THE are object of this of the Russian ' volumes of the Pen to represent graphically the salient features Readers of the previous Empire and its inhabitants. character was the tenth preserved through century purely Byzantine . on which he is a high and well-known authority. The ancient illuminations that head the chapters of this volume have their It will be seen that been copied from M. John Murray to draw upon the information contained in the The thanks of Handbook for Travellers in Russia.N.. the author are also due in a special degree to Captain J. Poland. be number of pages is the same. therefore. Buchan Telfer.' execution of this task has been facilitated by the generous per- mission of Mr. ST. R. and.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. and Finland. be claimed for the unavoidably incomplete character of a work that attempts to sketch by the aid of both pen and pencil the lands and peoples embraced in so vast an area as that which stretches from Poland to Kamchatka. PREFACE. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. and from the Arctic uniformly limited. Boutoffsky's Ornement Ritsse. PETERSBURG. the Ocean The to the 'frosty Caucasus. and Pencil Series will remember that their contents is ' volume Indulgence must. for his friendly contribution of a chapter on the Crimea and Caucasus. the country dealt with large or small.

by giving if somewhat scanty. In short.PREFACE. among a nation guided for the most part merely by instinct. at a time for a good part the printing press was already an active force. the work may be introduced to its readers somewhat apin the words of an English writer at the end of the propriately seventeenth century 'Tis true. The foreign criticism and animadversion to which Russia has been liable since the produced by consequence of the days. information about the history. Dedication to The Antient and Present State of Muscoiy. which was gradually much influenced by the art of India and Persia. in the eyes and under the keen observation of states that of form been more or less and the solidified and in the advanced long spirit their civilization and government. Hence. of time. by sea and by land. London. has been the subject of such numerous literary productions that it is well nigh impossible to say. and of the next. been great Reformer. but also. and when intercommunication with the rest of Europe. the hope is not forbidden that the book produced in these circumstances may not only please the eye of the reader into whose hands it falls. this relation will not afford the same beautiful of structures. statues. gardens. . and other niceties as that of variety nevertheless. Russia received its first strong impulse from Peter the Great. J. more especially of its racial or religious prejudice. ' ' : . especially that part situated in Europe. so far from being a terra incognita. the more abstruse their history and surprising in the event. add something peoples. had become when ' ' It is therefore as in a glass hive comparatively easy and free from danger. the more remote the manners. when the wall that had surrounded Muscovia had been considerably breached. Crull. 1698. to the interest he may already take in the subject. that the Russian bees have ever since been toiling under the guidance of" gifted and ambitious rulers to build up the colossal fabric we view to-day with an amazement which is not unmingled with disquietude. and consequently hurried on from one extreme to another. while at the end of the eleventh century the Byzantine style began to be mingled in Russia with elements of native genius. when only the area of the modern Russian Empire presents itself for consideration. have not They have been the natural which Russia acquired so late in her had political life. and policy of the Italy Muscovites are from other nations of Europe. the more. Russia. him accurate. religion. and cities of Russia in both Europe and Asia.' 1 I say. they may deserve our particular observation at this juncture By Dr. lands. or to depict. Nevertheless. anything by pen and great position pencil that will not appear to a large class of readers to be more or less a rhhanfft of other travellers' notes and artistic labours.

.. FROM A MANUSCRIPT THE SYNOD. An Illumination from a Manuscript of the Thirteenth or Fourteenth Century. An Illumination from a Russian MS. . in the Imperial Frontispiece Library.. RUSSIA... Public /<y' in the 5 5 a Manuscript Byzantine Ornamentation of the Tenth-Eleventh Century. Petersburg Preface .. St.. Moscow Map of Russia in Europe . Petersburg .... St. Petersburg St. MS. Isaac's 38 41 Plan of St.. in the Imperial Public Library.... 7 IO EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. Century. Voronej . CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL: The Column St. Public Library. of the Twelfth Lithuanian Peasant 24 27 Museum. . . CHAPTER I. . Petersburg Peter the Great St. Petersburg from a MS... from Library of the Synod. Cathedral.. 36 The first Fleet built by Peter the Great The English Quay. PETERSBURG. St. in the Public of Alexander I.BYZANTINE ORNAMENTATION OF THE TENTH-ELEVENTH CENTURY. III. An Illumination Fortress and Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul.... of the Fourteenth Century. Views 31 in and around Petersburg at . II. . ST. .. Petersburg of the Four- 30 St. . .. 19 Views in Riga ... Petersburg page . St. teenth Century.. Vilna 21 18 Moscow . St. 44 49 51 The Fortress of Schliisselburg 54 .. The Emperor The Empress of Russia of Russia page 14 15 CHAPTER WESTERN Russian Sledging and Coursing An Illumination from a Russian or Thirteenth . .. MOSCOW. . in the Imperial . . Petersburg ... IN THE LIBRARY OF CONTENTS AND The LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS...

. . A Nun collecting Money for A South Russian Woman a Convent 127 from a MS. in of the Thirteenth or the Mosque at Kazan . Moscow .... . Modern Tartars of 114 116 . V... .. .. of the Fifteenth Century.102 . . New Jerusalem. An old Church at .. 119 CHAPTER SOUTH An Illumination VII.. . .. . near Moscow Moscow . Sergius... Pokrofski Village... Date The Troitsa (St. . THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA... of the Fourteenth Century. Lady .. . in the Library of the Monastery of the Resurrection.. 73 an 74 The Romanoff House The Sukharef Tower Church of the Nativity . . The Pechersk Monastery The Battle of Poltava .. near Cathedral. RUSSIA. .. 1553 Archangel ... 77 79 So Si Novgorod The Monument at Novgorod commemorating the Thousandth Anniversary of the Empire The Patriarch Nicon The Church in the Monastery of the New .. at Holmogory. VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. . An 98 99 105 Moscow . MS. . .... The Kremlin Wall.CONTENTS. New Jerusalem 1613 72 Monastery The Old Clothes Market. A Novgorod Russian Trader with his Tea Urn . . A Introduction of Christianity into Russia .. .. .. . 125 Nogai Tartar An Itinerant Shoemaker. Landing of Richard Chancellor the White Sea. . .. 137 . 83 SO 88 89 a Church or . near Moscow page 56 The Solovetsk Monastery .123 .. MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. in the Library of the Synod. Moscow. Money for . Moscow . or New Jerusalem. 93 93 93 93 94 Church of St. in the Sacristy of the Monastery of St.. . Sophia at Novgorod the Great . .... . Century... . . Moscow One of the Porches of the Troitsa Monastery Cathedral of St... Moscow - A Peasant collecting Jerusalem Plan of the Church in the Sepulchre General Patrick Gordon Officers of the Streltbi exact copy of the original Church of the The Streltsi of Streltsi of a later . . 107 the Volga Astrakhan Boat Dog Sledge with Fish.. Nijni Novgorod Nijni . Library of the . in tage 57 61 64 CHAPTER Illumination from a Psalter of the Thirteenth Century. Astrakhan . Sergius) Monastery 96 CHAPTER A VI. .... 1 10 12 Fourteenth Monastery of the Kazan Views in . Holy 75 75 75 75 at Izmailot. -91 92 . ... at Moscow Church of the Virgin of Kazan.. ...... . .... .. . . Basil. . . .. Moscow Russian Peasants near Kuntsevo . "7 . Nicholas... 69 70 71 The Great Palace... at Kief. The Great Bell : On ... Moscow The Crown of Monomachus Cathedral of St. Tartar An Illumination from a MS. . An The Kremlin.. . A Ancient Pirate Raid on the Volga Cossack of the Volga 1 A Tartar An "3 .. CHAPTER An Illumination from a IV. Moscow 66 67 the Belfry the Ivan Veliki Tower...... 129 133 135 120 121 A Ploughing on the Steppes Peasant Girl of Great Russia .

Kiakhta . CHAPTER An Illumination VIII. .. Entrance to the Tomb of a Scythian King.. of the Fifteenth Abo 214 215 Cathedral Century. . . . . Bakhchisarai .. 177 Century. .. CHAPTER SIBERIA. . . FINLAND.. Library of the Troitsa Monastery In the Lazienki Park. . ... 145 147 Batoum com149 An An ... . pleted at Khersonesus A A . in 179 i^o 182 184 Lake Baikal Winter . . Turcoman Women A Tekke Village Tekkes Samarkand The Grand Minaret. n the Public Rumiantsoff Museum. Tim's 163 . . Crimea 141 Yalta 144 . of the Fifteenth Siberian Convict . . . An Illumination from a MS. ASIA... .. Polish peasants.. 160 161 161 Imeritian Noble wearing the Imeritian Lady . .CONTENTS. 174 . University in the background ... A 171 Siberian Gold of Siberia Mine Saint Sergius. . Khiva 203 I9S 197 198 199 202 iSS 189 191 A Khirghiz Bride of the Khanates Map . .212 213 the back of the Saxony CHAPTER An Illumination XII. 151 Georgian Ladies Naphtha Wells at Baku .... The Mosque Kokan 192 of Hazret-i-Turkestan CHAPTER XL POLAND.. . . of the Fifteenth Cen. in Podolia tury. . The Iron Gate Market Garden) . .. Tobolsk . The Church 204 205 208 of the Holy . Tunguz Girls . . Moscow . .. in the Imperial Public Library. Petersburg page 140 Mount St. 218 220 222 223 . Warsaw Kamenets. near Kertch page 152 Feats of horsemanship by Cossacks of the Caucasus 156 A Mingrelian Peasant 158 A Village in Svanneti 159 Inkermann . (at .. Vladimir. in the . ... Papanaky .. .. from a MS.. MS.170 173 Map .. .. Ostiaks Spinning and Nursing . . St..164 166 . of the Twelfth Century. the Library of the Monastery 01 . Moscow Helsingfors ...... . . 185 186 CHAPTER CENTRAL An Illumination from a MS. .. .150 . THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. with . X. . The Burning A Siberian Merchant in Winter Travelling Dress 175 of Irkutsk in 1879 Gilyaks in Winter Costume on the Lower Amur . . .. .. .. Peter. . Finlanders Finnish Fern Gatherers Viborg Castle . Warsaw. .. .. from a MS. .... . The Cathedral of St. in Library of the Troitsa Monastery. Cross. Moscow .. . 210 . .. . An Illumination from a in IX. Tartar Bride and Bridegroom .. Kara'im Jew . of the Tenth or Eleventh Century. .. recently . .... .

10 15LoncT itudeEast25fr'>mGrecmvicl. . Sr.35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 35 50 Typo KtOiins Co. MAP OF RUSSIA IN EUROPE.

was spread over an area of over two million square miles in Europe. ST. eastern limits are on the Pacific Ocean.314.000 OCCUPYING miles of railway. before the latter is carried westward across Central Asia to the confines of . the Russian empire had. one seventh part of the land surface of the globe. already covered with 1 7. EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. on territories measuring about six and a half million square miles. which forms also its southernmost boundary. an estimated population of one hundred and nine millions. of which eighty-four per cent. The vastness of these combined possessions.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MANUSCRIPT OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY. and about one quarter of its entire superficies. with a population almost three times Russian of the is now under the that which sceptre. PETERSBURG. from Behring Straits down to Its the frontier of the Chinese empire. exceeded only by the magnitude of the British empire as large as (9.000 square miles). the remainder being more or less permanently settled in Asia. in 1886. sway On the north the Russian empire has an arctic coast-line that embraces more than one hundred and forty degrees of longitude. CHAPTER I. and which fails to is reach the Atlantic only by the interposition of the kingdom of Norway. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY.

on the Caspian (practically a Russian lake). from the events which at that period disturbed the greater part of Europe. by Dr. and populated the tracts between the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic. and the Teutonic tribes ' designated their early eastern neighbours as the Winecid. Croatians. and on the Black Sea. struggle with the Roman empire. These have played an Servians. of the Slavs south of the Baltic is Winedas or Weonodas. or by deadly Except in Poland. descendants survive. the Slavs extended eastward the Dnieper. and . the Slavs made a late appearance on the stage of history. composed of and Slovens. they began soon after their short-lived subjection to the Goths (in the third or fourth century) to spread themselves to the west in two distinct streams.' Tacitus mentions them Vcnedi. few of their The other mass followed the course of and became known as the South Slavonians. countries with which the empire also comes into close contact. Vilhelm Thomsen. in the early part of the ninth tribes. by which the greater part of Europe has been occupied from time immemorial. call To this it Vene? From the the Vistula. 1 use largely the best work on the subject The Relations between Ancient Russia the Origin of the Russian State. or the Wends. of Copenhagen. the Scandinavian name for the same people the Philanders know Russia only as Venaja. : We and Scandinavia. and in their northward Great. after which the Baltic and Polish Provinces establish contiguity to the empires of Germany and Austria. On the west. Bohemia. One mass crossed the Vistula. 79) as the the Vistula. inasmuch as they were the link between early Christianized civilisation and their own kindred heathen It was to the Danubian Slavs that. Cyril and Methodius preached the gospel in their mother tongue. while in the eleventh and twelfth centuries Vender.D. and Moravia. the Grand Duchy of Finland is conterminous with Norway and Sweden. Persia and to by Pliny the elder (A. The dominant population of Russia Proper is Slavonic the Slavs or Slavonians having been a branch of the Aryan or Indu-European race. in succession to a previous German element exhausted by internecine conflict. of which it holds the northern and eastern shores from the Danube to Batoum. who In King Alfred's Orosius the Anglo-Saxon designation survive in Lusatia. where the to earliest historical records the locate them. important part with regard to the entire race. and was day their racial brethren. Bulgarians. severally. They are referred . Whether from external pressure. or from an inherent nomadic tendency. into territory that later became the dominion of the first centuries after Christ they were cut Novgorod During woods and marshes. off. the Esthonians.12 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Settled in a country so remote from the centres of Greek and Roman culture. inhabiting the country beyond as the Veneti . on the opposite side of the Baltic. down to the Elbe. the Danube. century. while the modern kingdom of Roumania has become a neighbour on the lower course of the Danube. Turkey.

. throughout the part of what is now Russia. Between northern find 969. Nestor asserts that the Slavonian and Finnish Russian To The day anyone acquainted with the modern language has no difficulty in understanding a Bulgarian. the ' 13 old 1 Slavonic. It is only the latter tribe that . and nearest their boundaries became tributaries to them. history which joins the Volga at Nijni Novgorod. One of the most important of those tribes was that sketching. in until centuries nations. however. the centre of modern Russia Proper. crushed. at Beyond part of ' these ' Russia Finnish tribes. written slightly varied form. Kief. with Smolensk as their chief settlement.' which by the spread of Christianity was. the greater part of Southern 'Russia' fell into their hands.D. without any common political tie. warring more and more among themselves as their numbers multiplied or as they approached each other's territorial confines. but divided into of the Poliant. the Dvina. dwelt the Finnish tribes. the a The same is language. and who. appertaining to it. and near the sources of the Volga. had reached. of all in the alphabet composed a few the Slav by Cyril and Methodius. in the basin of the Oka. as well as A. or Czech. thus find that We in the ninth century the extensive country we are dealing with was peopled by a number of ethnologically unrelated heathen tribes. the Volga and the Slav territories.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. later played so great a part in Russian while the easternmost Slavs were the Viatichi. whose capital. We shall Those who occupied absorbed lands nearest to the race. by the Rurik princes. 2 earliest monkish historian of Russia. of the We ancient first hear in Nestor's 2 Chronicle of the Slavs the home. Servian. and by hordes of Tartar or Turkish origin more or less by nomadic in their habits. vernacular. Slavs on their eastern side have long been and survive only in name as the Muroma. ago. He part records that even in the western who remained in their country we are engaged in ninth were not a nation. and the Dnieper. Gradually. and having each a In 1 primitive. and the Vcs. principal limits of the primitive Slav world. now century of the Christian era a number of rude and yet they tribes around Lake with Ilmen. North of the Slavs of Novgorod were the CJihd or Finnish tribes that spread around the Gulf of Finland and the Lake of Ladoga. the period in question. the greater (a designation that long remained unknown) was peopled the Slavonic tribes Their power was. patriarchal form of these this circumstances government. The most redoubtable of the latter the Khazars had in the latter half of the seventh century formed on the Volga a State ruled from a city near the site of modern Astrakhan. some of them extant on our voyage down the Volga. independent Novgorod as a capital. together with the Lett and Lithuanian races to the south of them. still used in the services of the Russo-Greek Church. completely excluded the Slavs from the Baltic and the waters by the Slavonic the Mcria.

to send the following message to the Scandigroups of the north combined whose Our navians.D. of the Britons by whom the been only as a conqueror that Roric.RUSSIAN PICTURES. in accordance with the law of Their adoption of the Greek Odelsret. and by the year 1000 the reigning princes who succeeded to the throne of Kief in priority of descent. had become essentially Slavonicized. from Rhos or Rnss the clan to which he belonged. from depredations they had already begun to suffer come ye and rule land is great and bountiful. us. at Novgorod. however. sailing over in his viking ships to the south coast of the Gulf of Finland. in the mouths places almost the same words Saxons were 'invited' to come over the sea. Dr. founded what could Clearly it could have THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA. and establishing himself. then for the first time be called a Russian monarchy. 864. A. religion must have had some effect in estranging o o o them from their Roman Catholic brethren at home . penetrated inland. ' : . The Scandinavian character of the ruling race at Kief was probably not Roric's grandson already bore preserved for more than a few generations.' over points out. but there is no order in it that another Thomsen monkish legend V. a Slavonic name.

by to ' the north. whom its lucrative trade was absorbed. Their son espoused a daughter of Ingo Strenkelson. King of Sweden. 1 Varangar (Old Norse : not Scandinavians in genera!. but it had by that time deposited so strong a contingent that a contemporary writer describes the population of Kief in 1018 as consisting 'chiefly of Danes. That intimate personal relations were maintained. is proved by the fact that in about 1070 Vladimir (Monomachus) married Gyda.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. the daughter of King Harold. the stream of settlers ceased to pour in from Scandinavia. Varangian thirteenth or fourteenth century to the Germans of the Hanse Towns. after she had fled with her brothers to the Danish Court. . '5 After the period to which we have brought down our observations. between the Princes of Kief and the country of their ancestors.' or men from 1 keep up its character of a and its Scandinavian element gave way only in the city. Vaeringjar] signified only the Scandinavian body-guard of the Emperor of Kyzantium. ' Novgorod long continued THE EMPRESS OF RUSSIA. even at the close of the eleventh century. The term was later adopted by the Slavs in the form of Variag^ to denote Northmen.

with which criminals were punished origin. in lieu of the primitive law of vengeance and retaliation. Russia had followed the general European path of civilization and development in its social life. we bring this chapter to a our rapid but extensive travels through the empire. and Czar is a corrupt German spelling of the title. Moscow. The first Russian code of laws. or such words than the learned professor has cited. sister of the Emperor Basil and Byzantine lore. or executed within recent times in Russia. as the representative of the extinct imperial line. the first in Russia. was essentially Scandinavian or Teutonic in its principles. the first Christian Prince of Kief. Dr. It was Ivan III. its laws. of the imperial Byzantine blood. penalties or compensation for manslaughter. We have already alluded to the law of Odel. his arms the double-headed black eagle. for hearth or oven.' covered in the Russian language a host of words (principally for household objects in incipient civilized life) that are unmistakably Scandanavian in their Even the word knut. and survived more especially at Novgorod and Pskof (in the form of Republics). Thus it introduced. Until that catastrophe occurred. and his son Ivan IV. Vladimir. as the Norse Russian for is still. and its internal government. after his marriage with Sophia His successor. converted into Vira in Slavonian. Vasili III.' and added to (or Prince) of Novgorod. now agreed that the legend of Vladimir Monomachus having received investiture at the hands of the Emperor Constantine and is a mere legend of fabricated in the reign of Ivan IV. pctchka. still prevalent in Norway.' the title of Tsar.' and in ' 1 ' and desired to be recognised by the Patriarch of Constantinople. or whip. Paleologus. Even the Saxon Witenagemotes had been reproduced under the Slavonic name of Veche. is derived from the old Norse or We have indeed found in Norway many more Swedish knut-r a knot. (1505-1534) absorbed the principalities that had remained independent of Moscow. compiled in the reign of Vladimir (tenth century). under which the successors of Roric fought amongst themselves for the paramount throne and facilitated by their dissensions the occupation of Russia by the Tartars during two centuries.1 6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the stove. For instance. Thomsen gives a long list of proper names of Scandinavian root which long survived the Slavonicization of the He has also disRuss. through Anne. under the name of Wercgcld. This was the origin of the Russian Udel system. until the Russian sovereign ' power was concentrated at Moscow. begin to the 1 close. petch. the Terrible (1534-1584) found himself ' the position of being able to take at his coronation. Having thus sketched the development consolidation Russia down age of Peter the Great. . He was well read in Autocrat of all the Russias. Russian historians are wife of Vladimir. (1462-1505) who assumed the title of Grand Duke and all Russia. to whom he sent a costly present of sable skins. pcis.



and finally 1569. We station of Wierzbolow or Wirballen. our first objective point is Berlin. Dreary as we may have found the of poplars. in united with the that third kingdom in 1401. and their trim avenues suddenly their neat homesteads. by a in it 13S6. which we reach can proceed the same night in about twenty-four hours. in a fertile and pleasantly accidented its present squalor. CHAPTER WESTERN II RUSSIA. that we are in But geographically we are only in a province of the Holy Russia. their well- which the demand for our passports. OF THE TWELFTH OR THIRTEENTH CENTURY. Kovno.' Even at Kovno. but in the beyond.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. Prettily situated at the confluence of the Vilia with the great Niemen River. is of interest as the district. Kingdom of Poland. notwithstanding last stronghold of paganism in c 2 . separates glimpse of the blue and gold dome of a Russo-Greek church. incorporated with Lithuania fell to the share of Russia. when we cross the brook Instead ot these we catch a two great empires. and scarcely plains of East Prussia. London from and in about fifteen hours more enter the Russian Empire at the frontier LIKE the great St. inhabited chiefly by Poles and Jews. IN THE PUBLIC MUSEUM. sixty to the Crown of Poland venerable Duchy of Lithuania. At partition of Poland (1/95). majority of British and American travellers bound for Petersburg. Muscovite ancient on not we are miles ground. we miss kept roads. MOSCOW. dynastically joined require ' to be reminded.

the Poles. and to Warsaw. the largest architecture. only nine were carried back by the French. on the Vilia River. Strife and warfare. south and west. by 'In following inscription on a monument which stands in the market-place The army 1812. in rounded by rays and of Pikol. we halt of the Lithuanians in happier for refreshment at Vilna. the moon-god. relates that niches in the sacred oak of ancient Romnove contained effigies . Ten miles beyond it. could be seen erect some of the sacred oaks of ancient days. the sun-god. on the Catholic church. the gocl of springs. Peter and St. originally in the name of the true faith. the last mementos of the extinct but once paramount authority which had been wielded by pagan high priests over the greater part of the country between the Baltic and the Carpathians. having power the form of a beardless youth over death and misfortune. and forced its inhabitants to accept the religion of Christ. Europe. resided at a more ancient place of the same name Romnove in East Prussia. Gertrude is known . on the site of a sacred until the grove within which the pagan worshippers maintained a perpetual fire until Their chief priest. in which the Teutonic knights. Roman like Catholic edifice in Lithuania. George while the chapel of St. now years after its stands a Roman end of the fourteenth century. the capital of the Kingdom of Poland. and its encourage a break in the journey. : Passing junctions of lines that lead severally to the port of Libau. and the Russians. in Baltic.000 men. have not permitted the survival of any very ancient remnants of The church of St. Russia was invaded by an army numbering 700. later for political objects. are mixed up to a degree that will not admit of any clear account within the limits of these pages. days. the church of St. the Lithuanian grand dukes. recrossed the frontier numbering 70. . and one which held out three hundred Niemen. amongst hills that rise to not very apparent from the large and handsome attractions not being in other respects sufficient to we must be content to read in ' ' Murray . Dusburg. the Little Paris and town a Russian now the chief of province of the same name. to In 1812 the town was devastated and pillaged have existed since 1503. of Perkun.000. in the neighbouring province of Courland. sources and fertility. was dedicated in the fifteenth century. Only eighty years ago. railway station.' We may add that out of eight hundred guns. his whose iron when produced by when Boleslas of Poland invaded Prussia in 1015. or foundation. which was burnt sceptre. messengers. the ' ' The beauty of its situation is the east. Paul at Kovno. and therefore represented as a grey-headed old man of deathly pallor. and we shall later find a good display of them within the Kremlin at Moscow. they were driven from their last and holiest shrine. with a red face sur- of Petrimpa. secured the implicit obedience of pagan kings and princes. the whose ultimate disastrous retreat is commemorated in the French. on the River Alle.20 AUSSSAJV PICTURES. with a white band round his head. a chronicler of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Grodno. Vilna now of as the province is. had married the 1 History of Romanism in Russia.' at Yilna.. notwithstanding of the that the inhabitants not the provinces of Vilna. crowns The Castle the of hill worship in days of remote which an octagonal red brick foot of which a fire was kept Roman Catholic uninterruptedly burning until the triumph of Christianity. ambassador from the (1517-1526). tower still Jagellon remains. Samogitia. Tolstoy points with pride to the Lithuania by Russians at a period fact that the Gospel was brought to when Latinism was completely unknown. 1874. They assert that even in the reign of King Stephen Bathory (15/5of worship in that city. an in of Germany Herberstein. John. and of Alessandro Guagmno. Italian officer in the military service of Poland (1560). the fourteenth century. Sustained as it was by the advice after seceding from the Church of Rome. Nicholas. ' Count D. and partly by the inlluence of Muscovy. Tolstoy. of Greek orthodoxy in the present north-west provinces of Russia. and the personal visits of the Patriarch of Constantinople. their prince in Courland were first faith. by Anthony. also was a centre of heathen (1323). at the fire antiquity. under Olgord. 'the Miracle Worker. to the effect that were more Russian than Roman Catholic churches in Vilna. . Ivan III. Eustace. and killed the martyrs of Lithuanian idolaters. In further corroboration of such a wide and early establishment VILNA. l>y the late Count D.WESTERN that this RUSSIA. and part of The remains of the kindred in race to the Slavs. the testimony is adduced of Baron Emperor Maximilian. repose in the church of St. 1586) there were already thirty Russo-Greek places their time there and that the most illustrious houses in Lithuania belonged to that confession. whose Grand Duke.

daughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania. and that it was impossible to find one among them who could translate the works of St. who. and gave their churches. orders. exclusively of Calvinists and Lutherans. in a very degraded position. of Even the Prince Nicholas at Radzivill the Black. the whose expense the Bible had. The Roman Catholic clergy being unable from venality and disunion to struggle against the Reformation. Senate soon became composed almost enthusiasm that the Lithuanian disputed. the rites and doctrines of the Greek Church could be preserved. who re-entered the the Church. the Greek Church held its own. printing presses. was only when Jerome of Prague visited the country (in the fifteenth The pope then century) that Rome began to achieve some success. The Greek priesthood was. often Russian noble of the period states that the clergy of that faith passed their time in drinking-houses. as a measure of conciliation.22 RUSSIAN PICTURES. passed over to Romanism. and by the liberty It was accepted with such of the press. however. powerful protector 1563. The famed Teutonic knights had in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries done their best by violence to introduce Romanism into Lithuania . for it. who established. in to the dignity of them by pale of 1570. both as a result of the preaching of John Huss. under which. Vast estates were gradually conferred upon the King of Poland. later. without the preassumed the right of nominating and confirming bishops but it liminary consent of the Kings of Poland. notwithstanding the proclamation of the union of the Latin and Greek Churches by the Council of Florence in 1438. established since 1539 in Poland. John Chrysostom into Slavonic. the authority of the bishops The Reformation The upper classes were ready towards the middle of the sixteenth century. Some of their bishops were ' A gained over. the year 1632 there was not a single ' Having suppressed the Reformation. in Calvinists. By Dissenter' in the Polish Senate. Constantinople was distant. and submitted their Church to the pope. and by the great nobles. the great noble families having already left the Greek Church and embraced Romanism. vindicated and exercised the right of filling the episcopal This led to the disorganisation of the Latin clergy and religious sees. appointed by the king being frequently movement found Lithuania in this condition. at the same time. Lithuania was flooded with Jesuits. ' in so far as they were . been printed in the Polish language. the inhabitants not contrary to the Roman Church. and libraries to the Jesuits. drove the ministers of the Reformed Church from the estates which they held. and Moscow was absorbed by her own disastrous affairs.' pillaged their own churches. at the dawn of the sixteenth century.' Thirty years of Lithuania were professed en masse. a college at Vilna. the Jesuits attacked with increased activity the Russo-Greek Church established in the outlying Polish provinces. which was a few years later raised a university. who thereupon proclaimed the union of the two Churches.

and in Lithuanians. politically. this shallow and dotted with islands that become in spring. over the the Valdai the Baltic bridge next takes the train at a solemn pace Western Dvina. The tide of the battle the struggle for political dominion in these for Christendom. Teutonic knights. the original combatants have disappeared or been rendered powerless. condition ' more than months. and Smolensk and Moscow on the other) at Dtinaburg. and Cossacks. and the second the western of protecting are intended to render impossible an inimical occupation of the main lines . have left many traces in the history of Diinaburg. finally ceded by the Poles to Russia in 1/72. and Muscovites. together with the tortuous stream Riga. we notice some other After much suffering in wars with stirring events in the history of Vilna. Although. for at navigated only by barges light draught which we momentarily see as we move on towards the great railway junction (with Riga on the one hand. mere variety of wild fowl sandy swamps is tenanted by storks. line of defence frontier of Russia. with records of strife and bloodshed. when he the residence of the Governor-General. which. recently disasters overtook insurrection of 1831. and of every other the White Russia. the city was plundered and destroyed in the seventeenth century by Swedes. and which falls into running sluggish course. the new interests and combinations that have supervened The works form part render the fortress of Dtinaburg of high importance. to the rabble piled like pigs of train. which had been reduced. like the Volga and the Dnieper. or. and Russian princes. 23 After this digression on the ecclesiastical history of Lithuania. dimmed by of a the recollection of his ignominious in little flight in disguise from five the Grand Army. connected. and. The memory Episcopal of Napoleon's occupied the is Palace. when they joined the An imposing hills. however. laid to the account of are in We ' now ' the ' ' ' . when General Mouravieff sternly carried out irom Vilna the measures which averted a threatened dismemberment of the empire.' as distinguished from province of Little Great and Russia. in the province of Vitebsk still. now triumphal entry into Vilna. More Polish 1863 and 1864. after a gallant defence. Petersburg and a Moscow. Swedes. leaving in one hospital alone 7. explanatory of the present predominance of Roman Catholicism.' the total number of sick and wounded abandoned by the King the of Naples having been 20.500 corpses lead one above the other. 650 by rapids. In 1708 it was occupied by Charles XII.WESTERN RUSSIA. rises in iron-lattice between after St. ancient provinces. operations in 1812. later.000. to use modern terminology. like the rest of the country through which we have passed. and in 1/94 it fell to the It was the centre of the French Russians. Russians. snipe. and now one of her most important fortresses. occasionally accelerated about miles.. Except towards its mouth. Poles. Tartars. banks. Teutonic knights.

955. the town is also a centre of considerable trade in flax. here that the famed vech bell in the church of the Holy Trinity was taken of the down Three in 1510. in the province of Pskof. on the model of our Saxon 1/7 Like Novgorod (the LITHUANIAN PEASANT. Witenagemotes.D. The fortress that existed here in the In fourteenth its three of century survives only in towers of grey and red stone. hemp. and elk. which is still extant. and timber. Great) and Khlynof (now Viatka). tallow. Olga. The city and its territories formed earliest of the Hanseatic in the period of the great trade with part League The gradual Germany. Pskof had its open-air t>ec/ic (Witenagemote). who partially introduced into Russia the Greek religion. Scarcely twenty-five miles beyond is one of the most interesting political centres of primitive Russia. and we learn that the broad cuttings through which we are conveyed are the railway from Warsaw to St. Pskof. Nevertheless. foundation of the Russian Empire. supposed to have been founded by St. of of Moscow will these the Grand be Duchy absorption republics by in our account of We need the Great mention described only Novgorod. Nicholas. wolves. It is curious to observe that the earliest tions political institu- country were of a popular character. of which Pskof was the first Russian outpost. margins of forests of which bears. tell the traveller that he is already in Russia Proper. played an important part in the. and in 1581 was captured by the famous Stephen it Bathory of Poland. are still in possession. at which the citizens deliberated (on one occasion in their shirts) and exercised their right of electing and These had good cause for alarm when they heard deposing their princes.RUSSIAN PICTURES. which is reached at Ostrof. and from Riga to Vitebsk. who a year later caused to be built the church of St. emblematical of the majesty of the law. sent by barge or rail to Riga. forming villages of melancholy aspect. Groups of grey and tumble-down-looking log-huts. we are not yet beyond the reach of ancient Lithuanian and Polish depredation. Formidable as a place of arms. and saw the club (mace). which she had embraced at Constantinople about A. the vechd bell ring out. hundred of the most distinguished Pskovian families were at the . Detached homesteads are now of less and less frequent occurrence. set up in the great square. amidst the wailings of the citizens over their lost freedom. of Petersburg. 1501 the Lithuanians massacred 4000 of the inhabitants of Ostrof.

I). pursued mendicancy in the guise. however. subjected. Unfortunately. but on both occasions the invaders were ultimately repelled. a Lithuanian chief elected Prince of Pskof. he addressed the redoubtable monarch as 'Johnny. Cathedral It of the built the Kremlin walls. as a token of submission. in the so-called Russo-Byzantine ' ' to an edifice raised in 1368. whose citizens he equally However. inhabitants. But the ancient spirit of independence had not been entirely quenched. the the sainted prince thereby fire signifying the original cross 1509. without doing any harm to the terror. coffin Among is the a silver shrine with miraculous Its conspicuous of the numerous relics in this the remains of a godly prince who died in properties are assumed to be such that when the more Novgorodians. but to eat of the bread and salt to be On orders presented to him in the cathedral. Olga built a church upon it succession A. but not before he had caused the horse of Ivan to fall. while he was warning him of his death by lightning if he injured a single citizen. he suddenly and miraculously vanished. In 1581 Pskof was besieged by the Poles. and forms a square on which once stood the castle of the reigning prince. being given to seize the idiot. St. built in 1323. and on the west by the Velikaya. may gaze Their base on the east and north is washed by the Pskova River. ruled. and exhorted him not to drink the blood of Christians. is that to among his faithful Pskovians. assumed rather than inherent. 957. when Ivan the Terrible of Moscow. in a chapel to the right of the altar screen. .' constructed at the close of the thirteenth century. Dovmont. according fury by frequent examples in ancient as well as in modern Russia. to which the ancient city has been on its stout Kremlin walls. in was in Trinity almost fills the space enclosed by 1682. old suspended near the tomb. over could not be a desire whom had previously moved by human force.U'ESTERX RUSSIA. which again had been churches built in 1266 and Its site is. claimed his relics.' offered him raw meat. . appeared before the walls of Pskof. 25 same time removed to the dominions of Muscovy Proper. preceded by severally more especially hallowed by the fact that St. was used at the consecration of the Close by is the shrine of the sovereigns of Pskof in this cathedral. after ravaging Novgorod. even by the year 15/0. earlier. and ' his sword. of an idiot. a to monk. 1138. in which Olga raised at Pskof was destroyed by The tomb of of plain oak. cathedral 1138. and in 1618 by Gustavus Adolphus. Struck with Ivan left the city precipitately. he abide St. the city was saved from his suspected of treasonable designs. springs from their southern face. and replaced byian equal number of families of the trading class drawn from towns on the The Novgorodians had met with a similar fate thirty-two years Volga. who. Capering about on a stick. Such are the latest vicissitudes We well ' The huge style. while Dovmont's Wall.

One here A down Russian couple the of thousand ships of all annually. and we monastery of Pskof Pechersk. and as and other laws. Swedes. still Germanic. although But this is a question of development perhaps somewhat too conservative. marked out by tall poplars. consisting of the Provinces of Livonia. in a land of farms and mansions. more or less mediaeval-German in aspect. in archways. on ancient. one of the over will be found stone of the Holy Virgin. in together with Esthonia. Esthonia and Courland. with a a quarter millions.' we have already recorded.D. 1200. but fortunately for the inhabitants. dating from the The effigy days when the Teutonic knights were paramount (1494-1515). There is the massive castle. 1721 the official and judicial use of the German language. including. the sights at Riga are interesting. was finally ceded by Sweden to The exercise of the Protestant the Peace of Nystad. Russian in the country of good highways the since frontier. no doubt. have already seen in at discharge or Dunaburg the barges load that Dvina the grain. and with a sea-board of population of more than two and Russian commerce. the hall of the Great Guild. the capital of Russia religion. the Idiot. although half of its trade is with Great Britain. it There are also may re- nowned for its catacombs and for the sieges has sustained. and we interior. reaching again. ' ' ' ' . well be proud of the city of Riga. built by Bishop Albert in A. linseed. Poles. and all which. with crenelated towers. Riga. the trial of offenders against municipal for a doll). railway enables us to reach from Pskof the Baltic Provinces of Russia. Traditions several of miracles other churches. and Musco- A We have space to say only that the civilisation and culture of those We are provinces is still undeniably German. neat and solid. vites. branch off again into the to the highest importance ancient activity of Lithuanian Teutonic knights. and must ever remain so. and of towns great and small. and being locally called reproduced in miniature in is the Dockc (which equivalent to the present Danish and Norwegian word dock in which suggests that we have here the origin of the The chairman of the Guild sat under in our own country. its population nations is only 1 70. ranks capitulation. rather than on new lines. ' The empire may Livonia. and other native bring products of the Although not the least Russian.' Every institution is. stand prisoners Dockmann administered the affairs of the corporation the Docke. performed and a small in discomfiture of foes attach to chapel in opposite in the bazaar is in memory of citizens who fell many ancient and interesting monuments an point insurrection out more especially the fortified 1650. the neighbourhood. at ancient municipal rights and privileges were guaranteed by the terms of that Commercially. flax. as the second port in Russia.000.26 RUSSIAN whose service to the to this city sainted Nicholas Salos. as advocated by ardent Russificators.

grandson of an The German Duke of Courland. wig. and his Queen. who was originally the VIEWS IN RIGA. built in the thirteenth. so called from the device of a Moor's Saint Maurice. Cathedral of St. ruffles. beginning with Gothard Kettler. This city. and paintings. The palace is also interesting from its occupation in 1 798 by Louis The (later XVIII. which. or groom. Grand Master of the Livonian Order of 1/72) In the left Knighthood. their patron. heraldic distinction. and he actually requests visitors not to spit at the mummified body and thereby injure the well-preserved velvet clothing. with the exof Duke ception of the coffin of Duke John Ernest Biron. they adopted as their honour of head. Blackheads. was built early in the thirteenth century. of this historical wing edifice is the of the ancient mausoleum Dukes of the last Courland. City South-west of Riga Mitau. when in also its castle (rebuilt was erected by Conrad von Medem. to ordered by a were cicerone explains that remains the Prince Dolgorouki to be left exposed. . the unworthy favourite of the Empress Anne of Russia.) of France. it is asserted. the of Courland (incapital with Russia in corporated was founded in 1/95). an ardent patriot broke with his clenched fist. the fourth equerry. &c. The remains are perfect. Mary. which. and contains among treasures of silver. books. on the Aa River. Most the coffins were closed and secured by iron hoops about forty years ago. all but the eyes and the nose. Marie Josephine of Savoy. many ancient relics of the in Moors' heads distinguish the pews of the Blackheads the order. lies 1271.WESTERN The Hall of the RUSSIA. in order that patriotic Russians might have the opportunity of reviling their enemy. in ' ' Bible are the of proudest the possessions Library. and renovated in the sixteenth A letter from Luther to the Senate of Riga and a very ancient century. Grand Master and first (151 7-1587).

in mid-winter. twenty-three miles long at its to the it some distance on Reval. Working back by the same railway in the direction of St. travellers caught sight on this journey of the arrive at the picturesque in but the railway now skirts navigable Peipus Lake. capital of Esthonia. famed monastery even in the early part of the fourteenth century. perched object. the Due d'Angouleme. chapel attached to the Gothic. the is a strikingly picturesque foundation archives collection of the town Hall. of silver interesting from many and a large English names of donors engraved upon one of the cups. but we can only draw attention to the ruins of Padis Cloister. by represented by a few ruins of the cathedral. on being liberated from the Temple.' the cathedral. Petersburg. for Memel. at which the Abbe de Firmont. The Guildhall of the Blackheads contains the One of the oldest is now ' ' Knights plate of is the Sword (a Livonian the order). dating from the a 1219. a in fire and are 1598. daughter of the unfortunate Louis XVI. and of great commercial importance since its . the seat of a university. or of Town the churches. The environs are as pretty and as interesting as the town itself. and of Narva. at a distance of about twenty-seven miles from Reval. officiated. we founded town of Dorpat. great Several subsequent conflagrations modernised the town. Its Danish castle. which is supposed to have been founded in 1030 by a Grand Duke of Novgorod. Petersburg and the interior of the empire.. who attended the French monarch on the scaffold. the Baltic Brighton. and enclosing and many houses of the ancient nobility. In old posting days.28 RUSSIAN PICTURES. partly on foot. one of the way prettiest places on the Baltic. while we speed on to St. their eccentric host having suddenly made an alliance with Buonaparte. on the top of a rock. This chapter must now be brought to a close with a mere mention of Hapsal. Its Gothic features were destroyed Gustavus 1632 by Adolphus. connection old ' by rail with St. The hospitality thus offered by the Paul ceased in 1/92. Petersburg. in Ritterhaus. in a chapel of the palace. came here to marry her cousin. with its splendid waterfall and its prosperous manufacturing industry. . the finest in It was a Esthonia. Rathhaus. when the royal exiles were compelled Emperor abruptly to leave.



IN THE BIBLIOTHEQUE 1MPERIALE. ST. desired to ' 1/03. PETERSBURG. PETERSBOURG. the waters of the Neva rose thirteen feet four inches above their ordinary average level. Petersburg rests on a crust of soil which almost floats on the water-logged marshes selected the modern by Peter the Great. visibly sunk into the marshy subsoil. 1824. it whose huge and heavy mass has Standing on the gallery under the dome of St. is difficult being some day overwhelmed by kind.' The crust itself in 'window' through which he is now secure enough. for it was well pegged down with the superimposed piles of wood on which the Besides. is confined within solid granite quays. RISING their surface Lake Ladoga. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL in : III. with which for many years he comThe chief pelled all carts and vessels coming to the new city to be laden. Petersburg a still greater catastrophe of the same . as the site of the look into Europe. it is well resolute Tsar laid the foundations of his first buildings. In danger to which the city has since been mainly exposed is inundation. but the city of St. of St. but treacherous. OF THE I4TH. weighted with the stones and rubble.ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. the rapid. submerging the greater part of the capital. in succession to many previous floods. long predicted. bear almost clear and on The main stream capital of the Russian empire. of the Neva. waters after flowing a distance of forty-two miles. Isaac's. CENTURY. ST. not to accept the possibility.

