on that occasion making an address descriptive of the benefits conferred by the Russian Government. and is equally buried in verdure and intersected by streams It was taken in 1864. over four hundred years old. the pride of the somewhat rivalled by the city is its park of a thousand apricot trees. Hindoos.000. occupied Sogdiania before it became the land of the and of Turks. remember a young officer of the Imperial Guards being asked: 'Are also To which the significant reply was. This was restored by the Russian Government in and with 1888. is The city. flowers. a with side of a boulevard and citadel. The well laid-out Russian town. should I ? I . and stating that never had the native population of Turkestan enjoyed so tranquil and prosperous an existence as now.' Chimkent. and its quaint and bizarre native quarter is separated by a ravine from the new Russian town. about two hundred miles distant from Samarkand. The bazaars are also full of Persians. Why you going to Tashkent ? all With these attractions. in which the finest building is the residence of the with turf and their numerous mosques of Tashkend. There are two large squares bright and an with orthodox church in the centre of each. consists of Iranian who Tajiks (Sarts). population suffered of the hands A at the Cossacks. and even the great block of greenish-black stone which marks the On a hill in the cenotaph of the conqueror has been broken in twain. is prettily situated on a branch of the Chirchik River. ' ' have no debts. prolongation of the line to Tashkent. Jews. now prettily laid-out garden that adjoins the residence. the Green Town. Tashkent has long been considered a place of exile or temporary retirement by the Russians who repaired to it. Surrounded by gardens. when the and irrigation works. almost the only one of any antiquity is that of Khoja Akhrar. centre of the bazaar we see the ruins of the Ulug Beg Observatory the first erected in Asia.

. Ji. ' r > . 5 ? it. like the Oxus. and but little available for navigation. above towers place. along a which was called Jassy who in 1397 began the construction of a huge of in honour Hazret-Yusufi. it gave in the days of Tamerlane. i" i^:v". a Mahometan saint held to this day in mosque It an interesting and curious group of buildings. for and waters are deflected that its middle lower courses upper irrigation are sluggish and shallow. It is. Mf' . rises in we approach the Celestial several streams in So much of its Mountains. KHIVA. the old post road that we travel hence to Orenburg starting-point for Central Asia. it. one hundred and the Syr Daria. and testifies to the ancient strategical importance of the At'.202 RUSSIAN PICTURES. j v . which five miles to the north-east. Hazret-i-Turkestan. into the Sea of Aral. its name to a province . -. and falls. as therefore. THE GRAND MINARET.> . is high veneration. All we have space to say of the ancient town of Turkestan is that...- . or Jaxartes.

CENTRAL ASIA. is now constrained to be on his best behaviour. or on the tablelands of Persia and Afghanistan. flanked here and there by pools of foul.000 slaves. homes. semi-independent Khanate. sur- rounded by a low earthen wall. . occupying an oasis bordered by the left bank of the lower course of the Oxus. and Russians. that traffic. kidnapped by the Turcomans on the shores of the Caspian. 203 The glazed bricks and incised evidently unfinished by its Persian architect. These are almost the only buildings of brick at Khiva. like hara. . and earthquakes many places fissured this seventh wonder of the world. the patron saint of the Khivites. prisoners has brother of Bok- The city is little more than a collection of hovels of baked mud.' in ' Khiva Russian is not legitimately within a the scope of our sketches capital of the empire. and within easy striking distance from the Russian military station on the opposite side of the river. in front of that mosque. and gave liberty to 37. found a A Russian military expedition in 1873 put an end for ever to ready sale. and the only mosque with any pretensions to architectural beauty is that which holds the tomb of Our illustration shows the minaret Polvan. are in the citadel. within which dwell the Khan and his principal officers. Afghans. and travellers (Kostenko and MacGahan) have described it stagnant water as containing more cemeteries than Its mosques and medresseh gardens. They were attacked by disease or massacred by the Turcomans on their march in small detachments across their number reached original the desert. who. of its outer walls have from the Russian cannonade suffered inscriptions directed have in 1864 against the citadel in which it stands. the torturing his of quite recently been forbidden by the Khan. Its fame is that of a which slave mart market in Asia at the chief slave chiefly Persians. but only a relatively small THE MOSQUE OF HAZRET-I-TURKESTAN. but requires passing notice as the of a large. Under the influence of Russia.

the complete been a matter of two great Slav branches has long by their Russian brethren. asserting that the descended on the Polish coast of the Baltic. as in history . Bulgarians. with Scandinavian invasion a reliable authority of the present century. like that of Russia. MOSCOW. and became. XI.' ever since the absolute incorporation with the Russian empire in 1868. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. CHAPTER POLAND. and escape from Tartar subjugation. the remainder being Jews (in the proportion of thirteen per cent. and settled chiefly in towns). and co-operation with Western civilization..157 English square a population of eight millions. The Poles (the Polacks of Shakespeare) are a branch of the Slav race. of Poles. Lithuanians. The provinces in tutional THE Czar still bears the title of King of Poland. but the consti- ten in number. and other aliens. Servians. apart from those pursued amalgamation of these practical impossibility. that Polish Szainocha. their language differing but little from that of the Russians.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. have an aggregate area of 49. permitted the Poles to work out their own development on lines so widely question.Vistula Provinces. Czechs Contact (Bohemians). and other odd kindred remnants. Russians. . Northmen begins. five per cent. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TRUITSA MONASTERY. kingdom created at the great settlement of political accounts in 1815 has been officially styled 'The Cis. Germans. composed to the extent of sixtyand miles.