There is one small. of all the known diamonds . is a desert in comwith Nevertheless. The noble halls and other apartments are edifice. apirs nous le dtlugc we have only to deal with the city as is. of such great interest. may be considered as emblematical of the magnitude of the empire and of the power by which it is governed and held together. and on it lies the last military report which the emperor received. Petersburg while equally good full-sized likenesses of succeeding emperors. is the largest.. Travellers are who succeed sometimes fortunate securely kept in an the imperial sceptre. and his imperial mistress Catherine II. and more especially with pictures of victories by sea and by land since the days of Peter the Great. in the reign of the great Catherine. which. The huge so-called Orlof diamond in upper room. than are from beauty are of their architecture. the great Palace. and oppresses the visitor with a feeling of insignificance. . and the impression of hugeness and desolation imparted to the traveller by the will vast open their spaces of which and wide rather streets. his which bears name as by George Dawe. that scarcely any capital in Europe is more described by pen and depicted by pencil. It is certainly a remarkable city. the city itself in summer looks deserted. and artistic treasures of so great and exceptional with its a value. replete with works of art. cover the walls of a large gallery and those of the In the Alexander Hall is a portrait of Alexander I. in should endeavour to see which he died on the camp bed. However. they of materials brick and With a population population of more than one hundred millions. after a fire building erected in 1762 and completed in 1769. many buildings. His writing-table remains undisturbed. still covered with his military cloak. plain room which the visitor adorn the Round Hall. modern annals of Russia. and to express a fervent hope that the dreaded combination of the : it now elements its never occur.RUSSIAN PICTURES. not only from but also from of the colossal character of its origin. composed mostly only nearly one million. of the 1839.. from being In this respect only is it typical of Russia. set in so vast a frame. in the hall Russian who is depicted being attended by the Genius and statesmen. an English artist of celebrity at St. the study and bed-chamber of Nicholas I. on which stands the Winter which had consumed the interior 455 feet in length by 350 in breadth. The stucco. The best starting-point for a tour of inspection is partly restored worthy of being square. Field Marshals Hall. as him to presented by the Pitt diamond of France is the most beautiful. down to Alexander II. The the best edifices are imposing from immensity. obtaining permission to inspect this palace enough to obtain a view of the crown jewels. renowned in the more Portraits of soldiers of Russia. it contains objects parison every other country in Europe.. in purchased from an Armenian by Count Orlof. Unlike the huge spaces of which we have spoken this immense in converted into a neat park.

in which Catherine II. The style. PETERSBURG. They date adjacent districts. essentially Milesian. like the his attendants and horses. Kertch. and of some of The sarcophagus of carved and painted yewtheir clothes and trappings.THE MODERN CAPITAL: in ST. originally the Pavilion. of original drawings. a mitre-shaped diadem). in the most perfect specimens. together with those of his favourite wife or queen (bearing on her head. now in the Imperial Public Library. be divided into two classes objects : ' Hidden in a great number of highest artistic value.C. Alfred Maskell is of opinion that few of the various pieces of goldsmiths' work go back to a period earlier than the third century before Christ. tions. for it reveals. the royal tomb. and Siberian antiquities. Connected with the palace. practically revealed by M. first Mongol invasion of the Russian plains in the thirteenth century. from the Crimea and and others from Siberia and Central Russia. Museum. Paul Dubrux. Scythian. from the period of the highest civilisation of Greece to the time of the Mr. principally west of Kul-Oba about four miles In that year. and 1850. without pretension to archaeological knowledge. legends and types with those of the barbarians. Petersburg. 1831.100. but entered by a noble vestibule from Bolshaya Millionaya Street. as brilliant in when the Greek artist 1884. and Voltaire. in the artists. by commerce and by the wealth of the described by Strabo and Herodotus. with king. and surdiamonds fixed on a very large uncut spinel ruby. was discovered by soldiers who were quarrying stone for fortifica- mouldered remains of a Bosporian king. and by a library of ten thousand volumes on archaeology. remnants of the libraries of D'Alembert. is The emperor's crown mounted by a cross formed of five beautiful versation with philosophers. is the famed Hermitage. and in their artistic productions mingled The their mythology. who. 33 adorned with noble jewels. See his Russian Art and Art Objects in Russia (South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks). The Kertch collection is alone worth a visit to St. built in 1/65. Diderot. D . the art of the Greek colonies which were founded on the northern coast of the Black Sea nearly six hundred years B. Its value is about . in is this and unrivalled of collection process apparent unique objects of ' ' ' ' antique It art. and The Crimean (Greco-Scythian) objects that most of them are much later. now least stands in the Hermitage colour as 1 it was at two thousand years ago. It contained the treasures beside him. existence was their first tumuli.000. with his gold-hilted sword and other arms and the in which wood king lay. of classical. are naturally of the in pointed out the spots where important discoveries were made. men reconstructed floor is between 1840 and of letters. the Greeks from Miletus engrafted their ancient civilisation on them. building was Greek The ground occupied by galleries of antique sculpture. spent her leisure moments in conEurope. buried in his richest robes and adorned with his most precious ornaments. may principally in the precious metals. Attracted Nomadic and Royal Scythians.

Polish and Bohemian but of high military standards. and subsequently melted down. of tumulus near the town Nicopol. figures of Greek men and women. as it were in in statuettes found affliction. presumed on the vase refer to incidents in the been preserved. and warriors with bows and arrows. excepting the hood. Russian Government king of vases found at Cuma?.C. which form the collections of armour are Hermitage . somewhat incongruous. on the Dnieper. the tumulus was not sufficiently a crowd of people rushed into it and guarded. But other of which only fifteen pounds were recovered by the sufficient was rescued to render the Kul-Oba even now. finest halls of the cannot be of later date than the fourth century B. and is twenty-eight The work. after the discovery of its rich contents. a large number of the thin as well as much gold plates with which the royal dresses were covered. and nomadic occupation of lassoing breaking in wild horses on the wondrous which stands enshrined in the centre of one of the silver-gilt Nicopol vase. and importance that he declared its possession was almost sufficient to It was found (1863) in a form a casns belli with the Russian empire. conspicuous among the treasures Kertch collection of the Hermitage so called from the Museum at Kertch in which Bosporian antiquities were amassed before the Crimean the In the It is War. and on a band surrounding the centre are four groups like the Scythians with long hair and beards. and twenty hundred one other treasure. and other curios. The costumes thus a photograph. which has been introduced into Russia from the Caucasus within modern times. by the alloying of gold find the same people represented in the with one-fifth part of silver.34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in in the tomb bears another his tooth drawn. which is in the most perfect style of Greek art. and under cover of night carried away. adulterated by a large admixture of Oriental trophies and works of art. . with of victories ornamented mounted on chariots. discoveries of authorities. and purchased by the Museum and in a newly-arranged annexe of the with the Campana and other objects. Unfortunately. inches high. after many a similar character. We M. and dressed very much Russian peasant of the present day. of lotah-shaped. scene is These represent episodes in the life of a chief. On the ground floor of the Hermitage are galleries of sculpture and of Here also is to be seen the beautiful and matchless Etruscan ceramic art. Mediaeval and Renaissance sections of the Hermitage. estimated to have weighed it paintings golden of pounds. As it the is skull evidence that the incidents so skilfully repousse life of the king in whose tomb it has handed down the five small to us. when not found in a natural state. who in one groups his having discovered leg bandaged. and also in electrum of dental metal obtained. or basklik. Thiers was so much struck by its beauty Hermitage. Kul-Oba tomb was found a very remarkable vase of electrum. are reproduced in one of a the same tomb.

ST. although nominally the picture galleries of the Hermitage. lapis-lazuli. Here we are Gallery. and candelabra of malachite. which cover almost every available inch of the walls. Queen Lord Wharton. ). the and the choicest of the equally numerous paintings by Rubens (in same room and in Room xiv. the most valuable. 35 whole day might easily be spent in studying this department of the Hermitage alone. Dutch. from the sixteenth to the However early part of the eighteenth century. and jasper that stand on the highly-polished inlaid floors of the principal rooms. D 2 . the many * finest By permitting the dispersion museum of pictures in the in of the world. in the in which frescoes represent the progress of presence of all older Italian masters. the collection of Spanish pictures is the best and most varied out of Spain.000. Sir Thomas Wharton. the Earl of Danby. Philip. and fill the numerous stands and screens provided for the display of so great an abundance of paintings by the older masters of the principal schools in Europe. of those of his minister. the Ladies Elizabeth and Philadelphia Wharton.35. The Spanish and Flemish collections are considered to be Spain by 115.800 paintings. The collections pictures purchased by Peter the bulk consists Great were chiefly Dutch and celebrated Flemish works. Chaloner. and Spain. Inigo Jones. but of the now the mainly of the three the Marquis de Crozat. tazzas. Lord Walpole.. of Charles I. we defer for a moment our proposed systematic inspection of the in A pictures. In the Flemish collection we see much more to interest us. invidious the task. the Descent from the Cross. the wife and daughter of Oliver The best of Cromwell. while Walpole its most valuable painlings to the same opportunity. and several other specimens of the great painter. and German The art of Italy is represented by about 350 specimens. Henrietta Maria. Sir Thomas Laud. from a national point of view. were once the pride of Houghton larger Italian school pictures of the attract attention the Hermitage Hall. for it contains portraits by Van Dyck. and that of schools. porphyry. by Luini. Josephine (Malmaison collection). Struck with admiration at the noble tables.' The so largely and after worthily represented in through the Historical immediately the passing Greek art. by Sebastian del Piombo. the Louvre Madrid owes no fewer than 44 of collection.THE MODERN CAPITAL: interest. Sebastian. PETERSBURG. brevity compels us to name only the St. d'Olivares. the number of Murillos alone being twenty. The stately grandeur of the apartments into which we are now ushered makes us feel at once that we are in an imperial palace. ment the 1779 at Museo for . Archbishop these. and Empress The gallery contains about 1. of which a little more than one half are of the Flemish. The best of the six paintings by Velasquez are the portraits of Philip IV. vases. Indeed. the British nation lost the chance of possessing the In addition to the great number of pictures sold to the Russian Governacquired from it nineteen of the best pictures now in that gallery.

was painted for the Empress Catherine II. pictures by one of the Guido Reni. The great Dutch and Flemish schools of painting may here be studied of the to advantage. from the same brush. his He especially observe the masterly portraits of old Thomas ' Parr. J His Danae of art execution allow one to will . are magnificent specimens of every period of the art and subject of that great master. England) French school has enriched the noble classical gallery with . there is. After glancing at the productions of Franz Hals and Ferdinand Bol.RUSSIAN PICTURES. show his earliest dated and his is latest style. for example. Two portraits. The Continence of Scipio. formerly Walpole collection. 1634 respectively and 1666. in short. Rembrandt's Mother. an Englishman cannot fail to the recognise compliment PETRU RUSSORUM PETER THE GREAT. A magnificent Canaletto But represents the reception at Venice of the ambassador of Louis XV. Sir Rembrandt Joshua Reynolds's Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpent. an allegory of Russia vanquishing the difficulties of its youthful state. is unfortunately unfinished two replicas in The but Cupicl unloosing the Girdle of Venus (known in here charms the eye. scarcely a picture in this room that is not admirable. of Lieven van and the Copenal. and treasures the Prodigal Son by Salvator Rosa.' a highly-finished cabinet picture on a stand by itself. In the far-famed Rembrandt Gallery. paid to the British school almost entirely neglected on the rest of the Conti- nentby given the compartment to it in the Gallery. . as the galleries possess many of the finest specimens of all the noted masters. a chef-d'oeuvre of but the lover afford to cannot of escape pictures attention.

but the death . so different from the conventional Byzantine style of ecclesiastical painting which gives extensive employment to the native iconograph. who Mary Magdalene. Vernet. Novgorod. with a notch marking his height at about his books. The to is Russian painter of any note founded the Russian school in considered to be The Last Day of earliest have Serpent.THE MODERN CAPITAL: landscapes ST. by a pupil of Clouet. mathematical and other instruments. and the latter Igolkin. that The casts on either of his wax mould and moustaches. the forms part of life Great's Gallery is entered Here the Winter Palace. the collar under which Catherine the I. a Merchant of picture of huge size . was Lossenko. iron staff which his gigantic strength enabled him to a slender stick. who embroidered his were taken from furnished with features after purpose. although it we find objects illustrative of the and activity Peter the Great. and Peter the in two of his most extra- The Deluge. 37 Moine. and with a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. is a startling academical but the most interesting examples are the two historical pictures by Ugriumoff The Capture of Kazan. who. are typical of the Russian realistic treatment of Scriptural subjects. he sometimes drove the horse now stuffed which he rode at the battle of nicknacks the founder We . Le Watteau. clad in the it dress which he wore at the for coronation of Catherine side face. the the habit of placing petitions in centre of the gallery is a wax effigy of the great Tsar. see the small gilt chariot in which of the Russian empire.. by Bruni. Poltava . charming pictures by Claude Lorraine. The Brazen is represented as a captive in chains at Stockholm. which he gave the artist. like Vereschagin. it is Numerous supposed. which is not open to the general public. and presses crowded with valuable The chief interest centres in the relics of of every description. by Poussin. carry with ease . PETERSBURG. who may be said Its most important work 1759. has a world-wide reputation. was In in name of his canine favourite. other pictures by French artists adorn the Second Hermitage Palace. and the Election of Michael Romanoff and those by Matveyeff and Shebuef. Greuze. painted. the heavy . The stuffed Danish hound in one of the glass cases still wears subjects. The Creation of the World. and Bruni's Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane. I. of from Hermitage. must be the exact image of him. Aivazofski. turning seven feet of the teeth he had extracted from the jaws of suffering a collection and lathes. we cannot do better than mount the dome of hair at sittings . on the of seized point being by his gaolers for having killed a Swedish soldier who Ivanoff's Christ Appearing to spoke disrespectfully of Peter the Great. at Fotheringay. The former has depicted Peter the Great questioning his son. Choice specimens of Russian painting and sculpture fill the two rooms through which we make our exit. by Brtilow. tools. for it was executed Having exhausted the manifold objects of interest in the Winter Palace and the renowned Hermitage. is seen ordinary efforts. Pompeii.

It was erected between 1819 and 1858. while and decoration (not including the subsequent Its form is that of cost of propping it up) exceeded three millions sterling a Greek cross.000. TETERSDURG. ST. on the site of a wooden St. Catherine II. Isaac's church built in i/io. This gives us also the for a bird's-eye view of the city.RUSSIAN PICTURES.200. of the modern cathedrals most remarkable of one of the opportunity visiting in Russia. forest on a of piles the total cost of construction . laid twenty-one feet long. ST. ISAAC'S CATHEDRAL. alone cost . but commenced in the reign of replaced in 1801 by an edifice which had been Its foundations (364 feet by 315). and its three chief portals of gigantic bronze work are approached from the level of the vast square on which it stands by broad flights of steps composed of entire pieces of polished granite from Finland.

Women It is supported by eight Corinthian are not admitted into this inmost shrine.' adoration. To the King feet of in Kings. east. at the back of the high altar. sail. we observe that from the so-called Admiralty. ' In Thee. in which vessels are no longer built. ' The king shall : shall rejoice in Thy strength. and with its two nearly parallel arteries governs the direction It is intersected by three canals that drain to of most of the other streets. and is pillars the only work of art within the church that the is not Russian. instructive. Russian Strictly speaking. Lavish use of malachite and lapis-lazuli has been made in the adorn- ment of the Screen. or which have its belief ' in images. do and west. the purposely-subdued light brings into relief the glittering sumptuousness of the ikonostas. contain bells fifteen to twenty-nine tons in weight. O Lord. some extent the city. the of the visitor. The to three and yield none in principal bronze portals are the largest in the world. not been worked by human material hands. is not solid. mostly in mosaic work. they support on each of the four sides of the edifice a frieze with a text in letters of bronze. covered with thickly-gilt is sixty-six diameter and two hundred and ninety-six feet high. surmounted by a ship under full The one nearest the great streets radiate like the ribs of a fan. or produced in mosaic work. but applied on The stained window representing copper tubes fitted over cast-iron cylinders. the Ascension. The view from dome is extensive and First of all. and of the ikons. but holds that an Ikon painted. capitals of bronze. and of the Sanctuary beyond the Royal Doors. remarkable for its tall gilded spire. three is of the capital. the several texts are : north. Mine I House put my be called an House of Prayer. 39 twelve polished granite monoliths that support the four are feet in height and seven feet in diameter peristyles sixty weighing one hundred and twenty-eight tons each. like the lapis-lazuli. and crowned with massive Corinthian . or screen. although the ascribed. palace This is the main thoroughfare St. if the monastery of Prospect.' The cupola. The As in all interior of Isaac's to is well calculated to inspire feelings of solemnity and veneration. ' O Lord ' ' ' . St. and enable barges of light draught to distribute their . south. costliness of material and beauty of execution. in miniature the central dome. Translated. which. in miles Nevski three the length. Alexander Nevski be taken as its terminus.' trust let me never be ashamed . of malachite. copper. on a flat surface is not a violation of the Second Commandment. these are to which miraculous powers are in not worshipped. PETERSBURG. which adorn the walls and pillars of the temple. the entire height of the cathedral to the top of the golden cross that surmounts the elegant lantern Four belfries.THE MODERN CAPITAL: The one hundred and ST. with cupolas resembling being three hundred and thirty-six feet. was made in Germany. and impress imagination churches. is not effect easily The Russo-Greek Church distinguishable from actual rejects as idolatrous any carved or moulded representation of sacred or saintly subjects for purposes of worship.

or as a naval commander. when the deluded soldiery shouted Constitutia. and a general inventor in In one of his manifold capacities he had charge of the the Russian service. the commercial quarter of the city. we face the Vasili Ostrof. like the Nevski. a brother of Jeremy Bentham. Turning in the opposite direction. the third of the canals before us. and flax. The Vasili Ostrof is. from the rough. The first and second streets that run across the main thoroughfare are (Great) and Malaya (Little) Morskaya (Naval) streets. This was the raw produce. In winter the scene. hemp. thanks to the Cronstadt Canal. is one of comparative desolation. Samuel Bentham. an architect. either as an agent of the British Government for building ships of war at Archangel. the big steamers which. Sweden. to which we shall refer later. Off it are anchored. Sir construction of the new Fontanka Canal. relieved only by the numberless sledges in which the inhabitants of either side of the ice-bound river are being silently but rapidly conveyed to and fro on terra finna. massive Columns Rostrata: Beyond is another by which stands the British floating bridge that starts from the square on Embassy. discharging their duties as carriers of long granite quays are lined by other steamers that ply to Cronstadt. full of handsome buildings and shops. which is freight. recognisable the two in front of it. so far as commercial is concerned. or Finland. Of course we are speaking of the short summer months of the North. The activity revolution in 1825. In front of the Cathedral is the Park. has supplied an enjoyable shade to a once cobble-paved square that extended from the huge Senate and Synod houses on the left to the Winter Palace and the Etat Major buildings on the right. The last bridge. practically.. A machine which he devised.' under the impression that they were engaged in a pronunciamento in favour site of the ' . in mid-stream.40 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in order to put an end to the pile-driving ' habitual skulking of the labourers. and abuts on the Fortress. establishes communication with the Viborg side. a lieutenant-colonel. was actively employed in Russia during a part of the reign of Catherine II. the largest island formed by the numerous branches of the Neva. and connected with the the Bolshaya by the handsome Nicholas Bridge and the floating bridge that leads from the Winter Palace to the colossal Exchange. side of the river is further maintained by the innumerable small steamers that have replaced the quaint-sterned ferry-boats which were formerly so prominently mainland depicted in illustrations of St. of stone and iron. Light steamers also ply on these canals. which has no through railway connection with the other In summer communication with the opposite parts of the Russian empire. so called from its being the starting-point for a journey to the adjoining Grand Duchy of Finland. which. Petersburg. are now loading grain. the first being. within the last ten or fifteen years. flat-bottomed barges that have to be broken up for firewood come from after the innermost parts of the empire.' greatly accelerated the progress of the work. principally fuel.


. and that of their inhabitants. as in of Scandinavia. is national evident. are a very decent set course is necessary of men. wiry animals. and in other types winter the European sledges. although disappointing Nevertheless. or No more striking as far as the knees. Stranger still. also. continues to predominate. and descendant especially the summer head-dress. attract us in by their their while peculiarity. strange to say. under perfect control. although a clear bargain as to the charge for a in order to avoid ultimate disagreement. although only ten seeing those Moscow who in generally. although few have its sufficient systematic their first patience arrival. regardless of expense. relegated of Moscow wore rural it districts. essentially Asiatic or Indian. to the its primitive national aspect. deprived him of the right of succeeding Alexander and placed the throne of All the Russias in the hands of his brother Nicholas. which is clearly a modernised of the 'beef-eater's' hat brought to Russia by the adventurous Englishmen who discovered hat in the for sea-board the of Muscovy in the sixteenth ' ' century. by which their eager course is at once arrested. The indigenous head-covering to same season is still almost the counterpart of the but it is now which Paddy is wont to carry his dhudeen .' Prominently standing out from its environment of trees and shrubs is the well-known equestrian I. Their dress is almost a mediaeval survival. see many mujiks clad in sheepskins. years ago the drojki drivers satisfaction of those who revelled in The Isvostchiks. whose morganatic marriage to a Polish lady had. by his own consent. exactly the same sound is used in the island and we take the fact as a corroborahorses Skye in tion of far in stopping the Scandinavian . may perhaps origin of to advanced linen shirts in this century covering trousers has come over the aspect of the country than the outward appearance change In most of the of its cities and towns. erected 1 . the of Grand Duke Constantine. The Nevski travellers Prospect is the next point to of attraction. the first remarkable monuments were designed and executed by Frenchmen of Peter the Great. stands in front of the Winter Palace.. The horses are active.42 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the architect of the Cathedral from which we are looking down on those wonderful works. statue The 782. by Falconet. the rural districts. with all details on In make themselves acquainted summer the drojkies. the second by Montferrand. in contrast with drivers we find ethnographical on which we gaze with the interest we would bestow on a Hindu or a Chinaman in London. except to to some extent the class who make it their special business ' convey only ' are bent on pleasure. 'the Divine figure of the North. and. vehicles. urban centres. by the great Catherine in grand monolith of polished granite that commemorates the glory and the Both of these virtues of Alexander I. if not too isolated or distant from are too early Russian civilisation. We approximation to general to those in search of European dress peculiarities. the summer dress It of the peasant. well acquainted with the sound of Ptrm.

two hundred and thirty-eight feet in length by one hundred and eighty-two in breadth. this arrangement somewhat crowds the interior. were frequently picked up at the stalls. Cossacks. or bazaar so common to all Russian towns. with its colonnade in imitation of St. in the street that turns off from the Nevski from the upper corner of the Gostinnoi Dvor. Petersburg. and to secure from among the mass of rubbish a valuable or pleasing picture. Built between 1801 and 1811. in four rows like the balustrade in front. Those who have not visited St. There are also two other markets. for. it is of silver. and applied the campaign of the zealous offering of the 1812. and so decidedly Oriental in origin claims our attention after visiting the Kazan Cathedral.THE MODERN CAPITAL: c. it has internally the form of a cross. during church plate they had looted. but the better vigilance of and renders more difficult its nefarious operations. diately many costly votive objects and military trophies in this and the Emperor never fails to offer up his prayers here immehis departure on from the capital and his return after a residence at some other imperial seat. precious stones of high value. A although architecturally grand. and showed the native dealers that a European market was available for their goods. at Moscow. but of great utility on long journeys. Petersburg for any considerable number of years will be impressed by the It used to development that has taken place in the local bric-a-brac trade. retook from the French it ' Don the to its present use. at some of the or traktirs. . 43 be seen. is soon reached on the right-hand side of the Nevski. or a bit of porcelain unchipped and bearing a genuine mark of note. and pretty sashes and ties deftly woven at Bric-a-brac hunters revel in the Apraxin Dvor. Peter's at Rome. cushions. restaurants. which were not quite unsuspected of In ST. the market is a exhibiting the produce of robberies. extends but. and adds to its conventional clinginess. be an intense pleasure to ransack the shanties we found full of incongruous odds and ends.' who. hard. to this day. thirty-five feet from the four pillars that support the cupola high. the ikotiostas is light and brilliant. and those in which are sold or gold. which have not yet followed the example of similar establishments at St. Crowds of purchasers fill the lanes and alleys by which those markets are intersected. and therefore a good opportunity presents itself of viewing national types of bazaar. where the guests are generally served by Tartar Mahomedan waiters in European evening dress. However. The Gostinnoi Dvor. asked are not those of the days before trading collectors had discovered this distant mine of wealth. PETERSBURG. the police circumscribes recipient of such articles. as a revival. There are cathedral. Strings of pearls. . but the prices Torjok. colonnade of granite monoliths. foreigners visit the excellent fur shops Russia-leather slippers embroidered in silver In the main every grade. The Kazan Cathedral. the Stchukin and the Apraxin.

Few libraries in Europe can compete number of printed volumes being over a million. 2. is immediately beyond the Gostinnoi Dvor building we notice the Imperial Public Library. 7. 4. I. 6. in front of with its riches. the that of the MSS. The The Alexander Column. Kazan Cathedral. The Admiralty. it. about thirty-four thousand. The Palace of Peterhof. in addition to nearly eighty . Statue of Peter the Great. PETERSBURG. 3. 5.RUSSIAN PICTURES. with a the first VIEWS IN AND AROUND ST. The German Reformed Church. Winter Palace. The Church in the Hay Market. Resuming our walk up the Nevski. and statue to Catherine II. 8.

Greek codex of the four Evangelists. from Gutenberg to the year exemplified but more to mankind than all the other treasures 1521. black with bears parchment age. consist of letters during the early part of the great Revolution. Further acquisitions were subsequently made in Poland. on its tenth is department. in Early European printing (Incunabula) about eleven thousand volumes. .D. fetch. Petersburg. 1116. and transferred its contents to St. important almost globe. to Charles I. PETERSBURG. The nucleus of this prodigious collection in a so new was the library of the Counts Zaluski. it was written about seventy years after the introducfor anything they would Russia. the British and Foreign Bible Society has been engaged in the distribution of the Holy Scriptures in Russian. except history or geography of the empire. containing the Evangelistarium. 1889. the most valuable of these being the books and MSS. purchased by a Polish gentleman in France The MSS. thus speaks of the influence of the Bible in Russia What has the Bible as the Word of 1 ' : God been to among them call ? our Russian people during the thousand years of its existence Has it not been " a light shining in a dark place ? " We its to mind the bright opening period of our 1 national life which had St. and discovered by Tischendorf in the still A having been written in the MS. proof of ninth or Chronicle of Nestor. a monk at Kief. Petersburg. bears the that is. Finnish. Hebrew and Karaite MSS. the famous Codex Sinaiticns. There are also thirty the that relate to the Russian. collection twenty-five them being of earlier date in all thousand volumes is than the ninth century. and that it of the maintains an agency at St. is the complete series of the Bible printed in all the known languages and dialects of the inhabited parts of the British missionaries and British major part of this grand and lasting monument religious societies have raised to the glory of God and the His Holy Word. Mr. 45 thousand engravings and maps. which capital comparatively had already become the property of the Polish State when Suvoroff captured Warsaw in 1 794. Catherine. In this connection we may mention that. Petersburg as well as at Odessa. They were taken from the Paris archives by an infuriated mob. from kings of France to their ambassadors. the chief glory of this Convent of of of ancient St. and sold by improvised auction in the Slavonic . Astafief. Lastly. and character. in 1859.THE MODER^ CAPITAL: 7 ST. and other languages spoken by the subjects of the Tsar.. a complete copy of the Greek in the fourth century. in his History of the Bible in Russia. is equally The unique noticeable. on Mount Sinai. date of 1056 tion of Christianity into is The Ostromir MS. Bible written older Greek century. N. and the correspondence of various sovereigns. The A brought down to A. being of especial interest to ourselves. the volume of English royal letters from Henry VII. secret State documents. since the beginning of the reign Emperor Nicholas.. of the Library put together. languages.

The first died 869 at Rome. endured cruel persecution at the hands of the obstinate upholders of old errors. and with unconquerable energy he from the errors understood the living significance of the laid the foundation for of copyists Word its of God. the long. died 1556. 1710-11 cherished the thought of translating the Bible from the Ecclesiastical Slavonic into the Russian language of the day. who was deeply acquainted with and who highly valued the Holy Scriptures. the second in 885. it spirit. and called into existence the Russian price. the Slavonic Bible. not come to and from sophistical glosses." in These Biblical labours activity in did not remain without influences people because of their high mass of the the quickening spiritual books of Holy society. long period of darkness when the Word of a rarity in the country. But a beginning had been made. though slowly and with interruptions. daughter the Empress Elizabeth. and because of the little spread of education.D. established at through the intrigues of the 5 MSS. 4 or the learned brothers Lichud. owing to the want of popular schools. writers. endeavoured to revise the text by aid of the Greek MSS. in consequence of the opposition of the adherents of the old style. at last appeared " the so-called Elizabethan Bible. sprang from the people and knew their needs. A. .46 KUSSIAN in under the influence of earnest instruction glorious eleventh and twelfth centuries which birth the Word of God. 3 He came Of to Russia in 1518. and in A. and the revision of the Slavonic text. 1751. for the sake of making it more readily accessible. the patriarch Nikon (A. 3 or Ivan Theodoroff. the first printer. went on. and the Press burnt. who established a complete system of secondary and elementary schools. 5 who endeavoured to carry the light of life into the thick darkness of ignorance God was and superstition which surrounded them. printed at Moscow with some emendations. ignorantly but honestly believing them to be truth.. and what could not be completed during the his in lifetime of Peter was finished by Thanks to her energetic persistence. with revised and emended text. caused by the Mongols. Both these obstacles were removed during the reign of Alexander I. supported in every way Biblical labours. . us of 1 those first so remind the 2 And then following this. 1236 A. tenth century was bound up with the circulation of this Bible and the formation of schools to teach the people 2 to read it. inviied to Russia from Italy. but in 1564 Ivan was driven out. who had grown accustomed As one who to them.D. in consequence of the desolation age of Christianity. in the year 1663. The revision of the Slavonic text meanwhile went on in due course. once when men like Maxim the Greek. but to the Scripture remained inaccessible. nought. with his healthy purifying himself fell. 1865 . accused the printers of heresy.D. 1652). He but the work begun by him as the daily need of the people did Others continued it. 1 Cyril anil Methodius formed the Slavonic alphabet in order to translate the Scriptures into that language in The acceptance of Christianity by the Russians in the 855-7.D. 4 the Royal Printing Press. and at last. restoration. appeared the Ostrojskaya Bible. at first but few in number. who Moscow. Peter the Great. imprisoned 1525 .

battle fought on its site defeated built the in 1241. agate. especially in their within made equal progress since the publication of the by the permission of the Holy Synod. Nevski begins to flag. will be seen the Anitchkoff Palace. of which probably 700. and evidence has not been lacking to show that in Russia. has A. Russian Bible. the activity Now of the Lavra. brought from the Cathedral at Vladimir by Peter the Great.D. inferior in precedence only to the Lavra It was founded of the Trinity at Moscow and the Lavra at Kief. at which the Nevski practically terminates in a huge and slovenly-looking square. Alexander Nevski.000. of those days. 47 Bible Society. 1876. made At language. recent efforts Much ' has been ' done by the circulation of tracts and other Christian literature. PETERSBURG. used in the Russian empire. being a of St.938 roubles. Siberian and Teutonic knights in decorated 1/90. the great architect celebrated are the two close to the equestrian groups by palace bridge Baron Klodt. is Swedes and of massive St. and by the blessing and aid pardon and cleansing and peace. selling them at low prices and distributing and at the same gratuitously into the Russian Bible the translating them . 1 weighing twenty-nine hundredweight lie the remains of Alexander. and on the other side of it the former Beloselski-Beloserski Palace. as elsewhere. time it a commencement in the us. or seat of a Metropolitan.000 copies were distributed in Slavonic and Russian. the capital degenerates into Its rural suburbs are reached at the Monastery an ordinary Russian town. On the opposite side of the square to which the front of the Public Library is turned. by Peter who in Duke a great the Great in honour of a canonized Grand Alexander. by Count Rastrelli.THE MODERN CAPITAL: 1 ST. Russia. Petersburg.421. Founded 1812 ended 1826. one of the most important in Russia. In its first ten years the receipts amounted to 3. the residence of their It was built in 1744. now the property of the Grand Duke Sergius. Past the Moscow Railway Station. the glad tidings of salvation by faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ enter the sinful and of the Holy Spirit bring to it penitent heart. On the Elizabeth. which had for its object the circulation of the books of Holy Scripture as generally as possible. and full of pictures and costly objects of art. marble. for the Empress Majesties when at St. and we come to the rough stone paving. to The spread Religious Tract Society has also largely helped throughout Russia the knowledge of the Gospel. school this system has received a wide extension amongst circulation present time the and alongside of the among the people of the Holy Scriptures of every one. over which carriages and drojkies have to rattle when off the wooden blocks laid down for them from the Palace Bridge to the Anitchkoff Palace and along the whole length of Bolshaya Morskaya Street.' the reach own at a price native language. During its existence 290 auxiliary committees were established in all parts of .000 to 800. The . internally with In a sumptuous shrine Persian pearls.000 copies were printed in twenty-six languages and dialects. Scriptures or parts of them were translated into fourteen new languages 1. Italian The principal silver church.

In its From their race came Peter the proud device. who died in a sudden and mysterious manner in one of its dungeons after his ' Its guns are used for saluting purposes examination on a charge of treason. in 1/03. Alexander's crown and the bed on which Peter I. and also for giving notice of the rising of the Neva to inhabitants of cellars. died are among the most interesting objects shown in the Sacristy. Excepting Peter II. It is for instruction of a selected for the vocation higher order of tutors and to to the more in professors now time to leave the in Nevski. all the members of the imperial family have . the cathedral was restored in 1757. founder of pillars Petersburg and of Catherine II. Rubens.48 RUSSIAN PICTURES.. Suvoroff. St. 1 crypt are buried Natalia. and a great number of other valuables. are suspended on the two opposite the Altar. who died of small-pox when only fourteen. Peter and is Petersburg and its neighbourhood. Rumiantsof. who died young. the ' : ' ' and a theological college promising scholars theological schools.. and several other ministers of the brilliant On the mausoleum of the Naryshkins is epoch of Catherine the Great. inscribed ' . at Moscow. Petersburg. in which sons of the White Clergy (as distinguished from the Monks) are prepared for the priesthood. but the present grim stone work was executed in 1706 under the It is used as a State prison. a Russian initjik (peasant) climbed to the top. Peter. With the aid only of a nail and a angel and cross on the spire in 1830. on imperial fete days.. St. behind which is a remarkable picture of the St. Paul within the fortress on the right beautiful gilt bank of the Neva conspicuous by its spire terminating in an angel bearing a cross. The monastery contains also a seminary. Great are paid by the upper and richer classes for permission to sums Large repose in the adjoining cemetery. although blood spurted out from under his finger-nails as he ascended. the eldest son of Peter I. the Kensal Green of St. after having been three times damaged tale of singular daring is connected with the repair of the by lio-htning. and glance at a few of the other places The Cathedral most worth seeing of St. Among the six other churches within the walls of the Lavra is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. his son. where he was buried. sister of Peter I. which has also a large collection of mitres set in jewels. hanging gradually on A rope. city. of superintendence the earliest notable occupant was Alexis. in Latin his mother having been a member of that ancient noble family. the summit being 302 feet above the level of The foundations of the fortress were laid by Peter the Great the ground. to the raised edges of the copper plates with his fingers. founded in 702. an episcopal staff Portraits of the turned by Peter. Perugino. and to the population of the lower parts of the Consecrated in 1733 on the site of a church coeval with the fortress. of which an Italian architect. pontifical robes of gold brocade. Some of the Ikons are good copies after Annunciation by Raphael Mengs and Guido.

that 1722 1726. was found by Peter the Great when yet a and it was by sailing it lad. reposes alongside of him. dedication the use of the mineral waters of Olonets. PETERSBURG. almost at the foot of the floating Trinity Bridge.. building The 'Grandfather of the Russian Navy. under the direction of a Dutch shipbuilder that he acquired the nautical of the tastes which resulted in the construction of a fleet and the extension the fortress by its eastern gate and making Russian dominions. on the Moskva near the cathedral. near Lake Ladoga THE FIRST FLEET BUILT BY PETER THE GREAT AT VORONEJ. Catherine II. is carpenters. the opposite aisle that of the Emperor Nicholas. at the country residence of his grandfather. in its autograph of his found to later within Almighty God in gratitude for the benefit recorded he had derived from ball An 1724. It a boat constructed by Dutch in carefully preserved a brick Quitting for the river-bank. whose martyred son and successor. are also a small wooden church. the white stands in front of the ikonostas. Alexander II. with which traditions of Peter the Great strongly associated. and in sepulture. ST. It he erected between replaces a church which 1703 and E . which is of wood. cathedral. was the turned centre by Peter I. the Emancipator of the Serfs. more than ten feet high.' river in 1668. lies to the right of the Altar Screen. 49 Petersburg been interred under the floor of this marble tombs above marking the places of their Close to the south door is the tomb of Peter the Great. the work of four Russian carvers between superbly carved and richly gilt and The ivory candelabrum. we~pass.THE MODERN CAPITAL: since the foundation of St.

Petersburg. A short walk which he built in 703. ' 1815 by Ouarenghi. They are kept in the gallery that runs round the cottage. was his hatred of lawyers.4. unfortunately rendered very bare and cheerless-looking. is a chapel of the Queen's Ambassador.10.000. origin. and I believe I shall hang one of them the moment I get home.' present edifice. which accompanied Peter in his battles and conservative Muscovy. their combined size being about 55 feet by 20 feet in breadth. defrayed from :the funds accumulated by the so-called British Factory. has been converted into a chapel. Peter's cruelty and self-indulgence were strangely blended with his innate 1710 in he was in statesmanship and the devotional feeling he so frequently displayed in a Next to his prejudice against beards.50 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The Anglican Church stands on the English Quay. and from brings us to his cottage. like our other ' Petersburg are due. commemoration of the foundation of the St. in which he also dined. and of .' in the form of a compulsory tax on British shipping. it the who hurled Russia into Western and the outer building by which the cottage and its interesting contents are preserved from decay. attracted chiefly by an Ikon of the Saviour. then typical of practical manner. an architect ' whom many of the finest edifices having made a grant of . which has outwardly the appearance of only a private mansion. Company. whom he had asked who were the men in wigs and gowns bustling about Westminster Hall I have Lawyers but two in all my dominions. effected the discomfiture of Charles XII.' in the estuary of the Neva. is the outcome of the to work of reconstruction carried out in in St. at a cost of . Parliament Russia Company a contribution Anglican establishments in Russia. between ' princes its a race nearly as extinct as that of the mammoth. He said to Lord Carmarthen. generally crowded with worshippers.000. ' : ! ' ' 1 . and the wooden bench on which he sat his door. The bedroom on the left.5. by British merchant sively occupied. once almost exclulike the street in the rear of it. which at last became obnoxious to the tax-payers. his cicerone in London. and in which habit of singing as a chorister. and an extensive circulating library for the benefit of . the palace which he superintended the building of his new capital it contains only two rooms and a kitchen.000 towards that purpose. A boys' school. notwithstanding the addition of stained windows. and injurious to our trade. The capacious and valuable premises enjoy the boon of ex-territoriality. Those who take an interest in the life of Peter the Great should visit the three or four galleys of his period preserved in the Galley Haven. at Poltava! Among the other of relics of civilisation at forcibly sovereign path is a boat which he built.' Within this church are several objects which belonged to the Great Reformer or were made by him. and of reading the Gospels on the anniversary of the battle of Poltava. and the In 1873 the interior was renovated. and on other great feast days. The church owed in to the 'Great Russia The 1/53. on the ground that the chapel.

THE MODERN CAPITAL: the ST. become acquainted with the sensation of falling out of a high and the song of the nightingale. and rewards us amply for the frost and snow and life. PETERSBURG. the young birch all We hail with delight the warm sunshine. or less dormant for nearly eight months. Petersburg is out of town the migration to suburban palaces. PETERSBURG. and for the spiritual render made by our countrymen colony. In complete arrangements and moral welfare of the British summer all St. and in fact led a life of jollity without even getting an ear or a cheek frozen . bursts suddenly into beauty. even though we have enjoyed of a winter season at the capital on the Neva and in the Yusupof Gardens. shot bears. window by going clown montagncs russes a refined and toboganing driven in pleasant company in sledges drawn superior at wild kind of speed by three thoroughbred horses abreast. and the return tide sets in towards the end of September. villas and cottages commences in the early part of our June. light. to festive establishments on the outskirts of the city. more . elk. the warm hospitality and the healthy sport of All the Russias. and yet E 2 . at St. ST. through which the we have of fragrance passed. Nothing can be imagined as more enjoyable than a Northern summer. and the darkness THE ENGLISH QUAY. two thousand are also British subjects who reside Petersburg the and its vicinity. on the premises. We may have skated trees. Nature. and wolves with local sportsmen. converted for the purpose into an Arctic arcadia.

as well as in pictures representing chiefly the naval victories of Orlof and other Russian In one of the apartments is a generals during the reign of Catherine II. its general character. are still perpetuated. collection of 863 portraits of beautiful young girls painted by Count Rotari for the Empress during a journey which he made for that purpose through No two are alike either in position or the fifty provinces of Russia. slop to terminates on the shore of the gulf. pleasure Zoological But we must now leave St. tazzas of porcelain. unfortunately. and gives a considerable amount of life to In the the branch of the Neva on which its large establishment stands. was wont to contemplate his infant its terrace. Petersburg. . the red rays of the setting which partly runs Point. wainscoted with some of his carvings. in the centre of the grounds. and although many additions and alterations have been subsequently made. reaching the 'Point' of Yelagin Island time sun go down in golden glory. plainly seen from : of water-engineering here offered to our bare mention of some of the buildings in the Peter I.52 RUSSIAN PICTURES. To the right the banks of the Little Neva are dotted with picturesque chalets standing out to see the ' ' from a background of measurable distance the with the to last ' sombre lofty gilt pines . articles of vertu. and many other marvels we can only make grounds fleet Marly. portrait in mosaic. with charming grounds and a delightful view. The more accessible villas are on drive a little the islands of the Neva. adorned with fountains and other ornamental water-works. and its walls are Beneath the palace is the celebrated garden. and make excursions by rail or and we begin with steamer to some more distant summer residences an Its which Gulf of Finland from overlooks the Peterhof. the stamp of the French school being veryIn the study of Peter the Great hangs his apparent on every canvas. describe the view. Neva. laid out in terraces and walks.' spires sun. little inferior The Samson. palace. There is an imperial chateau on this island. elevation of sixty feet. . Novaya ex-village and Arcadia a of Livadia more sober resort Gardens. of banks are the on the of the Little Derevnia. . and the Marly Pond. through Peter's Park. malachite. was built under the directions of Peter I. expression but it is more than doubtful whether they are true to Nature or the ethnology of Russia.. and marble. and from it runs a boat canal that We cannot. for it abounds in beautiful tapestry. is almost as The River Yacht road on Derby day. magnificent jet d'eait eighty feet high. from which moored off Cronstadt. is a to those of Versailles. while evening will be found in Gardens behind the the fortress. and especially to who have known many winters. The interior is replete with interest. those the Elysian season will prove to be that of summer. and even its original yellow colour. to which in we before sunset. and on the left and domes of the we see within At this glowing hour the road witching capital crowded with vehicles as the Epsom Club is on Krestofski Island.

still summoned by a bell be fed with rye flour. to see were begun by Peter I. to visit the monastery of St. moreover. none of his wooden . in order to . The fortifications we have come the Petersburg. portrait. so far as modern science can possibly effect such imperial residence. a mother bringing her children to the Saviour. of Her Majesty Oueen floor. Petersburg in a swift troika. severally. . dressing-room. Sergius. founded in 1/34. in accordance with his directions Monplaisir.' must be either by rail via Oranienbaum. style. and become a purely military harbour. saying to the more prosaic railway carriage at Sergi. and feet a uniform centre of twenty-two depth dredging. PETERSBURG. it has an air of It is. in the at lower garden. amongst many others. built in a with 1781. full the Emperor and and with Empress several reside in privacy it. both as a place of busy trade and as a fortress defending in an impregnable manner. who receives them. needless to say. great ship canal. and its stalls of oak. vespers singing The sepulchral vaults (on Saturdays) is particularly fine and impressive. 53 to which he caused to be stocked with carp and chub. Victoria . a . taken altogether. the canal is one of the most remarkable works of its kind in Its result. of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. the long. elegance and comfort which few other Russian churches possess. and more especially the church that stands at the back of the grounds. the properties. . is that Cronstadt will before long cease to be the Europe. the sea-approach left to of the natural and partly twenty feet Petersburg. whose bed. and Alexandria. we have the opportunity of seeing Michaelofski and Strelna. ' Suffer little children to trip come unto Me. so well known to our readers already. in 1/03. however. By constant is maintained in it. or Our next an object. another ancient by steamer direct to Cronstadt. which since 1885 enables see. From squadron By taking from Peterhof the good macadamised road to St. night-cap and slippers are exhibited in it the Hermitage. or carriage with three horses abreast. seventeen and a half miles running along the followed by the steamer. where Peterhof.THE MODERN CAPITAL: ST. when he dispossessed Swedes but. when of fine pictures. shallow channel to St. and fronting the estuary of the Neva. cottages in Nicholas around roof of one of them the Emperor watched with a telescope the movements of the Anglo-French the front of Cronstadt. for its celebrated monkish whose at choristers. With its open roof. and we can terminate our drive and take But we halt here awhile. steamers drawing commercial outport of St. of many notable families are full of tokens that the dead have not been Over one of the tombs are likenesses from life of forgotten by the living. We proceed to the capital. reign of Peter. with a contrivance in one of its rooms by which dishes and plates are made to descend from and ascend to the dinner-table through grooves in the summer-house in the Dutch also built in the . dispense with the presence of servants at intimate feasts the Pavilions on the Tsaritzyn and Olga Islands the English Palace.

through a his Charles Napier failed take advantage of passage on the northern side of the island discovered by a couple of That channel is now effectively guarded by a substantial dam smaller ships. These are mostly built at St. I. Petersburg. In the vicinity of the the chief station in the Baltic for the Russian fleet. consist of several parallel lines connected by encircles many naval which and earthworks. not inferior to Keyham in its mechanical appliances. of batteries recent date. is a military harbour. The southern of stones. The the land defences.A USSL4 A PIC TURKS. 1 r walls remain. and by a tall iron railing begun in 1721. on which seven strong batteries have been raised. and brought down to Cronstadt to be fitted. when. In the town the storehouses and workshops is bordered with granite. from canal west to east. Nicholas since Sir The formidable-looking stone forts elate from the reign of They have undergone considerable alteration and improvement of the the clays Crimean to War. defences are the strongest. A very good statue of Peter the Great whose genius created . The dry docks are capable of admitting some of the larger vessels of war. splendid steam factory. and are formed by three lines of forts running channel THE FORTRESS OF SCHLUSSELBURG. for reasons the still unknown.

by the Regent Biron). eighteen miles in circumprivate villas and as an imperial park.66. on the left bank of the river. the favourite since it respects to that of Peterhof. spent the remainder of his life on this insular Bastille. and later at a lonely spot on the White Sea. laid out and well wooded. which issues here from the Ladoga lake. who had confined himself to building a small cottage. both beautifully ference. a hot-house. and alternately. which the munificent Empress declined to accept. the Lithuanian I. in the roccoco style of was restored and embellished by her.' The dome and the cupolas of the Palace Chapel are now Catherine II. mainly due to the care bestowed on it by marine rival. Nihilists has since been used as a State 1756.THE MODERN CAPITAL. on the ground that she was not in the habit of selling her old clothes.. The Old Palace. ' alone gilt. the gilding the contractors in the restoring palace offered having worn off. forming rapids easily navigable. The town of Schliisselburg. so ST. . originally by Catherine I. built in 1744. imprisoned prison.000 for the fragments of gold leaf. It who finally delivered it Peter 1/02. Originally the structural ornamentations. it Like the of the dominions of formed anciently part Novgorod the for Great. PETERSBURG. formerly the Swedish fortress of Noteborg. either outside or commodious Vauxhall attached to the railway station. is often the object of a day's excursion by steamer.' of the able to capital a mouthful of fresh and to enjoy the music of the excellent orchestra that plays every afternoon. at of the Neva. The present aspect of this beautiful spot is. however. architecture. Pavlofsk. knights and of the Swedes. near the governor's residence and the of what we have so the back of Summer Garden planted by Peter. three miles at distant. all the statues and the capitals of columns. . is a busy place of trade. (together with his and conspirators. into is divided the Old and the New Garden. He was killed in an attempt made for his rescue by an officer of the guard. engaged . the source Schliisselburg. were covered with gold leaf at a cost of more than a million of ducats but. and rush away from the within the the same time the for ' summer encampment resort of those who are air. originally at of Dunaburg. the consort of Peter. is also a Petersburgians. and the now son of Empress father. pavilions.. In whom he had been Elizabeth. and a variety of other attractive buildings. Tsarskoe of its Selo. after is much full contention. and a zoological garden on part of the ground now covered with palaces. Ivan VI. is second in some has not the fountains and the cascades But it is much larger in extent both as a town of The latter. passed of to some time in in the fourteenth century into the hands. imperial residence. being at the mouth of the famous canal that forms part of a fluviatile system that connects the Baltic with the distant Caspian. at 55 much the far seen stands on a square middle harbour. rest of Ingria..

into which the region discharges its abundant waters. was almost in summer. which commences at the Jacob River on the borders of settled in 1826. CHAPTER THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES ' IV. a few private whaling and fishing and it. active Kola. as the seat of the gunboat soon arose out of its ashes. is broken by the gulf and the straits that give access to the White Sea. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY IN THE SACRISTY OF THE MONASTERY OF ST. it but. only (800 inhabitants) upon town in question. long coast line. The province of Archalone has an area larger than that of Great Britain and France ' THE The Governments angel combined. destroyed in 1854 of a its administration by an wide English district. SERGIUS. by Great Britain and France in 1855. and . civil has now resumed though comparatively pleasant aspect in an amphitheatre of green. while Norway. after a dispute that had lasted for five finally its total population is centuries. to which attention is being more and more directed with reference to the possibility of establishing in one of its commodious and never-freezing bays. the stations. sloping down to the Arctic Ocean. NEAR MOSCOW. and guaranteed. OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. slopes rising from a background of bluish-purple hills. of Archangel and Vologda form together an immense sparsely-inhabited plateau. . a Russian Naval Station. together with the integrity of Sweden. connected At present there is but one town with the rest of the empire by rail. This is the Murman (Norman) coast.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. woodless. scarcely that of the city of Manchester.

LANDING OF RICHARD CHANCELLOR AT HOLMOGORY.' Si. 1553- Niva. Petersburg.} . IN THE WHITE (Reproduced by Permission front the illustrated ' SEA.


and seeking nothing . and ascertained from some fishermen that he had reached Russia or Muscovie. all these lands from Novgorod the Great.' for the purpose of finding a northern sea passage to China and India.. until the sixteenth century. and on the other by the White Sea. were frozen to coast. and severe Confidentia. by mere accident in 1553. was Willoughby. the under him one hundred were placed Richard and sixty tons. appointed in the Bona Esperanza. not far from the Korelian mouth of the Dvina. the coast is still more dreary and uninviting. original home of this Ural-Altaic race. politically. has literally the same signification as Esquimaux. which were the The Russian name of Samoyedes. death. that they were Englishmen sent unto these coasts from the most certain excellent King Edward VI. the Samoyedes. here somewhat tempered in its frigid severity by the Gulf Stream. Sir Hugh Willoughby with his own vessel and the Bona Confidentia ultimately reaching with Cornelius Durforth the Bona A much his difficulty a companions. still more or less secretly worship their primitive idols of stone and wood. where he and The Bona- August. They hunt and fish over the vast hyperborean region that extends from the White Sea to some distance beyond the great Enisei River of Siberia. been explored except constituting almost one by the Lopars (Lapps) huge mossy bog and the Saamy. little The interior.' Explaining. which determines the frontier of Siberia and the limits of European Russia in the North. which had inherited. namely. The peninsula thus 59 bordered on the one side by the Arctic Ocean. who. although of Venetian parentage. bay near Sviaty Nos. on the Lapland sixty-five in number. storm in the North Sea separated the three vessels. having from him in commandment the 241)1 ' ' On else but his amide and things to deliver to their King.' by which they are known to the civilized world. Sir Hugh tons. It is here we begin to find. men who subsist principally on raw flesh. when. but in decliningnumbers. at a village called Nenocksa. is known as Russian has Lapland. of ninety tons. venture alone escaped. by the chartered Mystery Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands. of one hundred and twenty and of commander. or Samoyedes.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. right away to the spur of the Ural Mountains. Nicholas. Chancellor cast anchor in the bay of St. and to the foot of the Altai Mountains. while wearing orthodox crosses round their necks. self-eaters. There had been no maritime intercourse between Western Europe and Muscovy. Eastward of Cape Kanin. by means that remain unknown. in Chancellor. frozen during more than half the year. 1553. and delighting in the ringing of church bells when they have the opportunity. Bonaventure. a native in of Bristol. The design was conceived by ' ' Sebastian Cabot. on the opposite side of the Murman coast. the coast of the White Sea was reached by an adventurous expedition fitted out in London.

and even permission to seize and despoil of his goods the subject of any other Power who might attempt to reach India. ' . Kazan and Astrakhan. Yaroslaf. pestilence and easy one. Nicholas soon became an important place of commerce. The important right of coinage was also bestowed upon them.' A new Company was thereupon formed in London by special charter. Persia or China by way of Russia. hemp and tallow of Muscovy from Flemish and Lithuanian traders by way of the Hanseatic towns.' great was Chancellor kindly and hospitably received by the equally astonished natives. The engraving on page 57 represents him and his two principal companions merchants named Burton and Edwards being received in state by the Governor and other high authorities of the province. wax. they It is were fast being ruined by the execution of so many of their debtorsindeed true that the life of the early English settlers in Russia was not an They had to contend with civil commotions. When Ivan the Terrible complained of these proceedings to the English Ambassador in 1569. then Tsar and in the zenith of his glory as the capturer of Kazan and the Suzerain of Siberia. and obtained firm hold of all the most important centres of commercial With a head agency at Moscow. and tniffique with his people. after he had friendship. according hundred per cent. on the contrary. Pskof. and the Bay of St. they retorted that. It is not surprising that under such advantages the Company prospered. and sold their goods at a to native complaint. whereby they doubted not but that commoditie and profit would grow to the subjects of both kingdoms.60 K^SS/AW PICTURES. on the strength of an open Royal Letter with which each of the three vessels had been provided. then on the throne of England. and in 1555 Chancellor returned to Moscow with a reply from Philip and Mary. whereby your country merchants maie with all kind of wares and wheare they will make their market in our dominions. amounted to two and three profit which. permission to repair to Moscow in the ambassadorial character which he had assumed. Kostroma. Instead of getting the furs. they carried everything before them. with a letter to King Edward assuring him that his shippes and vessels may come as often as they please.' and requesting that one of His Majesty's Council should be sent to treat with the Tsar. gave the three Englishmen ' a cordial and distinguished reception. obtained Ivan the Terrible. not far from Archangel). ' ' Holmogory is evidently derived from the Norwegian Holnigaard. A charter then granted by the Tsar enabled the Company to trade throughout his dominions without paying any taxes. seven miles above the mouth of the Dvina. English merchants were now in direct and privileged communication with the country which supplied those valuable a later treaty with Queen Elizabeth secured to them the commodities exclusive right to carry on the new trade in English ships. and depots at Novgorod the Great. . and sent them back from Moscow in March 1554. 1 1 From Factor^ an agent. a Factory at Holmogory (fortyRussia.

and their agency house in 1571. and meanwhile enemies. it was to be by oath between her and himself that either sovereign might take stores to ARCIIANlIKI.. Above all. refuge in the country of the other in case disturbances in their own realm The matrimonial part of these proposals should compel them to do so. but Elizabeth negotiation. negotiations. her chief defects being In the midst of this delicate 'red hair. and artillery and other be sent from England. Elizabeth. Skilful RUSSIA. however. the boyars informed the merchants of the Company that ' their . not only restrained the impatience of the He desired to marry Queen but also filled him with high hope. in to enter desired into a treaty to of mutual defence against common skilled He the Queen allow ' navigators and persons warlike ratified shipbuilding to come to Russia. and long fingers. 61 when fifteen English Moscow was destroyed by the Tartars in men and women perished in the flames. been effected had not a special Muscovite ambassador reported unfavourably of her age (thirty) and of her personal appearance. Tsar. daughter of the Earl of Huntingdon. one of her maids This would probably have of honour.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN famine. who was not averse to the alliance.' was politely rejected.' suggested the Tsar should marry Lady Mary Hastings. a straight nose.

especially the Dutch. As in the case of the army. Next. They won the earlier naval battles of Russia. and for a considerable time after. now the third.KL'SSIA\ PICTURES. A volume might be well filled with the exploits and services of our countrymen in Russia. Meanwhile. by withstanding ' .' a which Covenanters were made to suffer. long jealous of the English renewed. captains. a legion. and lieutenants were engaged in creating her fleet.. Captain Roxburgh. the credit for them. in fact. were in the succeeding reign permitted to participate in the commerce of the country. Lieutenants Dugdale and McKenzie. destroyed the Turkish at Chesme. Russia to obtaining the Tsar's in permission his to return to Scotland ' in whose nickname ' own country became Old Tom Dalzell. monopoly. who. foremost organisers "and commanders. who profited in no smaller degree by similar aid. where he had command of a small army.' Muscovian rigour of Dalzell's military administration in Scotland. and some British volunteers. the English spirit of enterprise in had not benefited Muscovy this direction alone. Many of them were Peter the Great's ablest coadjutors in the extension and the reform of the empire he left to his successors. who had great difficulty in Although the important in its trade thus established by thenceforth altered character. renewal of their ancient privileges was never obtained. Greig. Their names are. in condemnation of the people who had put their Charles to death. The most famous of those officers were Thomas Dalzell (or Dalziel) of Binns. 'lent' to Russia in 1/69. with Captain |ohn and who.' Generals (created Baron Strathallan in 1685) were credited Muscovite instrument with with the introduction of the thummikins. by Scottish formed were regiments and English officers. British officers were the first and In the reign of Catherine the Great. Even in the reign of Alexander I. English admirals. aided mainly by Commander. so far as eminent services are concerned. Their exclusive privileges were therefore not English Tsar was dead.N. Cronstadt was fleet Elphinstone.' is spoken of in Kirkton's History of tlie C/nirc/i of Scotland as a man whose rude and fierce natural disposition had been much confirmed by his breeding and service in Muscovia. notat made the Earl of Carlisle the a efforts Restoration. with about three thousand men. in Europe. Englishmen was derive immense proceeded advantage from the opening of her seaboard to the commerce of all the maritime nations of Europe. Orloff got although beginning. Her first regular in the reign of Peter the Great's father. subsequently Admiral. 1665. and he was railed against as ' a Muscovian beast ' who used to roast men. so in that of the navy of Russia. of Muscovy. had passed into the service of the Tsar after the defeat and imprisonment of Charles I..' and other nations. R. . and saw There were popular murmurs against the nothing but tyranny and slavery. so far as numbers are Dalzell and Drummond concerned. and William Drummond of Cromlix.' the English were relegated to Archangel and.

the older that having been destroyed by one of the many fires ravaged Archangel during the last century. the starting-point of the modernisation of Muscovy. at Moscow. while the founder of the Russian Medico-Chirurgical Academy at St. learning. are undeniably liable to become effete. The decline its of trade the to city dates removed British the more is merchants houses building still established reign of Peter the Great. to their immense advantage.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. in which One of the themselves in great numbers. Flemings. undergoing the same regenerative process. bears at present little evidence of the importance it acquired in the sixteenth century. visited for The cathedral may be the . and habits of industry and. tion of races. The colonies of Great Britain have long been individually results attained in the . but none of the Russian churches are of any antiquity. The houses of the early English merchants which stood in the Cathedral Square met with the of timber fate. and Germans on the more modern development of the equally vast empire of Great Britain. Peter the Great's first school of mathematics was under the direction of Farquharson. practically a 63 colony of British naval it officers and artificers in the service of countrymen taught good and enduring results. disparagement to native genius. Petersburg was also a Scotchman. There are plenty of other domes and spires. gilt or coloured. and the visits in summer of some fifty British steamers to the port on the island of Solombola now alone attest out- common wardly the former importance of Archangel as a place of British trade. longer used. Archangel. . We might add name upon name which to in matters. a friend to the cause of the Pretender. in no smaller degree. In further support of this view. is meant to be conveyed by this assertion any Panslavist who may be inclined to take umbrage at it will do well to study the influence of Jews. excepting in ecclesiastical of Peter the Great was able in his great work of is to British skill. His chief physician was Erskine. when strictly kept within narrow bounds of nationality and consanguinity. and a relative of the Earl of Mar. being not older than the last purpose of seeing the large wooden cross preserved in it as the handiwork of Peter the Great after he had escaped from a storm on the White Sea. Huguenots. and on which he made the century. whose foundations were laid by a conglomera- effectually political even the strong hand grasp while he was engaged not it proof that. An Anglican church. a Scotchman. learning. erected at the beginning of the present but no century. Nor was the art of war alone that our James Wylie. enterprise. built in 1/84. civil and and regeneration. who accessible port of his new capital. the Russians with such Sir Russia. so undoubtedly abundant. from the oldest extant the Archiepiscopal Palace. by the blending of races. we may instance the United States of America by the immigraastounding tion of multitudes with acquired skill. which. capital that much of the present No greatness of the Russian empire is due.

as the late Mr. accompanied six churches of this fortified monastery that will chiefly interest him. after a long siege. when the holy fathers walked in procession round the walls while the shells were flying over their heads. the Cathedral of the Trans- . by the Patriarch Nicon. the Peter the Great. A large number were executed later. following inscription in Dutch: In Western eyes. and broke into a rebellion that lasted It fell at last by treachery. secure themselves Deeming in 1667 to receive the revised I THE SOLOVETSK MOXASTHRY. of planks and skins. and many of thi monks were put to the sword.' the native point of view.. or sent into exile. churches were rebuilt in stone.' Russia. one of its first abbots. however Archangel is the revered water-gate to one of the holiest places in Russia the famed monastery of Solovetsk. thick. and between 1590 and 1594 the monks enclosed them within in a wall of granite at boulders. It is. nearly three supported twenty to thirty feet high and twenty feet in their stronghold. and further on we come to an obelisk commemorating the harmless attack made on the monastery by the British \YhiteSea squadron in 1855. Built of wood in 1438 and rebuilt of stone in 1558.64 RUSSIAN PICTURES. to which some ten thousand pilgrims are annually conveyed in a steamer commanded and manned by monks. ' Dat cruys makcn Captcm Piter van a C/it. The visitor is first shown the chapel erected over the spot on which liturgy sent nine years. the remainder being kept in awe and submission by three hundred Streltsi. On the sides of the gateway are models of the two small vessels in which they crossed from Archangel. and in to wealth and from the began grow power year About a century later the 1442. the brotherhood refused circumference. landed in 1702. Sabbatheus. by his son Alexis. and intervals thousand feet round and by square towers. under Zosimus. however. It was founded in 1429 by St. Hepworth Dixon said in his Free 1694. ' From the city is a magazine of oats and tar.

one hundred and fifty miles long and chapter. with a belfry 125 feet in The artistic treasures of the monastery. ' as is indeed the whole of the region we have so imperfectly described in this fifty The Lake of Onega. Among the objects of highest value are the sacerdotal vestments. Philip. miles broad. the sword of the Prince alliance with a butcher of Nijni Novgorod.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. . 65 figuration contains the ponderous silver gilt shrines of Saints Sabbatheus and Zosimus. and of military banners bearing the emblem of the cross. lies about half-way between Onega Bay and Lake Ladoga . and an imposing ikonostas. About forty-two miles north-west of and mica. At its southern end the White Sea forms the Bay of Onega. grayling. churches enclosed by the walls were founded severally in 1596 and 1687. silver. buried in this monastery. Only a few Russian travelit has been immortalized in one of in the best is also poems of Derjavin. linen gave the gold reliquary adorned with pearls In contrast with those gorgeous vestments is the plain also who chasuble of Zosimus. reject It is also a place of political exile. equal in Petrozavodsk Falls lers in the \Vaterfall of Finland. have yet although grandeur to the Imatra Sweden. once Civil Governor of Petrozavodsk. and precious stones. Nor are military is museum of otherwise sacred objects. patriots who expelled the Poles from Pojarski.' who the head of which stands Kern. on rich its western shore in is copper. and precious stones contributed by Tsars and nobles. In the vicinity are two chapels (1753) containing the tombs of Germanicus and of other reverend fathers of The Cathedral of the Assumption was consecrated in 1557. the capital of the province of Olonets. are carefully preserved in a special Sacristy. and . Solovetsk was used as a political prison so recently as the reign of Nicholas. local repute. Outside the wall is the eighteenth century. who. and a large collection of ancient Russian and other weapons. is iron Petrozavodsk. at Old Believers. did good same cause. as and seen Trolhatten it. Metropolitan of Moscow. There abundance of bear and other shooting in this neighbourhood. throughout the province of Olonets but few scientific fishermen have as yet taken advantage of its wealth in trout. service in the in who was one of the most active Moscow in 1613. and restored or renovated in the church dedicated (1667) to height. The remaining two and the Church of Nicholas Thaumaturgus in 1590. by Ivan the Terrible. fishermen and seamen in the White Sea. part of the relics of St. and char. a settlement of the been very active as since and who have the innovations of Nicon. put up in 1697. ornamented with pearls of unusual size presented to the monastery in 1550 . Kivatch. Onuphrius the Great. its gold. There trophies forgotten in this the armour of the comrades of of a monk.

THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. until from 1136 they assumed the right of electing or dismissing their prince at a vccJic or witenagemote. way to Moscow a special excursion should be made by rail to Novgorod the Great. MOSCOW. in order to destroy effectually their fifty spirit of independence.' but at last 14/8. before they took their viking ships down the Dnieper to Kief. a central mart of great importance and prosperity. Trade with the Hanseatic towns. r CHAPTER Moscow : V. Kief became the seat of the grand ducal throne of the Scandinavian (subse- ON the quently called Varangian) conquerors. and . For a considerable period the Novgorodians were able to boast that no one could in 'contend against God and the Great Novgorod. 862. removed to 8000 boyars or nobles. and water ' communication with the North and South of Russia. families I'cche of the merchant own together with their Bell. Ivan III. annexed their possessions to the Grand Duchy class of Moscow his . and capital.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A PSALTER OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. the cradle of the Russian empire. It is here that the Northmen under Roric established themselves A. The city once covered an area forty miles in circumference. impelling them to internecine warfare for its possession.D. When. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE SYNOD. the citizens of Novgorod gradually acquired political power and independence.. the founder of Muscovite dominion. soon rendered the Lord Great Novgorod.' as the republic became styled. however. and.



1180). Paul (brought from Khersonesus by St. 1108). Only two of the inscriptions over the 86. and precious stones. of John. facing the altar. More ancient still. Sophia at Constantinople. of Kief. or seat of the Metropolitan. those of St. with two similar pillars at the altar.MOSCOH': THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. which is of century) been preserved in the apse. when even its monasteries and churches were sacked by Ivan the Terrible. The ruin of the city grand completed in 1570. oak. model of the famous St. Thousands of its inhabitants. silver. SOPHIA AT NOVGOROD THE GREAT. and the roof of the cathedral. which is reproduced also at Kief. 1223. is by eight massive quadrangular pillars. and Nikita. Enshrined in silver or bronze are the remains of numerous saints. were thrown into the River Volkhof. Archbishop of Novgorod. dates from 1050). The belfry tower dates from 1439.D. Anne I. old was The glory of the city survives only in its constructed in 1050 by Byzantine artisans after Cathedral the of St. 1030. their son Vladimir 1052). supply the usual form of a Greek cupola supported cross. in 1820 and 1837. The most modern of the saints in . Later additions from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries and complete restorations. and traces painting canonized princes and ecclesiastics of the same kind of (twelfth have above the thronos. consort of Yaroslaf the the A. expired record of deceased Archbishops and Metropolitans of Novgorod is brought down to iSiS from A. and (d. who had contemplated a transfer of their allegiance to the Prince of Lithuania. of Brave 1 1 (d. Sophia. founder of of Mstislaf Cathedral. have not deprived it of the distinguishing features of one of the oldest churches in Russia. are those of Peter and (a Byzantine copy of the eleventh century) and St. which. Vladimir). who but died the 1653.clerical. 1341. daughter of Amongst the most venerated King Olaf of Norway. with its figured Internally cornice is a remnant of the work of the seventeenth the century. and probably of the same age as the cathedral.D. original ikons The ikonostas dates The most ancient in it CATHEDRAL OF ST. is the Byzantine mosaic work behind the altar. princely and . Archbishop of Novgorod (d. most ancient of these are relics (d. In curious fresco the galleries above are representations of . The Sophia St. in countless treasures gold. from St.

is quite equal to that of the door of Zenone at Verona. after the are several other churches within of the walls of the Kremlin. or as the Grand Duchy of Moscow. respectively 1178 At the western or principal entrance to the cathedral are the exceptionally fine and interesting Korsnn (Khersonesus) doors. the head of a man in German dress. in the form of principalities.D. with tongs and a pair of scales in his hands. Sv ' ' AN OLD CHURCH AT NOVGOROD. by which those principalities were absorbed whether and ultimately welded at St. The life-size . numerous tombs of Novgorodian princes are now legible. has in existed since close which III. Petersburg into an empire. They overlaid with bronze plates. that their Byzantine origin has long been disproved. still so called. bearing fifty-four inscriptions in Latin and Slavonic. or the fifteenth of like Novgorod the tall One tower the city them by. century. offices are within same place of wooden is erected Rebuilt in in in 1490 by an 1 Italian architect. palace built in and the government stone A. Close the cathedral renovated by Peter the Great the splendid bronze monument erected 1862 to commemorate the thousandth anniversary of the existence of Russia. archiepiscopal A. independent or confederated. to in of by Ivan the walls The walls. a Magdeburg production of the twelfth century. resided subjugation 1302. they were 700. which St. is alone sufficient attestation of the German and Roman Slavonic Catholic character of the work.7 RUSSIAN PICTURES. There Acropolis. They are dated and 1218.D. the Governor which were 1104. although the notwithstanding are of wood fecit over The legend Rigvin me explanations were probably added later.

ifr^Tlriii^tor ffl if-. . about fourteen miles from a station . we must confine ourselves to a short mention of the famous situated New Jerusalem not far railway from Moscow. figures on the history. '- "^ '^\ VS . It was founded in 1657 by the Patriarch Nicon. monument are emblematical of these several periods of Russian But our object is to reach Moscow. jtt THE MONUMENT A'l NuVUuKuI) Ll'MMI. who caused the neighbouring accidents of country to be named after various sacred sites monastery. . and much as we should wish to say something of the other ancient towns that lie between the two capitals.MOKATING THE THOUSANDTH^ANNIVERSARY OF THE EMPIRE.. h rni~ ' .MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL...

. yet internally it remains more like the edifice in which the Crusaders worshipped at Jerusalem than is that church itself since its destruction by fire. laid down his crozier. in brook was made was converted into the Jordan. with the gift of the Holy Ghost to work cures. in a dream. In spite of Nicon's protest that he was still a Patriarch. a river to represent the title equal in dignity in to that of the Tsar. relying on the speedy repentance of the sovereign. and remained in that condition until 1749. and replaced the primate his retreat at the even in the high Moscow on an THE PATRIARCH NICOX. he publicly threw off his pontifical sakkos and mitre. arrayed once more in his pontifical robes. of ritual. analogy Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. As a mark dissatisfac- the Tsar absented himself from the cathe. The monastery of the New Jerusalem was thus left uncompleted. he A council alleged. and in the pictorial representations of in matters Byzantine purity His arrogance became so great that he exercised jurisdiction sacred subjects. Nicon a model of the more the render to order procured complete. while a small chapel built on a mound was called Eleon. although unwillingly. when orders for its restoration were given by the Empress Elizabeth. in civil as well as ecclesiastical matters. an artificial Kedron. attiring himself in the habit of a monk. devoting to the attacked he had previously with which clergy for their intemperance and He also endeavoured to restore the Russian Church to other irregularities.. six years Nicon was a recluse at but in 1664 his worldly ambition reasserted itself. New and the Tsar was induced. . of the Eastern patriarchs convoked at Moscow disposed of his pretensions.RUSSIAN PICTURES. and. to banish him to a monastery in the province of Novgorod. dral on one of the great festivals of the Church but Nicon was far from being daunted. withdrew to New Jerusalem. tion. of whom he fearlessly sermonised the patriarchal cathedral. a Metropolitan was temporarily invested with the patriarchate. and it was not finished and consecrated until some years later. self. the principal tent-like cupola collapsed. for example. ceremony of riding through led by the Tsar him- For to typify Christ's entry into Jerusalem. Although the of the church was in these circumstances somewhat original plan departed from. in 1658. a village close by was dignified In with Nazareth. In 1/23. and he Jerusalem made his appearance suddenly in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Moscow. having been ordered. and began. ass. his former friend. to erect an all it his wealth and all the energy exactly similar structure. to resume his seat on the patriarchal throne. and. and in public documents assumed a Palestine .

and in its 73 renovation in 1812. London. . arrangements Chapel of Melchizedek. further complicated by the aspect addition of of chapels by. 1869. a traveller who has seen the original can THE CHURCH IN THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. close to the corre)ur illustrations sponding spot in the actual church of the Holy Sepulchre where lie the Over his tomb hangs the iron plate remains of Godfrey of Bouillon. at the foot of the Golgotha.' ( show the present outward form and the internal Nicon is buried in the of this highly remarkable structure. or in honour of. the various members of the But internally it is so imperial family in after times. find his way without 1 difficulty through every corridor and stair and corner of the copy. which. as penance.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. with a brass cross. beyond Jerusalem. has the an ordinary successive Russian cathedral. intricate built probably any other in the world. that. late We cannot : describe ' it more graphically than it the words of the Dean Stanley still Externally. he wore on his breast. down to our own day. suspended from 1 Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. and of the same form dimensions as the church at the actual precisely as the arrangements of that church are.

We once struck by the busy 1 more or irregular streets.' and ecclesiastical life. which is in an upper gallery. OF THE ORIGINAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY by Mary Magdalene. is lowered by means of long strips of linen from the Golgotha Chapel. and in which he wrote his Chronicle of the Church of Jerusalem. and after being laid on a bier in front of the altar screen. Pilgrims come in vast numbers to the monastery. or hermitage. The body of our Saviour. Much interest also attaches to the skiit. and sheepskin coat. a four-storied tower from which Nicon watched the building of the church. and many other interesting objects. is anointed with ointment supposed to be identical with that used PLAN OF THE CHURCH IN THE NEW JERUSALEM AN EXACT COPY SEPULCHRE. shoes. Large numbers of them were decapitated by the orders and under the superintendence of Peter. Endearing epithets applied to the city by the Russian people. ' Moscow all the is white-walled. his portrait. his neck by a heavy iron chain. In the sacristy are kept his hat.74 PICTURES. and finally freed Peter the Great from those illdisciplined and even mutinous bands. the original supply of which has been maintained by the continuous admixture of analogous ingredients. This is the Descent from the Cross. which is preceded on Good Friday by a ceremony that is not performed anywhere else in Russia. . embroidered on a cloth. to assist at the Easter Eve service of the Russo-Greek Church. the original wooden model of the church of the Holy Sepulchre. In 1698 General Patrick Gordon defeated the rebellious Streltsi in the vicinity of the monastery.' truly 1 are in the are political centre the of that less Russian. On we ' reaching at Our holy mother Moscow.

larger a of The Slavianski Bazar. not our object to describe hotels and the details of travelling in Nevertheless. Petersburg. which to cover a cloth coats shirt pretend long of dazzling red silk. The old drojki has a sort of knife-board on four wheels its tattered and grimy with disappeared. STRELTSI OF A LATER DATE. the other standing at variety of raw produce his shop door. and a small round hat gaily adorned with peacocks' feathers. will served shirts waiters in white Restaurant. that is to say. and the accommodation now obtainable in all the and also to its relative cheapness. We are received by to which we are bound. and the Hermidepreciated paper rouble. seen only at the neck.ATOSCOll': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. together In their stead driver. and the ill-filled that respect different St. porters in national dress. in these days Russia. are well-appointed car- riages and swift proliotkis (a miniature victoria) which rattle us over the long cobble-paved streets that lie between the Nicholas Railway Station and the Slavianski Bazaar or Hotel. as in 75 crowded in in summer so as well winter with vehicles and pedestrians. THE STRELTSI OF 1613. GENERAL 1'ATRICK GORDON. cloth-clad here in their aboriginal from condition looking the one driving long teams of roughwaggons or sleighs. laden with every . and inviting passers-by to enter and view his goods. tall It is Russia. and trousers. high boots of polished leather. (trader) : The are kitpcts thoroughfares and squares of sheep-skinned innjik (peasant) and the wily. the value of which he still totals up on a Tartar abacus. tage by even the luxury of cities of . we cannot omit a passing reference to the comfort OFFICERS OF THE STRELTSI.

which latter encountered a rival in Riazan and it was only towards the middle of the fourteenth century that the Grand Duchy of Moscow became paramount. towards the end of the the seat of a principality (or Grand Duchy) under Daniel. the Russian was succeeded by principalities. under Ivan I. with many fine churches the younger son of . and gave to the space they enclosed the Tartar name of krcmlin. when a and 1547. after failing in an attempt to negotiate October he left Moscow with an army consisting of 120. its governor. led by Prince Murat. after the sack of the city in 1382. Moscow had regained the and monasteries position of a flourishing capital. Their advanced guard.76 RUSSIAN PICTURES. notwithstanding great and the assault of the Crimean Tartars in 1572. devastated on that occasion the southern and central parts of what we now call Russia. of the and Grande of the small remnant Armte.000 men.000 of its the reduced considerable part city of these continued to fires in inhabitants perished in the flames or by the sword. Alexander Nevski. or fortress. the grand- A son of Chingiz Khan. a peace. who. in order to clear it of the invading legions under Napoleon. consisting of Polish and Prussian lancers. Moscow became. and strengthened by a moat in 1394. and we left Moscow. 1536 of was to ashes. the remnant of the host of nearly half a What became of this million with which he had crossed the Niemen. sketch of the history of Moscow must precede any description of its Chronicles record its existence as early as 1147. and pre-eminence amongst the city of Vladimir. . when the Tartars left no building standing that was not constructed of brick or stone. 1367. and for three days the flames raged with terrific fierceness. who was the progenitor of the Kief had in 1158 lost its subsequently mighty race of Muscovite princes. took possession of the Kremlin on the i4th of population we come had ceased to solemn entry next day. when the Poles took possession of the city. They were replaced in masonry A. with a horde of three hundred thousand men. and Napoleon made the moment chosen for setting the . and 100. a century later it was burnt down by the Tartars under Baati. and by the plague. city. It was he who built her first wooden walls. About principal buildings. By the early part of the fifteenth century.I>. This was city on fire. plunder with which it second chapter. 1 9th with S5Q pieces of cannon. when the ancient city be the capital in 1771) was fired by the orders of (which Count Rostopchin. and the number grow. On the September. Rising from 7 . which to in 1771 greatly reduced the the great tragedy of 1812. thirteenth century its ashes. 1812. Napoleon withdrew to the Petrofski but returned to the Kremlin on the 2oth of the outskirts on the Palace. Passing over other disasters by fire in 1611. favourable comparison with bear any other corresponding establishments in Western Europe. has already been mentioned in the French occupation disastrous of of some the incidents the refer to can only his September.

MtjSCUW. the centre. in 77 our description of the churches and other buildings connected with its history. Encircling these adjoins it. a its THE KREMLIN. . together with the wallecl Kitai Gorod (Chinese Town). and. Black or taxable is the White City.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. Spread over a circumference of twenty-five miles. anciently exempt from taxation. which the heart of the city and its chief attraction. Moscow has now The Kremlin stands exactly in population of three-quarters of a million. is part of the population having been located in the Earthen City beyond.

named the Assumption. however. on the east face of the Kremlin. its 1733 huge and other which the treasures the of ladies Moscow jewels composition by streets . given to it the character of a Porta Sacra. two years after Gordon's victory over them. stands on a granite pedestal at the foot of the tower. and the season that of summer. The Kremlin fortifications. The tower over it was constructed in 1626 by an English clockmaker in a style (Gothic) discordant with the Italian battlements. weighs sixty-four tons. and which has since been converted into boulevards. monasteries and convents. which is three hundred and twenty-five feet to the top of the cross on its gilt cupola. They are 7280 feet in circumference. a out of the metal of ancient but in weakened in bell. whether walking or driving. bared heads. Our attention is next directed to the bells. or Ivan. thus named after approach the renowned tower its architect Under the guidance of one of (in 1590) John. and are pierced by five gates. our eyes Church were made to pay toll it with are dazzled by the glitter of the gilded or star-bespangled spires and domes that surround us on every side. chapels. the principal of which is the Redeemer Gate. Peter the Great. therefore. flows the river which standing its humble origin in one of the morasses of the neighbouring province of Smolensk. Viliers. we Passing through or belfry of Ivan the Great. who executed rigorously enforced. and not even the it without conforming to the old custom. The King of Cast Bells. and is. for which the tower is as famous as for its great height. the numerous cicerone who infest the basement. also made use of the gate as a point at which dissenters from the Orthodox emperor can pass through if they wished to preserve their beards. called so from the wall of earth which formerly surrounded it. and tell of the existence of nearly four hundred churches. five times as heavy as the celebrated bell of Erfurt. If the day be clear. and the eye ranges over a vast expanse of coloured house-tops. notwithtiles. 1812. The largest of these. we ascend by some four hundred and fifty steps to the highest of the five stories of which it is composed. more or less embedded in trees. and which was brought from Smolensk in has 1647. rebuilt in 1367. were replaced between 1485 and 1492 by the high and stout battlemented walls and towers we now see. with their quaint towers of glazed green has given its name to the great city. trace the main We and ancient circumvallations. Close under the southern front of the Kremlin walls. when Napoleon and his marshals surveyed the city from it. uncovering the Streltsi in front of it. and four times heavier than that of It was re-cast after the partial destruction of the tower in Rouen.7S RUSSIAN PICTURES. and proceed to enjoy one of the* most striking and unique views in Europe. but which have been much restored and extended since they left the hands of the Italian architects by whom they were designed. once of the head. A much venerated ikon of the Redeemer arch over the of the placed gate.

MOSCOU': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. by Another monster of which the Muscovites ON THE BELFRY : THE IVAN VELIKI TOWER. the Vir- gin Mary. of the the broken piece. alone eleven minus h s The weight bell. maximum two thickness The Tsar feet. circumference - sixty seven feet eleven and its inches. and which weig tons. all surrounded cherubim. nearly two hundred tons. . the large piece (seven that feet high) now rests against the pedestal. its is height twenty-six feet its four inches. 79 had the thrown liquid into metal with tent. side in by the it falling of upon heavy some rafters. Alexis and it the Empress Anne appear upon in on the are t i relief figures. and scroll below o n representas of the Saviour. a pious inTsar the lost i Kolokol of its out 737. and the Evangelists.

halls the gallery at the top of the noble staircase that leads to those apartDimitri. These suffered destruction at the hands of Tartars and Poles. and were not unin frequently destroyed the many accidental con- flagrations to Kremlin jected. a palace built by Cathe- rine II. II. while its the shining white walls are inscribed in letters of gold the names individuals of all ranks and of the regiments decorated with the bravery or 1769. than fifty-eight height is no less order. A THE GREAT BELL. on the banks of the Don. in 1849. from the earliest times. guards the corner of the arsenal. the great beauty and grandeur of the state apartments within render the Bolshoi Dvorets a residence fully befitting the mighty Autocrat of All the Russias. hundred feet. which was founded by Catherine in is bestowed only for distinguished acts of . has which the been sub- The present which the French edifice replaced. Prince of Moscow. imposing in aspect. On of the by sixty-eight feet. weighing forty tons. Palace. is seen defeating the Tartars at Kulikova. and later The Great of brick. originally of wood. a cannon of enormous It size. burned down had a f t e r Napoleon terior. age or in style. cast in 1586. the Moscow princes and tsars built their habitations. The first of the series of magnificent in is dedicated feet to the military order of St. in 1380. Incongruous as is its exodd from the various mixture of periods and forms of architecture which it exhibits. is unfortunately not ancient in It stands on the spot upon which.8o RUSSIAN PICTURES. left it. the entire front of which is decorated with cannon taken during the retreat are of the French. It measures two George. proud is the Tsar Pushka of the Kremlin. great episode is in Russian trated history illus- on an immense canvas ments. and success in the field.

the chapels. seven recesses and seats along the walls. setting perforce the Picture Gallery. to this in character the Tsaritsas of Moscow received the boyars. and foreign ambassadors on great occasions. and a host of At the private apartments. From the THE GREAT PALACE. a large square building. however.Af OS CO IV: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. with its fronts cut G . or Gold Hall. and which are taken to represent the seven councils. end of a gallery. the early part is the Zolotaya Palata. but restored in the style of the in seventeenth century the reigns of Paul I. leave the modern and magnificent for the antique and of the aside the Winter Garden. In the Granovitaya Palata. the clergy. and Nicholas I. 81 must. it is supposed to have been an audience chamber of the but it is on record that in a chamber similar patriarchs and metropolitans . elating probably from of the fifteenth century. MOSCOW. interesting parts palace. into which open rooms allotted to maids of honour of the We more imperial court.

on lifting the drapery at the back. It is in fine gold filagree work. and the two upper ones were added in 1636. and other regalia. A good specimen of Moscow four rubies. (1682). the middle of the sixteenth century is seen in the Crown of Kazan. Its high arches rest on a central pillar. The rooms are all very small. a Tartar Khan. to Ivan the Boris Godunof. The most ancient of the thrones is that of the last Christian Emperor of Con1472 by Sophia Palaeologus on her stantinople. bestowed by Ivan the Terrible. a sapphire and a ruby all of large size spring from extremity. belonged. an aperture is seen through which Sophia. upon Simeon. after he had conquered the Tartar kingdom of Kazan. Among the crowns we single out the jewelled cap of Vladimir Monomachus. the superior clergy. Its two lower stories were built in the early part of the sixteenth century. brought to Moscow in Its ivory is beautifully carved with representations marriage with Ivan III. their sister. in token of the ancient descent of their Peter I. and dines with the sovereigns and princes. Three thrones of studded with Persian workmanship. we find chamber built by Italian architects for the Tsar of Moscow in 1491. The Round Room is full of thrones. The ornaments and the and elevated to the dignity of a vassal Tsar. and twenty-five pearls of Ormuz. and elegant gold arabesques of a work of . prompted Ivan. around which is stacked the imperial plate when an emperor is crowned. Most Terrible. Germany coronation of Ivan and Peter as the joint successors of Theodore III. whom he converted to Christianity. is the double of throne vermeil in made for the curious. crowns. Here on the richly gilt throne of silver the monarch sits in his coronation robes. the nobles. Attached to the palace is the ancient (restored) building called the Terem. rubies. resting on a broad border of dark and surmounted by a plain cross terminating in large pearls at each A topaz. fill the first two rooms. Ancient armour and weapons. and Alexis. of the labours of Orpheus and the legend of Thrace. and pearls. which forms the right wing of the palace. the entire decorations are Oriental. while upon the cap itself are four emeralds. who was both mentally and physically incapable of governing.. severally. and who in 1689 resigned his share of the government to into facets. sable. originally twelfth-century work. however. The Earl of Carlisle was received in it in 1664. diamonds. German and Russian. vast power. is the depository of a vast number of historical objects and of treasures hereditary in the reigning house. which all the Emperors of Russia have assumed at their coronation. a true restoration of an audience then only seventeen years of age. turquoises. and which we cannot avoid observing from the palace yard.82 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and the diplomatic personages who have taken part in the great ceremony. the dome of the cap on gold stems. The Treasury. and yet it was in the Tercm that the first Romanoff sovereigns gave audience to foreign ambassadors. who had been charged by the Streltsi with the control of State affairs.