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Moravia. it is on record that Russia. who founded a dynasty that was superseded only in 1385 by the Lithuanian was introduced by the fourth of the Piasts. the first Grand Duke of Poland (about A. in succession to Sigismund II. as far as the Dnieper.. . who were of the nobles. elected Jagellon (baptised Magna Charta. his sister's son. gained for himself the title of Rex Rusticorum. son of Sigismund III. Jagellons. Moscow had been occupied in 1610 by the Poles in the name of Ladislas. elected to the Muscovite throne by the Russian boyars. the by Vladislaf (Ladislas) the Short.POLAND. whom she loved.D. the throne of Poland. the Great. under Minin and Pojarski. under a he was Pacta Conventa. to 1320. the last of the that of two chambers. After compelling his daughter to marry. of France.. Boleslas I. who with those of Poland. Augustus. but soon expelled by the patriots. where the Polish kings were ever after crowned. in Casimir Cracow. -was called its the throne but in order the ensure in all continued possession compelled re-instate nobles their privileges. not William of Austria. Christianity in the being partitioned. reunited at Polish Justinian (1334-1370). by the bestowal of benefits on the peasantry. Silesia. of Sigismund II. two centuries. in accordance with the principle that long obtained were of Poland territories the component neighbouring Russian principalities. brought and one of the reasons that led the Cossacks strong intolerance with them. a peasant. 964. introduced in the next .D. and White Russia. who had saved Vienna for the Austrians. subject to alterations made at Diets. of the Swedish Wasa family. already limited by and the crown became elective. of the Polish Ukraine to solicit Russian protection was the inferior position Roman to which their Greek religion had been reduced in relation to The Russians and Poles had been at war with each other for Catholicism. While occupied in besieging the Huguenots at Rochelle. King to of Hungary. absconded from Cracow in order to become Henry III. The was still further diminished. ancestors of noble houses.. . and to convert his Duke offered to unite his extensive and adjacent dominions the nobles. who established his capital. in 1572. in virtue of their to under the name of Ladislas) subjects to Christianity. Louis. 207 On the other hand. A. Henry of Valois but he quickly was elected to the throne. Jesuits. reign. but Jagellon. which thus became own pagan dynastically united (1386) with that of Lithuania. and at a time when Poland enjoyed more religious liberty than any other country in Europe. On the death. On to his death. Sobieski. Jagellons. was retained as part of the Coronation Oath so long as there were Polish kings to be consecrated. which. who He conquered Dantzig and gave a solid foundation to the Polish State. He was the last sovereign of the Piast period. or freeadscripti glebce. the Brave. that of Stephen Bathori. could not keep Kief and Little Russia for the Poles. After Pomerania. and it was a sovereign of the same House. and by the limitation of the power holders. the power of the king. of Lithuania. 842) was Piastus.

KAMENETS. with an interval of five years. Cossacks. in the third Previous to these several partitions. IN PODOI. rights Roman Catholic Church played a great part.IA. Calvinists.208 RUSSIAN PICTURES. State. which had taken alarm at a liberal constitution voted by the Polish Diet in 1791. and entry of Suvoroff into Warsaw over dismemberment (1795) of ancient Poland. succeeded Sobieski.. under which even Warsaw was absorbed by Russia. In addition to the kingdom proper. Such was the outcome of disorders and revolutions in the wars with Muscovy. during which he was superseded by Stanislas I. and . resulted in the intervention of ' the reign of the question of in the Prussia and Russia. Cracow. obnoxious to the dissidents and other of Lutherans. Turkey. it included the province of Posen and part of West Prussia. and in 1772 the first partition of Poland was consummated. as well as with and of Tartars and Frederick Augustus II. especially as it had provided for the emancipation of the The struggle made by Thaddeus Kosciuszko ended in the adscript! glcba. the ashes of the Prague suburb. in which sovereign. Dissension and anarchy became next still more general ' the Civil war. and Sweden. Elector of Saxony. The second followed in 1793. Poland occupied a territory much more extensive than that of France. under an arrangement between the same countries. Augustus III. and reigned until 1733.