In a good Queen join. in magniVladimir by reality made for Ivan eighty-nine two baniu. than nine hundred the in addition numerous rubies and are to in fixed on pliant stems. beautiful art. together with eight horses. Many topaz. adorn is it. and the unicorn. cannot the fifteenth century. a The furthest room is museum of gold and THE CROWN OK MONOMACHUS. symbolical figures of Bythe eagle. for its large jewels to I. the one reputed to have been sent especially Basilius and Constantine. or collars. both of Byzantine workmanship.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. mostly of the seventeenth century. to the Tsar Boris Godunof.D. It is studded with fifty-eight diamonds. rubies. the : the griffin. generally classed as Russo-Byzantine. a strip silk. and cap. and with only a few objects of the fourteenth and fifteenth separate case are some Stuart specimens of English work.' Moscow abounds in churches. ' We very early phase of the great Eastern Question. besides a great number of emeralds and pearls. silversmiths' work. made A no diamond cross fewer to from immense uncut ruby on diamonds adorn the body of emeralds ficence. presented to the Tsar of Moscow by the sovereigns. summit. part of the regalia of the Russian sovereigns up to the time of Peter I. Its panels are ornamented with allegorical allusions to a crusade the Tsar had proposed to make against the Turks. and we must preface our description of the more notable cathedrals with a few observations on the origin of the architectural features of those edifices.. Next Peter it the tiara-shaped crown. Some of the orbs of great St. Among the old state carriages preserved in a room below is a coach which Queen Elizabeth sent. in the of most style Greek of at- The to plaques coloured enamel. and divided by the four principal zantium lion. G 2 . tached of brocaded the the are represent episodes in life of David. and the rises top is surmounted by an enormous cap of maintenance. but Emperors the III. A. decidedly or the Persian character. 988. but in which thus see in this relic the record of a Bess refused to centuries. The They are escape notice.

a careful study of the Russian churches style of construction. ordinary interest.84 RUSSIAN PICTURES. essentially Italian. and brightness being features previously unknown in Its five domes. and that the Italian architects called in by Ivan III. who. as Dean Stanley correctly dimensions what in the West would be called a chapel architecture. when the original edifice of 1333 was rebuilt by a Milanese architect. in their architectural details they are Italian rather than in characteristic their apses. Nevertheless. or Cathedral of the Assumption. For this offence he was dragged from the altar at which he was in the cathedral is and ultimately put to death. Nevertheless.' a wonderful It was considered was built in structure. Metropolitan of Moscow an of more than 1566-1569. The after 1812. They are supported internally by pillars covered with frescoes on a gold ground. were covered with copper-gilt plates only in 1684. adapted their work in accordance with it. built between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries will show that non-existent in Byzantium. dates from 1509. Moscow included. in the centre of the the most venerated pile in Russia. with a later combination of the Polish. since its sovereigns continue to be 1479 on new foundations by an Italian architect named Fioraventi. of wood. separated from the Assumption by a small paved square. similar to that of the Grim representations of martyrs moderate the glitter that would walls. including the central cupola. for it is that of a object prelate who had the courage to rebuke Ivan the Terrible publicly for his atrocities. according to Russian chronicles. the silver shrine of Philip. Among the many tombs in observed. the older at subsequently that we examine closely Proper still extant. succumbed to the Oriental taste of brick buildings began to the Russians. otherwise have given more light to the interior. national is size. features of the latter style surviving only Byzantine. the the outlines of The Uspenski Kremlin crowned in it Sober. Indeed. whether type in be built Central Russia. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael. it rather than a cathedral. As a matter in the material or the in all no churches of the early Christian age survive in Russia It is even doubtful integrity of their original forms. gained the prefix of Aristotle 'on account of his cunning. under the influence of Georgian as well as Persian forms. of fact. Byzantine influence was already very feeble. If of tent or cone-shaped pinnacles. which at the same time lent itself more easily to the its construction stone. height. especially officiating. Their Russian disciples varied again that style according to their own taste. It has been restored several times. the . and created a special type of ecclesiastical architecture in a mingled Italian and Persian style. when the French used it as a storehouse. its grandeur. ancient churches of a Byzantine An abundance of timber caused them to purity ever existed. we shall ecclesiastical architecture reproduced in of Russia or arrive the conclusion when stone predominate over constructions in timber (in the fifteenth century).

A essential and spices are added to great variety of gums. made but the richest another room. ornaments and vessels. the most ancient belonged to the Patriarch Job (1595). assisted by his higher clergy. it is in and called the mother-of-pearl. manship. The only emperor buried in it is Peter II. In the old residence overlaid Alabastron. and causes it to be distributed among the bishops oils of the several dioceses. against each sepulture. emeralds. is numerous glass cases in . the necessary quantity of oil and white wine. or dalmatic. of the Metropolitan Peter. and Russian The Metropolitan of Moscow. Maskell's Russian Art. interior is 85 extremely interesting. No fewer than forty-seven princes of those families repose in the tombs that literally Frescoes on the walls. the most interesting of the latter being a long-necked vase. covered Of the seven mitres. . in being The most then hallowed by a drop or two of venerable of the robes that hang the sakkos. record their altar lies Ivan the Terrible.' out of four that belonged to Nicon. having been perfectly restored to its ancient appearance of a mausoleum of the Rurik and Romanoff dynasties from Ivan I. one is that of the Metropolitan Dionysius 1322 an expiatory gift of with rubies. is diadem-shaped. and diamonds (1583). or all the many cinquecento panagias. is a large and curious collection of ecclesiastical vestments. already quoted. ' ' few drops only are annually used in the preparation of the sacred oil with which orthodox children are anointed at their baptism. restored after a fire in 1547.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and other precious ornaments of fine workmanship which the sacristy of the Patriarchs offers to We our view. the monastic vow nil the cathedral. cloisonne gold. rebuilt in 1489. part of the Synodal Buildings within the Kremlin. The 'great mitre. belief that it having been who also covered the nine domes with of gold. to denote that he died a monk. 1 1 They are well described in Mr. the Patriarchs. emperors consecrated at their coronation. Close by is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. prepares a new supply of the mir every two or three years at the season of Lent. His tomb is covered with a black pall. with whom the male line of the Romanoffs became extinct in 1/30. ami cannot stay to point out studded with precious stones of great value. under the mistaken could save his erring soul. in Ivan the Terrible after the murder of his son. Many of the ikons within it were acquired at the sacking of Novgorod the Great by Ivan IV.. portable pyxes. names and features. to Peter the Great. Notwithstanding its Persian form and distinctly Russian workheld to be the original receptacle of the chrism obtained from with Constantinople porting to A on the introduction of Christianity into Russia. balsams. and thoroughly renovated in 1867. the entire compound the contents of the Alabastron. and purhave been a portion of the ointment used by Mary Magdalene.. Next the his numerous offences against administered to him on his death-bed. notwithstanding O the canons of the Church.

Much churches stand side treasure of a similar kind is preserved in the sacristies of the that within the side by at Chudof Monastery and the Ascension Convent. MOSCOW. BASIL. where we 1 CATHEDRAL OF ST.86 Xl/SS/JV PICTURES. by which we issue from in the Kremlin. Our of ' it Theophile Gautier It is description given of the edifice by without doubt the most original monument in the justifies the . We are now the great Red (or beautiful) Square. the Redeemer Gate. are at once struck by the eccentric appearance of the Cathedral of illustration : St. Basil the Beatified.

Intercession of the Holy Virgin. or In looking at this impossible church. one is tempted to a whimsical will-o'-the-wisp. and the edifice. were not carried out. testant reader must bear in mind that idiocy is a form of mendicancy very common in Russia. by an Italian whose eyes were certainly not put out. after conquering Kazan. it in its strict accordance with ancient 1812. ask if it is Hindoo. 1555. and ordered 'that drawings.- THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.' of cast iron of ' ' labyrinth of passages. and danger of the French occupation of Moscow. such as it is after subsequent alterations. 87 nothing that one has ever seen. although the edifice suffered to the extent of being robbed and in the confusion used as a design. Chinese. the great cupolas of Basil the in fire that devastated the Kitai Gorod destroyed all Beatified. chapels were added to it. stable. It was commemoration of the additional acquisition architect whose name remains unknown. when it became known by its present name. Again. and the innate compassionate feelings of the people are . In one of the lower from the heavy iron head-piece on which he was wont to carry buckets of The Prowater as an exercise of charity.D. a crystallised style.MOSCOW'. an edifice formed of clouds It might be taken for a fantastically coloured by the sun. prototype nor similitude. of Astrakhan. built on this site (anciently a cemetery in which was buried Basil. the tutelary saint. It has as now eleven domes. a for Christ's sake'). Napoleon.' who acquired also the epithet of Big-cap. 1668. In another renovated in in 1784. It was pillaged and defiled by the Poles early in the seventeenth century. reposes emblems his venerated of costly shrine little in harmony with the equally and crosses which he wore for austerity. each separate places different in colour and surmounting many of worship.' Ivan the Terrible. chapels eighteen destroyed Restored seven years later. a stalactite grotto turned upside down world . idiotic taken from the Tartars. not Thibetan pagoda. and in 1626 a fire which broke out in the dome of one of its chapels spread over the whole of Moscow. side should not produce another structure of equal merit. the 1737 great conflagration and all the vessels and domes with its the church. Fortunately for later visitors not of iconoclastic temperament. but was not completed until the end of the sixteenth century. and again thoroughly and treasures within it. his orders. connected by a in a chapels Basil. in order that he Seven years later. as legends assert. found in present form. and belongs to no known One would imagine it to be a gigantic madresore. which the movement of the air will presently cause to change in form. it recalls . in the form of heavy iron chains is famed for the relics and the Another penitential weights chapel penance. Ivan the Idiot. this curio disappeared in 1812. or vanish into nothingness. with the treasure he had ' wooden church dedicated rebuilt in to in the stone A. a prophet and miracle-worker. Mosque' to be destroyed. a thing which has neither colossus.

feature these is the A the Red Square will be replaced by a building more and of of the the in monument front of erected site. as well as from the planting of trees in squares and boulevards. recent years from a style of from the imits provement of pal streets. in which ladies improvements can do their shopping without discomfort either in the heat of summer or the excessive cold of winter. we must not fail to mention the al fresco mart . in striking erection of arcades or passages. accounts given by previous travellers as to the great number of mendicant men and women. princi- which are now better kept and lighted. worthy (1818) in memory of Minin and Pojarski. monks and nuns to be seen in the streets of the city. The and 1 thoroughfares in about the Kitai are scarcely re- Gorod if** cognisable by one who has not seen Moscow for A PEASANT COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CHURCH OR MONASTERY. it. it. be admitted by any recent visitor to Moscow that the must. which is certainly betterdressed and more European-looking than even fifteen years ago. Also.88 RUSSIAN PICTURES. however. perhaps more painful. in the porches of its churches and chapels. Moslike cow has gained much in more imposing building. consists in the exhibition of sores resulting from accidents by and It it is not unusual even to see beggars going about barefooted in winter. is no same observation The may be made with regard to the appearance of the civic population. and the old Gostinnoi A some length of time. most othercities and towns in Russia. appeal to charity fire. longer correct. much moved by Another common. couple of years more. and at the neighbouring monasteries. the butcher and the boyar who drove the Poles out of Moscow in 1612. Dvor (Great Bazaar) on Apropos of markets.

in odour as well as in appearance. . whether THE OLD CLOTHES MARKET. MOSCOW.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. of which we give an illustration. 89 ~ ' - ' - under the walls of the Kitai Gorod. and the rawest material of Mussuffices to covy sented in it. The assemblage is of a decidedly uninviting character. is well repre- It view the of sale animated scene and purchase in every possible description of merchandise.

The between to the its adjoining gate is the principal entrance into the Kitai Gorod. objects illustrating the Helleno-Scythian period. in the shape of mammoth tusks. and the miraculous powers is so great that a very large sum is from the donations of worshippers. stone arrowheads and tools. this huge edifice of red brick is a the human species in what is now Russia museum is in which the in course by specimens of workmanship. three apartments are relics of the Stone and Bronze Ages. honestly or otherwise acquired. in Varvarka Street. and models of interments in the South Russia. rich and poor. and from its attendance at the weddings of the affluent.' or hideous idols details which will not bear reproduction here. shudder at the ghastly frescoed representations of an interment at Bulgar on the Volga. Savage man is seen on a and stones sticks a mammoth taken in huge fresco. at a respectful distance. existence. and at frequent ceremonies of blessing a new Emperor always stops to pray before its popular belief in annually realised house or public edifice. here deposited. of being &c. and two arches we find the Iverskaya Chasovnia. ravaged by fire.90 RUSSIAN PICTURES. from A room decorated with age down to modern and ornamented in a style of coeval In the first represents each such epoch. are in two rooms full of early Slavonic When completed. and typical of Russian ecclesiastical art down to A. whose in ikon. horses and dogs are being slaughtered preparatory to the burning of the boat and its contents. was brought from in Mount Athos 1648. this unique and comprehensive museum will rival objects. ' Ekaterinoslaf. Basil. busy throng. and sacked by the French. worrying The next room brings us to the end of the Bronze Age. in fame and interest the Kremlin and all thereunto belonging. A chief lies dead in a boat. art. . Another secular building of high interest is the Romanoff House. the it ere he enters the Kremlin. and from the visits paid by the ikon to the houses of the sick. found in great numbers in the province of of stone in human form. with The Babi..IX 1125. within the Kitai Gorod. Christian not later than the tenth century. and his wives. One of the most remarkable of the modern buildings in Moscow stands at the end of the square opposite the Cathedral of St. the frescoes. so far as it can be denned. earliest arms. it was rebuilt in 1859 in the style of noble Muscovite dwelling-houses of the . This is the most venerated image Moscow. Sophia Kief and from those of other Russian churches. frescoes found in catacombs. Some of its stone walls are alone of undoubted antiquity but. mounds that are found scattered over to death with Early Arab geographers give graphic accounts of those sacrificial rites. implements. and we a pit-fall. represent After this come monuments at of religion in the Iron Age of Russia. at the various epochs of man's times. or chapel dedicated Iberian Mother of God. with copies of contemporaneous the state Frescoes copied from the walls of St. Indian and Persian in history of illustrated design. on the outskirts of the surging.

was born on this spot. a is in form of west surmounted by a vane the griffin. and offices. and The turret on the affording a charming view of the city from its windows. with adorned with rich wood. Above is the THE ROMANOFF HOUSE. bearing the offensive and defensive weapons of the Romanoff coat-of-arms a short sword and a shield. in which priests offered their congratulations on great Church holidays. and a small study. consist of a vestibule. As Granovitaya Palata. being on record that Michael. sixteenth century. in a house of the same kind. whose huge gilt dome (ninety-eight feet and attendant belfry-cupolas shine pre-eminently over Moscow. carvings built in of wood. and the household assisted at matins and vespers. it boyar's apartments. An oratory. a nursery. kitchen. We in diameter) in it Founded commemorate the deliverance of the city from the French. and we Temple of the Saviour. was . and a large room called the Chamber of the Cross. the first Tsar of the The present dynasty. a room for female servants. 1839. which has also plate many secret recesses for the concealment of treasures. or banqueting hall of the palace. in which are shown two brass ink-bottles like those used in the in the was exhibited days of Chaucer. the family on great occasions in this apartment. The principal exhausted.AfOSCOJf: THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. and including reception-room the bed-chamber. complete the arrangements of this storey. Tcrcm. a panelled stamped leather. to sights of the Kremlin and the Kitai Gorod are now are attracted towards the grand go farther a-field. above the cellars.

the tower. introduced in 1829 from a source twelve miles distant. completed only in 1883. haul reliefs and other ornaments notwithstanding. and within recent years perfected by the appli- Farquharson. and the surrounding galleries the quarter-deck. not the only as a but as an conspicuous object. representing the mast. quarried near Moscow. at a cost of two millions sterling. and after serving as the location of a naval school. . has played no unimportant part in the cation development of the Russian empire.RUSSIAN PICTURES. Lombardic and Gothic and two hundred and feet high. highly-polished Labrador' marble. to a Scotchman named building has been used as a pressure tower or reservoir in connection with a supply of water. is magnificent and elegant The ' beyond all description. Being of white sandstone. thirteen were meant to resemble the bow and the stern the extremities Structural accretion has destroyed all trace of a contemporaneous flag-ship. like the military and naval enterprise of our countrymen in more ancient days. created. supported by thirty-six marble columns.' is the inscription over the on native material and labour. of such resemblances. in a mixed style. the direction of which was entrusted by Peter I. spent exclusively God with us. entrance to the principal portico. the main of British capital. brings into relief the gold with which the walls and pillars are abundantly de- corated. while THE SUKHAREF TOWER. he caused this structure to be built in the form tall of a vessel. dark. which. the stone from which Moscow derives one of her most endearing popular appellations. his enthusiasm for matters. edifice with which. Outside have now Tower precincts we visited. the activity is connected the ancient empire naval he moved by capital of the In 1695. of Peter the Great in almost exceptionally. it is as dazzling in summer as the sheen ' of the dome and bare-looking the interior of the casket the four cupolas that surmount this otherwise inelegant and But block. the Sukharef claims our attention.

recorded . but it is almost superfluous to being say that a host of other buildings and institutions of high interest must remain un. I'oKROFSKI VILLAGE. NICHOLAS. she being represented in ancient Greek pictures with her feet resting on a crescent. The superposition of the cross on a crescent so often seen on Russian cupolas is not emblematical of triumph over Mohammedanism. CATHEDRAL. Danilofski. CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY AT UMAILOF. and Simonof monasteries delightful views of Moscow and its multitudinous cupolas are obtained their churches and sacristies being also well worthy of inspection. the mother of our Lord. 1 FOUR CHARACTERISTIC RUSSIAN CUPOLAS. in our pages. CHURCH OF THE VIRGIN OF KAZAN. NEAR MOSCOW. MOSCOW. for the device was used ages before the expulsion of the Tartars from Russia. CHURCH OF ST.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. AT MOSCOW. NEAR MOSCOW. From the Donskoi. 1 . and the cross. There 93 are monasteries in numbers all about Moscow well worthy of if not described mentioned. It typifies the connection between Mary.

The well-known Sparrow Hills afford. a village about six miles from the centre of the city. on Tsars in the . ancient seat of the St. however.RUSSIAN PICTURES. on a glorious northern summer's day.Kursk Railway. is an ancient domain of the Romanoff family. which we reach towards the hour of sunset. of which. Grandsire of the Kolomenskoe. we can well realise the feelings of the French invaders when they caught sight of the Kremlin walls and the glistening domes before us. RUSSIAN PEASANTS NEAR KUNTSEVO. which Napoleon first beheld from their summit. In the seventeenth century the Tsars had a well-stocked menagerie as well as an aviary at this residence. however. Izmailovo. and it was here also that he discovered Russian Navy. and was occupied by Napoleon after the Kremlin had become too hot for him. In the palace. Moscow ' ! Moscow and ' ! Another favourite trip by carriage or tramway is to the Petrofski Park Palace. rebuilt in 1679. nothing remains except the church. Peter the Great studied the art of war. the is another Petersburg. the finest view of the ancient capital.' a boat now preserved at in a shed the ' Moscow. It was built between 1775 and 1800. Standing on this slight elevation of the left bank of the Moskva. vicinity of Moscow. on an island of the lake. and exultingly shouted.

and twelve brethren. engraved from a photograph taken on the spot. we find Russian peasant proprietors threshing corn with the Biblical flail ' ' ! The instrument is used throughout the rest of Russia. 1388. and such by the middle of the eighteenth century more than 106. Few travellers fail to devote is within easy a day to an inspection of the Troitskaya-Sergieva Lavra.' viewed Moscow from Kuntsevo. unimpaired by contact with so rapidly becoming we are and factory labour. who was also the father of Peter I. farmers. quantity of agricultural machinery is sold at the two capitals to the larger landed proprietors. Laid waste by the Tartars in 1408. villas. but also that of one of their agricultural processes. where the corn of the peasantry is generally threshed by the A large and increasing equally ancient method of the tramp of bullocks. and self-denying Sergius to canonisation. The mansion is of a somewhat later period. The estate came to the Naryshkin family from the Tsar Alexis. and is of little interest. One of the most remarkable of the holy places in Russia reach of Moscow by rail. except in the southern provinces. Sergius. and to his extremely rude methods of husbandry. but unsuccessfully. and German colonists but the serf holds doggedly to his primitive plough and flail. population fealty and quit-rent to St.1818. having his kingdom. and jewels. and the claim of its abbot the pious. King saving of Prussia. or Monastery of the Trinity. To the blessing he bestowed is ascribed the great victory gained on the Don over the and treasure in Lands. and situated in pretty woodland scenery dotted with off. thanked Moscow. gold. same enemies appeared before its walls a few years later. which are naturally detrimental to the quality and the . son-in-law of the boyar Cyril Naryshkin. the Canterbury of orthodox pilgrims. within a few miles of Moscow. . simple. glad to find a primitive Russian village still occupied by stalwart specimens of the true Slavonic type of Moscow.000 Poles. Our illustration. representing a In of at least owed 500. T . when its principal cathedral was erected. which her for is At so short a distance from modernised. A. The 1608 the monastery was besieged. quantity of Russian agricultural produce. by 30.D. after his death in 1392. One about six 95 of our miles pleasantest drives on a recent occasion was to Kuntsevo. silver. the monastery was re-established fifteen years later. were consequently bestowed on the monastery. Here.000 male serfs. was rendered all the stronger by the appearance to him (as recorded in the annals of the Russo-Greek Church) of the Virgin Mary and the Apostles Peter and John.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. a nobleman of Rostof. Thirty minor that vast estates monasteries were later attached to it. Frederick William III.. w hen Ladislav of on Prince Dimitri Tartars. It was established in 1342 by Sergius.000. but the inscription on a granite pyramid near the conservatory is worth recording : 'On the 4th July. shows not only the character of the contemporaneous town life dwellings of the inhabitants of the central part of Russia.

the figure of Judas being is Close to the ikonostas. as much in connection with atrocious crimes as with prodigal The incorruptible remains of St. the the tutelary saint. incidents in the military of The the history monastery. portico full of stalls. nearly completed in 1547. of the is its rendered attractive only by the costliness and the In the archbishop's stall we find a contents. Sergius are exhibited in it. in Last Supper solid gold. certain small parts of the body being left uncovered. burdened nearly with jewelled ikons. circuit. of whom 100. at which monks sell ikons. for the applications of In a glass case inserted in the altar the kisses of the orthodox faithful.96 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the interior interesting nature of representation alone of brass. the silver. ' ' screen are seen his pastoral staff and other paraphernalia. and on coarse enamel and deft wood-carving. Sergius being the principal subjects represented in pictures and photographs. the These rights of the newly-elected Michael Romanoff. gift of Ivan shrine of one thousand pounds in pure in whose name recurs so frequently Russian history. were repaired byPeter the Great. and somewhat unsavoury from character. Poland disputed and the most venerated site and doings of St. monastery. acts of piety. pictorial tapers. not over clean. the most ancient insurgent are the last is the Cathedral of the Trinity. and a variety of other articles of ecclesiastical crosses. with nine cupolas.000 repair annually to the THE TROITSA MONASTERY. to whom in his youth they had afforded shelter against Streltsi. but curious chiefly for its . and we a enter ground. is larger. Dingy. typifying the nine celestial hierarchies. oil. Of the twelve churches which it contains. a mile in walls. use or the life the presence of way-worn pilgrims. The Cathedral of the Assumption. and built in 1585. weighing the Terrible. which stands on the of the original edifice raised by The entrance is level with the Sergius.

the elegant Count Rastrelli. but the extraordinary richness of those at St. which edifices important three hundred feet in height. The interior of the church is remarkable for its simplicity. painted in 1609. and over which. an renowned He is equally by Plato. designed by in Russia are due. or Hermit's Cell of Gethsemane. buried here. seclusion beyond is the Bethany Monastery. which contains a library of four thousand old books and Sergius Radonejski. We are to some extent prepared to see a large collection of imposing ecclesiastical garments. established in 1783 and learned Metropolitan of Moscow. It is nearly edifices we need only notice the church of St. in those less tidy days. A detached building contains the curiosity to pilgrims. In some catacombs beyond. jewelled crosses. effectually walled in. after the profuse gorgeousness of the churches we have just viewed. contrasted with emeralds and sapphires of great size and beauty. Chief sacristy. dedicated to the Ascension of the Virgin Mary. in which vows of perpetual are being fulfilled by human beings in the garb of monks. pious or mundane. Female worshippers are admitted once a year into the church at Gethsemane. and other ornaments. who have elected to breathe the pure air of heaven perhaps only once a year. Let finds he within. Evangelists in it is attributed to the early part Of the other sacred of the thirteenth century. usurper of We cannot but admire belfry. to whom so many was completed in 1/69. founded by the late Metropolitan Philaret as a retreat from the cares of his high office. and emblazoned with a large cross in rubies of fine colour. buried at the western entrance. frescoes. he caused to be inscribed the significant admonition. A of the copy manuscripts. in which their thin linen and cotton clothing had not been removed. and we are still more impressed with its austerity when we descend to the neighbouring catacombs. Peter I. Godunof. Sergius seem to be worth all the treasures in the cathedrals and monastic establishments at Moscow and About a mile put together. while the ardent worshippers look and feel as if they had emerged from a steam bath. to wipe a streaming brow. next to the house in which he lived. and in reality Not a hand can be raised in the densely-crowded edifice far from pleasant. The sight is a strange one on a hot day in August.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. Streltsi were seeking to wrest him 97 from his was concealed under the altar when the sister Natalia. given by the Tsar Michael in 1632. an object Its treasures are of paramount of mostly is not among them a resplendent copy of the Gospels. The binding is beautifully ornamented with floral and arabesque patterns in enamel work. and a large twohis escape. earlier date than the seventeenth century. a half from the monastery is the Sfciif. recluses hardly ever leave their subterranean cells.' not him who comes in here carry out the dirt short distance ' A ii . headed eagle the throne of in wood commemorates is Boris Muscovy.

MOSCOW. Kalmucks. and Khirghizes) to the banks of the Volga. sixteenth power had been destroyed in the sent fresh masses of nomads China century. vniz po Volge (Down popular Russian robber-song a song with which the present generathe Little Mother. and the Russian empire. and after their Central Asia and ' ' . tinder Rurik. The Huns. IN CHAPTER A VOYAGE DOWN VI. but were gradually subdued and absorbed by the Great-Russian race. and Bolgars subsequently formed powerful states on it. were in their turn subdued by means similar to those which have brought The the modern Russians to the frontiers of Afghanistan and Persia. not because ancient geographers mention. These (Bashkirs. but with little accuracy. as flowing through the country of the Scythians and Sarmatians. Ptolemy and other great cities on the main water-artery of the WE are bent on descending the Volga. down the Volga) made familiar in their childhood as a were Muscovites of tion middle-aged song inciting to deeds of daring. and to the exercise of untrammelled liberty but because we desire to see the celebrated fair of Nijni Novgorod. TIIK VOLGA.' by century came the Tartars. in 1158. the Rha (great river) or Volga.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. to Vladimir of the paramount In the thirteenth throne. after the foundation of the powerful Russian principalities of Suzdal and Murom ' ' (eleventh century) and the removal. established by the Northmen at Kief. OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. we are inspired by the Vniz po Matushki. the bands armed of a Russian commenced observes writer. Khazars. task.

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to tion. it We certainly found in in 1888 the same huge stocks of consequence of a severe flood).' But although thoroughly Russianized. 1652) with the proceeds of gold which a Russian trader had discovered in a cask sold to him as containing paint. A recent visit confirms an impression long space to a description of it. of tea. the depot in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the English goods imported at Archangel. ior been completed by detachments of Cherniayef and Scobelef. namely inclined. formed. rain. oppressive . the assimilation that results from modernized intercommuniinevitable process of cation by rail and telegraph is rapidly depriving Nijni Novgorod of its older since mercantile features. now in larger and larger quantities from chiefly sea-borne. while another sacred edifice in it is adorned with two Tradition says it was built (in leopards. from a small lake near the town of Valdai. have the patience to embark on the great river at Tver. Persian. everything else nationally peculiar in Russia. by an English merchant. at the time when the celebrated So much has already been written about that great fair is being held. has. like that. the Chuvashi. if so service of the Almighty or in some benevolent object. its travellers Few it where first position in that respect dating from the middle of the last century. cosmopolitan gathering that it would serve no useful purpose to devote much Neva. to which higher up This is one of the a branch line runs from the Moscow Trunk Railway. But most travellers are content to make the easy railway journey from Moscow to Nijni (the lower) Novgorod. in honour of our own country. and desired that it should be employed in the We could. modern arcades which protect his customers and himself from The formerly itinerant however. ' produced by the ' village industries of Bokharian. or Armenian. still afford rich materials for the study of the aboriginal races by which they were held. becomes navigable by small steamers.000 labourers find employment on the artificial waterway which thus connects the Caspian with the Baltic. the river than at take Yaroslaf. of textile goods manufactured chiefly and Vladimir. on its course of 2320 miles. administraand to a great extent. or even at Yaroslaf. of brought from the northernmost parts of the in the provinces of Moscow empire. at Yaroslaf. especially for grain. the banks of the Volga. are concerned. Rybinsk. the great inland Caspian Sea.A VOYAGE Suzdal has DOWN THE the VOLGA. most important commercial entrepots of the empire. of cotton. so far as language. means of canals communication was established between the Volga when by and the About 5000 craft and 100. now taken refuge in the Russia. and of gaily-painted chests and other articles so extensively iron (most of under water. and now a great centre of manufacturing industry. brought and skins furs Central Asia. and the Cheremyssi of Finnish or Ugrian origin. who waived his claim to the treasure. particularly the Mordva. religion. One of the finest specimens of Russian architecture is the Church of John the Baptist.

102 RUSSIAN PICTURES.BAZAR : . more Turkish than Mongolian in features. Even the multitude of stalwart Tartars. ' 3 and trim iron petroleum refuse as a cheap.~-:v3^^evi-. or at any other continental mart. be dwindling are in Nor the in craft appear numbers. to the before the Beggars exhibiting repulsive sores fear to withhold their donations lest their superstitiously charitable. cheap and inferior. great developbarges. they are unloading so quaint engaged and mediaeval-looking as they were only a few years ment of steam transport as fuel. abundant. and we might fancy ourselves at Leipzig. mercantile transactions be who in- fluenced by the evil one are likewise types that are fast disappearing under . The wares exhibited in those galleries are as a rule< VIEWS IN NJINI NOVGOROD descriptions to of the fair. and who are always mentioned in heat. . and blinding dust. propelled by the use of and commodious substitute for wood ago.

No capable of disposing of three pounds. travelling dclicatesse towards the source of the supply of caviar that delicious which no one can properly appreciate until he has tasted it almost We make our first real acquaintance with it at fresh from the sturgeon. its first great tributary out of thirty-seven others. see as we descend to the Caspian. benevolent merchant named Bagroff.' Siberian Line For the sum of five copecks several soup-kitchens well worthy of a visit. or piled on board the floating part of the fair. while the poor are fed at a nominal charge per meal. and a cigarette in his mouth. Under the guidance of an officer of the civil service. for the consumption of the fastshall This alone is a trade of colossal proportions. Here again. such as they are. charitable fair. and we keeping orthodox. how important a part it plays in We the occupations of the population on the lower course of the Volga. Count Ignatief. the present governor of the province. our sorely tried olfactory nerves will soon Among discover the masses of dried or salted fish that have been brought from the rich fisheries on the Volga and Caspian. Their clothes.A VOYAGE the active DOWN THE VOLGA. from the peasant nightly entertainment for all sorts in a It was a novel spectacle to see a Russian untjik sitting upwards. supported by a nights of July and August. on these arrangements is made good out of the revenue yielded by the the masses of goods stacked on the banks of the Volga and the Oka. . with a bottle of beer beside him. supply some of the needed softness for body and head. an ample dinner consisting of in with labourers are them supplied (about \\d. of Panslavist celebrity. but tea is available throughout the day. on the strength of old acquaintance. or less than a penny. soup buck-wheat porridge the staple food of the Russian masses. 103 and enlightened administration of General Baranoff. at one of the many restaurants are hunger by all inevitably bring us. we visited some very curious places of after a long stroll will and conditions of men. is the honorary patron of one of several night refuges. but open merry-go-round. but it is not . to show us the holes and corners of the fair.} and of about one pound of kasha. in which six to seven hundred of the poorer labourers find a resting-place and glad enough are they to take advantage of the wooden ledge and the cast iron cylinder offered to them as a substitute for mattress and pillow. Shelter and food are abundantly provided for the absolutely indigent. in a room of large dimensions. which takes its name from the city and its fair. not in the air. rye bread is supplied gratis to the Near the that skirts the Volga are miserable casuals. at a The financial deficit charge of three copecks. and the small amount required as covering during the hot At another of these refuges. The average consumption of bread alone is one and a half pound per man. or and black bread ad libitum. ' ' ' at all spirits rare to find a labourer or ale are allowed. specially deputed the obliging governor. to which the pangs of Nijni Novgorod.

and consequently of high interest. see towering on the cliffs of the right bank of the Volga were built in 1511 by a Venetian. in 1219.104 RUSSIAN PICTURES. They after a great fire. Altars on either Tartar-looking belfry on the opposite side of the street. who had already.' Out of the forty odd churches outside the Kremlin. of Rostoff Yaroslavski. the Dmitrofskaya and the walls The Kremlin we Tverskaya. in 1558. in imitation of our countryman. it is no brawling . near the mouth of the great Kama. Andrei Alexandrovitch Titof. is substantially a structure of 1227. namely. and is remarkable only for its octangular. Persia and India. and come down to the great turning-point in its history. who may already be known to some of our readers as a learned archaeologist and comsummate connoisseur in matters of Russian ecclesiastical lore and art. there was not much. who incorporated in them two towers which dated from the fourteenth century. not take it amiss if we record our gratitude towards our good Mr. so called from a privilege granted in 1641 a monastery dedicated to St. distinguishable by its eccentric colouring and dates its existence . Nijni to ' ' became conspicuous as the place at which a company of Holstein merchants built the first war vessel ever launched in Russia under a charter for opening a trade with Central Asia. Anthony Jenkinson. although in one of its painful and demoralizing phases. The old walled city of Nijni Novgorod has in itself strong claims on to friend. that the Prince of Suzdal took. the removal to confluence of the ' Oka Low with We it of the ancient Fair of Makarief. however. by way of the Caspian. to whom a monument in the form of a granite obelisk was raised opposite the cathedral in 1826 by 'grateful posterity.' pass over the common episodes of Tartar invasion and princely internecine strife. their city of Oshel. There was no disorder and national the student of to shock anything. and founded a ' strong settlement at the the Volga. if life. It was for the purpose of arresting the incursions of the godless Bolgars. could see the process of we European assimilation at work. accompaniment by detectives in plain clothes through the Kunavino quarter was sufficient proof that the tranquil surface exhibited to us was in a certain measure delusive. seventy miles lower down the great river. the Cathedral of the Arch- angel. the intelligent traveller. Macarius. we need only indicate the Rojdestvenskaya. were. the deliverers of Moscow. which they enclose. which he named Novgorod the New Town of the Countries. but our be hoped. The neighbouring unsightly Church of the Transfiguration from 1834. a tributary of the Volga. There is no doubt that in this respect we were under deep obligations to the enlightened official who had supreme charge of us.' inhabiting the country now known as the province of Kazan. much reduced in height and circumference Although restored in 1620. still prominently extant about In the same century. George. crossed that sea in a ship that bore the red cross of St. However. side of the ikonostas are dedicated to the patron saints of Minin and Pojarski. and he will.

D. DOWN THE VOLGA. or drive to we walk the otkos. and which existed. or Khersonese workm a n s h Greek it i p. when it was ravaged or tion by Purgas. by the Metropolitan sented to of the it Alexis. to Korsun. to in some 1229. Of the monasteries Novgorod. not far from the floating bridge.A VOYAGE architecture. cases of swarthy representations. Prince of the Finnish Mordva to t ribe. Count by Gregory Stroganof out of a portion of vast riches acquired by goldmining at Nijni in Siberia. A inscription on testifies that it was in painted A. who probably Holy as pre- the ikon Virgin. or terrace at the extreme end of the city. according authorities. in all attributed. the is most ancient the Annunciation. erec- Critics trace its 1371. on the banks of the Oka. Before proceeding on our voyage. and be must therefore the most ancient it holy image in Russia. 993. 105 peculiar It was built in 1/19. overlooking the .

tolerable accommodation.' description were appropriately garbed in the American-English of to which this real salt-water tar had traded during the greater part of his life. The absence of smoke and of attendant soot was soon explained by the fact that the steam by which we were not ' propelled owed its origin. the founder of the steamship company.' The engineer. expansive mind and habit. and the originator of several of the greatest and most successful enterprises in Russia. an aboriginal of the coast of Croatia or Dalmatia (evidently the scene of his nativity). and over all was below. but to the refuse of petroleum. see a far-reaching alluvial plain. and confessed unreservedly that they had never been better taken care of than by the merry commander of the Novoselski. hundred Volga steamers of all kinds and dimensions American riverwith propellers. The steamer was one of the many vessels that have American-typed supplanted the earlier pioneers of the Our cabins were our saloons above them. Our good fortune has secured to us a commodious berth on board the Novoselski. sleeping ' convey either his serious or his merry thoughts.lo6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. are favoured to the extent of We on board during our stay at Nijni.' as inscribed autoFew were the languages in which he could graphically in our note-book. ago by He was a real cosmopolitan. the Caucasus and Mercury Company are in a position to offer superior in relation to other on the advantages steam-ship companies Volga. and culinary requirements. criminal and political. or wide. extinguished some years the cession of the Islands to the Aleutian United States of America.' for his duties ' ' more appropriate name of the consisted solely in setting latter alight. bv . A majority of our party had travelled from Australia. or stern wheel iron steam barges and tugs that now uses any other description of fuel. and our own personal insignificance in relation to the great works V 7 We of the Creator. in the service of the Russo-American Company. clotted here and there with forests. now so There is not one of the abundantly supplied from Baku on the Caspian. one being the five craft stoker. not to wood or coal fuel. Those of the latter Frisco. charge of a couple of men. with the cuteness and droll levity of a Yankee. and are impressed by the monotony of the landscape. and all the blunt outspokenness of a Russian Slav with a shirdkaya natilra. Subsidised for the carriage of mails and exiles. as when we travelled on the Volga some fifteen years before. the other the should be the trimmer. olga from its junction with the Oka. in the matters of punctual speed. the spacious top deck. Led by the attentive captain to the we found in it engine-room. Volga. on which we paced or settled ourselves comfortably whenever the great heat of the sun was tempered by a kindly breeze or moderated by a welcome cloud. and of finding a charmingly and eminently intelligent and communicative commander in the person jocose of Sea Captain Felix Alexandrovitch Pietroschiewich. so called after His Excellency Nicholas Novoselski.

or tea- he the had aid frequent with and comA RUSSIAN TRADER WITH HIS panionship of his prikastclii or clerk. ing. divided for that purpose into two parts. All had more or less a well-to-do appearance. each passenger more or less snug at night on mattresses and felt rugs.A VOYAGE means of DOWN THE VOLGA. was very soon put on shore. more than usually indigent and untidy in his outward appearance. We were travelling by one of the best mail steamers. recourse. The Asiatics and the and made to burn of steam issuing from the lower classes. Russian silk. including priests. All sorts and conditions of men and women above the trader stratum of Russian society were assembled in the saloon cabin. sufficed to arrest at a stopping-place the further generation of steam. on the ground of not having paid his fare. The was accompanied by to which urn. The petroleum is furiously over the bottom of the boiler by a jet same nozzle. which was spent in eating and drinkand on at the busy activity numerous places of call. distinguished by their cleanliness and their stores of pillows and warm coverings. the closing of which. There were few races in Europe or Asia that were not represented among the five hundred passengers embarked in the Novoselski. themselves. 107 a rag saturated with naphtha and ignited by a lucifer match. the fair of Nijni was yet scarcely on its decline. turquoises. madder. camps of their own. or trader. who were merchants or cotton. from their more lowly in Christian not. Persians. sleeping. who. like companions. crack regiment of guards on furlough. apart slept soldiers. gazing . the jet of petroleum refuse conveyed under each of the lour boilers and set free by the turn of a cock. notwithstanding occasional disembarkations. and the rougher classes of the Russian population were consequently in a minority. There was but little talk among them during the daytime. and subsequently increased to nearly seven hundred. and peasants. were huddled together on the second deck. including some of a soldiers TEA URN. knpcts. and excepting only a village priest. on the other hand. scattered into spray as it issues from the supply-pipe. They in rows and batches. his samovar. and Tartars formed Bokharians.

Although are to known dwellings. and often retired. on the outbreak of murrain among cattle. . is To belabour unmercifully any one who may come in their way during their weird operations. the unremunerative character of the simple them. was much attention. the bounds of newly-sown fields. The days. with a for this is the strong admixture of a handsome and vigorous Tartar element ancient capital of a Mongol kingdom which flourished between 1438 and 1552. was then discussed with a freedom that would astonish those who had been led to believe that in such matters Russia is a country of mutes. Every year also the young girls of the northern forested region of the Volga beat. The reverse outside the precincts of hotels and restaurants. subdued it. dark and the atmosphere that commenced. representative of different sections of society. It is so far the cool. The abnormal number of idiotic and deaf and dumb children is another symptom of the moribund condition of the Cheremyssi. It was the ladies had the night become economical sociability condition of the country. and. the channels. have contributed to this result. when Ivan the Terrible. There indeed no part of Central Russia where these have been better preserved. over which the secret police is supposed to keep close watch. on the right bank of the river. It is Russian. and it is equally interesting as the capital of a barren district in which another ancient ' ' Finnish people the Cheremyssi are evidently There are not more than 100. this day. With these fellow-passengers. which are not nominally Christian. the they occupy. un- climatic barrenness of the that soil conditions under which they have so long struggled. accelerated as it has also been by the prevalence of goitre and other diseases. until we approached Simbirsk. them from drought and destructive insects. and whom they pursue with wild cries as an impersonification oi death. winding. under similar conditions. and the unsanitary state of their supplied with chimneys. slaying to protect . dancing frantically round each hut. too The scenery. and entertained and instructed by the vigorous discussion of political and social questions. This is the town of towns of the Chuvash race. and next day touched at Cheboksary.000 men. and have contributed greatly towards keeping alive among the population of the middle course of the Volga the customs and superstitions of remote ages.000 of them left favourable industries living in out their last the district. a town of 5000 inhabitants. and especially of the Volga provinces. and we soon get accustomed to were being towed up shifting monotonous to attract the Volga through after its strings of barges that shallow. we dropped down the Volga at the rate of nineteen miles an hour. the old women of a village sally out at night unclad. they are in reality more than half pagan.io8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the criticisms state of affairs which he cannot help hearing being generally very strong against the present and the powers that be. At Kazan we find a very different population. that a foreigner acquainted with the language is often placed in a condition of some embarrassment. with an army of 150.

Petersburg. we refreshed ourselves melons. The most interesting of the churches Annunciation. and in it dust. We pass the Admiralty suburb. by and we were astonished to find that the material used for that partial repair. Similar waste may be observed over a purpose was rich stable manure of within the zone of black earth. five miles in is connected with the which the river bank. who thus keep alive the memory of their ancient rulers. spot on which Ivan IV. so good a provision. grapes of which voraciously with the delicious fruits we bought a small sack full for a few coppers at the long row of stalls Hurrying back to displayed that until close to we had made the sun went And glad landing-stage. founded in 1804. It was under city length. 109 all troops of the Tartar Tsar. pears. in ! we half-smothered suburb. a Lector of the English students have the of the benefit universities language. The site of their graves. under the rude and obstinate sweepings belief that the land is not in need of any stimulant or restorative.A VOYAGE the DOWN THE VOLGA. on the west face of the tower. our steamer. along the high causeway. is visited on Wednesdays and Fridays for devotional exercises by crowds of pious Tartars. the costliness of its ornamentation is insignificant compared with that of the copy we have seen in the Kazan the Poles Moscow from Cathedral at St.' to which deliverance of 1613 was attributed. walls The city retains in (of 1568). while far away to the right we see the mosques and minarets of the Tartar rattled. parched and grimy. apples. where the Russia. 1562. in which Peter the Great built a flotilla for the Volga and the Caspian.. and its some of its ancient appearance only in its Kremlin Sumbeki Tower. Although adorned with a diamond crown presented by Catherine II. although Oriental languages were formerly the principal As at most other Russian objects of study at this seat of learning. for the heat the we subsequently were became so intense caviar that down we supported ourselves principally on and . especially great part thrown of stables are into ravines. and attended by about six hundred students. Chief among the numerous public institutions of Kazan is its University. and to the left of the causeway our attention is directed towards a pyramidal monument raised on a small mound over the bones of the Muscovites who fell at the capture of Kazan. to visit the city in a carriage that A stoppage of four hours enabled us had been ordered by telegraph. chiefly of surgery and medicine. built Its altar within the Kremlin is that of the in marks the city. after the model of the Assumption in Moscow. planted a cross after he had stormed the the original In the church of a convent close to of the ' the Kremlin walls the is ikon Virgin in of Kazan. It is supposed to have been originally the minaret of the mosque (demolished in 1552) in which the Khans or Tsars of Kazan were buried. The latter is an object of great reverence to the ten thousand Tartars of Kazan.

Numerous on the villages and groups of storehouses river bank tell us thatwe are passing through the great corn-producing districts of South-eastern Russia. At about fifty miles from Kazan. a city of the seventeenth century. and other produce of the interior of Siberia. a of travellers. hot tea. the Kama River. bringing to it a vast number of vessels and rafts laden with salt. but nevertheless its fortress the ultimately arrested victorious march of the A century later the IAKTAR MOSOUE AT KAZAN. insurgents. and we reach one of the centres of the grain trade at Simbirsk. joins the Volga. manufactured out of Caucasian or Bessarabian wine. the Novoselski sped again down the muddy waters of the Volga. to the wonderment of our less experienced sipping fellow-passengers. water-melons. who preferred The tanks being filled by means of hose with a supply of oozy petroleum and after embarking a fresh refuse. washed down by cool cups of RUSSIAN PICTURES. itself the contingent recipient of the waters of five hundred and seventy-four affluents. whole . over a course of 1 1 60 miles. iron. perched chief on a of cliff 560 feet 'above the level It the river. suffered in greatly 1670 from the bands a robber of Stenka Razin. rebellious of the Cossack Don .

as a student at the University of Edinburgh and as a practical admirer and copyist of all good things that were British. while the opposite side of the river is one continuous cornfield or grass meadow. much of the trade and intercourse of Russia with Central The memories of Kalmuck and Cossack ravages Asia passes through it. the conqueror of Siberia. and being connected by rail with Moscow on the one hand and Orenburg on the other. has for some time past been recognised in England. to the trade of Samara in grain and tallow is the supply of celebrity which the adjoining steppes offer to kumyss. be its is alleged far curative properties. Although this did not prove the case. by the estate of a population of 65. and only a few remnants remain of the walls of the fortress by which the inroads of Next in Cossack robbers and nomadic tribes were eventually arrested.A VOYAGE of the DOWN THE VOLGA. the steamer leaves Samara and passes Pretty landscapes open out after bank has been named after the Sulphur Hills. Its efficacy those who are afflicted with diseases of the lungs and kidneys. who personated Peter III. It bears no evidence of being inhabited. freely after subdue the rebels. It required an breathed more cage. under Pugatchef. HI country at this part of the Volga joined another rebellion. and the Empress had been brought to her in an iron Pugatchef army to its only really pretty part of the Volga right bank rises in cliffs of curious formation. A . that sparkles like champagne.000. whose late father devoted to its cultivation and improvement the knowledge he had gained in Scotland. and had imagined that its in Russian towns. or fermented mares' milk. and seriously threatened to wrest Moscow from Catherine II. village on the right had who previously. is the capital of a rich agricultural of the same name. like province Simbirsk. (suffocated some ten years previously). except when a copious shower has converted them into the deepest and blackest of mud. An ordinary map of Europe shows the Samarskaya Luka. and we can say from personal experience that. We had long watched our approach to the shining silver domes of the red brick cathedral and belfry of Samara. in the seventeenth century have long been extinguished. This is the magnificent Count Orlof-Davydoff. for its buildings are mean except in the main thoroughfare. like so many other Ermak. or bend formed Here begins the . by noble landlords. also a Don Cossack. Volga between Stavropol and Samara. from being a repulsive beverage even to the sound and healthy. There is nothing of interest in Samara. through which men and cattle have to trudge until the sun has reasserted the supremacy of dust. surroundings would be in keeping with such imposing resplendence. with thickly-wooded hills beyond. with paving Clouds of dust hang over or pervade its broad streets. which is about the only one that can boast of what is called which. yet it is a city of great commercial importance. whatever may mares' milk.

one of whose principal settlements is Khvalinsk. where they had taken refuge when being This still denies the apostolical Russian Church. persecuted by the succession of their bishops as stoutly as it does that of our own Anglican prelates. asphalte Europe. the broad Volga is spanned for the first and as yet the only time by a railway bridge. with patches Petersburg to are the AN ANCIENT PIRATE RAID ON THE VOLGA. From the mouth of the of a widely different character. Near Syzran. (From a contemporaneous pritU. or dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. at Ekaterinenstad. magnificent in run uninterruptedly from St. We religious are not centre an ethnographical and long in reaching. our next great station. the of snow. Within the of the district are the Palestine seceders to the Austrian Confession.} of limestone that have the appearance hermit cells of Cheremshansk. been Volga pirate.112 RUSSIAN PICTURES. containing the largest deposits of next to those of the Abruzzi in Italy. until in banks we reach Orenburg. It enables trains to design and execution. the principal goal of the migrating peasantry. a town situated at the foot of a hilly background. Other villages of piratical origin dot the the Cavern Hills. so called from the fact of their having been permitted to return from Austrian Poland. to Irghiz River begin stretch the neat and thriving German colonies . a Cossacks. Beyond prosperous domains of the Old Believers.

at least In the provinces of Samara and Saratof these colonists number religion. and retain strongly their prejudices against the Russo- Greek and particularly against intermarriage with those who profess it. . 300.000. DOWN THE VOLGA. whose Russian modes of husbandry.A VOYAGE by Catherine Russia. while neighbours adhere doggedly to the Lutherans keep themselves A COSSACK OF THE VOLGA. planted with the agriculture in their primitive That result has object of improving the condition of so far not been attained beyond the boundaries of the colonies. entirely aloof socially.. II.

114 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in the as but was The until 1671. (1708). cases has a and in some cliff of name its own. is passed on the but the most important a bank. In 1700. with an extensive trade in grain. lower courses of the Volga. it contains. Kalmuck Tartars. render city most European-looking on the Volga. a celebrated painter. Built on hills. tobacco. Each sionally intersected by ravines. German in by Colonel Thomas Baillie. the citizens rose in reforms of Peter the Great. and the excepadvantage of waterworks con- structed with the aid of British capital. There was evidence it the and promise of still greater improvement. Russian and foreign. bluffs The on the are large left colony. frowning undulating ground within an Saratof is a handsome and amphitheatre important of bare of and city 112. lighting They have reason to be proud of the Museum of Art with which the city has been endowed by Professor Bogoliubof. A TARTAR LADY OF THE VOLGA. fine tallow. and visitations of cholera in was pillaged by the rebel Cossacks of Bulavin . and highly other its many public and private buildings. linseed. miles. mostly of the Stenka period. a town which was founded and fortified . its history is one of bloodshed. From Saratof the Volga takes a direct southerly course for a considerable distance. 1830 and 1848. and murdered all those who rebellion against the shaved in compliance . and eighteenth and Nekrasof The redoubtable Pugatchef bombarded it from the Falcon Hill. Like all the other towns on the middle and the suppression of piracy. couple of hours after leaving Saratof stopping-place is at Kamyshin. 1668 instigated by the Don Cossacks. in wheat. whose gallery of pictures. It was a subsequently ravaged robber bands of Stenka Razin then held century it thriving place on several occasions it so far back by 1635. Saratof is now a prosperous emporium of trade produce. broad and paved tional streets. one of the numerous British officers Its fortifications proved very useful in then serving the Tsar of Moscow.000 it inhabitants. with a breadth of nearly three right bank and are occamostly perpendicular. and to this long list of disasters must a neighbouring bluff 560 feet high be added the ravages of the plague in 1807. agricultural Surviving Its all these misfortunes. and it may be hoped that the citizens will not much longer delay the of their streets with gas. notoriety is prominent Razin Another connected with robber deeds.

having proved in practice to be inconsistent both with real liberty and with founded in modern of In addition to agriculture. This to further whom. Almost buried flies about in clouds like the indigenous Tartar Sari-chin. and the new large storehouses on the river bank. A amount of timber to Kalatch on the Don. with a population mosquitoes. ' ' A mustard seed. the little town of Dubofka. where the goods are shipped the for Rostof. Tsaritsyn (the of 36. after which Catherine II. and or Moravian Brethren. Although the railway that only with now formerly the capital of the Volga runs between the Volga and the Cossacks. belonging to the Nobel and other companies is brought from Baku on the Caspian in iron vessels. At Sarepta. raised in Elton Lake. I 2 . strong balsam is also made here out of industries. 115 Pugatchef took the town. and a considerable. carries large quantities of salted and dried fish (a species of corigonus) from the Caspian. great number of Jews. This is a neat. We can now only mention. yellow sand). and gives our well-known Colman but little chance of competition. which can be seen travelling in vast numbers over the rail net-work of European ' Russia. that is attest importance of the place.000. yet its former prosperity is to a great extent maintained by its steam mills. which squalid pigs roam about in most of its dirty unpaved streets. two great and tanneries. stone-built. of which the most important is the preparation of mustard. potteries.' is well worth The oil stored on the river bank in the long rows of iron cisterns seeing. and justly acquired the title of the Naphtha King. so called after the enterprising Swede who started the industry.000 inhabitants. and the fine shops it is only and ware- houses in the central square. and our passengers rush on shore to obtain a supply of the healing and invigorating cordial. immediate vicinity. short railway. Sarepta mustard is used all over Russia. Ragged children and in fine sand. among other large and thriving villages trading in wheat and in salt. growing commercial from the presence of a apparent whatever Jew-baiters may say to the the great and contrary. at the head of the Sea of Azof. which were subsequently abandoned. the colonists pursue a variety progress. Don (the Russian rivers of which the waters are not naturally or artificially connected) has diminished the importance of the place. we find ourselves suddenly a bright patch of German civilization. connecting the Volga with the Don. looks as if railway and steam communication had roused it too early from the slumber of a Russian provincial town. 13. caused it to be repopulated. in the petroleum or kerosine trade of Tsaritsyn. our next stopping-place but one. DOWN THE VOLGA. and delivered at Tsaritsyn into naphtha-cars. the south of Russia owes much of its material development. prosperous colony of Hernhuter (Bruderunita) in t 1770 on communistic principles.A VOYAGE with his orders. and hanged all its inhabitants in 1774. Not less important is Nobel's Town.

the Tartars.RUSSIAN PICTURES. and perhaps in the world. the capital. the later capital of the Tartar kingdom. The Russians predominate a medley numerically. flows through a vast uniform steppe. of the kingdom of Astrakhan.' of Muscovy as the Beyond is ' In four and a half days from Nijni Novgorod we end our voyage at Astrakhan. mentioned remains their chief temple. which many travellers are induced to in order to witness the religious rites of that once mighty Tartar race. half cosmopolitan. is occupation chief is Kalmytski Bazaar settlement the the Mongolian Kalmucks. 1655. and. and Cossack settlements. the Persians. held lower course of the MODERN TARTARS OF THE VOLGA. Volga in such force as to be able to threaten Russian towns so distant as Penza and Tambof. To our left the country appears unpopulated. but it extent of about seventy-five per cent. Tsitrakhan. out of a population of 70. in alliance with the the wild Bashkirs. saltworks. and forming the province of Astrakhan. ruled supreme over almost of Central whole the Asia. another town of races is in Russia. founded by the Kipchak Tartars. conquered in 1554. they at one time. and the Armenians who are most en evidence to the European eye. in the twelfth century. declining gently towards the Caspian. comparatively lively. to the . for we pass villages (locally called Vatagas). after parting with the range of hills that had so long accompanied its right bank. in which the it when explored will principal fishing. the Central Asiatics. At the place we have visit. A little further down on the same side we come upon a short line of railway abutting on the Boskunchak Lake and The right bank is on the border of the Kirghiz steppe. known in their later invasions Golden Horde.000 is the Kalmucks. on account of their . which Ivan the Terrible There is not It is now half Asiatic. subject to Russia since but who. although be found dotted over with Kalmuck encampments or kibitkas. The Volga now makes a sudden bend to the east. between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries. Subduing the of Nogai Tartars. in which such concentrated.

who in 1665 checked depredations the trade which frequent by their by permission of the Tsar Alexis the Duchy SrrSS" AN ASTRAKHAN BOAT.A VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. but gave to Russia the sovereignty over the Caspian Sea. of the Caucasus and Mercury Company If we land at the pier Astrakhan. of Holstein established with the countries on the opposite side of the The last local rebellion occurred in 1706. and after the capture of Derbent and the acquisition also from Persia of Baku and the provinces of Gilian. Peter the Great reached Astrakhan with a large force. 117 The forest of masts which bursts respectively peculiar dress and features. and Astrabad. in we find ourselves within the precincts of the ' Admiralty and . Mazanderan. on our view as we approach the vast harbour between the main stream and the Bolda branch of the intricate Volga delta will be found on closer inspection to pencil. and six years later Caspian. belong to a variety of quaint craft well worthy of the artist's The history of the city has already been foreshadowed in our reference to Cossack rebels and marauders. not only made secure the possession of Astrakhan.

which is intersected by the Varvazzi is originally in liable. At Astrakhan the most valuable product of the Volga is the sturgeon (Acipenser stnrio and The average Acipcnser huso] and the smaller sevriuga (Acipenser stellatus]. which. channels of the Volga delta are practically barred. for they are then harpooned in The larger fish are drawn on shallow places through openings in the ice. and no fewer than In twenty-five thousand men are engaged in the five thousand and odd vessels and boats that pursue the same industry on the Caspian. the boats.500. is ikra.000. produced by a process of drying from the inner part of the from its bladders. completed in 1710. thousands of labourers flock to Astrakhan to take part in its rich fisheries. The thirty gear used is of the strongest pounds for will in weight.000. the boat in and house built for the great Reformer. are kept the yacht which he sailed. although averaging nineteen feet in length. owing to the silting of the estuaries of the Volga. spinal marrow of the sturgeon. whence they to store-houses. The in the city is the Cathedral of the Assumption. important a source of wealth. deepened by a Greek of that name in 1817. a collection of old arms and specimens The most striking edifice of the tools used during his reign in shipbuilding. and a fine fish-glue is obtained are despatched barrels thousand which of The roe yields caviar. and in the preparation of caviar. partly on in of the delta which are too shallow for lines those branches ground navigation. and 1. and the time is evidently approaching when be adopted by the Government for the preservation of so It is for the sturgeon. annual catch of these three descriptions of sturgeon is respectively 300. and spring. again. of 800 and even rapid rate measures run up to 1600 pounds.000. as well as models of ships. in the salting and drying of the fish. generally unbaited.' RUSSIAN PICTURES. to be soaked for about twelve hours in brine. thirty We may observe in passing that the Russian yearly from Astrakhan alone. escape the ground-lines with which the many small Nor have the fish any repose even in winter. Their extirpation has been proceeding at a many years past. or in and then stored Isinglass is an ice-cellar. name for this delicacy is caviale. while those of more convenient size are dealt present very difficult for any fish to with closely set hooks. and mitres. founded by Peter I. shore and cleaned on the spot. but transferred as a naval station in 1867 to small Here. in a Baku. at with in are carried hauled up to high landing-stages. winter. caviar being a corruption of the Italian of the only an attempt to reproduce the sound word word . sacristy has one of the richest collections in Russia of vestments A Persian mosque stands in the principal street. They are mostly taken partly in nets. 100. as a precaution against the inundations to which the city autumn. Canal. and to a weight .n8 Port. but excavated 1 744. At least forty thousand men and women find such employment at the Volga fishing stations.

DOWN THE VOLGA. rest is and packed left in tins or barrels with is a small i. Fishing in the delta of the Volga is also pursued on a large scale by Spying. they form pelicans. while the inferior is merely salted and packed in ' ' The higher sort small barrels for consumption by the less wealthy classes. the best being converted either into pressed or grainy caviar. drained is and put under a when its superfluous moisture has been made of the bark of the lime tree (bast) packed bags The commoner sort of caviar replaces bread strong press. is reserved for the tables of the affluent. sieves that retain the in which the roe is conis membrane passed through tained. they have pouched. but the grainy on the Volga no taste and with of fish or salt. the hand off. it ripe. 119 by which the Turks and Tartars knew it ages before its appearance After the fish has been cut open. perfection beyond St. a school of small fish. swoop down in It is a tradition thousands to gorge themselves on their artfully-earned prey. the sentries being also in due proportion rewarded for their vigilant services. a semicircle. out and divided into two qualities. laying of the total catch. after which. in strong brine until it in balls. in DOG SLEDGE WITH FISH. and gradually enclosing it in a shallow bight. a of quality. Petersburg.e.A VOYAGE haviar. . and. birds these clever that of the fishermen the disgorge the fish Volga among make a fair division them down on the sand. semi-transparent greyish colour. ASTRAKHAN.. the roe is taken in Southern Europe. with the aid of sentinels. so far as the rest of Europe is concerned. the quantity of dry salt until it can be taken out by . and can seldom be found in in the daily menu of the labouring classes ' ' .

from the north. on the west. and in 1095 it was held by Isiaslaf. or black soil country. the centre of a rich agricultural district connected by rail. the railway passing through the cities of Tula (the Russian Birmingham) and Orel. In 1586 the southern frontiers of Muscovy were fortified. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY IN THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE RESURRECTION. We are now almost in the heart of the Chernozem. CHAPTER VII. the first town of any importance in Southern is Kursk. OR NEW JERUSALEM. outpost ceased only towards the end of the seventeenth century. with Riga on the Baltic. MOSCOW. son of Vladimir COMING Russia Monomachus. SOUTH RUSSIA. from whom it passed alternately to the Princes of Chernigof In the thirteenth century it was razed to the ground by and of Pereyaslavl. Kursk became one of the principal places on that line of defence against Its disasters and sufferings as a military the Crimean Tartars and the Poles. and the Tartars. and on the southAuthentic records attest the existence of east with Tsaritsyn on the Volga. three hundred and thirty-five miles from Moscow in an almost direct line.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. after Little Russia (the more southerly districts watered by the Dnieper) submitted to the Tsar Alexis. . Kursk in 1032.

and. No great part given fixed geographical limits can be assigned to either of these designations. a term now used only to denote the Southern Russians as distinguished . although it long denoted in anything he chose. and other ancient geographers only in their present steppe. they were absorbed by the dominant Little Russia is. it had lower class of their horsemen. marches became safe and populated. or. rather. Herodotus. and almost smothered in the verdure of numerous gardens. in fact. however. and ultimately incorporated into provinces. or flat and woodless condition. a man free to do been used by the Tartar hordes to designate the From the princes of the House of Rurik southerly districts passed into the possession of Lithuania. Its semi-nomadic population obtained in early days the designation of Cossacks. relatively to the surrounding flatness. power. or ancient border country. not much to see within it. these into Russia a free man. for even the churches are mostly not older than the second half of the eighteenth century. This word is not Slavonic. 121 loam of which its surface is composed to a These vast plains were known to depth of two and three yards and more. PLOUGHING ON THE STEPPES. It is a great relief to the eye to see at last a handsomely-built city like Kursk. those of Poland. and for as the borders or especially to the Ukraine of the Poles or the Muscovites . later. Little Russia was another arbitrary name anciently a to of what has been also known as the Ukraine. There is. but Turkish and .SOUTH so called from the rich black RUSSIA. on an elevation. The more southerly part of the province of Kursk is in the Ukraine. perched. Strabo.

there are well-appointed country seats in the South of Russia in which the long summer days are only for meals. also. and to a great extent to card-playing. however. generally. resembling strongly those of the Roumanian and Transylvanian peasantry. and same an equal proof the as insouciance to the material future. The men sing of the daring exploits of their plaintive and in the minor key. enriched by the cultivation of large and fertile estates. and favoured in their social development by long contact with the ancient Western civilisation of Poland. selves in neat and picturesque costumes. to sport (principally coursing). the fused with the White Russians of the north-west (Mohilef and The and with the Slovaks of the other side of the Carpathians. Their houses are not like those of other parts of Russia log huts. Poles and rebels. of vermin and cockroaches but wattled. and not without a vein of romance are. though a less muscular. Cossack forefathers. with thick forests which had to be cleared. and and make the most of those qualities by adorning thembeauty grace. Indeed. and later with internal enemies. entirely spent in card-playing. the every-day Except. refinement of the ease of their lives in a is attributable to the comparative a with climate more country. thatched. Little Ethnographically. although their songs. full of deep feeling. The language of thought of these two branches of the Little Russian. or Ho/iol. is a cross between the Polish and the Russian. but courageous men engaged in a life-and-death struggle with nomadic The greater hordes. He is taller. who were not freebooters like the old Cossacks of the Volga. Vitebsk) Malo-Ros (Little Russian) is physically a better. surrounded by and kept internally in order and cleanliness. and whitewashed cottages. genial than that of the more northerly parts of the empire. although nearer akin to the Muscovite than to Russians become the Polish tongue. There the Great and the White Russians had to contend with a soil much less productive. gradually . as he of the con- temptuously called by his more vigorous northern brother. and with frost and snow that left scarcely four months in the year for labour in the field. exhibit a similar superiority over the bulk of their compeers in Great Russia.122 RUSSIAN PICTURES. finer-featured. in the case life of the Southern Russian There is a strong bears a strong resemblance to that of the Irish squireen. social jollification. is the mode Slav of life. There a strongly-marked difference cast in outward appearance. Their lives are altogether more happy. and The women have both less rude and primitive in his domestic surroundings. with swamps women of Little Russia fertile which had to be drained. gardens. with interruptions There are . full. tinge pensity to reckless hospitality. and even the race. man than the Veliko-Ros. like those of all Slavs. from is principally the Great Russians of the more the central part of the empire. with wild beasts which had to be destroyed or guarded against. or Great Russian. The upper classes of South Russia. of the larger landed proprietors.

progress to the immigration of landed proprietors from the northerly and eastern districts of the Black Soil Zone.SOUTH horses in RUSSIA. on journeys to estates or towns often fifty to one hundred miles distant. while Kursk and Kharkof owe much of their riches and . indeed. and along a of black mud. and of certain capitals and watering-places in Western Thus. ' ' .' Kief is the resort of the more ' towns. absenteeism has been largely on the increase. and dusty one day. and vehicular locomotion is therefore resorted to only as a matter of necessity. A PEASANT GIRL OF 'GREAT RUSSIA. has no great attractions in any part of Russia plenty in the stable. Country life.' Proper. cracked. to the advantage solely of the principal provincial Europe. parched. and ever since the Emancipation of the Serfs and the accompanying extinction of the power and authority of the proprietary classes. 123 and vehicles of every description to which but they can be harnessed taking a drive through endless cornfields natural roads or tracks. offers but few attractions to the surface presenting the next ladies.

Regent of Kief. first by the Lithuanians (from 1320). and then by the Poles until 1667. To the question In what late Dean Stanley's Lectures on tlic which we shall ' . It with ' ' of the Russian people to Christianity nine centuries ago. Its close intercourse with Constantinople. commotions. at The first to arrive were Kief. viz. Mussulmen from the Bolgar kingdom on the Volga. In Kief we see the districts. from here quote a few passages. prosperity and importance that in the nth no fewer than four hundred churches stood within its walls. in and 1240. intestine and Tartar wars.' Mother of Russian planted men on their from the seat of the paramount throne of the Variag (Var&gr) principalities. Scandinavo-Slavic character of the great city was lost during the occupation of the provinces of which it was the capital. together was only at the second partition of Poland (1/93) that all the districts which now constitute the South-western Provinces of Volhynia. after the conversion of Vladimir to Christianity. swept away the grand monuments of sieges Christian antiquity which the city once possessed. 1496. had embraced but it was left to her Christianity at Constantinople about the year 955 . and so his marriage with the to its sister of the Emperor of Byzantium. 988.D. Partly from motives of policy. Olga. when by a treaty with Poland the Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnieper. who urged him to believe in their religion and to honour Mahomet. strongly and favourably by Northway Novgorod the Great to Byzantium. and a very interesting epitome of it exists in the History of the Eastern Chnrcli.D. viking ships. and Kief (of which Kief is the seat of administration) passed finally under the Russian sceptre. grandson Vladimir to establish the Christian religion in his dominions. the conversion Muscovy regained Kief. who lived between 1050 and 1116. to induce him to abandon pagan worship. the Canterbury of the Russian empire. we proceed to give. south-western ' princely landlords of the affected by Polish culture. which they reached by descending the Dnieper and crossing the Black Sea in 200 About A.124 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Conflagrations. an account of the great event which made it glorious and memorable to all ages. Nestor. 1500. 882 it became. Podolia. and in the ruined stonework of the gilt gate which Boleslas the Brave in the nth century opened with a sword (now in the cathedral at Cracow) that was contributed much The original long after used at the coronation of the Kings of Poland. From century that time also Kief has continued to be the Jerusalem. But interrupting here for awhile our description of the city. Sophia.. In the year 986 envoys from the different religious bodies of the then known world came to Vladimir. and to become the founder of the Russo-Greek Church. gives a very circumstantial account of the conversion of Vladimir in A. as we have previously mentioned. Traces of them are to be found only in the much-restored Cathedral of St. towns. as concisely as the subject will permit.

' with the objection ' : did they receive it from the Pope. the requirements of their and their dissidence from Christians and Mahometans. Drinking is the great delight of Russians. who made the heaven and was the true the stars and the INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY INTO RUSSIA. under a general feeling of desponhaving at that epoch. whilst thy gods are of wood.SOUTH ' RUSSIA. and above all. perhaps. and also in what the Prophet taught circumcision.' On learning that the law of the Latin Church commanded fasting. the prohibition of drinking. They had been led to confess that they had been fathers ' Our did not believe in your religion. in a summary manner. who explained their belief. He derided the religion and . dispersed for their sins throughout the world. 125 does your religion consist ? they replied that they believed in God. and after death life in a harem. one ' : We fear God. ' ' A ' Philosopher from Greece ' came last. Vladimir told them to go home. their religion earth. you wish to teach others you whom God has rejected and dispersed ? Do you wish. which was then ' fearfully ' expecting the end dency. moon.' said Vladimir. however. were also dismissed law. : accept the prohibitions. 'we cannot live without it.' he said. and eating and drinking only in honour of God. The rude prince would not. and every living creature. that we should suffer the same ? ' .' Some Jews. the Papal See become the prey of ruffians and profligates. nor What.' Next came the representatives of Western Christendom. abstinence from pork and wine.' They came from the Pope to tell him that of the world. says the late Dean Stanley.

. For this purpose he scene ' . the sister This sacrifice was made. p. ' early evidence of an innate human yearning to the impressive with religious worship.D. 147.' These reported in A. Sophia. Vladimir did not long hesitate to act on the recommendations of his But he first besieged the rich city of Khersonesus in the Crimea. ! sent wise men 'to examine the faith of each and the manner of their worship. Happy right sinners who are on the left But he would not consent to be baptized until he had been more fully instructed about each religion. gorgeous with gold and mosaics.126 RUSSIAN PICTURES.' It is curious to ' ' . then all State. at that celebrated the of for its ceremonial both of Church and period splendour It was in the Church of St. and Vladimir of the Emperor Basil Porphyrogenitus.D. 987 that the Mahometans prayed with their heads while of the German and covered. deacons issuing from the sanctuary with torches in their hands and with white linen wings on their shoulders. founded by Heraclean Greeks. and of his immediate conversion to Christianity. There is no record of any adornment in the rude temples of the Pagan Northmen and Slavs. both of not ' . and at whose presence the people fell on their knees and cried. The prince painted are those who on are the woe to the impelled to exclaim. and then made as a condition. which surpassed all others in the grandeur of its form of worship. 300. and even their idols were coarsely hewn out of wood or stone. condemned world the celebration of Mass by the Roman Church Churches triumphed which was of with unleavened bread the had been in the point on which the two greatest torn asunder and explained why the the Jews to 'Germans and Greeks' believed over the ' Him whom by had crucified. find in this objection such combine the beautiful and fully satisfied at Constantinople. Kyrie eleison ! They were told by the wily Byzantines that these were angels who had come down from heaven to mingle in the service and wanting no further proof of the trueness of the Greek religion. envoys. was baptised A. practice of the the Mahometans. that the Russian emissaries witnessed a service which had This yearning appears to have been purposely been rendered more than ordinarily magnificent. and that their stench was insupportable Roman Churches they represented that although they were better than the Mussulman mosques. They were struck but what most by the multitude of lights and the chanting of the hymns filled them with astonishment was the appearance of the deacons and sub. they had no ornaments nor beauty. a marriage between himself and Anne. He on was other the envoys of exhibiting Vladimir a tablet the Last Judgment. 2 See p. Under the stern orders and Christianity. 988 in the Church of the Holy Mother of God. subjecting to a similar fate the Byzantine capital 1 Lectures on the Eastern Chttrc/i. they hastened back to Kief. at 2 Khersonesus. now replaced by a splendid cathedral in commemoration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to This was effected wholesale.

all the men. subjected to changes in matters of liturgy. 127 threats of the prince. or command Both the late Dean of Westminster and the late Count D. and dispensations of complete submersion of the body at baptism. on the secular or .' It would lead us too far to describe. predestination. on whom the Russian Church has conferred the same tine the title as that of Constanto Great : Isapostolos. Suffice it to was that it consolidated between the say beginning of the fourteenth century and the middle gradual of the seventeenth. influence. We may well agree with Nestor a sight wonderfully curious and beautiful to see. Romanism in Russia (the eminent Minister of the Interior. Catherine and more recent sovereigns. others in the waters of the Dnieper . indulgences. point out the prominent fact in this conversion. women. rejects holds the necessity purgatory. however faintly. Tolstoi. and a by a Martin. the author of religion spread gradually over Russia. whilst admitting the doctrine of transubstantiation. whilst the priests procured from Constantinople read the prayers.' that it must have been ' From this centre the Christian the example.. scourged by twelve horsemen. connection with autocracy. but there was no in Russia corresponding apostle except Vladimir. by of the lesser princes of the Rurik line. and It remains essentially Eastern. during the reigns of Peter I. II. it was without the agency of missionaries. was dragged over the hills at a horse's tail. and Germany were Chris- tianized respectively tine. doctrine. of course. recently deceased). an AugusBoniface. that the holy bread must be leavened. and cast into the river. the huge wooden idol. swam. principally by Nicon. almost effected exceptionally in Europe. whose doings we sketched on our way to Moscow. recognise the and in respect of matters of faith and spiritual supremacy of the Pope denies that it the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son. in regard to the . in close . and children at Kief were bathed some sat on the banks. Gaul. except in the case of danger to life and under other urgent circumstances and affirms.. it It does not. England. or ' Equal an Apostle. From the Roman Catholic Church differs strongly on many points. the development of the RussoGreek Church through the four periods into which its history is divided. and reformed to a certain extent A NUN COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CONVENT. some plunged in. Another important distinction is that. .SOUTH RUSSIA. Perun. namely that. Eucharist.

Their almost entire material dependence on the rude. in his oft-quoted work : ' Maskell of the Greek Church is excessively complex. marriage priest. well informed also on lay matters relating to his own country. in some degree. who parishioners in their happened took in to ' know little was mistaken for an excessive politeness. Many generations will Russo-Greek faith. it is difficult to see what practical harmony and conceded. ' ' white clergy. following anecdote. for which he was profusely thanked by the hostess. the Not very many years ago a young Englishman was house or mansion of one of the greatest and most To his surprise. she divulged that she would like to ask the village priest to dinner And yet he was no ordinary rural pope. the lady of the house highly-educated noblemen in Russia. and communion between these two have to pass before the Russian clergy attain a high level of culture. is to a widowed The Russian Church obligatory. As doctrine regards the Anglican Church. and observations was so great that ' the interest he Time propagation of Christianity in Russia without the aid of missionaries. and after much genuine hesitation on the part of the lady. cannot compress even a superficial reference to the services of the Roman Russo-Greek Church into fewer sentences than those used by Mr. for the the father's it ! Russian. and which accounts. and the symbolical which it the represents meanings by dogmas of religion are everywhere made the subjects of " minute observance. This was an advantage which Pagans converted by the Latin Church were not permitted to possess.128 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The Englishman. co-operation could be established between the Churches for any useful purpose. or associated with his staying at country ' ! love of vodki . took a seat beside him. During the greater part of the Mass the " royal doors (in the altar screen) The ceremonial . so much modified the Russian ancient has. but a man of orthodox learning. which is still used with some modifications. uneducated masses with which they are socially blended militates against their worldly Their position in the social scale is well exemplified in the regeneration. that the Church Slavonic is now practically almost as different as Latin is to the vernacular of We Catholic countries the purest in ethnological descent. however. into which the Scriptures were translated after Cyril and Methodius had introduced the semi-Greek alphabet. although a second marriage is forbidden also retains the Gregorian Calendar. said to him one day she had a great favour to ask. and clad in a handsome cassock of mauve silk. who declared that his kindness to the priest was much more than she had expected even from his known amiability The services of the Church are conducted in the old Slavonic. scrupulously clean.' his to do own tilling and compelled harvesting. are unreconcileable with those some of of the the principal points of another great stumbling-block against official Churches continues to be the denial by the Russian Synod of the apostolical succession of the But even if these points were Anglican bishops. language.

the deacons remain to for the time. and a fleeting another a single one intones. in turn the voice of the officiating priest is raised within. . incensing holy pictures answered in deep tones by the deacons without. modern. the most gorgeous ceremony of the Russian Church is that of Easter Eve. the closed again suddenly. Now from one corner comes a chant of many closed . Now the doors fly open. no is instrumental music of any voices Bass permitted. From time time a voices. amongst the crowd. . that the in said A SOUTH RUSSIAN WOMAN. tones now used Church long been written as in in the Russian are comparatively They have clef. now from . the wailing tones of all No kind. crossing himself and responding ' officiating priest K . . 129 most part without. unlike any other lies yet underneath original the tinge of Orientalism. effect is bewildering. of extraordinary It is depth and power are the most desired. in the deep bass tones of the men mingling with tive the ol is plain- trebles younger indescribIt voices which able is in its harmony. barbaric music. far above the barbarous that are to be heard in Greek and other churches of the East at the present moment. accompaniment.' The cords religious music dis- of Russia ' has a peculiar charm of its own. through glimpse is gained of To a stranger. and is the . the treble clef. in on the tenor or bass Next to a coronation at Moscow. unable to follow and in ignorance of the meaning. when as the clock strikes twelve the announces that Christ is risen.SOUTH are RUSSIA. There is a sweetness and attractiveness in the unaccompanied chanting of the choir. now and again entering for a short or pope popes pass throughout the church.' on which each member of the crowded congregation falls on his knees. Then they are the thick the celebrant rolling clouds of incense.' the modern four lines style with five lines in not the Gregorian.

' exchanged with each friend or acquaintance. the hardest point crack the weaker shells. with Christ is risen. and groats mixed with hempseed oil. lustres. to inordinate indulgence in on the public health after Easter is over. ' day. town. Those with the testing of the relative strength of eggs. continue to the paschal salutation. and the Podol. days. and so are the games played with those such as rolling them down a hollowed-out piece of wood raised at one end ecrgs The victory is to the owner of the egg a stand about twelve inches high. as a rule of 'Yea. the city is divided into (being therefore one of the greatest the Old Town. do so for some time after Easter Sunday. James's Gazette. as a matter of fact. both consecrated and a kind of conical cake made of curds. beer and vodka continue ' ' to flow throughout the country for sudden break from subsistence on several fish. sotto voce. until the salutation has been hand. more or less strictly. and hard-boiled eggs dyed mostly red. beforehand. however. while the tables of the higher and middle classes groan also with viands and refreshments of a more solid kind. \Yine. the site of the famed monastery of that name.RUSSIAN PICTURES. prince or pauper. to break the fast which a majority Bread of them have kept.' The choir . It is now. or Town on the Cliff. 1889. Easter-tide game is existence Monday. irrespective of sex. will be found even in the lowliest cottage.' and. and therefore win the wager It is curious that the which may be the damaged egg or a small coin. or hymn has not been in Russia its merriest peals. . by which which rolls furthest his and he can also win the competing eggs own well-directed egg may touch while rolling. Picturesquely perched on bank of the Dnieper. and is regularly laid out with broad streets worthy of the handsome houses 1 St. tells heavily The exchange of dyed or painted eggs at the time of paschal salutation is a general custom throughout Russia. the ancient Borysthenes. time to return to Kief. is bound to carry in his Friends. and no one who village rings out can realize the impressive effect of the ringing of so many bells. the people rush back to their homes. Another favourite on the smooth floor. then give to each other three kisses. and huge this great occasion bathed in light from of illumination from the no small amount the candelabra. in the beautiful simultaneously every city. . steep elevations of the right after a course of more than 1000 miles Sea Black the into falls which rivers in Russia). on Pace-egg of very similar games with eggs 1 has recently been reported from Northumberland. for the previous forty days. congregation adding wax taper which each worshipper.' or Easter less curious No is it to know that a competitive tapping of dyed eggs at Easter-tide prevails also in some parts of Sweden and Norway. verily Easter He has risen. bursts out the Church bell in The churches are on the largest and sweetest in tone of any in the world. the Pechersk. with the result that this dried mushrooms. chandeliers. The latter is the commercial quarter. As soon as the service is over. meat and drink. April 27.