Polish provinces that had fallen to the share of Catherine II. and which. spirit destinies of the Russian the old of national States. 209 Lithuania. in its while to the west and border Podolia. Kaminets. Bessarabia. the provinces of Volhynia and Podolia. This was first constituted into a Grand Duchy under the King of Saxony. the bison are strictly preserved from the hunter. not without encouragement from Napoleon III. Dense forests stretch down from the Russian. with wide expanses of sand. but were not fully to subjected to a Russian administration until after the great Polish insurrection of 1830. supplying from time imcorn-bearing memorial vast quantities of superior grain for shipment from ports in the Baltic. In still earlier times. at the partitions remained incorporated with the Russian empire. revived a Polish state out of the provinces that had been seized by Prussia and Austria. when Galicia (with Cracow) was restored to Austria.POLAND. present province of Kief. anciently Polish. and are therefore not likely to disappear like the Bos Americanns. which is supposed to have been the original stock of our horned cattle. These successive partitions gave the most extensive portion of Polish territory to Russia.. the bear. the national army abolished. The finest in . Warsaw became The old again a kingdom under a constitution granted by Alexander I. and the lynx. from Moscow. Outside Warsaw and its immediate vicinity there is little in Russian Poland to interest the tourist. Galicia. Silesia. appeared to offer to the Poles the prospect of no inconsiderable influence over the independence began to manifest itself. belonging to more than eight thousand proprietors. and part of the In 17/2 Dantzig was a seaport of Poland. and in 1815. when also the constitution of 1815 was withdrawn. an insurrection broke out at Warsaw. and Livonia were embraced within the Polish possessions. and Posen to Prussia. and forest. and it is only towards the north and east that the ground may be said to be heavily timbered. the most populous to Austria. with the result we have indicated at the head of this chapter. and the most commercial short distance Prussia. which has so long been ruthlessly slaughtered in the United empire. It is produced on the larger estates of two hundred to fifteen hundred acres. The country is generally level and monotonous. Moldavia. Notwithstanding the wide measures of Home Rule introduced by Alexander II. Napoleon I. stronghold against Turkey north its frontier extended almost to the walls of Riga. Interspersed among these barren or soil wooded tracts are areas containing some of the Europe. or buffalo. in combination with many liberal and pregnant reforms in Russia Proper. and to within a . heath. province of Grodno. and the Polish language proscribed in the public offices. and in 1862. Although much worried by the wolf. into the administration of the kingdom. and now form the last retreat in Europe of the Bison Europoeus. the survivor of the Aurochs (Bos primigcnius).

WARSAW. contribute who next hold more than 240. and their habits of life but little superior. others we may say the great majority are poor and squalid. Towns. their mode of agriculture being almost as rude as that of the Russian peasantry. during the Piast period. visit affording no accommodation that would render possible the of even the least fastidious traveller. THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS. large and occur than in more and while some are rich and small. which we take on our way by rail to or from St. frequently industrial. Petersburg or Moscow.210 RUSSIAN PICTURES. especially in the matter of drink. Russia. the seat of the appanaged Dukes of Masovia. peasantry. replaced Cracow as the residence of the Polish kings . Warszawa.000 farms seldom exceeding forty acresto nothing towards exportation. WITH UNIVERSITY IN THE BACKGROUND. Consequently we confine ourselves to Warsaw. and. Founded in the twelfth century.

wide squares. is high. and the old royal apartments are occupied by the Governor-General. its has sixteen never thousand A vast panorama and spreads melancholy dirty point of is the Zamek. and now the residence of the Emperor when he visits Warsaw. Warsaw its with chiefly built. stands the cathedral. churches and chapels. ever-changing. with its outlying fortifications. Its pictures and objects of art are now at St. Street. strongly old German in aspect. as a penalty for the insurrection In the same direction.POLAND. a country seat of much elegance built by King Stanislas front of elegant Augustus. when it was twice stained with blood. Across the broad sandy bed of the stream.500 capital of Poland. when to fortified. this . by and enlarged and restored by several of the Polish kings. and animated stately lines of streets. are numerous and so are the monasteries and convents (twenty-two). and the military hospital at Uiazdov. Crossing a large square. A still more ancient sacred edifice is the Church of Our Lady in the Nove Miasto. On page 205 we give an illustration of the prettiest portion of the grounds. a population of about 445. It 211 has now is garrison of 31. Opposite vantage. Contiguous to the Lazienki Park are the extensive gardens of the Belvedere Palace. and restored on the last occasion by King John Sobieski. gay.' and which is on its way from the Carpathians to the Baltic. and therefore as the (1586). place of entertainment much frequented by the inhabitants of and Bielany.000. the Beyond great Sapieha and Sierakovski Barracks towers the Alexander Citadel. a Warsaw. We drive 1830 to get rid of their hence in less than an p 2 . in Near Novi Sviat (New World) Elys&'s. Kaskada. is the recovered from inhabitants the assault Prague suburb. or Old Town. on which city. here shallow. mostly Roman Catholic. 1830. but a considerable distance from the town. is ' picturesquely disposed along the brow of the cliff and on the plains above. or Champs private residences. on the election of Sigismund III. Petersburg and Moscow. in which the Poles attempted in the Grand Duke Constantine. (eighty- The five). and divided as Poland itself. In the Stare Miasto. formerly a castle of the Kings of Poland. bordered by fine lime-trees we find the Avenues. built the Dukes of Masovia. formerly by Suvoroff in 1 794. in which the troops are exercised. built in the thirteenth century. and the pretty. and its walls are with portraits of numerous beautiful women. and spacious gardens. from Sigismund III. which. built in in is 1832-35. viceroy. or New Town but it certainly retains no traces of deep antiquity. the country seat of the consort of John Sobieski . at the expense of the city. The hung ceilings of this chateau were painted by Bacciarelli. or castle. also Mariemont.' in 1861. were in out indiscriminately put every direction from the sword. not including the Russian officers and men. a pretty spot on the Vistula commanding a fine view. The square in front of the castle was the scene of the last Polish 'demonstrations. we reach the fine park of Lazienki. to Stanislas Augustus Poniatovski. The left bank of the Vistula.