All these were discovered in 1843 under the whitewash which had been applied to them while the cathedral was (1590-1633) in the possession of the Uniats (Catholics. is considered to be an exact reproduction of The Its the original. 989 by Greek artists and artisans. is erected on the site of a sacred edifice bearing the same name. and shaded with fine old trees. This edifice is only erected a Christian church dedicated to St. ritus Greed]. Vladimir. repaired 1385 a reduced copy of the Its original form and renovated once more in 1850. Some of their beautiful mosaics remnants of the work of Byzantine artists. the Sophia. in the twelfth century and again in it for was reconstructed extant. which. have been preserved on the altar walls and in places on the wall-supports and the arches.' The tomb of Yaroslaf. the founder of the cathedral. K 2 . and in a lower tier. This. whose priests are depicted on the pillars that support the dome. its adherents having been re-united to the Russo-Greek Church by official 2 conversion and 'administrative measures. destroyed two centuries later by seventeenth in the and restored between century. Church of St. which in early ages contained chapels. Tithes Church.U. nominally Here also is the great Cathedral of 1695. 1390. founded in A. 1 ignominiously dragged by Vladimir. for the Uniat Faith or Church exists no longer. wearing the These effigies bear witness to the Catholic tonsure and with shaven chins. stands in a chapel dedicated to St. who. and they have survived the results of those labours. is between the Pechersk the latter was quarter and the Old Town. convex surface of the figure in mosaic is that of the Virgin Mary. on the stall. although consecrated only in 1842. St. The best part of the city. Basil. 131 which line them. enclosed within earthen ramparts anciently the site of the Pagan Pantheon from which Perun (or Jupiter) was . 1017. and the ancient structure has in reality been preserved only where we also find internally some in the centre of the existing mass. Sophia at Constantinople has been much altered by repairs and additions. built A. divided from the upper by wide bands of ornamentation in similar work. mosaic floor in front of the principal altar belonged to the original church. Tartars. the above Equally interesting Metropolitan's hemispherical vaulting are the Greek frescoes on the wall-supports and partly in the upper galleries.I>. to wean the Ruthenian or South Catholicism Roman made by attempt Russo-Greek Russian peasantry from the Church. The Uniat Faith is spreading among the Slavs of A us tro. and thoroughly restored in 1826. in the place of Perun's temple.SOUTH RUSSIA. 1 The Lithuanian Perkiin. containing the principal official and other residences. Sophia.Hungary and the Balkan peninsula. with the relics of a Metropolitan who was decapitated by the Tartars in 1497. the most ancient basilica in Russia of the Byzantine style. is among the principal treasures of St. is Another remarkable a superbly executed representation of the Lord's Supper. Above the Metropolitan's stall are figures in mosaic of Byzantine prelates of the third and fourth centuries.

is reached by a fine avenue of trees. with seven gilt cupolas. flanked by the cells of the brotherhood. sympathy. according to an ancient legend. have a strikingly picturesque almost every part of Kief. enclosed within the immense fortress that crowns ' . The belfry alongside is more than three hundred the hill . Early in spring. with only the head. ancient in origin (1055). of These are now deposited under a block of grey marble within the latter the new church. with a handsome cathedral built by Mazeppa for the use of the Uniats. the first shall hereafter shine cross seen in Russia. and goodwill to the Metropolitan of Kief. the ruins Ill of St. which was while on the left are the shining cupolas of the formerly a Jesuit College for Ascension Convent Women.' To the right we now see the gilt domes of the Bratski Monastery. it had been found impossible to send a bishop to Kief to represent the Church of England. built in the elegant proportions of the style of Louis XV. predicting that on hills about there shall be a great city. Andrew. on the occasion of the celebration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to Even the Archbishop of Canterbury was present in the spirit. and God shall cause forth the grace of God many churches to rise within it. for his grace addressed a letter of congratulation. Anthony and St. owing to an assembly in London of the Universal Episcopate of the Anglican Church. Approached from the east. planted. while its barracks are capable of accomKief is the most important strategical point modating thirty thousand men. It is easy among such surroundings and such memories to realise the of the spectacle great gathering of the prelates and priests of the Russoand of the Eastern Churches in close communication with it. and one for which the city is well worth visiting. in the South of Russia. brought into strong gilt relief by the massive fortress walls and bastions. and at once arrest attention from We en mention passant that the huge arsenal which the fortress shelters supplies all the troops in South Russia with arms. Vladimir. and is intended to serve as a basis of operations. For a view of the Podol quarter we must repair to the terrace of the Church of St. Its principal cathedral. 1888. Theodosius. and an Orthodox Ecclesiastical Academy. Christianity. Andrew. effect. in 1 744. . the Apostle of Greece and of Scythia. Pecherskaya Monastery. the view from St. were found the tomb. the and coloured and of domes the spires monastery.132 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Andrew's terrace is more than ordinarily striking. and standing on the spot on which St. Russia.' We have left to the last our mention of the most interesting sight in This is the Kief. The monastery is entered by a gate ornamented with frescoes of St. when the Dnieper huge assumes in front of Kief the dimensions of a vast lake. ' of the Pechersk quarter of the city. Greek Church that took place at Kief in July. or the first in rank in and the most Lavra. in which also regret was expressed that. the first two abbots.

in the shape of ikons. 133 internally. chasubles. although the veritable tomb which contained vessels. in river-bank. the limestone of the high They extend a considerable distance in passages blackened by the torches of visitors. An object of special veneration is the true head of St. Theodosius. kept constantly burning by pilgrims who come from every part of the empire. it is undoubtedly in the Tithes Church of which the principal we have spoken. the style of architecture is neither elegant high nor imposing.SOUTH feet RUSSIA. and who are So certainly not fewer than two hundred thousand in number each year. The richly-decorated ceiling is scarcely seen . and pectoral crosses of great value and religious interest. sacristies have been described that we must pass over the many already light even by the of the innumerable tapers which are treasures of the Pechersk Monastery. and the ancient stalls of the monks perpetuate its somewhat Roman Catholic appearance. Vladimir. and . however. church THE PECHERSK MONASTERY AT KIEF. of its The monastery owes excavated part celebrity and of its revenues to the neighbouring catacombs of St. Anthony and St. which the cathedral claims to hold in a side chapel.

principal to the east in of Kief. for as to be able to receive the devotional In kisses of the who individually apply distinct saint most renowned removing some one cell are the remains of eleven 'martyrs/ who besetting and one and the same time immured themselves in it. his small chapel and the cell in which he passed the last fifteen years of his life without breathing the fresh air. after having been a Cossack outpost town since 1647. over which the railway What a contrast passes. is considered to be It was built between 1848 and 1855 a noble monument of engineering art. and We are shown St. the interments is evidenced by the pectoral crosses that have come to light. Theodosius. in ' martyr being buried almost up to his still who had immured themOne order. in fulfilment of a vow of continence. open coffins. and of its connection by rail with the shores of the Baltic and those of the In 1/65. Anthony. when Poland finally seat of trade population of 160. of Northern and Central Russia are spread products throughout the provinces to the east and south. down even to the Caucasus. Kharkof became the capital of the Ukraine. Sugar. to gain the kingdom of heaven. to the south of those of St. and as they contain only forty-six bodies (the others have seventy-three) of departed saints of a secondary order. are on a smaller scale. is exhibited who. until they died. they are not held in equal we find here also the remains of ten monks selves ' veneration. is the being a centre from which the a and manufactures ' . at the extreme end of the gallery. but their origin and history have not yet been ascertained. and the Christian character of also remains. Englishman. human remains and coffins have been found in them. 6755 feet in length. between these primitive works of man and the achievements of the skill and labour of the nineteenth century. Anthony. through the small windows from which we turn away with a shudder. Nevertheless. Charles an Vignolles. with South Russia. wool and hides from the central provinces. Nestor. the annalist.I 34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. by girder bridge constructed by a Russian engineer. and at voluntarily took food. and in that posture body Other ancient catacombs have recently been discovered under the city Numerous itself. which has also reason to be proud of its university with upwards of six hundred students. are largely sold at the five fairs held each year at Kharkof. largely produced in this part of Russia from beetroot and bounty-fed. The catacombs of St. In proximity to it is the splendid Mr. Kharkof.000. typified in the two grand bridges by which the Dnieper is spanned close to Kief! The Nicholas Suspension Bridge. on either side of which lie worked in gold and silver for the intercession of the sin. brandy. its founder. with palls of cloth and silk their mummified hands are so placed pilgrims. lies in the first catacomb. saints in .' and corn. died from his neck for some months . as they believed. Black and Azof Seas.

descending of barge accompanied by Joseph II. a bronze statue which represents . whether from the Crimea or the shores of the In the province of Kharkof are found those remarkable idols Caspian. raised it to the dignity of a town bearing her own name. On that occasion she laid the first stone of a cathedral which was not destined to be completed on the imposing scale she had projected. and which has been reduced to one-sixth in the edifice that was The town consists of only one row of buildings. 135 ceded the province to Muscovy. King Stanislaus Augustus Poland and a brilliant suite. horses. is familiar to us in connection with the defeat of Charles XII. Poltava. particularly of the Khazars. principally in wool. almost with concealed Dnieper. It was only a the river from Kief in a stately village when Catherine II. consecrated only in 1835. The centre of the field so disastrous to the THE KAI'I I. and cattle. this was the camping-ground of nomadic tribes. in gardens and the Catherine's running for nearly three miles parallel Palace. Anciently. by Peter the Great in 1 709. and a vast number of tumuli. Swedes is marked by a mound which covers the remains of their slain. of stone which we have seen in the Historical Museum at Moscow. At Ekaterinoslaf we are again on the great Dnieper.K or POLTAVA. and later the high road of -the Tartar invaders of Russia. Two monuments commemorate the victory. which have yielded coins establishing the fact of an early intercourse both with Rome and Arabia. also a place of extensive trade.SOUTH RUSSIA. of Austria..

drive 1 settlement. Prince Potemkin. Within a high circular wall near The great English Vixit propter Alios. ordered the remains to : be exhumed. according to his last wish. the Emperor Paul. somewhat relieved in its monotony by numerous ancient tumuli. Alios Salvos Fecit. and the garden of her magnificent Prince Potemkin.' By her directions. or Ingul with the Bug. over his grave is a block of marble surmounted by a sun-dial. over forty miles of steppe.the floor of the crypt. on which typhus fever supervened. 1 789. part of the country was called after its conquest Chesme . and in 789 it received its present appellation in commemoration of the capture of Otchakof from the Turks on the feastDestined from the first by Potemkin to be the harbour day of St. Nicolaef re-asserted its It owes much of its present affluence to the sound administraof Sevastopol. but her son. at the delta of the Dnieper. constitute the sights of Ekaterinoslaf. on which are abiding-place. son of the admiral of Scotch parentage who. Ad Sepulchrum Stas. the more favourite. Nicholas. Being lightly The monument clad. and descend In commemoration of her visit.136 RUSSIAN PICTURES.' died and was buried in a village about four miles north of the month of November. to Kherson. in 1787. the ' inscription 1790. Nicolaef is the handsomest as this Russia. and restored to a more fitting marble. marked by a tombstone of white Church of the Assumption is a simple obelisk. striking feature of which. We now follow the route taken by Catherine II. he set out from Kherson on philanthropist In Kherson. temporarily neglected by the naval claim to that proud position after the fall town in New in 1769. Next to Odessa. however. with a sun-dial on one face and a portrait-medallion on the An inscription on it in Russian and Latin tells us that Howard other. in her clad Roman armour and crowned. won for the Russians the naval battle of Sea. and to be buried in a hole under. from which they were again disinterred in 1874. in the year 1790. Catherine 'Dedicated to the Saviour of the human race by Catherine II. Ouisquis Amici. tion of Admiral Samuel Greig. was buried in this cathedral in 1791. A fortified of a Russian fleet in the Black authorities. in the 65th year of his age the ' recorded his principal achievements. huddled together the bazaar. he caught a cold. considerable in a special quarter between the river and ' ' A them pursue the favourite Jewish occupation of money -changing. the founder of the town. at the junction of the It was the site until 1775 of a Cossack setch. brings those who do not proceed by steamer to the great naval station and commercial port of Nicolaef. is its Jewish population. horseback to visit a lady at some distance on the banks of the Dnieper.' is : Johannes Howard. and es. died on the 2oth January. painted blue and red. with the aid of some equally gallant countrymen. number of she caused to be inscribed in Slavonic over the Cathedral of St. and the Ekaterinoslaf Prospect is dotted with their stands and their moneychests.

The annual value of its exports of corn. wool. &c. as at Nicolaef. and. owing to the shallowness of roadstead. has been connects this important harbour of with Kharkof and other rich agricultural centres. British shipping is chiefly . Its large trade.37 Turks and Tartars. about five millions sterling. Of the six ports on the neighbouring Sea Azof. 1.. Alexander to anchor the is died in 1825. where A NOGAI TARTAR. tallow. Taganrog. I.SOUTH from the RUSSIA. which now mostly in grain. is the most considerable. although steamers have at a considerable distance from it. greatly promoted by the railway.

) to construct a town and harbour. in virtue of the Treaty of Jassy. A short distance above this great mart is Novocherkask. peopled mostly by Greeks and Albanians. received in Various privileges and 1 795 its present modernized name of Odessa. and one in which many industries (especially the manipulation of tobacco grown in the Caucasus and the Crimea) are pursued. but from 1718 they were gradually brought under subjection to the Tsar. Huns. the La Hadji-Bey and the whole of the Turkish provinces of Otchakof were annexed to the Russian empire. and in 1637 took the Turkish fortress of Azof. It was not until 1791 that the fortress of the Greeks. Ginestra of the and the Genoese. Hadji-Bey of the Turks. title of ' Ataman ' of the Don the The last investiture with Cossack baton 1 took place also the reigning circle. employed in the trade. open-air or Odessa on the Black Sea of is the Odessns AN ITINERANT SHOEMAKER. They attacked the Tartars and Turks. employed the Neapolitan De Ribas and the Frenchman De Volante (both in her military sen-ice. which.138 RUSSIAK PICTURES. Khazars and Tartars. Bolgars. at a assemblage. the chief centre of inland trade in the south-east provinces of Russia. all the ancient rights and privileges of the warlike Cossacks of the Don. Until the reign of Peter the Great the powerful and independent Cossacks were not much interfered with. was founded in 1804. Much of the produce shipped here comes from Rostof on the Don. when confirmed. It is usual to bestow on the Russian heir-apparent the Cossacks. immunities were later granted to the city. but it owes its present prosperity . the capital of the Country ' of the Cossacks. Sarmatians. an d is adorned with in a bronze monument or chief) to the Platof. The present population Don dates from the sixteenth century. whom they powerfully assisted The town subsequent wars.' Emperor in 1887. Catherine II. when renegades from Muscovy and vag- rants of every description formed themselves into Cossack or robber communities. famous Hetman leader (Ataman of the Cossacks between 1/70 and 1816.' anciently the abode of Scythians.

whose suffering sharewailing over the unprofitable (to them) investment of so much is hard cash. power city. when he was succeeded by Count Langeron. Nor is the ' ' establishment of which it contrived to dispossess the municipality. of which one-half are have the advantage of an institute and Consul-General Stanley. devoid of any vegetation beyond a few shrubs and sickly acacias.' It is much to be desired that a more sober and correct view in regard and that clue Israelite community at Odessa should supervene. and under the annually visited by at under the British flag. thirty miles distant. as they did in days long gone by in England and in other countries to which they resorted. also a Frenchman. with no small advantage to the states in which they were permitted to become free citizens and loyal subjects. is hundred steamers. enjoyed by the Prince Woronzoff. not many that community are periodically subject. only a secondary influence in the capital. brought from the Dnieper. baiting likely to disappear under the This culminated. to which the members of it is fact. who became its first governor in 1803. in the following . however. we are not surprised to find that Odessa has developed into a handsome city of South European aspect. and ample means of quenching thirst thanks to the expenditure of over a million pounds sterling by the British still holders are Odessa Waterworks Company. who in 1823 took up his between 1817 and 1857. and dependent for its supply of water upon rain-tanks and a few brackish springs. after The water administration of local the although it prevails in the great export trade of In of the Jews so considerable as it once was. affairs. carried on with great vigour and enlightenment the works of construction and improvement thanks Under such advantages contemplated by his foreign predecessors. trees and gardens of great beauty. Limited. ' : The notice was words No clogs or Jews are allowed to bathe here. through thirty-inch pipes. 139 to the talents and energy of the Duke Emanuel de Richelieu. a chartered a notice certain in body in the sea-bathing put up by years ago. in a great measure to the privileges of a free port. H.R. rendered secure by a breakwater initiated or designed by Sir Charles Hartley. Eleven years later.000. being carefully filtered. of Odessa had grown from nine to twenty-five thousand. the Duke of Edinburgh. The combination of Russian.SOUTH chiefly RUSSIA. to the disabilities under which the made for the be should allowance Jews have so long struggled in Russia. Formerly enveloped in clouds of fine dust. established in patronage of H. and with an export trade now valued at ten Its splendid millions sterling. Odessa has now an atmosphere pure and bright. a French emigrf. Greek and Jewish sharpness that prevails at Odessa has not on the whole been favourable to the employment of foreign The Greek element has. least fifteen Their crews 1875 by reacling-room. the population It is now 240. harbour. city residence at Odessa as Governor-General of New Russia.

CHAPTER THE CRIMEA AND is VIII. largely teeming with corn. consisting of about nine thousand square miles. no portion of the of surface of the globe more adapted mankind than the Russian empire. for Russia's network of railways. subject to similar rule may be said. while many of its incidents must be fresh in the memory of the middle-aged. and government. from its having been the battle-field of the last war in which England has many continue to live. to a cir- THERE homogeneity cumstance territory . the Crimean peninsula. from the of its extension over so an almost boundless of the expanse of race level and yet. Like that part of the Russian continent with which r connected by the narrow isthmus of Perecop. OF THE TENTH OR ELEVENTH CENTURY IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. energetically proceeded w ith throughout the empire.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. although all it many diversities human are brought into near contact. CAUCASUS. ST. customs and religion. even though studiously strategic. speaking their own tongue and own been engaged with a great European power. still do apart. journey over the Crimea and the Caucasus the subject The Crimea has a special interest for Englishmen of this generation. except where the Tauric range. is being . is one vast steppe. extending over a distance of forty-five miles. it is . as we shall discover in our observing their of this chapter. PETERSBURG. In those days the Crimea was a somewhat distant land whereas we may now pack up our traps and set foot at Sevastopol on the sixth day after leaving Charing Cross.



oak. with luscious pastures. while here constructed through a wealth of vegetation. sights by In front rise the bold cliff. Lower down. where the irregular declivities pine juniper project into the sea. we from time to time pass masses of gigantic blocks of granite thrown up at various periods by the convulsions of Nature. at which point there suddenly bursts on the view From and there from fissures in the rocks strike forth again the and or the beech. and beyond is Gaspra. which afforded so we many good through valley. embedded in the midst of sumptuous cultivation and as we proceed. and the fir and beech which attain a very large size. The cypress and magnolia are beautiful in their development. and cornfields with green hedges. The first genuine Tartar village is Kikeneis. and of the Emperor. copses. which begins in April and continues to Excellent carriages and good saddle-horses facilitate excursions . shaping the most fantastic of sea-boards. during the bathing-season. with vegetation varied suggestive 143 and rising to ensures climate beyond by the description. even some of the luxuries things. poplar. reminding one much of an English land- ot (carriage) road. to our beleaguering troops. lilies geranium and orchids. the as the Countess de la Mothe. juniper. was better known. a place to which three ladies repaired. maple. the indigenous trees comprising the Tauric pine. but all surrounded by perfectly fascinating scenery. yew. the seat of the late Prince Woronzoff. an altitude of three thousand to four thousand feet. At Yalta we are in the most fashionable watering-place in the South of Russia. in the affair of the diamond necklace of Marie Antoinette.. who was publicly whipped for being stances. in the reign of Alexander I. Here the Tartar villages lie embosomed in the midst of truly lovely scenery. Peter). ash. lorded over the Ai Petri precipitous heights by majestic (St. Starting from Balaclava. One of those purpose of converting the Tartars to Christianity. Baidar the towards the Baidar one of the grandest that it is possible to a offered combination of mountain. to the inhabitants on the declivities that slope to the sea a of the and prolific Riviera.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. where two Wellingtonife gigantece planted in 1869 by the Prince and Princess of Wales are shown. none attractive in their architecture. this valley the road leads over a spur Gate. at the first west pass extreme of the the range. and Mishor. and beautiful region in close proximity to the sea. are seen from the road. the peonia. crocus . Woronzoff possession of life. veronica. elm. and the banks are seen covered with the of the valley. its comfortable hotels and luxurious clubs attracting the wealthy from for the all parts November. and sweet-pea. are within a few miles of each other. the road is brinks. under different circumladies. Countess Guacher. brooks. at Livadia. concerned The residences of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. sturdy pines and junipers looking like tufts of verdure as they overhang the perilous scape. Alupka. and violet. conceive.



up the smiling valleys, horsemen being enabled to visit the interior of the Yalta is peninsula by crossing the passes above Derekyuy or Uchan-su. the westernmost point of the wine-growing district, which includes Massandra, Partenite, where is a church of the eighth century, Gurzuf. and Alushta at the eastern end of the range, from which village the carriage-road turns sharp away from the coast, and leads direct to Simpheropol, the capital. The Russians are very proud of the wines grown on these shores, but connoisseurs prefer the wines of France and Germany. The yield, including the produce



Sudak on another

million gallons,

part of the coast, consists of Bordeaux,

amounts annually to about three Burgundies, Hocks, Madeira, and

some sweet wines
times have nations fought for, and disputed, the narrow classic as the scene of the strip of territory possession wanderings of Ulysses because of the golden harvests to be gathered from over the hills, and of its own even temperature. History asserts that the




Cimmerians were the first inhabitants of whom so little is known they were succeeded by the Tauri replaced, seven centuries before the
; ;









supplied their



from what had become known as the granary of Greece.' Then came the Huns, who were succeeded by the Goths, the earliest Christian settlers, and they held possession until the proud Republic of Genoa sent forth her galleys laden with men and arms to seize, if
during several

upon so












as Caffa,


settlements, appointing

subsequently every other point of vantage along consuls or governors, establishing

r*M .,.,jji &





an extensive and powerful hierarchy, and at the same time constructing those Sudak, Theodosia, and Balaclava, of which splendid defences at excite the of every passing traveller. to admiration remain enough to the south coast for the benefit of sea-bathing Visitors who throng travel by rail to Simpheropol, the chief town, and thence continue their
journey either

by way of Sevastopol, or take the but the more favoured route to Alushta


carriage-road already via Odessa, where

bi-weekly steamers convey passengers to Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia, and Kertch, continuing the voyage to the ports of the Caucasus. It was near Eupatoria that the British and French forces landed, on
I4th September,
1854, not to evacuate the peninsula until July,

1856, during



which period were fought the decisive battles on the Alma and Chernaya, at Balaclava and on the heights of Inkermann, and the fortress of Sevastopol was evacuated after a lengthened siege and bombardment. The country between Eupatoria and Sevastopol has been compared by travellers to that around the Dead Sea, owing to its sterile and uninviting aspect, but the Saki mud baths in those parts attract numerous patients suffering from rheumatism and diseases of the skin. The Bay of Sevastopol, four miles in length and nearly one mile at its widest part, is one of the securest harbours in the world, having an almost uniform depth of ten fathoms. The handsome town which stood on the of hill and the extended to the water's edge, was completely destroyed slope during the war, and has only of late years commenced to recover from its calamities, for it has again been decreed a naval, military, and commercial port and station, while the railway gives an immense impetus to export trade. The hotels are good, and guides are obtainable for visiting the sites of the several camps, batteries, and battle-fields, which, in a few years, will be inaccessible to the traveller, by reason of those localities becoming
enclosed within







the warriors


during the siege, they were laid within small enclosures inside the divisions and batteries of attack and defence in which they were serving, so that


evacuated by the contending parties it was seen to be dotted with numberless cemeteries, of which one hundred and twenty-six were inside the British lines. The Russians and French early availed themselves of facilities afforded for removing their dead to grounds

the land was

and raising to their memory mausoleums which remain objects of veneration, even to the destructive Tartar herdsmen, who persisted, year after year, in inflicting every kind of damage upon the memorials of our own dead until at length the reproaches of travellers of all nations and creeds stirred to action a small body of Englishmen,
specially set apart for the purpose,

with supported by the Prince of Wales monuments have been removed from the





our soundest

cemetery, called Cathcart's, after Inkermann the walls of the old

scattered enclosures to the largest the gallant officer of that name who fell at

are levelled, and the graves covered with two to three feet of earth, so that in a few years the very sites



be forgotten.


After a length of time the lab'ring swains, turn the turf of those unhappy plains,

Shall rusty piles from the ploughed furrows take. * * * * * *

Amazed at antique titles on the stones And mighty relics of gigantic bones.'


Quite near to Sevastopol stood the ancient city, Khersonesus, founded Grecian colonists seven centuries before Christ, and of whom it is





their independence,

and owed

their prosperity

state of civilisation during the space of one thousand years to the free institutions they enjoyed, and to competence for self-government. This

and high

became city to enjoy its



Russian Prince

empire, continuing, however, until taken municipal institutions, by siege by the Vladimir, who restored it to the empire as one of the conreceiving


of the





be seen

Christianity and built the church, the in the crypt of the cathedral lately

Vladimir marriage. foundations of which are








Khersonesus as

being a flourishing city



features of its neighbourhood exquisite detail the is the student able to verify with extraordinary minuteness so that coasts, most exact of geographers, and fix the graphic delineation of that

day, and describes in and of the adjoining




upon the


so delightfully illustrated by honest

In the Eight miles from Khersonesus, says Strabo, is Symvolon-limen. is mentioned as but it the of we it as the know Odyssey port Lsestrigons,










L 2


the plain which was the scene of the famous cavalry charge under Lord Cardigan. since it was the only port oi debarkation for all our materiel of war. should occasion arise. Their children are fair to look upon age. The road from haddock. is of dyeing and uniting their eyebrows with a straight dark their finger. affluent are These Tartars are very indolent. shores of the Black Sea. and occasionally their teeth. as a rule. that lies ensconced amidst luxuriant gardens founded and vineyards reaching to the sea. different aspect to the sterile surroundings north of the cliff by which it is The apartments that were occupied by Florence Nightingale sheltered. the cooking department and guest-chamber apart on the being ground floor. . and at all times willing to welcome the belated or worn-out traveller. because the larger the display. but equally removed from the fanaticism of Mahometanism. and one respectfully preserved. entirely from those of the men. for the the during remembrance of that lady Sevastopol is Khans. obelisk in the tenth century. houses of the mnrzas. stricter is Sunnites than their co-religionists on the south coast. For instance. nevertheless the females do not retain their good looks in adult whilst the practice line. In their cottages the women's apartments are on an upper story. . etc. George. silver. during which period it is agreed among them that no festivities shall take place. are Greeks. miles from Bakhchisarai. and well furnished with mattresses and pillows of every hue.148 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and the females are not in the habit of holding monogamists. bream.and toe-nails. and never think of learning a trade they work in their gardens and orchards from the end of May to the third week in August. and for the rest of the year they remain idle. they are. the floors are covered with expensive Turkey carpets. now marked by an and a branch road to the right leads to the Monastery of St. the cleanly more In the supposed to be the circumstances of the inmates.. and a species of pilchard. mackerel. Sevastopol to Balaclava almost skirts. and the of the sole safe haven for our shipping. the latter freely decorated with an abundance of towels embroidered in gold. the last capital of the thirty of the largest towns inhabited entirely by Tartars. nor do they hesitate to receive aliens in their houses. war are shown by the monks with unaffected satisfaction. although intercourse with others. their staining certainly not to and advantage. Some of the Genoese defences of the British fourteenth century remain. the delight of the ancients. and of England too. as everywhere else on the occupation has disappeared. . or nobles. upon which are spread reclining mattresses and bolsters in satin or velvet. of the Genoese. but nearly every vestige The inhabitants. and coverlets richly embroidered in gold. here engaged in the pursuit of fishing and salting their gains for import the sea at this part abounding in turbot. or silk. they do not wear the yashmak. locked harbour. are They hospitable. or veil. its inviting situation presenting a very . on the left.



be married, he goes about for three days with a handkerchief over his head, so placed as to conceal his face, for he is a man ami the bride during that same period remains with shame
a Tartar


' ;



screened off
body. mother's


in a darkened room, quite ready to sob if spoken to by anythe wedding-day, the bride, closely veiled, takes her place at her side in a carriage, a pile of gaily-coloured handkerchiefs being on

the seats in front, one of which

given by the mother as a wedding favour



who may approach

it moves left arm, along, in which that in other the relatives carriages following silently, turn out a the is the bride. Should the procession pass through people village, and stretch a rope across the road, as is the custom in the Vosges, and

the kerchief round his

to offer his congratulations and joins the procession as

that friend ties

slowly and

but there is no spirit in the procompel the bride to pay her footing And when the not one merry shout ceedings, no fun, no cheering, no bride finally alights at the door of her future home, she is seized by a crowd of women who are in waiting, and dragged or even carried into the house and de.'/.mi. ^j :.\l rA v \ j liverecl to the 'happy man,' after which
; !






exciting, but


immediately had assembled. Bakhchisarai
work, useful

noiseless scene, the guests disperse as silently as they





and ornamental,



supplies Tartar continues



his tastes,

be very remaining perfectly indifferent

every description of improvement intro duced from without, whether in manuto




trappings, centuries.
his native



and so we agriculture the same kind of shoes or slippers, belts, cushions, horseas have been in use amongst this people during many

The Tartar does not despise even cutlery, now also manufactured at

the old flint-lock gun, and prefers Bakhchisarai, but formerly made


Karasu-bazar, a place which, in its prosperity, used to turn out as many 400,000 sword blades annually, chiefly for use in the Khan's army, but also for export to the Caucasus. The great attractions of Bakhchisarai are the places of interest within
Jews' fortress,' on the easy distance, such, for instance, as Chufut-Kaleh, summit of a rock, said to have been a stronghold since 460 B.C., and the cradle of the Karaim, a sect of Israelites opposed to the Talmudist Jews, by whom they are looked upon as heretics. The Karaim reject all tradition and Rabbinical writings, adhering solely to the Old Testament, whence



Karaim, or readers readers of Holy Writ the plural designation, Kara, a reader. They esteem the high moral teaching of Jesus Christ,

no part, accusing more they took but they look for of having shed innocent blood especially the Pharisees the coming of the Messiah from the house of David, and for the rebuilding The Karaim are energetic and industrious, and hold the of the Temple.






where they number about 5000. Their largest part of trade in the Crimea, as much as thou wouldest, desire that do canst not 'If thou is precept

thou mayest do as much


thou art able to perform.'

The Karaim



the foundation of their sect from the period of the Maccabees, in the second of the century B.C., when traditional lore was introduced to the prejudice books of Moses but, according to the Rabbinists, who form the larger


of Jews, their reputed founder was one Anan-ben-David (Hannassy), Anan of the race of Betzur, in the eighth century of the Christian era. the since ever has been which a at erected great Jerusalem, synagogue Such centre of the Karaim, who acknowledge his successors as their head.














Turkey hold


Greek, and




It is computed that there are from 50,000 to 60,000 Karaim in various parts of the globe. At the foot of the is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, a Jews' fortress

the Arabic.



cemetery of great antiquity, in which every Karai'm would wish to be buried, and wherein is pointed out, with pride, the grave of Isaac Sangaris (A.D. The countless tomb-stones 767), who converted the Khazars to Judaism.
are very varied in form, some being in the shape of a sarcophagus, others like coffins or kysts, but the more remarkable are finished off with head

and foot


itself is pierced with a number of Katch-kalen, Cherkess-kerman, etc., provided, with reclining places, corn-pits, water-tanks, chimneys and other conveniences formed out of the solid rock originally, in all probability, together with similar the The more numerous localities, many dwellings of the wild Tauri. of these cave habitations are at Tepe-kerman, but the more remarkable are









near the summit of Mangup, where one chamber measures twenty-one feet by seventeen feet. The citadel of Mangup was


principal defence of the Goths of their prince, within its


and of the


still remains standing a wall, believed to be of the fifteenth century. Near Bakhchisarai are two pillars of calcareous rock of striking appearance, a liisns natures. The




her village, her daughter pursued her to bring her back, when suddenly the would-be apostate was turned to stone for wishing to desert the true faith,

was once a woman who desiring to become a Christian


whereupon the daughter, herself became petrified






Travelling in the Crimea, as in all steppe country, is dreary work, for the beds of the larger water-courses they cannot be called rivers are almost arid, not presenting even the appearance of those

summer and autumn

verdant meandering lines exhibited by the prolific orchards on the banks of such smaller streams as the Alma and Belbek, orchards from which Russia
annually supplied with a large variety of most excellent apples and pears In these streams are taken trout, something like ,200,000. roach, and dace, and salmon are speared at their estuaries, cray-fish being

to the value of

also abundant, but chiefly in pools and ponds. bustard, attains a large size and is in great


bird of the

steppe, the

profoundly of his mortal him rifle and who has to stalk with bullet man, shy enemy, unless he prefers milder sport such as quails, pigeons, snipe, and partridges, all plentiful enough in season, as are many kinds of waterfowl on the coast, especially to the north-east and north-west.

demand, but he



was a



wretched village Stary-Krim, in the east of the peninsula, called Solghat, that could count 100,000 men on a war

at Ak-mesjid, now Simpheropol, the chief town footing, the viceroy resided has become the neutral ground of Russian, It and seat of government

Greek, Israelite, Armenian, and Tartar traders, and of gipsies, who meet here periodically over and over again, but as if they had never met before, deporting themselves with perfect indifference towards each other, scarcely exchanging a nod of recognition as they jostle one another in the crowded bent market-place or bazars, and avoiding all mutual intercourse, but each on the hardest possible bargain with his neighbour. Occasionally, a





his appearance, his dealings, not

more reserved than the




boisterous, setting value upon time, and if not respected he is at least

town, the chief and central mart, roads converge from every part of the peninsula, its caravans of double-humped camels, where the railway has not yet been


introduced, being in constant communication with the south coast and

Kertch, the city and fortress at the extreme eastern point of the Crimea, where we must now hasten as being our port of embarkation for the Caucasus, of which there is so much

having regard to its extent and the interest ever excited by that
to say,

fascinating land. Kertch, as




peninsula, has a remarkable history,

like something time the from twenty-four centuries, when it first received a name that of Panticapceum to the clay when a handful of the allied forces effected a landing in 1855, to occupy and to hold! A unique feature in its neighbourhood are the countless barrows that extend in every direction dismal-looking hillocks, the silent and imperishable monuments



wealthy people, who, after they laid their dead, These tumuli or barrows vary in size, and thus piled the earth over them. hundred feet in one of the some when, largest, measuring one years ago, direction height and one hundred and fifty feet in diameter, was explored by of the Russian Government, it was discovered to be the tomb of a Scythian us by scrupulous left to king, verifying in every particular the account Herodotus, who relates that when a king died, his wife and attendants were

an ancient, great,


ceded as it had been against the 1799. page 33. perhaps by Venetian colonists in the fifteenth century. The result denuded condition of Circassia. Circassia oppression which drove no less than 250. conciliated Conciliation. etc. St. however. 153 strangled and his horses killed. nation's will. confirmed the annexation of his dominions to Russia The To possess Georgia. his weapons. was not to keep it. many of which are pronounced to be the most perfect specimens in These of the high condition of art Greece in those early times. are sometimes attended with the most unsatisfactory results. upon the supplication of that monarch that he might be defended against his enemies. the superb Kertch gallery at the Hermitage. and recovered out of this very sepulchre. the brave mountaineers offering. that they might be laid in his tomb. after extensive and toilsome cuttings. of which we now take leave. and oppression was of Circassians to seek expatriation to Turkey. J O and are here there with the some natives that remain. Petersburg. when he discovers. the same stubborn resistance. carefully preserved. at some early period. warriors. that visitors their trappings. protection afforded by the Emperor Alexander I. with the Straits of Kertch.000 of four tribes of . to wit. to the King of Georgia. and bid farewell to the Crimea. who. fourfold they appear Large as is the on the opposite with the lasting necropolis of Phanagoria. process of subjection was shortly commenced. the remains of the king and to attention to the number shore of opening of tumuli tumuli around Kertch. But besides the tombs of kings. rendering abortive many a campaign. and priestesses have been brought to light. as is known. year after year. the complete subjugation far from it. excavations are conducted during two or three months every year by a member of the Archaeological Commission of St. the country into which is we perceptible in the are first about to pass after crossing lands. and the vessels of gold. silver. directed their Petersburg. will queen. happy and of vegetation O habitations in various stages of decay. electrum. in search of treasure. a name that vies in its antiquity Panticapaeum. of attendants. disputing each acre of ground with so much <_ tenacity. it was soon discovered. though outwardly restored. unless the seventy nations spoken of by in ' ' Strabo as holding the fastnesses in the o great mountain chain were either or subdued. that the tombs have been rirled.' resorted to chiefly in the more accessible and densely-populated territory. whose labours. Interspersed human German . however. those of victors. and a profusion of exquisite golden ornaments and trinkets. together with himself. that were bronze. find therein. that not until the year he was able to announce to the 1863 did the 'the commander-in-chief feel that Emperor But the country was not pacified Caucasus.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. where tracts of once cultivated now present the distressing sight of tangled growths homes. recognized by the golden wreaths that had adorned their brows. was out of the and so the question. of horses and It has been already noted on golden vessels.

o 20. and a few Molokane. the back and a tall across is man possesses. The late Alexander II. ' : make to thyself images. of the Caucasus. in 1792. consists of a single-breasted but reaching almost to the ankles. chiefly as an escort to the closely at the with a a . maintained at half a million. and they are now free to go whithersoever they will but how are these poor people to give up their homes. garment.000 of those new warrior settlers consisted in barring all egress from of stations that extended first fortified line the mountains. Catherine's from having been founded by the sovereign of that name and bestowed. by means of a ' ' where they united with the descendants of the Grebenski The predominant Cossacks. our Lord having said that He and His are not of this world and they dissent from the Orthodox Church. long since Cossacks remain has adopted the dress of the even from boyhood. Little of the is that still Russians. having on either breast a row of ten A rifle. or Dukhobortsy. sheep-skin hat finished slung off at its summit with a piece of coloured cloth completes the costume. by which they mean Thou shalt images. true to the orthodox faith Caucasian mountaineers. who refuse to recognise any kind of temporal authority. since God's command to Moses was in these words ' ' . settlements. tongue has never been forgotten by them. with whom they are not to be confounded.' From the Molokane (milk-drinkers) sprang the Uukhobortsy. subsequently known as the Catherine mistrusted their power and influence. good agriculturists. each of a size to hold a cartridge. Russia.' as ' distinguished from all others. whence their origin . 'Wrestlers with the Spirit' as the name implies. and tempted them to the The first service of some Kuban with o grants of land and other l privileges. who style themselves the Real Spiritual Christians. ' on the principle that all men are equal and a monarchy unnecessary. for a few are stationed in each principal town. The number of Cossacks in Transcaucasia being very limited. in in all parts like a frock-coat. territory. removed from them the ban of exile. trustworthy. on the Zaporogian. Grebenski continuing to preserve their identity with the natives of Great and although the whole of this imposing force. whom they indiscriminately call Worldly. treatment of animals. together with the adjacent Black Sea Cossacks. the vernacular whose and to the customs of their forefathers.' etc. the type amongst the Zaporogians to Vladikavkaz. because the true Church consists of an assemblage of such as are chosen by God to walk in the Light and Life without the use of any distinguishing signs or symbols.. and sword. sectarians originally deported hither by Alexander I. and specially district remarkable is for their kind The which chief town literally.' Ekaterinodar. of ' the Kouban gift. their cattle now ? They are steady and not . tightened only belt from which are suspended dagger. a name signifies. and frequently pistol. waist.154 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The dress so universally worn by the male sex. their land. which every or twelve sockets. .



except well-wooded hills. Being the mother church in the Caucasus. Caucasus. with seldom a roof to cover him other than the vault of heaven but the ordinary traveller is likely to encounter difficulties and delays that he would prefer to avoid. Setting their horses at full gallop. Pitzuncla. are the Abkhases. and occupying about one hundred miles of the coast in the Black Sea. who have enjoyed from time immemorial. and sitting astride facing the horse's tail. but north of the great meet with the Kabardines. . and is a striking object to passing vessels. reached escaped the general destruction. he will to enter into proceed eastwards. In a Mingrelian too. and extending some way inland irom the sea. equally dashing horsemen. landscape like we are as struck at the the aspect afforded by the numerous whitewashed Mingrelians. now addicted to thieving when the opportunity is afforded them. and wolf. with the imaginary enemy fire as if at an enemy left heel resting on their steed's hind quarter. an and trained in like manner from irregular force. indolent and lawless race. the Earther south. remarkable as being the place to John Chrysostom was banished at the instance of the Empress Eudoxia although the exile never strangers. box. Christianity was here introduced by Justinian. has been thoroughly restored of late years. are making of wine from their . early youth in those singular exercises and break-neck evolutions for which the Cossacks of the Caucasus have become so famous. a noble race. had the Abkhases not destroyed them in their struggles against the Russians. is the principality of Mingrelia. then Pityus. where we again tread classic ground. every such edifice being occupied and One church.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and in pursuit. anciently given to piracy. Practically. amongst many others. and plenty of smaller game. continued to be the seat of the Catholicos of Abkhasia until the twelfth century. governor of 157 are performed by Chapars. is to throw their hat and rirle to the ground. and useful breeders of cattle. hyaena. incurably cottages their they in dot neighbours whom the given to indolence. keep up a rapid fire. their duties . they will stand on the saddle and fire all round at an or throw the body completely over to the right. the horse's fullest speed. at Pitzunda on converted by the latter into a military post. To the south of the Circassians. the first amongst the Circassians blood of the they are the friendly relations with Russia to ' ' . hospitable to strangers. A favourite feat. and pick them up whilst going at the province. of being an the reputation. thoroughly domesticated. or turn clean round. who constructed many churches that would have been notable specimens of Byzantine architecture. his destination having Abkhases are at present heathens. The we have just quitted. Should the traveller elect range. which the coast. inasmuch as our wanderings have brought us to the /Ea of Circe and the Argonauts. wheel. for they are determinedly inimical to Their mountains abound in forests of magnificent walnut and where the enthusiastic sportsman will find the bear.

or prince. after the disposal of the body with over the grave. but in most their communities married. we should find ourselves amongst the well-known military station a very wild and singular people. say from to near its water-shed Sougdicli. in miles of the upper at no part exceedingare cut off from all and width. although a formal submission in 1833. in drunkenness the clay ending Christianity and Svanneti by the sovereigns of Georgia as early as the tenth century. strange rites. A MINGRELIAN PEASANT. and they thenceforth become man and burials. with their The Dadian. They fifty occupy some forty or the Ingur. hill-side and grass plot are literally covered in every forest with all that is most lovely and grove. is of great beauty and wildrecent traveller. most profuse vegetation. meadow. and bank.I 5 8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and if we ascended a journey easily accomplished on horseback. whose farther complete it they made valley of ten miles subjugation dates back no may be said than 1876.' writes a snow. utters a sentence two. when a couple other at about to be hips their garments funerals are attached each the by the who . and wife or at at several villages in the valley are churches of comparatively recent date . They may certainly be included amongst the handsomest people in Transcaucasia. well-defined features and usually raven black hair. own priests. the mourners abandon themselves to feasting in first upheld was and brawls. if they may be to so designated. light is Since required not obstructed. the Svanni. and grand beyond description 4 ' . is the wealthiest of the dispossessed rulers : the foresight of his predecessor and his own European training having taught him the clanger of disposing of land and squandering the proceeds. Between Mingrelia and Abkhasia courses the Ingur. in con- sequence of the passes being blocked with The scenery in this valley. the earth is thus gorgeously arrayed. minister. amid the ness. outside communication between the beginning of September and the end of May. every imaginable flower is seen in its wild state. and all undergrowth even. the Svanni have been to keep to the observances of the Russian Church. continue is to officiate after ancient custom.' the ordination of a priesthood in 1859. indeed wherever the pure air of heaven and its divine . rather than preserving the property and contenting himself with a smaller income. prolific through they are content to live on the produce of the interposition of a beneficent Providence rather than to any agricultural diligence on their part. their orchards. vineyards otherwise abundant . For or instance.

The Svanni fast on clo Wednesdays and Saturdays. equal to the amount ~o to ^80. with which each cottage is provided. used as a place of refuge in The Russians have days of feud by a member or even an entire family. fully sixty feet in height. the erect A VILLAGE IN SVANNETI. the services being conducted mechanically by Russian or Georgian priests in a tongue quite unknown to the people. Murder is rife. but there being no be made up in cattle or land. that the price of blood shall be in of the murderer has to forfeited. money A very notable feature in their villages are the towers of defence. but are ever ready to a tall staff surmounted by a do commit depredations upon not They steal from strangers. and keep Lent without knowing why they so . life inviolable law. and yet they will cross as a caution to trespassers. been careless and doubtlessly prudent in rarely undertaking to attack the Svanni in their isolated strongholds. but '59 they remain empty. filling the churches with the horns as offerings. preferring rather to leave this strange . whose language is a very distinct dialect of the Georgian. crime being met by the one paid or the at six circulation. each other.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. they fix the skulls of animals about the fences and walls of their habitations for the purpose of warding off evil influences. The price of a life is estimated hundred roubles.

a contingency that is certain as the result of frequent deaths through personal animosities. the ancient Phasis. with barley. the hills and their declivities being overspread handsome returns. exported in large quantities. another principality. Batoum. and the destruction of female infant life. its annexation since that has tended in no small degree. the birth of a female child being usually deemed a reproach to its parents. and yielding with .i6o RUSSIAN PICTURES. the great range. we find it bounded on the Rion. and oak the box. intersected somewhat pestiferous but important and good roads through valleys highly cultivated with maize. recent travellers speak in more favourable terms of the but as Svanni. Contrary to earlier experience. and of their hospitality Koshtan-tau. corn. consideration for the property of others there is much yet to south by the River Mingrelia. which flows through the country whence was The Rion divides introduced into Europe the Phasian bird our pheasant. to Russia in 1878. Ozurgheti. where Returning to Mingrelia military station and commercial port. towards the development of the resources of this beautiful country. The upper years by the members valley reason of of its the Ingur has been the brought to notice of late of our having Alpine Club become have starting-point effected the ascent in from of which Elbruz. and other of the highest peaks . of their feelings towards strangers. a is situated from Guria. population to its own gradual extinction. regards their be desired.

the men. but interest. falling from it Archaeologists would delight in an inspection of what remains of the . branch at line. Chemokmedy. through a land of much the historically and pictorially. of the past.E. Imeritia. and is sometimes ornamented with gems. a thin white veil. less frivolous. a glory. to great rate Khytaea. M . silk. where he may tarry for a while may exchange. Passengers from Odessa and the Crimea landing at Batoum find the train in readiness to convey them to Tirlis. fifteen reached in about hours. the traveller in the distance. the residence of great It is the . WEARING THE of ^Etes any PAPANAKY. affect European assuming the bonnet or hat. the train travelling slowly enough. antiquity.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. right. AN IMERITIAN LAI>V. in loose folds. 161 the chief town. a city advantage. the capital of the whole of Transcaucasia. If so inclined. which lies over the front part of the head. The natives pride themselves not a on the distinctness of their nationality. may be de- scribed as consisting of a narrow black velvet band. and is fastened with The headstrinofs under the chin. and worn round the brow like a coronet it is embroidered with gold or silk thread. a small lozenge-shaped piece of leather. attractively situated. cleverly arranged. do not disdain to wear the papanaky. or velvet. are the a Rion station. and Kakhety. like Mingrelia and Guria. the main for which will take him to Kutais. Although many of the well-to-do noted for their fashions in women. to the left is Imeritia. stiffened. beautifully situated little on the banks of the Rion. the chief town of the old kingdom of Imeritia. about six miles distant. chiefly in Georgia. ancient at AN IMERITIAN NOBI. not forgetful that at one period or other their dominion extended over neighbouring territories. dress generally in use amongst females of the upper classes. here beauty. was the residence of the rulers who lie interred at the ancient monastery and episcopal church. On highlands of the old kingdom of Armenia.