On the same For want of more strongly attracted by an original known in England. which but little to describe space. again we must plead guilty of omitting of . and several noticeable residences. of which the most interesting is the magnificent in retreat he and here arms. of Villanov. The apartments . victory. portraits. many palatial among which is one to Copernicus. of his beautiful consort are of great elegance. sought this To suit of armour presented by the Pope to Sobieski in memory of his great \ ' *#* POLISH PEASANTS. historical is full of of Countess the property Potocka. the Polish founder of modern astronomy. In the gallery Seneca pictures although we are is of we notice an admirable Rubens the Death portrait of Bacon. now repose after driving the Turks from the walls of Vienna.212 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and other curiosities. brought back the trophies of his mighty deeds The chateau. built the Castle by John Sobieski. objects of art. This is hour to one of the most interesting places near Warsaw. monuments. who died in it.

. much of her industrial prosperity. ground 213 we pass in over of handsome which. the public so buildings. is cemeteries. theatres. and buried John THE IRON GATE MARKET (AT THE BACK OF THE SAXONY GARDEN). gardens.POLAND. to whom Belgium owes Evangelical Cemetery. one Cockerell.

deep. to the peasantry. and a good part of its sea-margin on the Gulf of Finland. formed by the recession of the sea. the poor stony patches of soil afford but a scanty occasionally. In 1809 Sweden ceded to Russia her rights over Finland. present a succession of fiords and rocky headlands similar to those of Norway. In both these respects Norway very closely.' as Finland is poetically called by her loving sons. streams. occur but inland. long coast-line on the Gulf of Bothnia. in the North of It has a superficial area of Europe. for the sea gives them lucrative occupation.255 English square miles. the people are more thriving.FROM A MS. who form about eighty-five per cent. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TROITSA MONASTERY. Land of a Thousand Lakes. Along the coasts. or resembles The The hilly interior is intersected by a vast number of lakes and grand. a peculiarity from which has been derived the poetical designation of the country. are second only to those of Norway. ' XII. of the and who are almost as much driven to emigration as the Norpopulation. MOSCOW.. but not equally wide. and a population slightly in excess of two or about it sixteen inhabitants to the square mile. from the Swedish frontier on the Tornea River. the Estates swore allegiance to the Emperor as the Grand Duke of Finland. and after a separate negotiation between the Finnish Diet and Alexander I. CHAPTER FINLAND. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. wegians. sustenance . THE millions. Fertile plains. 144. possesses physical charms which.



These are already highly developed. bearing no imperial charge or . excepting only its foreign relations. together privileges. so different from all other European tongues. were assured to previous rights the Philanders in a solemn manifesto. in the shape of salmon. who do not or in man woman that admit to the Communion any person who is unable to read or write. clergy. established is also who Commander-in-Chief General. He is represented at Helsingfors by a Governorincluding the right of veto. deceitfully represented by the wisp of straw smeared with. composed of four Estates (nobles. country. lard that is attached to a long rope at the back of the sledge. A committee composed of a Secretary of State and four other members acts at St. char. and dairy produce much more are exports. The Finnish language. carried the well-ordered country An excellent system of education is zealously superintendence of the Lutheran clergy. and placed mother under the Russian War Department. and grayling fishing. The latter are dealt with by the by the Imperial Foreign Finlanders . as in Sweden until 1866. The accommodation outside of the towns is of a somewhat rougher . sledge. Office. administers the affairs of the Grand Duchy. and made the wolf darts out from the dark which tail. and peasantry). Timber. and they are carried chiefly by the national which merchant navy. the Finlanders have reason to be proud of the results of the legacy bequeathed to them by their old Scandinavian the principal masters.FINLAND. to is the the exploration of the less frequented parts of with a handbook only scenery and intelligent traveller armed or a dictionary can easily make his way. Petersburg as a kind of delegation of the Senate at Helsingfors. In regard to religion and education. with a sucking-pig to squeak by twisting his as a lure. or franc. gives employment to more than twelve thousand men. a great stumbling-block But the Finnish interior. and enjoy not life which comparatively few tourists have witnessed. upon forest and attempts to seize his prey. In winter he can shoot as many wolves as he chooses to pursue on a The pig is kept in a bag. tar. and an independent of the fluctuations of the Russian rouble liberal than that of Russia. they have a Diet their jealously guarded Charter of Rights. trout. which. in recent years under a system of general military conscription. which continues to this day to be In virtue of it. when a Parliament of two Chambers was established in The maintenance of the Lutheran religion with all the Extensive powers are reserved to the sovereign. and therefore best calculated to sustain a sound system of finance and to promote trade and navigation. nominated by the Crown. burgesses. 2 17 and the integrity of their conand stitution. that There read out under is cannot scarcely a the Bible. but enterprising and also excellent sport. contribution independent tariff a distinct coinage. which renders the Finnish marc. of the national army. are : Among the most important privileges thus enjoyed a separate budget.

In fifteen Stockholm. we have a pretty view of via Gothenburg and hours we the city. with this fascinating country. public buildings taught the citizens the necessity of rebuilding their public edifices and private raged the for two days in 1827. its interior renovated without detriment houses at considerable distances . yet its rude and heavy Gothic exterior has been preserved. by the prevalence of low wooden fire which houses. imparted by the wide. to find an air of desolation A and destroyed two-thirds of the city. It is disappointing. This is reigning over the place. enjoyed. Henry was completely gutted on that occasion. Although the Cathedral of St. including 1640). on landing. roughly-paved streets.218 RUSSIAN PICTURES. to the quay where our passports and luggage are examined. but with a well-assorted stock of absolute necessaries (including insect powder and mosquito netting). As we steam up the small and shallow Aura joki. a valuable library. while the steamer passes through the moderate waves of the open part of the Gulf of Bothnia. after the charming landscape we have ABO CATHEDRAL. in from each other. cross over from the Swedish capital to Abo. and such of its university (established as had been spared from many previous conflagrations. and by the deserted appearance of the thoroughfares. and the willingness to brave slight discomforts. or river. in smooth and sheltered water except for about two and a half hours. description than in Norway. personal acquaintance can soon be made.

excepting the Residence. designed by V. . first preached Christianity in Finland in the two neighbouring parishes of which the Finnish national costume is still though exceptionally worn Nikolaistad. Henry. which bend as if they were made of pasteboard. within instituted 1300. some sixty miles distant. at the mouth of the Kumo and not far from which is a River. its walls after their consecration by Bishop Magnus in A. of her misfortunes and in The secular Finlander. near the Myllyranta Ironworks on Lake Ulea.D. such as Bjorneborg. . and black-haired Philanders (all others being very light) Brahestad. 219 to The first episcopal chair of Finland was previous architectural features. fore- most among which is the trip to the pretty island of Runsala. and is one of the principal ports in Finland. . a lies peasant before she wore the Swedish diadem. to a place called Vaala. Svertschkoff. a large block buildings of the city are unimportant. the creation of Count Per Brahe in 1649. and salmon fall into the Gulf of Bothnia. an Englishman. or Vasa. . Uleaborg lies at the mouth of a great and rapid river which flows out of Lake Ulea. A large and now occupied by government officers. in tar and deals. but whose name betrays a Russian origin. for the IV. or in one of the tar-laclened craft that have so fragile an appearance. especially at the largest and midway rapids of Pyhakoski. with a Russo-Greek church commanding a splendid view Gamla Karleby. founded in 1558. . A fishing abounds in most of the rivers that of affords the several to Tornea water opportunity inspecting snug trip by little ports. add to the interest of the cathedral. from the interior in peculiar boats made of thin planks. an old royal domain now dotted with villas. is very fine. and possessing a and lastly Uleaborg. chiefly with Great Britain. when the girl city itself was removed up the to its foundations a short distance river. .. and the frescoes in the chancel by which is one of the chapels. a (transferred after 1827 to Helsingfors). a native of Abo. and descend the river in a hired boat. The stained windows. built Gustavus the cathedral. 1857 by Kristinestad. . one of the most progressive towns in Finland. University by (Adolphus) opposite Ekman. embellished by a stained window allegorical of her love for Sweden and Finland. The sun may be seen at midnight from Mount Aavasaksa. the border of ancient Osterbothnia a stone wall. Petersburg. The present site from its pagan consort of Eric XIV. and there is in reality no danger of death by drowning on such an excursion. an active-looking town of the gulf and the islands on it of tarred roofs. in which Bishop since surrounded wooden house. with a good deal of shipbuilding and a considerable amount of The tar is brought down trade. number of charming excursions can be made from Abo. when shooting the numerous rapids of the Those who are in search of excitement cannot do better than drive Ulea. the present terminus considerable amount of shipping of the railway from St. The scenery.FINLAND.

As almost everywhere else in this country of wood. Tornea. The extension of the railway from Uleaborg to Tornea F1NLANDEKS. on the . and was once distinguished by the appellation of Little Stockholm.22C RUSSIAN PICTURES. they derive 23rd-24th of June (St. In winter. flax. at the junction of two lakes which supply an immense water power to cotton. hams. no doubt deflect from the present yachting route to the North Cape the many would-be travellers who dread the sea. and who yet would like to gaze at a phenomenon which not only fascinates the eye by its strange grandeur and by the weird effect of light it produces. . however calm and sheltered.' from its brisk trade. from which of the night Eve and Day) swarms of travellers arrive to see the midnight sun. in which a goodly number of Englishmen are will employed as foremen. John's to sell the tongues. it is visited by Laplanders. but also impresses the mind most deeply and with more awe than any other cosmic marvel among the great and glorious works of the Omnipotent Creator. and paper mills. the most northerly town in Finland. and skins of the animals their whole support while in summer. with the Swedish capital. As a contrast to this coast trip the railway may be taken to Tammerfors. and many other industrial establishments. with their swift reindeer and sledges. when daylight ' lasts only three hours. although it does not remain entirely above the horizon for more than seventy-two hours. is separated from the Swedish town of Haparanda by a dried-up branch of the Tornea River. from which the sun is visible at midnight for fourteen days. until 1809. or cabin accommodation ever so roomy and convenient. the Manchester of Finland. leaving only the most energetic to post fifty miles to Mount Aavasaksa.