R. three thousand and and enterprise. the European. it were well to halt at this station for accommodation fairly good the purpose of visiting the unique rock-cut town. the eleventh as cathedral. the where the wealthy live in well-built nouses of elegant construction An extensive bazaar. to British capital . carrying away An old and equallywith them every movable decoration of value. and but for unpleasantly situated between ranges the River Kur. viz. of a glorious while are separated by streets and lanes. conveniently divided. on the banks of which it is built. as is the entire railway. reached Palace Street and Erivan Square. having doorways. in succession the public gardens. public library. six miles away. By Captain Telfer. and the first is ever constructed of the style now accepted Georgian. tions. native bazaars. after which date it became the sepulchre of the sovereigns of Imeritia. mouldings. palace main guard-house. . law-courts. and is believed to have been the burial-place of the great Queen Thamara. Titiis. situated at the Since plain. the chief seat of Government and one residence of the Governor- thousand souls. beams and pillars. Uplytz-tzykhe. would be almost uninhabitable. and the market-place and Russian view of the city and an interesting sight is obtained from the eminence : .if>2 RUSSIAN PICTURES. which having a population of about hundred of perfectly barren at once brings him to the principal street. presumably for the great. gymnasium. over which are laid the lines of rail by gradients of one in twenty-two feet over a distance of about eight miles a triumph of engineering skill due. where are situated the best From the square three hotels and restaurants. where he passes of the . watered by the Kur and its tributaries. museum. at an altitude of twenty-seven feet. Here is a town there can be no other designation for it conif such a term sisting of public edifices may be employed of large habitaeach being for others. a restoration of the eleventh century. is obtainable. is hills. and yet the whole has been entirely hewn Tradition is replete with incidents in the and shaped out of the solid rock. Between Kutais and TiHis is the Pass of Suram. the traveller crosses the Kur over the Woronzoff Bridge. The Turks destroyed it in 1691. an edifice of in century. and grooves have been cut. the by which time he will have 1 The Crimea and Transcaucasia. and the National Theatre. but faithful historiographers hitherto refrained from endorsing any of the tales that have been handed down by General.N. unquestionably for water-courses. some eight miles off. but which a mixture the Armenian and Byzantine. Having driven through the suburbs on his way from the railway terminus. Governor-General. 1 many The groups are ornamented with cornices. interesting edifice is the Episcopal Church of Genath at Ghelaty. etc. openings for light. limits Beyond this pass the train stops at Gori. the romancers of Georgia. have history of these remarkable excavations. smaller dwellings and and partitions. main thoroughfares lead to as many separate quarters.

and copper-workers. and encloses that most precious Georgia. called the Lezghinka. They love wine and music. or eating and wine-shops. of an evening. friends meet together to join in the national dance. greatly exceeded when. goat. whence rise the confused sounds of human cries and the din from the iron. an allowance. brass. rarely allowing themselves to be depressed by the troubles of life. and presenting the disagreeable appearance of carcases swollen after lengthened immersion in water. in the fourth relic with which the nation was converted to Christianity century nothing less than a cross of vine stems bound with the hair of M 2 .THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. The Cathedral of Zion was formerly the church of the Patriarch of It dates from the fifth century. however. those of one trade congregate together. 163 crowned by the old fortress which immediately overlooks the Asiatic quarter and bazaars. apart from other trades. armourers. As is the custom elsewhere in the East. The Georgians are merry folk. and ever seek to drive away dull care by indulging in their favourite Kakhety two bottles being the usual allowance to a man's dinner. and so are passed a succession of silversmiths in their stalls. buffalo. the wine of the country being kept in or sheep-skins laid on their back. of furriers.

~_.. and are the representatives of one of the most ancient monarchies of the world -. but for the present the line is constructed as far as Akstafa only. Nina. - preached the truth replaced by a Russian ! The patriarchate in all Exarch. whence travellers on their way south have to content themselves with the post-road which goes over the Delijan Pass. over during 1092 the twelve earliest centuries that elapsed from their election. The' palace of the kings has entirely disappeared.. Many of his descendants are in the service of Russia. the St. so that identical with that of respects Russia. patron saint. George XIII. for not a vestige remains.for Bagrations to if the rose .164 RUSSIAN PICTURES. signed his renunciation of the crown the 1 in favour of Emperor Paul in 800. GEORGIAN LADIES. a day railway will convey passengers and goods the entire Some distance from Georgia into Armenia. and died shortly afterwards amid the execrations of his late subjects. and is the Georgian Church may be considered ^-. 7124 feet . who first has long been suppressed. first 587 and allowance be made power in for will interregnums it be found that their reign extended years. for having ignominiously betrayed them.

for Persia ruled here during a but at the bazaars one considerable period until vanquished by Russia meets with other nationalities. Kurds. Greeks. such as Tartars from the steppes. As Georgia is the land of wine and song. fly across Within a short distance of Erivan. looking almost dwarfed by the side of its ' ' mighty neighbour. and probably also his last. the first abode of Noah after he came forth from the ark.' the founder. since his tomb is reverently shown by the inhabitants. As in most Russian towns. ' ' edifice standing within high battlemented walls presenting the appearance of in its treasury one of the most extraordinary of sacred encloses a fortress. or in the broad streets and unpaved quarter laid out by the Russians since their occupation of the province by a boulevard and gardens fair to look upon. is Nahitchevan. At fairly Erivan. even though enlivened . so is Armenia essentially the land of legend and tradition.916 feet above the sea. above the Armenia. the former being the largest and most powerful fortress and the the latter. Kars was finally ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. the cradle of the Gregorian Church. principal arsenal in Transcaucasia was gallantly defended in 1855 by Sir Fenwick Williams and a few British officers. An and frequently cause immeasurable inconvenience to the ordinary traveller. whether in the Persian quarter. relics ! Another priceless brought hither by the Apostle Thaddeus in the year 34 is carried about which relic is the hand of St. long a Turkish fortress town. available by carriage-road. 12. whence a two hours' drive over a good road brings the visitor to the Monastery of Etchmiadzin. in a silver-gilt case. 165 descending. peerless among the mighty works of the Creator. but orders granted to officials or others on duty always take precedence. are Alexandropol and Kars. the identical spear-head with which our Lord's side was pierced. and so called the only-begotten Son of God here descended and appeared to because The convent. The population is Armenian and Persian. but the place is dull enough. and Turkish dealers in search of good horses. and the post-station nearest to the Persian frontier.' in 1829. upon which they will the frontier. where crooked lanes are lined with high the southern slopes into the plains of order for post-horses may be obtained at any post-town. until the garrison was starved into surrender by General Mouravieff. a beautiful Gregory. for which must be held in great part responsible the magnificent mountain that exhibits itself suddenly at a dip in the road Well may the Armenians glory in long before the plains are in sight.840 feet. almost symmetrical in its outlines. and rising to an altitude of 16. who eagerly escort strangers to see it. Lesser Ararat. excellent carriages are obtainable at Erivan. Gregory. the traveller will find good accommodation. Other still more important towns in Armenia. that mask the dwellings within like the defences of a fortress. defying Cossacks and custom officers alike. their Ararat. surnamed the Enlightener. . the largest city in Russian Armenia. . special sea.

to journey pick ourselves up after having retraced our steps by rail to dismal-looking Baku a town of recent approached through a desert of sand and stones. is embarked for transport to the interior Russia by the Volga. being Gospels and devotional works. Baku presents a distinctly picturesque appearance. Numerous refineries. or for conveyance across the Caspian to Central Asia. and the palace of the princes of bygone days old towering above the piled the one above base. town.166 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the wealth of Baku. the sea. on the line between Tiflis and the MSS. purpose of healing the sick and performing other miracles. of where the the houses look as it they were the other and lining the shore new or Russian quarter being at the Modern Baku contains the pretty little bay. Tartar city brought into prominence of late years through the introduction of railways is Elizavetpol. with its sombre numerous minarets. The some early printing-press issue in various parts of the globe. all religious books for the use of Gregorian congregations library contains and from the A Caspian.. worth inspecting. vegetable nor animal life can possibly find an existence. where neither Viewed from NAPHTHA WELLS AT BAKU. at the west end of Baku compose the Black Town. and from being of greystone masonry. constructed of massive blocks of naphtha. some handsome residences and well-paved the principal being the busy quay. where the . plains. citadel. streets. where we must now from the creation. and in it for the is also employed the consecration of the patriarchs. so called from its begrimed condition.

when the opportunity them. they were hustled away some ten years . and cool under fire. who invaded the and carried off females and the young of both these marauders are called. occupy the mountainous region known as Interior Taiil in and Eastern Daghestan mountaineers. ' Then are we the waves that will carry away that sand. for they cannot forget that they were employed by Shamyl to assist him in subduing them. Nominally. selves on the heights. agriculture. because of his prosperity. the Armenian is careless about . are good tacticians. that the Georgian makes merry. 167 Since a remote period has ever enveloped in clouds of the densest smoke. continued to be guarded by fire-worshippers from Yezd in Persia. ungovernable tribe. the richest vineyards being in the Valley of It is with the wine of Alazan. as far as the slopes of the great range. shot down their enemies in scores as they advanced in column up the narrow defiles. giving it the preference over the wine of Mingrelia. Kakhety. a suburb of Baku. because of the many naphtha springs that were constantly burning. in Georgia. until. is the work of its own people. which he owes entirely to his own industry and thrift and from being strictly a trader. who is no favourite among the different populations. three afforded . and.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. more especially the Lesghians. the . The Lesghians. sexes. with the connivance of the Government. After a predatory fight. In Daghestan is Gunib. whilst in truth their religion consists of a love of independence and an unconquerable aversion to Russia. whom the strength of Russia was unequal to subdue during the space of thirty Do the Russians say that they are numerous as the grains of sand ? years. as Lesghians are Mahometans. is and acid. hidden by trees. the foremost and most enterprising trader encountered everywhere being the Armenian. plain from time to time. and Sygnak in Lower. Stretching and even from the shores of the Caspian. this neighbourhood been considered holy by fire-worshippers. The two principal towns in this wine country are Telav in Upper. where still stands the wall constructed by King Heraclius as a defence against the frequent attacks of which thin the mountaineers of Daghestan. The Chentchen are a wild. they call themselves distinction to the Tartars who occupy the declivities and plains. grateful even in the days of Strabo. the vine is successfully cultivated in the Georgian district of Kakhety. ago by the increasing number of speculators engaged in a trade which has now completely driven out of the market all American produce.' said the great Tartar chief when addressing the numerous tribes who placed themselves The mountaineers posted themunder his leadership to repel the invader. and even from India. from the province of Baku. who never fail in their hostility is towards others. some even perpetually indeed. Kakhety. red and white. the last stronghold of the brave Shamyl. which. are second to none in bravery. the fires at Surakan. Georgians are rarely met with outside the confines of their country proper. watered by the river of that name.




years ago only, with their hated neighbours, the Chentchen resorted to an that of amputating the hands of their wounded ancient and cruel custom Other tribes and them to the doors of their dwellings. enemies, nailing and Kysty, the Ingush are scattered to the west of the Chentchen











Chentchen, not a little


singular mixture

Mahometanism, the

of Christianity and Paganism, tinged with talismans they wear about their persons

being inscribed with passages from the


Adjointhe Ingush and Kysty, and near the Kabardines, whose acquaintance made in Circassia, are the Ossets, a numerous tribe to the west of the



Arabic or Persian.

River Terek and in the valley of the Ardon, whose origin and history, long a subject of debate amongst ethnologists, has finally resulted in an almost general admission that the Ossets or Osses are descended from and inhabit the same parts as were anciently peopled by the Alains or Alans, mentioned for the first time by Josephus. The Ossets occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Terek, in the hilly parts where they adjoin the Hefsurs, Ph'tchavy, and Tushines,

rude tribes of puzzling religious tendencies, and exceedingly superstitious. The Hefsurs are a proud and supercilious race, inimical to Russia, as are


and Tushines, so that they rarely quit their impregnable homes in the most inaccessible sites on the mountains, and live much the same life they led a hundred years ago. The great thoroughfare between Transcaucasia and Russia is from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, the terminus of the Moscow-Rostof railway, by way
of the Dariel road, a stupendous engineering success completed in the reign This road winds over a pass 7977 feet above the sea, and is of Nicholas.

and clear for traffic in winter by the Ossets, whose country it which service they are exempt from all taxes. The traverses, post stations are the best in the Caucasus, and the distance, 126 miles, is The first usually accomplished in something less than twenty-four hours. station at which horses are changed after leaving Tiflis is Mz'hett, the site of the most ancient city in Georgia, its first capital, and residence of its
in repair in return for

Pharnawaz, 302-237 B.C. The cathedral, restored in the seventeenth century, in which many monarchs and patriarchs are interred, is worth


For ages was here inspecting as a perfect example of Georgian architecture. preserved the seamless garment of our Lord, the handiwork of the blessed

but unhappily when the Persians overran Georgia, the precious relic Virgin was sent for safe custody to Moscow, where it has remained ever since. From another station on this road is obtained a near and beautiful view


of Kazbek, ascended, twenty years ago, to its very summit, 16,546 feet, by several members of our Alpine Club, notwithstanding local traditions which
assert that the

peak of Kazbek, being a holy



inhabited by a


and that the

man who




by an unseen power

arrested by a storm, and compelled to retrace his steps. of the station the road, keeping the right bank Mr. Douglas D. through the celebrated Dariel Pass, of which











The bold and broken forms of the gigantic mountaineer, says arrest the attention of even the most indifferent observer of The mere fact of the existence of a carriage road is some detraction
' :







had nothing


yet we agreed gorge from a comparison with the finest





defiles of the Alps.'

completed the journey from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, he will have arrived at the depot and point of transit for all goods brought by rail from Russia, and there transferred, for conveyance to the Transcaucasian provinces, to clumsy, unwieldy carts or vans drawn by those in charge of the caravans never being in a hurry, horses or oxen as to when they start, or when they arrive at their indifferent completely destination, and rejoicing in a lengthened stay at Mlety station, after having accomplished the most toilsome part of the distance the ascent and descent Vladikavkaz was founded in 1785 on the site of an Osset of the pass.




and became the headquarters and chief military depot of the Russians during their lengthened struggle for supremacy with the stoutit is now the chief town and seat of government for the hearted hillmen The population province of Kuban, and still an important military station.

of Circassians, Armenians, and Russians, and a few Ossets at The chief industries are the bazaars, for the natives made off long ago. the manufacture of silver and gold lace, arms, burkas, the Caucasian's allThe hotels are fairly good, but there weathers cloak, silver ornaments, etc.

made up

being nothing at Vladikavkaz itself sufficiently inviting to encourage a longer stay than is absolutely necessary, the following choice of routes lays before He may post through Eastern Caucasus and embark at the stranger.
or take the Petrovsk for Astrakhan and the tedious voyage up the Volga route to en Moscow or travel rail to Novorossisk by railway to Rostof
; ;

on the

Black Sea,



Ekaterinodar, post thence to

embark Tanian and


following that line as cross the straits to Kertch.
and Bashan.



Travels in the Central Caucasus







in fact,

have, within the compass of a very few pages, to sketch the leading features of Asiatic Siberia, which, having an area of nearly five million English square miles, is almost three million square miles larger than It comprises, the whole of European Russia, including Poland and Finland.

one thirteenth part of the globe. On the other hand, the population, sparsely scattered over eight provinces, is scarcely that of London, for it amounts to little more than four millions, giving less than one inhabitant per

For thousands of mile, against forty-one in European Russia. miles Siberia has a northern seaboard on the Arctic Ocean, and an eastern







degrees Europe, and on the south its limits come into contact with the empire of China and with the dominions of Russia in Central Asia. A gloomy desert of frozen tundras, or mossy boglands, on the north,

of latitude.


Sea of Okhotsk that embraces nearly the west, the Ural Mountains separate


the rest of this vast country is in some parts green and fertile as the prairies and pampas of America, in others mountainous, with alpine lakes, glaciers, and snow-clad peaks. The principal rivers are the Ob, the Enisei, and the Lena, which, after being fed by numerous tributaries, discharge their mighty waters into the Arctic Ocean, on points of the seaboard practically inaccessible



shipping for the steady and reliable prosecution of trade. Railways will soon be constructed to bring the rich produce of the great Siberian rivers to a westerly harbour on the Polar Ocean, more free from ice than the fjords,

On the south, Siberia has a convenient waterbays, in the Kara Sea. way into the Gulf of Tartary, namely, the great Amur river, with its tributary, the Usuri, which


diplomatically acquired from China in 1859 and 1860. So far, Asiatic Siberia





that from Perm, on the European side of





Ekaterinburg and Tiumen, it will not be long before the Ural chain is





southerly point Great Siberian



which was opened as far as Ufa,




Omsk, Tomsk, Kras-

and Irkutsk. and the Russian coast on the Pacific are




railways or under


points of construc-






rality of our readers only as a land of penal or


from early impressions conveyed by



or the Exiles of Siberia, and

more recently from the reports of
to the Russian convict system, be said to be a land flowing with

who have devoted
in the



Siberia, except

extreme north,


milk and honey,' requiring only the energy of man and the resources of civilization to raise it to a condition of great affluence. The sparseness of its population is an obstacle which greater facilities of communication are rapidly removing.


strong tide of immigration has set


from Central and Southern Russia,

even towards the distant basins of the Amur and the Usuri, where the Russian peasant finds himself in contact, not with bears, but with tigers. The natives whom the Russians have displaced as masters of Siberia are no longer to be dreaded, and their numbers are dwindling rather than
Ethnographically, the aboriginal races are grouped as the Arctic, roaming on the frozen lands of the Arctic Circle, from the mouth of the Lena









with settlements also at the


Amur and

the island of Sakhalin



of Samoyedes and of Ostiaks, and other Finnish tribes,






north-western part of Siberia, principally between the Ural

Mountains and the Enisei, from the shores of the





Enisei, from which, however, they are cut off by strong Slav

sources of the



the districts


E nisei sk and Kras-

noyarsk; the Titrkish, which
supplies fishing and hunting Yakuts to a large tract of

country intersected by the Lena, and nomadic Khirghizes,

Nogais and Bashkirs,


west of the



represented by Buriats

Mongol, and

Kalmucks, who, starting as a narrow ethnological wedge from the Arctic shore east


tribes of the

extend southwards until they meet the Tunguz and Lamut MancJiu race, dominant from the head of the Sea of Okhotsk to the Russian outpost at Vladivostok, on the Gulf of Tartary. The origin of Russian dominion in this part of Asia is worth tracing. In the most remote times, the Slavs, and mainly the Novgorodians, had

and other aborigines. Early in the sixof teenth century the Muscovite Tsars. '75 commercial intercourse with the tribes settled on Ural Mountains. . and Tiumen. but with the loss over half Cossacks crossed drowned in who the had Ural.' of the that to lands within of the ' the basin ' Ob. long but the construction of fortified Cossack posts at the confluence of resisted rivers. A Cossack robber band under Ermak followed in the footsteps of the and trappers. Tobolsk. at portages. on the Irtysh. of which site of the the principal mart was at Isker. were forced to later abandon a conquest which was virtually effected Muscovite The Tsars thus became masters of the Transby troops. which had exploited long been of the Stroby agents which family. having annexed the wide dominions the Asiatic slopes of the Great are known to have Novgorod. and capital present city of Tobolsk. in suc- ceeded of capturing of the Isker. and established their power at Sibir (the name which the Russians gave to Isker). and in mountain passes. The Buriats on the Angara. and on a second expetraders dition. ganoff derived great riches from its Siberian trade. demoralized also by the danger of their position in the face of inimical native tribes. the Koriaks. in 1581. or Siberia. A SIBERIAN MERCHANT IN WINTER TRAVELLING DRESS. Kanda. eventually reduced them to . was known to ancient Arab merchants and missionaries. and traders from Novgorod the descended the tributary streams of the Ob river in search of furs.SIBERIA. style to began Lords themselves ' of the territories of the ( )1> and is the say. a little above the a Tartar of the was Isker kingdom. after Ermak was soon and the the Irtysh. Cossacks. Ural territory.

were exiled in batches to Siberia. have spoken. like a human criminal. or ears. political. and ultimately. submission. just annexed to Muscovy. on Chinese territory. Amur was gained. the first bell of the town of Uglitch. victims of Court intrigue. in Russian Government. by skilful diplomacy and the Chinese Government made a formal cession. Tobolsk became the central seat of government. in isolated forts. Dimitri. of which the population was later increased by Dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. which was formally banished in 1591 to Pelym. near Tobolsk. in Russians and Siberia. in 1860. for the offence of ringing out an alarm while the emissaries of Prince the usurper. and portage connecting that river with De Castries During the Crimean War the left bank of the two extremities of the Bay. are now in the Mongols and Tartars inflicted such well-nigh suffering. Many of them. But a desire to entire possess an outlet ' in the in Pacific for the huge continent of Siberia led the establish. of the territory through which the Celestial empire is now dangerously vulnerable. and by the small remnant of the tragedy took place. 'trading the mouth of the Amur. The plains of Mongolia. having been swept away by a flood. as in the law having thus been the remainder was we have already said. preponderate century. Isker. Towards macious Little Russians Streltsi whom the most Peter the Great had spared. . in the Gulf of Tartary. or perpetrators of fraud and crime against the State. of teenth whom we exiles. began to supply Siberia with a new class of exiles noblemen and ex-favourites. by successive established a semi-Asiatic form hands of those on ineffaceable injury race. were Ivan the Terrible. and Cossacks. distant confines of his empire. to lose its tongue and ears. . whom and the of government at Moscow. to which we are indebted for much information in a concise form. nose. Some of their descendants are 1 banks of the Lena. to at 1851. Strange to say. and sent to guard. and condemned. perished settled in villages along the 1 Russian revised Edition ol Rechis. from which had issued. on the sufferer in this respect was the tocsin Volga. from which Russian dominion was consolidated and extended. arrested her in a development invasions. representing the Slav traders. branded or maimed in tongue. factories at spite of that treaty. and nine points dealt with. were succeeded. In 1689. son of exiled to doing to death the young Among of the earliest in State criminals Siberia were the citizens the town which that the end of the seventeenth century. the hordes that devastated common to the rest of Europe. by first only from the sevenboth criminal and political. or Sibir. The sovereigns who more immediately succeeded Peter I. Boris Godunof.176 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in the thirteenth century. contuof the Ukraine. the militarily occupied. under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. Russia. Poles. a century and a half previously. numerically The Russian but later trappers. the Tsar was compelled to order the evacuation of the settlements formed by Cossacks on the Amur.

in days happily gone by. . has in three shirt. to sent join their countrymen performed the same dreary journey after the of 1863. with by tearing out their nosUntil 1864 they were branded a hot iron on the forehead . and the tender mercies of the beyond left to Tunguzes and reported to prefer the chase of an escaped convict to that of a wild goat. deported to the same wilds large bodies of Poles. Of these. where no friendly hand could help them. xxxvi and xxxvii. where. the custom to guard against the escape of convicts trils. Russian edition of Reclus. Catherine II. while his the leanest his coat. 177 miserably in the forests . were last I. the messenger of glad tidings was generally unable to find them. Nevertheless many is. tied. who had served under the in In the reign of Alexander banners of Napoleon. ' who are only one fugitive skin. which has Buriats. p. even if pardoned. the four political until recent journeys miles of days. them two years to reach places of banishment in the Trans Baikal as well in as province.' that the cuckoo 2 The Howard Association has recently proclaims the advent of spring. and about within tricts. and where. with the coat The long worn by peasants. and the considerable contingent of Polish exiles suppression of the insurrection 1500 as settlers certain circumscribed dis- Like the ordinary criminals of every grade who have been poured into Siberia for the last century exiles and had. Siberia. and on both cheeks but at present runaways are simply placed the pale of the law. 685. Kennan's articles in The Century. other parts of Siberia. kaftan? and some kind of sheepskin entirely. drawn attention to the dreadful sufferings still endured by exiles in Siberia. when it more especially to 1 ' the crowding of political offenders and criminals. or chained in It took gangs to long iron poles. to make or five thousand on foot. 972 were sent as convicts.' SIBERIAN CONVICT. about 900 Poles. a half.ind tundras of Siberia. still escape obedience to the call of ' General Kokushka. it was. vols.SIBERIA. ' See Dr.

and to numerous other happy. is now a very hard one. and it has trial great amount of crime thus escapes punishment in become a serious question to Russian statesmen whether A suddenly introduced in 1865. the penalty of death is now inflicted only in cases of political and other crimes requiring special measures of repression. Russia but.' No can accuse a of . Russia. themselves to a great extent the descendants of exiles. even. however. has not done more harm than good to the moral condition of the people. when the benefit of of Russian juries. and are able to find occupation and recreation of one The intellectual level of the Siberians is markedly higher kind or another. we may interest our readers by mentioning in 1863 met. present punishment by exile might be made more impressive and more effectively of activity in centres remote deterrent of crime.. do much both to sustain and to raise . in filthy prisons. will. among the Bashkirs. the from the eyes of philanthropic governors. thanks ' proneness. die. ' In this respect it appears necessary that a exceed twenty years' hard labour. doom of labour in the mines of Nerchinsk should have a considerable amount of may. Polish established at that level.' and the punishment for the most atrocious murder or series of murders does not by jury. a Russian Howard would undoubtedly find field watching over and improving the system in its details. innocent wives and children of the former. here salutary terror to prospective criminals. in ocean steamers which embark their miserable and dangerous freight at Odessa. of banks and a to free. who lead Siberia is a pleasant land to convicted other public institutions. Corporal punishment having been abolished in 1863. island of Sakhalien. honest and more than ten per critic cent. owing to the continuous cordially received influx of educated exiles. than that of the population of European Russia.. They are by the local inhabitants. and perhaps luxurious life at Tomsk or lenity Tobolsk. bring forward a typical case of comparative that a Polish felicity in exile. of intentional deportation mitigate the although of present government or the superior cruelty or negligence in the matter of very great deal has already been done to the felons still sufferings condemned and banished a large revolutionists.' in one of the more than twenty-five per cent.i 78 RUSSIAN PICTURES. at In some respects. to whose steppes he banished gentleman Without pretending to .' which save him from the full the habitual rigour of the law. after they have once reached the places of their banishment. Tomsk and the university recently and Russian no doubt. of the inmates are conlargest of which ' stantly officials ill . it cannot in truth be said that their lot in Siberia. As regards the generality of political exiles. plunderers felons. criminals to the that the worst are now observe deported We on the Gulf of Tartary. except in its polar region. and to their a unable to acquit prisoner clearly culpable. to give him extenuating circumstances.

SIBERIA. an Irish taught him the English exile liberated settled at . At their foot lies much are Nijni Taghil. army Recalled after a couple of years. we find a minerals found in museum well Siberia. St. of which there eleven. a voyage of four days from Novgorod by steamer. Petersburg. its low wooden houses. It is an important centre of we Here metallurgic industry. we we have been sketching via Perm. and to retire after a very few years with a considerable fortune. visit some of the principal Until the great country on the River Nijni the Ural. and with whom he followed in the sport deserter from the British language. down the eastern side of the Ural Mountains. in proximity with the famous Demidoff copper mines. and at Aziatskaya station begins our descent into Asia. irregularly disposed. Although within across railway to Ufa is have to reach the the confines of Europe. 179 was relegated. who the of hawking. The great specimens of the many iron works of Neviansk are some thirty stocked with N 2 . from which malachite is raised. resuming work in his original profession of an advocate and the knowledge he had acquired from his Irish friend enabled him to undertake English business. the Crimea. started by a Stroganoff in the sixteenth century. Kama. take rail to Ekaterinburg. the aspect of a Siberian city is given to Perm by A SIBERIAN GOLD MINK. We Siberian carried must now towns. Not far from the principal works.


already referred to. bristling with domes and spires. Although the Ostiaks in these regions still live in tents. jacinths. The upper town Tobolsk occupy a commanding position on a hill with a and from which we gain an extensive view of the Irtysh. We are told of the emerald mines that belong to the State.' and in a:s great importance as the centre of rich the seat of the State 'administration of the it which are cut and polished garnets. Close to it is a belfry in which hangs fortress of front. Sophia is the most handsome. wolves. of and . beryl. This is the most important commercial centre in Western Siberia. such smelting ore. Of the twenty churches that stand out from among the modest wooden houses of Tobolsk. it must suffice to take note of the fact of their existence. through its great affluent the also the goal of caravans from China and other parts of the Irtysh. 1884. and seven times as large as Great Britain and Ireland. and to several gold washings in the neighbourhood of the city. and in their immediate in neighbourhood In are the first gold washings to which we come Siberia. but as they are more than a hundred miles away. like that of many an exile. on the Tura River. the capital province of the same name. for while Ob. distant East. Ekaterinburg.600. the oldest and most populated in Siberia. precipitous not far from the city by the Tobol. named by Peter the Great after Catherine in of gold production in the tons I. lapis lazuli. In addition to iron and copper works.000). and at our feet spreads out the joined lower town. by descending first the and then ascending the Ob in a steamer. 181 miles beyond. topaz. was founded 1723. city. opals. jasper.SIBERIA. we find ourselves at Tomsk. was yielded by Siberia. and the the exiled bell of Uglitch. at Tiumen. Exiles are distributed from this point over Eastern Siberia. and the British and Foreign Bible Society have consequently selected it as the most suitable place for a thorough and systematic dissemination of the it has water is communication with the it Word of a of God among Steamers run the political prisoners. there is a mine of gold quartz at Berezof which most travellers are induced to inspect. of elk. and a number of other stones more or less rare and precious. and is a handsome districts. from Tiumen in a day and a half to Tobolsk. . alexandrite (crimson by day and green by night). Irtysh.. and bears in the forests that have not yet disappeared under the great demand for wood fuel used in possesses The Crown a factory in local gems and stones. Our railv/ay journey ends. In eight days more. thirty-two (^4. There is also a laboratory in which the gold raised in Siberia is smelted into ingots.extensive mining mines. the Cathedral of St. in large numbers. after a somewhat monotonous voyage between low and flat banks inhabited by Ostiaks and other aborigines. or more than a quarter of the total gold world (estimated at about 144 tons). aqua marine. a town founded in 1586 on the site of an ancient Tartar city. as we also do of the presence.

the direction.182 RUSSIAN PICTURES.-A TOBOLSK. retained their Enisei. of subjugation and annexation until the towns of Eniseisk and Krasnoyarsk were founded importance for the will same purpose on the Enisei River. both of to reach China and the At present Irkutsk with province) as well made and kept post horses. they are more or less Russianized. takes a fortnight neighbouring Enisei . along roads (in the as any in England. and have not. Its prosperity and revive now that it has become the seat of a university for . via Irkutsk. and is it can also look forward to the benefits it of the in it great railway which destined sooner or later to pass through Pacific coast. Tomsk remained a centre ancient dress. like their congeners on the Built in 1604. Siberia.



and candle works are being continued industry and trade. from Kiakhta which it on a scale. fire 1879 was the finest town in Siberia. which rises not a population of 36.000 English square miles. in large after the establishment enjoys is likely to attain a considerable development of railway communication. also tenanted waters. being made under the impetus of Its leather. Travellers bound to Kiakhta can reach it from Irkutsk in four days by post and steamer. also This sheet of water. 400 miles long by 20 to 50 in breadth. the seat of the administration picturesque Angara River. and before a great of Eastern Siberia. which are by the ocean seal. Holy Sea. and other trees. and never passed by them without an act of devotion. the largest fresh water lakes in the world. by a steamer the depth close Fine fish in great variety abound in its in shore is a thousand fathoms. &c. is the junction of the roads . and the transit trade in tea. held sacred by the followers of Shamanism. Rapid recovery is. great mass steep decline and forming rapids nearly of rock. is one of It is 1364 feet above the ocean. lies on the It has far off in Lake Baikal. which mountains is surrounded and occasionally attain a height of 7000 by is crossed At the station from which it feet. called the A beautiful view is soon obtained of Lake Baikal. At Verkhneudinsk. rises picturesquely in the middle of the A rushing waters. however.SIBERIA. THE BURNING OF IRKUTSK IN 1879. soap.000. and occupying an area of 14. on the opposite side. The road winds along the wooded part of the Angara hills crowned and covered to the valley. and presents magnificent views of After passing a foot of their slopes with pines. the Angara will be found rolling down a four miles in length. more rugged part of the valley. 185 Irkutsk.. cedars.

bank of the Selenga are still extant some of the outbuildings of the house in which they lived. Yule. lead that and at severally to Pekin and to Vladivostok on the Pacific a small and miles we modern 110 reach the scene town. Stallybrass. beyond. . to the conversion of the Mongolian Buriats. and in an enclosed cemetery we find the graves of Mrs. Sixty miles further on. Selenginsk. On the (. and three of their children. at the end of a heavy and sandy road that runs along a parched and undulating tract of land covered here and there with a little grass. is left . Mrs. II. YAKS IN WINTER COSTUME ON THE LOWER AMI'K. of the labours of the devoted themselves English missionaries who. between 1817 and 1840.1 86 RUSSIAN PICTURES.

The theory that tea carried overland is superior to that which aroma. for there has been a great mingling of blood in this new country. where In its we have a so-called carts square to alight in a dirty inn infested with vermin. resulting in a spirit of freedom and a broadness of view. Petersburg. gravitation of its development is towards the genial long road to the Pacific by in itself. of the is ' ' exile. 1728. the leaf brought to Kiakhta is long been exploded. a A Lamasery is among the principal sights of this place. making rapid strides numbers and Sibir one of the most valuable jewels prosperity. already for the the icy north. in strong contrast with the comparatively low level of general culture in the European parts of Russia Proper. where a better exclusively quality is produced than in the south.SIBERIA. A and so is still richly miserable-looking place. a great trade still exists in that article. a town inhabited palisade of Maimachen. . on the other hand. imported via Odessa and St. and which forms the bulk of the tea consumed in European Russia. From want of space we cannot return to Verkhneudinsk. 187 Troitskosavsk. and Chinese by three thousand male Celestials. where. under existing arrangements with China. since its free in population. drawn by oxen. nor as mingling with in exclusively the land the honest banished. 220 is yards wide. and thereby becomes As a matter of fact. which enjoys. in from becoming rooted to the being rigidly excluded (from beyond the order to prevent the subjects of His Chinese Majesty soil. seen to greater advantage in it than on his native dreary plains. and mounted on wooden discs instead of walk along a macadamized road brings us to the Russian frontier town of Kiakhta. even Russian It was founded as a fort about officials are not allowed to sleep. has strength by sea. notwithstanding that its cathedral is Buriat endowed with gold and jewelled church properties. south. the growth of the northern provinces of China. which can no longer be considered as the land of made of Siberia. and an incessant interchange of thought of a high intellectual order. the advantage of cheaper carriage by sea.' women Notwithstanding the competition of sea- borne tea. separates entered through a gate the in Russian the The latter empires. Neutral ground. and follow the travels deteriorated in or way of the grand country of the Amur a vast and one also of high importance to Russia from a strategical kingdom Our readers must be content with the sketch we have point of view. bidding fair to render The Russian is already in the richly-stuclcled Crown of All the Russias. we stop to gaze at the corn and hay market Mongolian wheels. ' great wall of Kalgan).

CHAPTER X. has been more and more prominently brought to the notice of the British public in connection with SINCE and the country is now so well that none of our readers and physical political aspects will expect or require to derive any additional light from our sketchy pages.FROM A MS. but Central Asia has converted portion the this final large. the Khirghiz steppe country. a terra then almost incognita. within its steppes of Siberia. OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY IN THE PUBLIC RUMIANTSOFF MUSEUM. bounded on the south by the dominions of Persia and Afghanistan. To our immediate forefathers the greater part of the country thus consolidation bounded was known as of Russian dominion in Independent Tartary. between the Oxus Jaxartes. within which are comprised the lands great division east at the Tianshan and the. the days of the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny the question of Central Asia. abutting on the east on the empire of China. and merging on the north into the Russian advances focus in in the direction of India. : of the earth's surface into the Transcaspian region. MOSCOW. indicating the territories beyond the Caspian. and historically three distinctive and politically important. and bounded on the south by the governor-generalship the stretching from Turkestan. The time has arrived when we should set aside the vague geographical designation of Central Asia. includof ing the Aral Sea. provinces south-eastern shores of the Caspian to Merv and the Afghan frontier. terminating on the the third : . beginning at the southern limits of Siberia. CENTRAL ASIA.



as the natives do even now. and founded the On their way to the Indus. On the south. who. proselytized with and sword. we are to a great extent indebted to Mr. which gradually merges into the Kopet Dagh range of mounThe tains. and Chinese. 191 Mountains and the Pamir. advanced kingdom. 1 1 For this digest. he passed Persians across the Oxus. J. combined area of these three satrapies is over a million and a half English square miles. crossed in . and Bokhara. Our first glimpse into the interior of the Great. laid waste Maracanda (Samarkand). the limits of Turkestan are marked by the Hindu Kush. on inflated skins or trusses of hay Kush. separating Northern Persia from the Turcoman deserts and oases. They were succeeded by Arabs of the Khalifate. ruled afterwards Parthians. at the foot of the great tablelands of Thibet and Chinese Tartary. Samarkand.CENTRAL ASIA. the fire overwhelmed the Bactrian empire. early in the eighth century. centuries. and for much other information tersely conveyed.C. . and planted the roots of Mahometanism so deeply that to this day the most orthodox champions of Islam are to be found in the mosques of Khiva. while their total population is little more than five millions. the Scythians in turn by the Persians. this expedition the Hindu of Alexander when hunted the fugitive then. Geddie's excellent work on The Russian Empire. which survived for to the Bactrian several Jaxartes. region is afforded by the famous the year 329 B.

and chased the remnants of his Long and cruel army through the Afghan passes and across the Indus.RUSSIAN PICTURES. and fleeing ultimately through Afghanistan of the Great the and founded 'Empire India. who made Samarkand steppes capital. or the lame).' of struggles for ascendency the last between the the Khanates of of Bokhara. and was assassinated Turcoman deserts in humanity' who overthrew the Persian and reared the height of his fame. then. and Kokan. the but of great 'scourges in was Nadir Shah. the subjects of laid waste Bokhara and Samarkand. from which they entered upon a deadly struggle with the nomads who held the steppes The Shahs who ruled over Kharesm (Khiva) established themor deserts. latter the terror of the world. behind the mountain screen of Persia. . peopled princiof Turkestan. but he Ferghana. Mogul empires. the Twice called the province of Ferghana. had no title to the name as the seat selected and Turks burst in from the the until north-east. to withstand unable was himself at Samarkand. countries traversed by the Oxus and the Jaxartes. waged between the direct descendants of Chinghiz and their neighbours and kinsmen the chiefs of the Golden Horde were brought to an they defeated whom KOKAN. pally by races of Iranian origin. massacred and slew. wars. of the successors of Timur in Bokhara and in Kokan. Khiva. issue in by Tamerlane (Timur-Leng. The subsequent national history of Turkestan is largely made up Another flood of invasion from the northern Mogul. overthrew the rule and now again. the ruler of famous Baber. Seljuk The of their power Khorassan. as the ruling power in the country. conquered Delhi (1525). his the half of the fourteenth century. selves at Samarkand known took the as and Shah. but the Mongol hordes of Chinghiz Khan. established to the onset of the Uzbegs. in 1219. which thus became Turkestan. in 1747.

into the possibility of trading to India by way of the Caspian and Oxus. he appeared suddenly. after defeating the Turcomans who opposed his passage. Ivan III.. heard the Great had much of the Peter land of India. had been was broken surrounded. 193 The gravitation of Muscovy towards the Russian Drang Nach Osten) began after thrown off. established the road now traversed by a military railway. in 1722. entered into relations began lay with the neighbouring states of Western Europe and with the Sultan of In the reign of Ivan IV. Russian trade and travel Central Asia. the sea the approaches to those countries being then jealously guarded by the Spaniards and Portuguese. when the Tartar yoke was began to visit it. and the Italians were occupied idea of reaching India and China by an overland route. A similar object brought Marco Venetian. at the mouth Baku and Derbent. with the English. In 1694. Cossacks. The o . from and the other maritime nations brought home which the Dutch. and Siberia. treasure in . a scheme which though begun in his day was not completed until 1864. and to establish commercial relations with the Central embassy to Asiatics. He reached Bokhara with his merchandise. Portuguese. a large caravan.. we find Paul Centurione. George. and foreigners Muscovy long finally ' countries of the Far East (the 1480. and all further fear of a barbaric invasion of the rest of Europe was removed. Holland. therefore. With an a military line of frontier to the west of Tsaritsyn. his frontier to the Terek. In 1558 Anthony Jenkinson equipped a small war vessel on the Caspian. and brought back the first direct intelligence of the wealth of India. the Chinese Wall. abundance and in he. and India. army of men. Meanwhile. with the of the Terek. on the Volga. down. great request. Persia. also with the character of a mission. on the roads to India.' by which Turkey. those acquired by conquests brought Muscovy into commercial communication Foscarini. a Genoese. two adventurous Russians from Astrakhan reached Balkh and Cabul. Balkh. the Dutch.. whose silks had come into The mission of 1675 was instructed to report on the Oxus.CENTRAL ASIA. gold. in 1537. the powerful and ambitious prince who then to the foundations of the Russian empire. to When in Persia. and took This enabled him to advance provinces in which those towns were situated. a annexed the Tartar with the Khanates of Central Asia. the Terrible. Between 1669 and 1672. Bokhara. was despatched gave the first strong impulse to It was his master-mind that first pointed out to his countrymen. In 1695. which he crossed flying the flag of St. to the court of Ivan IV. Muscovy sent her first Pekin. as the most convenient route to Bokhara. and several unsuccessful attempts were made. who had The geographical position kingdoms of Kazan. Astrakhan. Khiva. So inquiring at Moscow the early as 1520. Peter I. and two missions to Bokhara. During the reign of Alexis. on which he planted a thousand families of Don forty thousand attacked prosecution of his plans required the conquest of the Caucasus.

in 1714. M. against Khiva but it was unable to overcome the hardships of crossing the steppes in winter. the Khivans entered into negotiations for peace. liberated a great number of Russians whom they had kidnapped and held in bondage as slaves. A large force was sent in 1839. from disease and exhaustion. and returned to Orenburg with the loss of one third of the troops . the first Kokandian stronghold A flotilla also was Jaxartes. by careful study of the Khanates and the Not a year passed. from 1718 to 1850. being despatched by Russia. and in 1732 the middle Kirghiz horde recognised the sovereignty of Russia. or military. 1888. and by 1853 Ak-meched (Fort Perofski). Prince Bekovitch Cherkaski and his army were massacred. scientific. had. by dominion over the north. established on the Sea of Aral. when the fort of Uralsk (Irghiz) was established in the Kirghiz steppe. Although thus confronted by an irresistible Khanates long and ignorantly disdained the power of Russia force. encouraged the Central Asiatics to believe in their impregnability. Lieut. and forts established at the ' ' ' ' the Or and the Ural and at Orenburg. and expeditions. Heyfelder Hanover. Frightened at last by the evident intention of the Russians to renew their attempt to reach Khiva. O. which is in reality only a lagoon two the year on the 1 Transkaspien und seine Eisenbalm nach Aden des Erbauers.194 RUSSIAN PICTURES. A solid basis was now acquired for further progress in Asia in the in the south. after the interchange of some missions since 1629. sorely pressed by the Bokharians. From Siberia. A military expedition sent by Peter for the purpose of establishing the ascendency of Russia terminated in a disaster that confluence of the ' when ' ' : . and these found it necessary to carry out his behests slowly and deliberately. submitted to Peter the Great. supplicated his aid against the robber Turcomans. by the possession of Siberia Caucasus in the centre. or perished miserably in Peter the Great left a legacy the desert between the Aral and the Caspian. Russia against their enemies the Kalmucks. the original base of operations against Central Asia. . . by fortified places in the province of Orenburg and in the Ural Mountains. was taken after a severe combat. in 1718. diplomatic. the Russians began to descend systematically in the year 1845. Kirghiz country between Siberia and the present possessions of Russia in Central Asia were brought within the sphere of Russian administration. Annenkof. the 1 but in 700 and 1 703 the Khivans. under General Perofski. Great Horde all the tribes who held the submitted. Small war next built on the Sea of vessels were Aral. and agreed to admit Russian traders to Khiva. . Parallel with these operations in the Caucasus was an advance made The Kirghiz Kaisaks obtained the protection of eastwards from Siberia. without agents approaches to them. By the year 1827. By Dr. Three years later another fort was planted on the Irghiz River. and had also. of vengeance to his successors. . Gen.

a year Russia. in 1864. In Orenburg and the Jaxartes submitted to the directions of Khiva.' Cherniayeff and 1865 by beating the Bokharians at Idjar.CENTRAL hundred and 1858 all ASIA. the capital of a Russian 'TurkeGeneral consolidated the conquests made in 1864 province. Bokhara. which still holds the port of Resht. Samarkand was taken in 1868. On the west coast the white walls of a few old cities. 195 sixty-five miles in the Kirghizes between and operations in became comparatively easy. It Persian trading companies have no right to now bears on its frequently boisterous waters sail merchant vessels on (ninety-eight feet below TURCOMAN WOMEN. and Kokan The Kokandians lost their fortress of Chemkend length stan later. the bays and inlets on the But their dimensions are necessarily small eastern side being mostly shallow. to Persia. At about the same time the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Persian frontier at the Atrek became Russian. near which disembogues the Gurghen. and the sea itself a Russian lake. .' now O 2 . Even it. and fringed with barren sand dunes and salt marshes. overhang the blue waters. and Shahrisiabs in 1870. anciently defended by a wall against the inroads of nomads. these dismal shores only by wandering bands of Kirghizes and Turcomans. by forty-five miles in breadth. such as Derbent and Baku (the emporium of petroleum). Its southern shores are visited belong and eastward of Arabian writers Astrabad. the level of the Euxine) a multitude of Russian steamers and sailing craft. it the city of river whom in the Middle Ages called the ' Gog and Magog. and Tashkent became. Except where at long intervals a Russian fort has been built.

its extension from the original terminus at Kizyl Arvat was commenced in 1885. The old caravan route from Orenburg to Tashkent. year 1868. The greater part of the rails were manufactured and supplied by English . General engineering. Tekke-Turkomans and Persians flocked to the earth-works until close upon eighteen thousand of them obtained employment.' and the introduction of petroleum refuse from Baku for purposes of fuel and light. All the materials. imperishable credit Annenkof. for the route established by rail from Uzun-Ada. the eastern coast of the Caspian began to be utilized as a basis of operations against the marauding Tekkes and the Khivans. the train brings us across the Ust-urt Desert to Kizyl Arvat. where those who have obtained permission to travel on this military line railway from his fortified position at Mihailofsk. were Russian. of Ghilan and Mazanderan are the lofty ranges of the Elbruz. Travelling at the rate of twenty-five to thirty-five miles an hour. and the extension of Russian dominion to Sarakhs and Merv. want of water. the journey will be easily performed within a week. has now been almost entirely abandoned. the next slaughter. the first of Russians in the Tekke forts seized the but permanently 1877. St. These necessitated the planting of shrubs on embankments. was occupied is mills near the the same 1888 says that decidedly the best built Sea of Azof. At Geok-Tepe. from sleepers to rails and rolling-stock. including a passage of three days across the Caspian from As soon as Baku obtains direct railway communication with Astrakhan. At the back of the rich slopes represented in effigy at the Guildhall. Samarkand. Some reverses and the necessity of them General Scobelef to recommend the construction of a impelled avenging the From head of Krasnovodsk of one the Bay. and Bokhara. when it became one of the bases of operations which resulted in the total discomfiture of the Turcomans. London. almost tropical heat. with their sides clothed with forests. We have no space for a description of the enormous difficulties that were surmounted by the active and zealous general. at the ' This ' is ' stop for refreshment at a European station in buffet. over 1500 miles long. Petersburg. the present starting-point on the eastern shore of the Caspian. Petersburg.196 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and their highest summits crowned with eternal snow. the boring of artesian wells and the establishment of other waterworks. unpopulated wastes. Transcaspian Railway greatest feats of modern and reflects on its constructor. Built in 1 880-81. the importation of labourers from Smolensk and Kief in aid of two Transcaspian Railway Battalions. and the absence of wood or other fuel. to the ancient capital of Tamerlane (about nine hundred miles) can be reached in nine and a half days from St.' Shy at first. when Krasnovodsk was taken and fortified. fortress which Scobelef captured from the we are Tekkes it in in proximity to the iSSi with great in Askhabad. and completed in 1888 at Samarkand. such as shifting sands. The Times correspondent year. 1 but one. by occupied only in 1880.

the Great. the sacred city of the Shiite Persians frontier of The their saint Mahmud Riza. The oasis of Merv. lull of shops. a Scotch schoolmaster. such the Saryks. and Pearl of the World. Khorassan has for some time been on our soon reach a point which is scarcely more than eighty miles right. A monument perpetuates and a fine public garden. but differ in their characteristics the Persians. the memory of Scobelef. energetic oasis River. a future station on the way to Herat. etc. rendered fertile by irrigation.. consists of several parallel streets and neat-looking houses of brick. intersected by the Murghab the Russians built new the the old of town. implies. '97 There are some very good streets. has an area of only 2400 square miles.000 souls. While as Taken together with other tribes. whose ancestor in Russia was Mr. name which Before reaching the station of Tedjen. the total Turcoman population is at least 700. the line crosses the river of that flows past Sarakhs. profusion of wild grapes.' Eighty miles beyond we are at Merv. ruins remain by city. Scobie. According to the Merv of Tekkes warlike and the recent the most statistics. and surrounded by a brick wall. The Queen ' once a vast and glorious city. crumbling on the left bank of the Murghab.CENTRAL place on all ASIA.000. supposed to have been built by Alexander A TEKKE VILLAGE. Afghans and Kurds. a the railway. and we the burial-place of distant from Meshed. as their name number about 105. The semi-nomadic and once predatory Turcomans are. of Turkish race. as well as from their neighbours from the Bokharians and the . Salors.