which form a separate collection. his back the from the with towards but. about 150. although perhaps not as small boys who drive them. in a two-wheeled in trotting capacities of its horses. and par- ticularly the view from the bridge that spans the Helsingfors has been the capital of the Grand Tammerfors Rapicls. our attention is called to a modern castellated villa lying in a pretty park to the left of the line.' Norwegians are also taught the same maxim. are very handand no finer view of Helsingfors and its pretty environs can be obtained . over and above the 50. railway brings us to the southern extremity of Paijanne Lake. Resuming our railway journey. On the south side of the same square we find the Alexander University. Nicholas. and owes much of its prosperity to the Finland with Russia. and in which stands the throne of the Grand Duke. with the pews radiating from it.FINLAND. Norway. and the Russian form of a Greek cross The two distinguishes it from the usual architecture of Lutheran churches. being eighty miles long by about eighteen at its widest part.000 books in Russian and Polish. one of the largest in Finland. ascended at a round trot. raised (1830-52) in Senate Square. with a large seminary for teachers. In summer the Imatra hotel. reached by flights of steps. and rock. used on great occasions. and well taken care of as the Norwegian animal. Duchy since 1819. the seat of a bishopric and Station At Lahtis the a district renowned for the by road But. the views obtained on this journey are lovely. and the since 1827. is the Church of St. on a mass of granite fifty-nine feet high. owing altar. with a central hall. not as Sharp the pitches in the hill next the driving in Finland may be called furious. situated in the midst of enchanting their character. preaches congregation to the curious acoustic properties of the edifice. but little inferior to the Norwegian carriole.000 volumes. exemplified as is in ' . Facing this church. The speed at which the by Finlanders travel is curiously out of keeping with the general dilatoriness of intelligent it one of their favourite proverbs. and from which Kuopio. Just before reaching it. from the top of the splendid dome. an echo repeats the discourse. The most prominent object in some than porticoes of Corinthian columns. is the Senate House. hardy. seat of a university political connection of the city. and a good part of The small horses are as quiet. and The University Library contains attended by nearly a thousand students. Jyvaskila. charming little town. we soon come to the picturesque old town of Tavastehus. which can easily accommodate three thousand worshippers. constructed in 1832. whose life-sized portrait hangs in each of the rooms occupied by the several administrative divisions of the Senate. road are descended at full gallop. 221 water. Hurry only when catching fleas. . Its style is that of the Renaissance. There is but little to see in this town beyond a church in which the altar is placed The clergyman in the centre of the edifice. and a far-seen landmark from seaward. Steamers run hence to a pretty place a and to called Heinola. can be reached cart.

222 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The rush and roar of the It waters are very grand and imposing. the mist having risen. The fall is not perpendicular. is scenery. but from Falls. noise it produces. but with a gradual slope over about half a mile. Petersburg. this awe-inspiring work of Nature is seen through a for hours the seething water. not only from St. all parts or rapids. grinds into small fragments the empty watch barrels that are thrown into it for at the last edification of visitors. giving a difference of sixty-one feet between the top and the end of the rapids. who come to see the Imatra formed by the Vuoksi rushing through a narrow chasm between two steep granite rocks. golden light. Europe and America. who no heed of the deafening taking Sunrise is the best time to see the Imatra-Koski. Viborg can be reached either by returning to the railway at Villman- . when. crowded of with tourists.

the principal features of the great Russian empire. by pen and pencil. Trangsund Bay. Repos. the home park VIBORG CASTLE.FINLAND. shipped from the domain of Baron Nicolai. 223 Viborg. stands an old castle. s now a town of seventeen thousand strand. Its show place where the scenery of Finland timber. CENTRAL CIRCULATE CHILDREN'S ROOM . or i- inhabitants. where by taking the pretty canal route from Lauritsala. in in its port in Mon is miniature. both in Europe and in Asia. appropriately terminate the labour of attempting to describe. within a narrow compass. built in 1293. with a considerable trade is artificially represented Here we may being full of fine statuary and monuments.

60 94. . 115 Miirmon Coast. . 221 . Petrofski Park and Palace. 118 Cemeteries. the. 147 Syr Daria. province of. 140 Perm. no ODESSA. imin. &c. 181 Tomsk. gold mines. 115 Erivan. the. 24 TAGANROG. Orenburg. Russia. 144 HAPSAL. the town. the. 168 Armenia. 35 . the. 106 of. 32 Hermitage. 52 Krestofski Island. . 90 . 143 Mz'hett. 95 Kuopio. description of. the. Allied. people of. 140 Cronstadt. 116-118 Azof. on Cathedral of Basil. description of. 65 Onega. the. 160 Great Russia. expedition Wierzbolow. 157 Abo.Karthen City. tomb of. conquest of. 147 Batoum. Cheremshansk. 87 Imatra. 162 . Library. king of Georgia. Tchentchen. 108 the. 165 Ermak. description of. 20 GAMLA KARLEBY. religious history of. 53 Sevastopol. 97 Bible. 149 21 John of Vilna. 23 White Sea. So Dorpat. Vasili Ostrof. 63 Ardon River. 157 Mil HI. 202 Syzran. 85 Red robes. the. conversion of. 197 Turkestan. the. martyrdom . 19 Wirballen. description. 203 Orlof diamond. in Samoyedes. defeats Tartars. 167 Lithuania. 222 Panticapa5um. Waterfall of. 154. 157 people of. Vitebsk. 222 Imeritia. 154 Monastery of the Trinity. 24 Kremlin of. description of. 1 20 Swanny. . sacred at. Museum . 78 . the. Pechersk Monastery. Rembrandt Gallery. 53 167 Darial Pass. 143 Kysty. 174 . 152 Solombola Island. the. 97 Solghat. 42 drojki 42. 60 Russo-Greek Church. church architecture. 50 Anglican Church. use of. 59 Sarepta. 151 187 Elton Lake. 157 PADIS CLOISTER. 179 Nobel's Town. 160 tiations with Elizabeth. description Elbruz. 149 Kasbek. defeat of.. 162 Koutais. 148 Bakii. 118 Ivan vi. 144 Dimitri. . Karaim. 94 Moravian Brethren at Sarepta. Belfry of Ivan. 161 Kovno. 103 . 21 Little Russia. 151 Terek River. conversion of. . Geok-Tepc. history of. 221 Tchapars. . 143 Alushta. Prince. 152 Akstafa. in Russia. fisheries of. 157 Poland. 82 . 187 Troitsa Monastery. Bay of. -222 KABARDINES. 26 Balaclava. WARSAW. rebellion Streltsi. 165 Alle River. 112 Irkutsk. Nenocksa. Rd. 104 Kremlin. halls of. 124. Monastery of. Turcomans. 33 pictures . the Tithes Church. 157 RADZIVILL. 101 UKRAINE. 23 EASTER IN RUSSIA. 196 Georgia. the. dress of people. 144 Merv. 116 Tula. no Neva River. 37 . 222 of. 49 . 19 Vilna. 134 St. description of. . 181 Torne. doc128 Sukharef Tower. description 130 : Cathedral of St.. 136 Caucasus. 148 Tavastehus. 60 Izmailovo. 168 Kazan. no Skiit. in Massandra. 165 Archangel. 104 churches and monasteries. 25 Pskova River. . 169 Petrozavodsk. 154. the Black Prince. Church of Abridges. the. . the. 45 Bjorneborg. 167 Kalmucks. of the Saviour. Russian pictures. Sophia. nt Pytzounda. . 70 buildings of. 49 character of. of. 158 SLAF. conquest of. description of. 169 Volga. 59 Samara. 59 Saratuf. 185 Bakhchisarai. 114 JACOB RIVER. in Stenka Razin. 160 EHzavetpoI. 60 Howard. 167 Alexandropol. 80 of. 27 Abkhases. 152 Symvolon-limen. 136 Nicon. in Samarkand. 220 at. 129 Mishor. the. . 106 . 143. at Kherson. 32 Orlof-Davydoff. the. Russia Company. description of. history of. 136 Khiva. 131 . the. 199 Boskunchak Lake. 50 31 Petersburg. . 164 Demidoff mines. 20 Rostof. 203 Khvalinsk. Andrew. 22 Jews' fortress. 20-23 . 52 Petrofsk. in Lithuania. monuments of Peter Tsitrakhan. 219 66. 168 Tver. 170 natives of. Jews 74 Oka Stretna. Valley of. 158 Sourakan. 28 Hefsurs. the. 94 Koshtan-tau. description of. 53 River. 153 Caviar. 187 ^ Bethany Monastery. of. 103 Sturgeon CATHERINE II. Russian charity for. 174 political history of. 204 Poltava. the. 166 Baltic provinces. Tatars defeat Kumyss. 115 Dukhobortsy. . 138 Novorossisk. the. 165 Narva. 23 Vladimir. 144 Pavlofsk. 56 Jehoshaphat. 42 38 streets Transcaspian Railway. convicts. 52 Peterhof. in Crimea. and Alexander. 219 Black Sea Cossacks.. nego- Ararat. 43 Imperial Public Anitchkoff Palace. the. 88 . Kayan Cathedral. history. 59 Kars. . 84 Cathedral of Archangel Michael. 201 Tartars of the Crimea. 69. 168 31. 47 Grandfather of the Russian Navy. 112 Kief. 95 ikon. Church. death of. rebellion of. 181 Ekatcrinenstad. St. martyrdom of. in Kuntsevo. 138 BAIDAR VALLEY. 81 the Terem. 112 . 31 diamond. Kouban district. CENTRAL CfRCULATI CHlLUHEN'S ROOM . 43 bazaars. 71 Nicolaef. Stary-Krim. . 116 Kalmytski Bazaar. 115 Tsarskoe Se'lo. White City. 154. 168 . bridges. martyrdom Jyvaskila. . 219 Gautier. the. Peter the . 108 history of. the. description of. 53 Orel. 94 . 20 Temple Hills. the. Great's Gallery. 34 Kulikova. 19 Kristinestad. the. 25 Pugatchef. . 39. 160 its Tarn an. 90 Romanoff House. isthmus of. description of. 127 . 179 Simbirsk. Cathedral of the the AlabasAnnunciation. the. 221 Taoul mountaineers. 65 Kizyl Arvat. . description of. 56 Archangel. Nevski Prospect. 151 Jesuits. Valley of. 78 Bells of. 167 Schlusselburg. 101 . galia. ruins Circassia. 144 Amu-Daria. 196 Troitsk osavsk. the. 77 . 59 Cheboksary. 32 Orlof of. description of. 28 DAGHESTAN. 146 Siberia. 112 Kiakhta. . 56 of. St. 145 Eustace of Vilna. Inkerman. 98 . Grebensky. . 28 Perecop. 65 Oranienbaum. the. 169 Novoselski. the. 90 beggars in. 40 . the. 104 Nijni Taghil. voyage on. province of. 118 the. the.. 176. . 146 202 Chimkent. Rion River. story of. 136 IDIOTCY. 101 Vasa. 1 20 135 Lesghians. the. 168 Ostrof. manufacture of. 116 Kivatch. 169 Delijan Pass. description of. 168 Phasis. of. 59. re- 80 . 80 Granovitaya Palace. history French in. 52 gardens of. 157 Kakhety. 152 Stavropol. 168 Heinola. description of. 36 . 185 Viborg. 19 YALTA. . 198 Anthony. 55 at. 25 Isinglass. 76 77 Chinese Town. 196 Kola. 129 Ekaterinburg. 64 Sougdidi. 154 Bokhara. 198 Cathedral of the Assump84 tion. 138. 112 Cheremyssi. 161 . 196 Astrakhan. 116 Kama River. people of 122 MAIMACHEN. 137 m Chernozem. 165 Karaim. . 154 . 114 Kanin. Cathedral of St. 169 Tammerfors. Bay of. 55 and . expedition of. 28 Rybinsk. 115 Sary-Balak. 168 Basil. province . provements 88 . 21 FINLAND. UleSborg. description of. 160 Ph'tchavy. 179 Peter the Great founds Petersburg. 222 Kursk. . Dubofka. Herat. 138 tombs in. Isaac's. Cape. . 95 Moscow. 144. 85 tron. the Patriarch. 158 Ingush. 146 Irghiz River. LIMITED. . description of. description White Russia. 153 Cossacks. 154 LONDON: WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. description of. AA RIVER. Pass of. 169 Molokane". 84. 72 Niemen River. Sophia at. 55 Ivan the Terrible before Pskof. fishing. STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 179 Derekyuy. 146 Chancellor. 197 Telav. 135. 134 Kherson. 120 Chersonesus. 95 Tsaritsyn. 185 manufacture of. 65 Pharnawaz. 76 Kremlin. AT EKATERINO- Old Believers at Kern. 91 . John. Don. 223 Vilia River. 70 Novocherkask. 63 Solovetsk. 167 Tedjen. of. 124 Vladikavkaz. 21 welcomes Chancellor. 26 Rion. Vologda. 139 . 152 Purtenite. 55 Peipus Lake. . 169 Ai Pctri. 169 Kul-Oba tomb. . Etchmiadzin. 200 Samarskaya Lake. 219 the. 197 Michaelofski.i. 48 Nevski. 108 Sygnak. 222 Helsingfors. 162 Tiumen. 219 Verkhneudinsk. 167 Tashkent. grave of. Black Sea. 165 Eupatoria. the. 152 Kharkof. 165 Askhabad. 169 Ekaterinoslaf. 143 Ak-mesjid. 44 47 Monastery of Alexander the Fortress. 24 bell of. 167 Souram. Count. Ossets. description of. 23 Dvina. Kour River. 167 Sympheropol. NICHOLAS. Pityus. 101 209 to. 138 Crimea. Monastery of. 85 Square. the. 115 Novgorod the Great. 82 . 51 Yelagin Island. 135 Pskof. Khersonesus doors at. 166 LADOGA LAKE. 101 ST. 164 Alazan. 19 Nijni Novgorod. 143 Baikal. . Lake. galley slaves. 122 Gunib. 161 . 143 Yaroslav. 33 Kertch. Great Palace. 86 German colonies. 154. Kertch collection. 188-192 Tushines. 108 Kertch Collection. 40 drivers. . description of. 214 French invasion of Russia. 120 Kikeneis. 70 Kremlin at. 59 ZAPOROGUE. 154 Dunaburg. 25 sieges of. 31 New Jerusalem Monastery. 55 Sergi. 27 MIety. 124 Olonets. 37 St. 88. . 181 Tobolsk. 131 . climate of. Lahtis. 33 . 144 VALDAI. 116 Brahestad. English factory at. province of. 86 . 219 Ural Mountains. 168 Tiflis. . description of. Mangup. 168 NAHITCHEVAN. description of. 151 in. the. description of. 92 Sparrow services of. 28 Paijanne Lake. 167 Tepe-kerman. 132 . 121 . the. 86. markets of. the trines of. 162 Gouria. the. 112 Ekaterinodar. 59 Utchan-su. 53 Mingrelia. the. 218 Agriculture in Holmogory. . 132 Kirghiz Steppes. of. 160 Rornnove. .INDEX. 74. 22 Riga. capture of. 56 Kolomenskoe. 50. in Russia. the. 167 Gurzuf. 200 Schamyl. description of. Alupka. . 153 Gori. 161 Ingur River. 65 Olga. Chuvash. 149 Jews. dangerous situation Winter Palace. 121 . 56 Music. 108. description of. the. Kamyshin.

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