Considering also the excellence of their and women. ornaments are in common use horses alone sharing with the women the . and to endure fatigue. Persia. and Mongols. Merv is which. hunger. finest metal. attired in Turkey-red trousers and a shirt. The great Karakoum Here we reach desert is left on the borders of Bokhara at Chardjui. spinning. Devoting themselves to the chase and to robber raids. like the Jaxartes. generally of the TEKKES. distinction of being thus adorned. and France. and weaving. beautifully embroidered. although there been a considerable intermingling of blood amongst them all. the Oxus of the Greeks and the Jihun of the Arabs. hats to preserve their heads from the sun in summer and the cold in winter. they are capable of supplying the best irregular cavalry in the world. and not unfrequently in a jacket Gold and silver In cold weather a khalat is worn. latter are The clever in and a wadded khdlat or robe. from which hangs a sword. the Amu-Daria.198 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and Herat about three hundred and fifty miles from our outpost at Candahar. has horses. falls into the Sea of Aral after a course of fifteen . They a fired from stand are also provided with other weapons. only two hundred miles from Herat. they have so far left agriculture to their slaves thirst. knitting. and produce carpets of such high quality in taste and texture that they are largely The men wear high sheep-skin exported to Russia. from the matchlock Their women are to the modern breech-loading rifle. From early youth the Turcoman is accustomed to long journeys on horseback over the desert.

At one side of the artificial hill that supports the citadel. two Englishmen. with fine columns mosque. Close by is the from its summit. ' the head of Islam. Like the Khanate of Khiva. Bokhara is nominally independent. were executed in 1842. and square.' Its history is it associated with B. a church. . but practically neither can have any other will than that of Russia. The unsanitary condition of Bokhara is well worthy of the attention of Russian administrators. Below this well. Writing in 1888. is in the Reghistan. or Its dome is one hundred feet in height. hundred miles. we are again on territory not ostensibly but de facto annexed by Russia. built by Tamerlane. also mosque built by Tamerlane. two great names Alexander of Macedon. Constantinople. in the new province of Turkestan and four stations beyond this we arrive at Samar. The and blue carried Sentences of death were formerly arranged in curious designs. which is from the quantity of native products floated down the river for land carriage at this point. or colleges. was a still deeper one the hole into which our countrymen were let down. dirty prisoners.C.CENTRAL ASIA. under Russian pressure. and theatre. Happily. attached to it is a minaret two hundred feet high. approached by a small door in the right-hand wall of this chamber. than twenty feet long by ten feet broad. At Sary-Bulak. stand out from among low-lying. Nearly four hundred mosques and over one hundred medresseh. in front of the palace. as not more room. faced with glazed white gardens. the condemned by hurling ancient of Mir and another Arab. out . kand. mud-built dwelling-houses ensconced in sand years old. Sur- rounded by a wall of sun-baked mud. again. or citadel. he saw twenty more men huddled together with hardly room to move. the Times correspondent described the in which he saw twenty-five half-naked. one of great commercial importance. Whatever may be the political and commercial aspects of the question. . to be devoured by insects and vermin. and . is that of Baliand. and approached by tortuous alleys and dirty thoroughfares. it still contains some interesting buildings. a Turkish bath at a of with mud on side like the dome one top building tiles. one hundred and eighty-five miles from Bokhara. humanity has undeniably gained much from the establishment of Russian but it is to be hoped that the Tsar's mission of authority in the Khanates civilization will be carried out no less fully and rigorously than the establishment of his military power. The town of Bokhara is sixty miles further to the north-east. stands the prison in which It is a low Stoddart and Conolly. with a ceiling that nearly touched the heads of the visitors. namely. In a well. is principal mosque.' as : Mecca ' is its heart. and pierced by eleven gates. The Khan's palace. the lower dungeons have been filled up and closed for ever and it is to be hoped that ere long the Khan will be compelled to raze these barbarous dungeons to the ground. who conquered 325. with adjoins railway station. the steam mill. 199 A Russian town. more than a thouplanted on a conical elevation within the Ark.

' but the lofty portals and domes.200 RUSSIAN PICTURES. carved wooden pillars that support them. The buildings are much out of repair with blue and white porcelain tiles. the arabesques. resting-place of a martyred is in fact a collection of prophet. date 1868 which has passed is signified . and It was under his care that Samarkand became the centre of the colleges. learning The city preserves some remains of its ancient magnificence. The most interesting ruin Amir. who lavishly expended the pillage of the rich countries to the south and west in rearing and beautifying its palaces. or Tomb of Timur. Tamerlane the Great. mosques. the interior walls overlaid with arches and ceilings covered with pendent alabaster work. and power of the Eastern world. make it worthy of the palmy era of Samarkand. faced forming mosaic patterns and tints. Its chief architectural glory is the immense mosque of Shah-Zindeh. but it has suffered sadly from being a type of is that of Gur the destroyer's . now outside its This attenuated precincts. Living King. the and the finely by the title of ' marble and tiled staircases. the belief in mosques surrounding the whose re-appearance at a SAMARKAND.

should I ? I . prolongation of the line to Tashkent. Hindoos.' Uzbegs of the Turanian tribes that were wont to descend upon ' the lands watered by the Jaxartes and the Oxus since the days of Chinghiz Khan.CENTRAL hand. Surrounded by gardens. and even the great block of greenish-black stone which marks the On a hill in the cenotaph of the conqueror has been broken in twain. tea. in which the finest building is the residence of the with turf and their numerous mosques of Tashkend. of the college or home of the astronomers attached by that ruler to his capital. is The city. almost the only one of any antiquity is that of Khoja Akhrar. consists of Iranian who Tajiks (Sarts). occupied Sogdiania before it became the land of the and of Turks. lies eighty miles to the north of the capital of Turkestan. now prettily laid-out garden that adjoins the residence. Jews. still surmounted by a high minaret. the Russians omitted to satisfy the religious requirements of Among the of them. occupying an area as wide as that of Paris. and in great part composed subjects. about two hundred miles distant from Samarkand. the pride of the somewhat rivalled by the city is its park of a thousand apricot trees. Within its walls are the crumbling remains. remember a young officer of the Imperial Guards being asked: 'Are also To which the significant reply was. a with side of a boulevard and citadel. the officiating Imam on that occasion making an address descriptive of the benefits conferred by the Russian Government. and stating that never had the native population of Turkestan enjoyed so tranquil and prosperous an existence as now. avail himself of the benefits of in the Here the will get cup of fragrant civilization. The well laid-out Russian town. numbering about 30. We however. and otherwise be interested European He the native population. centre of the bazaar we see the ruins of the Ulug Beg Observatory the first erected in Asia. the administrative centre of A the Province of Turkestan. captured by Cherniayef in 1865. ASIA. is prettily situated on a branch of the Chirchik River. Tashkent has long been considered a place of exile or temporary retirement by the Russians who repaired to it. and is equally buried in verdure and intersected by streams It was taken in 1864. and its quaint and bizarre native quarter is separated by a ravine from the new Russian town. flowers. stretches out on the north can hire a real Muscovite drojki.' Chimkent. an excellent visitor pavement. severely large citadel now half ruined. and only a question of time. opened great ceremony in the presence of the GovernorGeneral. ' ' have no debts. There are two large squares bright and an with orthodox church in the centre of each. the Green Town. Why you going to Tashkent ? all With these attractions. population suffered of the hands A at the Cossacks. This was restored by the Russian Government in and with 1888. which. over four hundred years old. Nor have new Mahometan Governor-General. The bazaars are also full of Persians. when the and irrigation works. and gipsies.000.

rises in we approach the Celestial several streams in So much of its Mountains. THE GRAND MINARET. and but little available for navigation. i" i^:v".> . a Mahometan saint held to this day in mosque It an interesting and curious group of buildings.- . j v . it gave in the days of Tamerlane. along a which was called Jassy who in 1397 began the construction of a huge of in honour Hazret-Yusufi. . for and waters are deflected that its middle lower courses upper irrigation are sluggish and shallow. ' r > .vi'. It is. Hazret-i-Turkestan. above towers place. into the Sea of Aral. as therefore. its name to a province . Mf' . like the Oxus. one hundred and the Syr Daria. Ji.202 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and testifies to the ancient strategical importance of the At Turkestan. All we have space to say of the ancient town of Turkestan is that. which five miles to the north-east. is high veneration. 5 ? it. or Jaxartes. KHIVA. the old post road that we travel hence to Orenburg starting-point for Central Asia. it.. and falls.. -.

are in the citadel. the torturing his of quite recently been forbidden by the Khan. like hara.000 slaves. Its fame is that of a which slave mart market in Asia at the chief slave chiefly Persians. homes. These are almost the only buildings of brick at Khiva. the patron saint of the Khivites. of its outer walls have from the Russian cannonade suffered inscriptions directed have in 1864 against the citadel in which it stands. sur- rounded by a low earthen wall.' in ' Khiva Russian is not legitimately within a the scope of our sketches capital of the empire. semi-independent Khanate. . 203 The glazed bricks and incised evidently unfinished by its Persian architect. and travellers (Kostenko and MacGahan) have described it stagnant water as containing more cemeteries than Its mosques and medresseh gardens. . occupying an oasis bordered by the left bank of the lower course of the Oxus. is now constrained to be on his best behaviour. but only a relatively small THE MOSQUE OF HAZRET-I-TURKESTAN. in front of that mosque. They were attacked by disease or massacred by the Turcomans on their march in small detachments across their number reached original the desert. but requires passing notice as the of a large. or on the tablelands of Persia and Afghanistan. within which dwell the Khan and his principal officers. flanked here and there by pools of foul. found a A Russian military expedition in 1873 put an end for ever to ready sale. kidnapped by the Turcomans on the shores of the Caspian. Under the influence of Russia. and gave liberty to 37. that traffic. and within easy striking distance from the Russian military station on the opposite side of the river. and earthquakes many places fissured this seventh wonder of the world. and Russians.CENTRAL ASIA. and the only mosque with any pretensions to architectural beauty is that which holds the tomb of Our illustration shows the minaret Polvan. Afghans. who. prisoners has brother of Bok- The city is little more than a collection of hovels of baked mud.

permitted the Poles to work out their own development on lines so widely question. with Scandinavian invasion a reliable authority of the present century. and settled chiefly in towns). Northmen begins.. XI. that Polish Szainocha. The provinces in tutional THE Czar still bears the title of King of Poland. but the consti- ten in number. have an aggregate area of 49.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. Bulgarians. their language differing but little from that of the Russians. and other aliens. and became. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TRUITSA MONASTERY. Servians. five per cent. Russians. and co-operation with Western civilization. as in history . the remainder being Jews (in the proportion of thirteen per cent. The Poles (the Polacks of Shakespeare) are a branch of the Slav race.157 English square a population of eight millions. kingdom created at the great settlement of political accounts in 1815 has been officially styled 'The Cis. Germans. MOSCOW. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.' ever since the absolute incorporation with the Russian empire in 1868. like that of Russia. .Vistula Provinces. and escape from Tartar subjugation. asserting that the descended on the Polish coast of the Baltic. composed to the extent of sixtyand miles. apart from those pursued amalgamation of these practical impossibility. Lithuanians. CHAPTER POLAND. of Poles. Czechs Contact (Bohemians). the complete been a matter of two great Slav branches has long by their Russian brethren. and other odd kindred remnants.

1 ft S^^s^aWi^ .


the Brave. gained for himself the title of Rex Rusticorum. Jesuits. who founded a dynasty that was superseded only in 1385 by the Lithuanian was introduced by the fourth of the Piasts. introduced in the next . not William of Austria. two centuries. whom she loved. 964. After compelling his daughter to marry. who with those of Poland.D. Sobieski. under Minin and Pojarski. a peasant. or freeadscripti glebce. On the death. and at a time when Poland enjoyed more religious liberty than any other country in Europe. While occupied in besieging the Huguenots at Rochelle. already limited by and the crown became elective. which thus became own pagan dynastically united (1386) with that of Lithuania. the last of the that of two chambers. could not keep Kief and Little Russia for the Poles. who had saved Vienna for the Austrians. as far as the Dnieper. elected Jagellon (baptised Magna Charta. absconded from Cracow in order to become Henry III. to 1320. reunited at Polish Justinian (1334-1370). -was called its the throne but in order the ensure in all continued possession compelled re-instate nobles their privileges. it is on record that Russia. but soon expelled by the patriots. ancestors of noble houses. .D. Henry of Valois but he quickly was elected to the throne. Silesia. King to of Hungary. the throne of Poland. of Sigismund II. of the Polish Ukraine to solicit Russian protection was the inferior position Roman to which their Greek religion had been reduced in relation to The Russians and Poles had been at war with each other for Catholicism. Jagellons. Boleslas I. subject to alterations made at Diets. the first Grand Duke of Poland (about A. .. son of Sigismund III. and by the limitation of the power holders. A. brought and one of the reasons that led the Cossacks strong intolerance with them. in virtue of their to under the name of Ladislas) subjects to Christianity. but Jagellon. that of Stephen Bathori. After Pomerania. reign. was retained as part of the Coronation Oath so long as there were Polish kings to be consecrated. He was the last sovereign of the Piast period. by the bestowal of benefits on the peasantry. 207 On the other hand. in succession to Sigismund II. which. Jagellons. under a he was Pacta Conventa. The was still further diminished. who He conquered Dantzig and gave a solid foundation to the Polish State. Christianity in the being partitioned. of Lithuania. Louis. who were of the nobles.. in Casimir Cracow. in 1572. Moscow had been occupied in 1610 by the Poles in the name of Ladislas. the by Vladislaf (Ladislas) the Short. On to his death. who established his capital. and White Russia. 842) was Piastus. the Great. Moravia. elected to the Muscovite throne by the Russian boyars. in accordance with the principle that long obtained were of Poland territories the component neighbouring Russian principalities. Augustus. of the Swedish Wasa family. where the Polish kings were ever after crowned..POLAND. his sister's son. of France. and it was a sovereign of the same House. and to convert his Duke offered to unite his extensive and adjacent dominions the nobles. the power of the king.

208 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Turkey. rights Roman Catholic Church played a great part. obnoxious to the dissidents and other of Lutherans. under an arrangement between the same countries. under which even Warsaw was absorbed by Russia. and reigned until 1733. during which he was superseded by Stanislas I. IN PODOI. Augustus III. Elector of Saxony. resulted in the intervention of ' the reign of the question of in the Prussia and Russia. with an interval of five years. Cracow. the ashes of the Prague suburb. and entry of Suvoroff into Warsaw over dismemberment (1795) of ancient Poland. and in 1772 the first partition of Poland was consummated. succeeded Sobieski. Such was the outcome of disorders and revolutions in the wars with Muscovy. and Sweden. In addition to the kingdom proper. which had taken alarm at a liberal constitution voted by the Polish Diet in 1791..IA. Poland occupied a territory much more extensive than that of France. as well as with and of Tartars and Frederick Augustus II. KAMENETS. The second followed in 1793. especially as it had provided for the emancipation of the The struggle made by Thaddeus Kosciuszko ended in the adscript! glcba. in which sovereign. Calvinists. State. Dissension and anarchy became next still more general ' the Civil war. in the third Previous to these several partitions. and . it included the province of Posen and part of West Prussia. Cossacks.

anciently Polish. supplying from time imcorn-bearing memorial vast quantities of superior grain for shipment from ports in the Baltic. and in 1815. at the partitions remained incorporated with the Russian empire. Dense forests stretch down from the Russian.POLAND. with the result we have indicated at the head of this chapter. Outside Warsaw and its immediate vicinity there is little in Russian Poland to interest the tourist. into the administration of the kingdom. Bessarabia. and Livonia were embraced within the Polish possessions. Silesia. stronghold against Turkey north its frontier extended almost to the walls of Riga. and forest. Kaminets. Moldavia. from Moscow. and the Polish language proscribed in the public offices. province of Grodno. Warsaw became The old again a kingdom under a constitution granted by Alexander I. which has so long been ruthlessly slaughtered in the United empire. when Galicia (with Cracow) was restored to Austria. present province of Kief. These successive partitions gave the most extensive portion of Polish territory to Russia. revived a Polish state out of the provinces that had been seized by Prussia and Austria. This was first constituted into a Grand Duchy under the King of Saxony. and now form the last retreat in Europe of the Bison Europoeus. and the lynx. and are therefore not likely to disappear like the Bos Americanns. or buffalo.. and it is only towards the north and east that the ground may be said to be heavily timbered. an insurrection broke out at Warsaw. which is supposed to have been the original stock of our horned cattle. appeared to offer to the Poles the prospect of no inconsiderable influence over the independence began to manifest itself. and Posen to Prussia. The finest in . Although much worried by the wolf. but were not fully to subjected to a Russian administration until after the great Polish insurrection of 1830. Galicia. spirit destinies of the Russian the old of national States. The country is generally level and monotonous. not without encouragement from Napoleon III. and to within a . the provinces of Volhynia and Podolia. Napoleon I. the survivor of the Aurochs (Bos primigcnius). Notwithstanding the wide measures of Home Rule introduced by Alexander II. in its while to the west and border Podolia. the most populous to Austria. when also the constitution of 1815 was withdrawn. the bear. in combination with many liberal and pregnant reforms in Russia Proper. Interspersed among these barren or soil wooded tracts are areas containing some of the Europe. and which. and in 1862. In still earlier times. and the most commercial short distance Prussia. belonging to more than eight thousand proprietors. and part of the In 17/2 Dantzig was a seaport of Poland. with wide expanses of sand. It is produced on the larger estates of two hundred to fifteen hundred acres. the bison are strictly preserved from the hunter. 209 Lithuania. Polish provinces that had fallen to the share of Catherine II. heath. the national army abolished.

especially in the matter of drink. Towns. during the Piast period. frequently industrial. and. Founded in the twelfth century. Petersburg or Moscow.210 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Consequently we confine ourselves to Warsaw. their mode of agriculture being almost as rude as that of the Russian peasantry. WARSAW. visit affording no accommodation that would render possible the of even the least fastidious traveller.000 farms seldom exceeding forty acresto nothing towards exportation. Russia. Warszawa. WITH UNIVERSITY IN THE BACKGROUND. large and occur than in more and while some are rich and small. THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS. peasantry. which we take on our way by rail to or from St. and their habits of life but little superior. others we may say the great majority are poor and squalid. the seat of the appanaged Dukes of Masovia. contribute who next hold more than 240. replaced Cracow as the residence of the Polish kings .

stands the cathedral. churches and chapels. (eighty- The five). or Champs private residences. Street. were in out indiscriminately put every direction from the sword. in which the Poles attempted in the Grand Duke Constantine. the Beyond great Sapieha and Sierakovski Barracks towers the Alexander Citadel. and spacious gardens. strongly old German in aspect. built in the thirteenth century. and restored on the last occasion by King John Sobieski. built in in is 1832-35. and the old royal apartments are occupied by the Governor-General. On page 205 we give an illustration of the prettiest portion of the grounds. and the pretty. mostly Roman Catholic. in Near Novi Sviat (New World) Elys&'s. Opposite vantage. is the recovered from inhabitants the assault Prague suburb. the country seat of the consort of John Sobieski . or Old Town. bordered by fine lime-trees we find the Avenues. a Warsaw. Contiguous to the Lazienki Park are the extensive gardens of the Belvedere Palace. on the election of Sigismund III. and divided as Poland itself. here shallow.000. The left bank of the Vistula. and its walls are with portraits of numerous beautiful women. The hung ceilings of this chateau were painted by Bacciarelli. when to fortified. It 211 has now is garrison of 31. are numerous and so are the monasteries and convents (twenty-two). Petersburg and Moscow. we reach the fine park of Lazienki. a country seat of much elegance built by King Stanislas front of elegant Augustus. when it was twice stained with blood.POLAND.' and which is on its way from the Carpathians to the Baltic. Kaskada. its has sixteen never thousand A vast panorama and spreads melancholy dirty point of is the Zamek. Across the broad sandy bed of the stream. place of entertainment much frequented by the inhabitants of and Bielany. a pretty spot on the Vistula commanding a fine view. from Sigismund III. or castle. but a considerable distance from the town. by and enlarged and restored by several of the Polish kings. is ' picturesquely disposed along the brow of the cliff and on the plains above. formerly by Suvoroff in 1 794. at the expense of the city. formerly a castle of the Kings of Poland. In the Stare Miasto. in which the troops are exercised. and the military hospital at Uiazdov. and animated stately lines of streets. and now the residence of the Emperor when he visits Warsaw. as a penalty for the insurrection In the same direction. built the Dukes of Masovia. to Stanislas Augustus Poniatovski.' in 1861. or New Town but it certainly retains no traces of deep antiquity. Warsaw its with chiefly built. also Mariemont. The square in front of the castle was the scene of the last Polish 'demonstrations.500 capital of Poland. gay. with its outlying fortifications. A still more ancient sacred edifice is the Church of Our Lady in the Nove Miasto. Crossing a large square. a population of about 445. this . ever-changing. not including the Russian officers and men. and therefore as the (1586). Its pictures and objects of art are now at St. on which city. 1830. wide squares. viceroy. We drive 1830 to get rid of their hence in less than an p 2 . is high. which.

of Villanov. In the gallery Seneca pictures although we are is of we notice an admirable Rubens the Death portrait of Bacon. who died in it.212 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and several noticeable residences. of his beautiful consort are of great elegance. portraits. built the Castle by John Sobieski. of which the most interesting is the magnificent in retreat he and here arms. On the same For want of more strongly attracted by an original known in England. many palatial among which is one to Copernicus. again we must plead guilty of omitting of . objects of art. historical is full of of Countess the property Potocka. sought this To suit of armour presented by the Pope to Sobieski in memory of his great \ ' *#* POLISH PEASANTS. brought back the trophies of his mighty deeds The chateau. and other curiosities. This is hour to one of the most interesting places near Warsaw. monuments. which but little to describe space. the Polish founder of modern astronomy. The apartments . now repose after driving the Turks from the walls of Vienna. victory.

and buried John THE IRON GATE MARKET (AT THE BACK OF THE SAXONY GARDEN). to whom Belgium owes Evangelical Cemetery. gardens.POLAND. the public so buildings. much of her industrial prosperity. ground 213 we pass in over of handsome which. one Cockerell. . theatres. is cemeteries.

144. and after a separate negotiation between the Finnish Diet and Alexander I. the Estates swore allegiance to the Emperor as the Grand Duke of Finland. In 1809 Sweden ceded to Russia her rights over Finland. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TROITSA MONASTERY.255 English square miles. who form about eighty-five per cent. Along the coasts. possesses physical charms which. MOSCOW. from the Swedish frontier on the Tornea River. ' XII. a peculiarity from which has been derived the poetical designation of the country. are second only to those of Norway. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. of the and who are almost as much driven to emigration as the Norpopulation. streams. CHAPTER FINLAND. long coast-line on the Gulf of Bothnia. Land of a Thousand Lakes. Fertile plains. sustenance . and a population slightly in excess of two or about it sixteen inhabitants to the square mile. formed by the recession of the sea. and a good part of its sea-margin on the Gulf of Finland. wegians. In both these respects Norway very closely. the poor stony patches of soil afford but a scanty occasionally.' as Finland is poetically called by her loving sons. deep. to the peasantry.. THE millions. occur but inland. in the North of It has a superficial area of Europe.FROM A MS. but not equally wide. for the sea gives them lucrative occupation. present a succession of fiords and rocky headlands similar to those of Norway. or resembles The The hilly interior is intersected by a vast number of lakes and grand. the people are more thriving.



administers the affairs of the Grand Duchy. A committee composed of a Secretary of State and four other members acts at St. a great stumbling-block But the Finnish interior. trout. together privileges. carried the well-ordered country An excellent system of education is zealously superintendence of the Lutheran clergy. In winter he can shoot as many wolves as he chooses to pursue on a The pig is kept in a bag. 2 17 and the integrity of their conand stitution. of the national army. bearing no imperial charge or .FINLAND. nominated by the Crown. and grayling fishing. country. in recent years under a system of general military conscription. burgesses. and peasantry). which renders the Finnish marc. to is the the exploration of the less frequented parts of with a handbook only scenery and intelligent traveller armed or a dictionary can easily make his way. tar. clergy. Timber. so different from all other European tongues. with a sucking-pig to squeak by twisting his as a lure. contribution independent tariff a distinct coinage. which. they have a Diet their jealously guarded Charter of Rights. in the shape of salmon. and placed mother under the Russian War Department. established is also who Commander-in-Chief General. as in Sweden until 1866. These are already highly developed. The latter are dealt with by the by the Imperial Foreign Finlanders . or franc. composed of four Estates (nobles. excepting only its foreign relations. are : Among the most important privileges thus enjoyed a separate budget. He is represented at Helsingfors by a Governorincluding the right of veto. and therefore best calculated to sustain a sound system of finance and to promote trade and navigation. and dairy produce much more are exports. and they are carried chiefly by the national which merchant navy. that There read out under is cannot scarcely a the Bible. gives employment to more than twelve thousand men. char. sledge. but enterprising and also excellent sport. who do not or in man woman that admit to the Communion any person who is unable to read or write. and an independent of the fluctuations of the Russian rouble liberal than that of Russia. and enjoy not life which comparatively few tourists have witnessed. lard that is attached to a long rope at the back of the sledge. The Finnish language. when a Parliament of two Chambers was established in The maintenance of the Lutheran religion with all the Extensive powers are reserved to the sovereign. In regard to religion and education. and made the wolf darts out from the dark which tail. Petersburg as a kind of delegation of the Senate at Helsingfors. Office. the Finlanders have reason to be proud of the results of the legacy bequeathed to them by their old Scandinavian the principal masters. were assured to previous rights the Philanders in a solemn manifesto. which continues to this day to be In virtue of it. upon forest and attempts to seize his prey. deceitfully represented by the wisp of straw smeared with. The accommodation outside of the towns is of a somewhat rougher .

and by the deserted appearance of the thoroughfares. personal acquaintance can soon be made. public buildings taught the citizens the necessity of rebuilding their public edifices and private raged the for two days in 1827. and such of its university (established as had been spared from many previous conflagrations. its interior renovated without detriment houses at considerable distances . a valuable library. yet its rude and heavy Gothic exterior has been preserved. but with a well-assorted stock of absolute necessaries (including insect powder and mosquito netting). after the charming landscape we have ABO CATHEDRAL.218 RUSSIAN PICTURES. with this fascinating country. As we steam up the small and shallow Aura joki. cross over from the Swedish capital to Abo. Although the Cathedral of St. imparted by the wide. description than in Norway. roughly-paved streets. to find an air of desolation A and destroyed two-thirds of the city. enjoyed. In fifteen Stockholm. on landing. we have a pretty view of via Gothenburg and hours we the city. by the prevalence of low wooden fire which houses. or river. It is disappointing. including 1640). to the quay where our passports and luggage are examined. in smooth and sheltered water except for about two and a half hours. Henry was completely gutted on that occasion. in from each other. This is reigning over the place. and the willingness to brave slight discomforts. while the steamer passes through the moderate waves of the open part of the Gulf of Bothnia.

or in one of the tar-laclened craft that have so fragile an appearance. and salmon fall into the Gulf of Bothnia. is very fine. its walls after their consecration by Bishop Magnus in A.FINLAND. and black-haired Philanders (all others being very light) Brahestad. 1857 by Kristinestad. The stained windows. or Vasa. in tar and deals. The sun may be seen at midnight from Mount Aavasaksa. at the mouth of the Kumo and not far from which is a River. embellished by a stained window allegorical of her love for Sweden and Finland. Svertschkoff. an active-looking town of the gulf and the islands on it of tarred roofs. especially at the largest and midway rapids of Pyhakoski. A large and now occupied by government officers. from the interior in peculiar boats made of thin planks. an old royal domain now dotted with villas.. . one of the most progressive towns in Finland. number of charming excursions can be made from Abo. . Uleaborg lies at the mouth of a great and rapid river which flows out of Lake Ulea. designed by V. such as Bjorneborg. . the present terminus considerable amount of shipping of the railway from St. fore- most among which is the trip to the pretty island of Runsala. a lies peasant before she wore the Swedish diadem. the border of ancient Osterbothnia a stone wall. in which Bishop since surrounded wooden house. with a good deal of shipbuilding and a considerable amount of The tar is brought down trade. which bend as if they were made of pasteboard. built Gustavus the cathedral. and is one of the principal ports in Finland. Henry. to a place called Vaala. a large block buildings of the city are unimportant. chiefly with Great Britain. first preached Christianity in Finland in the two neighbouring parishes of which the Finnish national costume is still though exceptionally worn Nikolaistad. . The scenery. for the IV. when shooting the numerous rapids of the Those who are in search of excitement cannot do better than drive Ulea. . the creation of Count Per Brahe in 1649. some sixty miles distant. 219 to The first episcopal chair of Finland was previous architectural features. founded in 1558. and possessing a and lastly Uleaborg. . and there is in reality no danger of death by drowning on such an excursion. with a Russo-Greek church commanding a splendid view Gamla Karleby. A fishing abounds in most of the rivers that of affords the several to Tornea water opportunity inspecting snug trip by little ports. add to the interest of the cathedral. of her misfortunes and in The secular Finlander. a native of Abo. . but whose name betrays a Russian origin. University by (Adolphus) opposite Ekman. within instituted 1300.D. Petersburg. near the Myllyranta Ironworks on Lake Ulea. excepting the Residence. and the frescoes in the chancel by which is one of the chapels. and descend the river in a hired boat. a (transferred after 1827 to Helsingfors). an Englishman. The present site from its pagan consort of Eric XIV. when the girl city itself was removed up the to its foundations a short distance river.

and skins of the animals their whole support while in summer. John's to sell the tongues. but also impresses the mind most deeply and with more awe than any other cosmic marvel among the great and glorious works of the Omnipotent Creator. they derive 23rd-24th of June (St. it is visited by Laplanders. hams. . flax. with the Swedish capital. at the junction of two lakes which supply an immense water power to cotton. In winter. from which of the night Eve and Day) swarms of travellers arrive to see the midnight sun. and was once distinguished by the appellation of Little Stockholm. and many other industrial establishments. however calm and sheltered. and who yet would like to gaze at a phenomenon which not only fascinates the eye by its strange grandeur and by the weird effect of light it produces. is separated from the Swedish town of Haparanda by a dried-up branch of the Tornea River. no doubt deflect from the present yachting route to the North Cape the many would-be travellers who dread the sea.' from its brisk trade. with their swift reindeer and sledges. when daylight ' lasts only three hours. the most northerly town in Finland. Tornea. the Manchester of Finland. from which the sun is visible at midnight for fourteen days. until 1809. although it does not remain entirely above the horizon for more than seventy-two hours. or cabin accommodation ever so roomy and convenient. As a contrast to this coast trip the railway may be taken to Tammerfors.22C RUSSIAN PICTURES. As almost everywhere else in this country of wood. The extension of the railway from Uleaborg to Tornea F1NLANDEKS. leaving only the most energetic to post fifty miles to Mount Aavasaksa. on the . and paper mills. in which a goodly number of Englishmen are will employed as foremen.

hardy. seat of a university political connection of the city. The speed at which the by Finlanders travel is curiously out of keeping with the general dilatoriness of intelligent it one of their favourite proverbs. situated in the midst of enchanting their character. and well taken care of as the Norwegian animal. whose life-sized portrait hangs in each of the rooms occupied by the several administrative divisions of the Senate. Duchy since 1819. Hurry only when catching fleas. There is but little to see in this town beyond a church in which the altar is placed The clergyman in the centre of the edifice. and The University Library contains attended by nearly a thousand students. preaches congregation to the curious acoustic properties of the edifice. about 150. Resuming our railway journey. used on great occasions. and in which stands the throne of the Grand Duke.000 books in Russian and Polish. not as Sharp the pitches in the hill next the driving in Finland may be called furious. can be reached cart. Steamers run hence to a pretty place a and to called Heinola. charming little town. being eighty miles long by about eighteen at its widest part. In summer the Imatra hotel. which can easily accommodate three thousand worshippers.000 volumes. ascended at a round trot. and the since 1827. with the pews radiating from it. and the Russian form of a Greek cross The two distinguishes it from the usual architecture of Lutheran churches. in a two-wheeled in trotting capacities of its horses. our attention is called to a modern castellated villa lying in a pretty park to the left of the line. railway brings us to the southern extremity of Paijanne Lake. we soon come to the picturesque old town of Tavastehus. are very handand no finer view of Helsingfors and its pretty environs can be obtained . over and above the 50. the seat of a bishopric and Station At Lahtis the a district renowned for the by road But. an echo repeats the discourse. with a central hall. and a far-seen landmark from seaward. road are descended at full gallop. and par- ticularly the view from the bridge that spans the Helsingfors has been the capital of the Grand Tammerfors Rapicls. owing altar. Nicholas. but little inferior to the Norwegian carriole. and owes much of its prosperity to the Finland with Russia.FINLAND. one of the largest in Finland. Just before reaching it. his back the from the with towards but. the views obtained on this journey are lovely. Norway. and a good part of The small horses are as quiet. Jyvaskila. is the Church of St. which form a separate collection. is the Senate House. with a large seminary for teachers. from the top of the splendid dome. constructed in 1832. . raised (1830-52) in Senate Square. Facing this church. although perhaps not as small boys who drive them. On the south side of the same square we find the Alexander University. 221 water. and rock. The most prominent object in some than porticoes of Corinthian columns. on a mass of granite fifty-nine feet high. exemplified as is in ' . Its style is that of the Renaissance. reached by flights of steps. and from which Kuopio.' Norwegians are also taught the same maxim.

The rush and roar of the It waters are very grand and imposing. all parts or rapids. not only from St. grinds into small fragments the empty watch barrels that are thrown into it for at the last edification of visitors.222 RUSSIAN PICTURES. when. noise it produces. the mist having risen. this awe-inspiring work of Nature is seen through a for hours the seething water. is scenery. who no heed of the deafening taking Sunrise is the best time to see the Imatra-Koski. giving a difference of sixty-one feet between the top and the end of the rapids. The fall is not perpendicular. but with a gradual slope over about half a mile. Europe and America. crowded of with tourists. Viborg can be reached either by returning to the railway at Villman- . Petersburg. who come to see the Imatra formed by the Vuoksi rushing through a narrow chasm between two steep granite rocks. but from Falls. golden light.

built in 1293. s now a town of seventeen thousand strand. by pen and pencil. CENTRAL CIRCULATE CHILDREN'S ROOM . with a considerable trade is artificially represented Here we may being full of fine statuary and monuments. Repos. the home park VIBORG CASTLE. stands an old castle. Its show place where the scenery of Finland timber. 223 Viborg. both in Europe and in Asia. within a narrow compass. shipped from the domain of Baron Nicolai. Trangsund Bay. in in its port in Mon is miniature. or i- inhabitants. where by taking the pretty canal route from Lauritsala. the principal features of the great Russian empire.FINLAND. appropriately terminate the labour of attempting to describe.

166 LADOGA LAKE. 86. 143 Baikal. 168 NAHITCHEVAN. . 44 47 Monastery of Alexander the Fortress. 136 Nicon. of the Saviour. 33 . 28 Rybinsk. 136 Khiva. 146 Chancellor. in Samarkand. description of. Kamyshin. 21 FINLAND. description of. Pechersk Monastery. 157 PADIS CLOISTER. 32 Hermitage. 162 . STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 63 Ardon River. 169 Ai Pctri. 37 St. 160 Rornnove. description Elbruz. 50 Anglican Church. 145 Eustace of Vilna. 108 Sygnak. 86 German colonies. 59 Sarepta. 201 Tartars of the Crimea. 59. 168 Phasis. 167 Schlusselburg. 22 Jews' fortress. . Pass of. 167 Lithuania. Nenocksa. description of. the. Stary-Krim. 151 Terek River. 31 diamond. 169 Novoselski. and Alexander. 144. 143 Yaroslav. 20 Temple Hills. no Neva River. defeats Tartars. 43 bazaars. 86 . the. 174 political history of. 115 Novgorod the Great. . 69. 112 Ekaterinodar. people of. 56 Jehoshaphat. martyrdom of. Allied. expedition Wierzbolow. 146 Siberia. 152 Stavropol. people of 122 MAIMACHEN. 222 of. 78 Bells of. 25 Isinglass. Vitebsk. Rd. 197 Turkestan. 166 Baltic provinces. 157 RADZIVILL. 115 Sary-Balak. 132 . 165 Alle River. 162 Gouria. 197 Telav. 23 White Sea. . Black Sea. 165 Ermak. description of.. Kouban district. 34 Kulikova. Khersonesus doors at. 154 . the. Peter the . 199 Boskunchak Lake. the. 188-192 Tushines. 221 . 80 of. death of. religious history of. the. use of. 36 . . 63 Solovetsk. 222 Helsingfors. 169 Ekaterinoslaf. description of. 82 . . history French in. voyage on. 168 Basil. Andrew. 169 Petrozavodsk. province of. 71 Nicolaef. Great's Gallery. Jews 74 Oka Stretna. 221 Taoul mountaineers. Vasili Ostrof. 160 tiations with Elizabeth. 168 Tiflis. tomb of. 120 Chersonesus. 203 Orlof diamond. 52 Krestofski Island. sacred at. 160 EHzavetpoI. 103 . dangerous situation Winter Palace. 22 Riga. 118 Cemeteries. 28 Hefsurs. John. 138. 49 . 95 Moscow. 154 Monastery of the Trinity. Belfry of Ivan. 60 Russo-Greek Church. . Rion River. 157 Abo. Valley of. 149 Jews. 97 Solghat. description. 85 Square. Cathedral of St. 59 ZAPOROGUE. 181 Torne. 81 the Terem. no ODESSA. 60 Izmailovo. 135 Pskof. 147 Syr Daria. 56 Music. 72 Niemen River. 19 Vilna. 181 Tobolsk. 21 Little Russia.i. the. . fisheries of. 139 . in Stenka Razin. 144 Amu-Daria. . 185 manufacture of. 148 Tavastehus. 90 . 167 Tedjen. Kour River. 179 Nobel's Town. description White Russia. 59 Utchan-su. 115 Dukhobortsy. 82 . 157 people of. Bay of. 154 LONDON: WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. 52 Petrofsk. 168 . dress of people. 161 . the trines of. 101 Vasa. 53 Orel. 19 Nijni Novgorod. 168 Kazan. 185 Bakhchisarai. Orenburg. 129 Ekaterinburg. Church. . 23 EASTER IN RUSSIA. 152 Symvolon-limen. -222 KABARDINES. 165 Narva. description of. 196 Georgia. the. description of. 152 Purtenite. Tatars defeat Kumyss. 74. . AA RIVER. 143 Mz'hett. 95 ikon. 154. Lake. WARSAW. description of. 20 Rostof. 169 Volga. galia. 147 Batoum. 165 Eupatoria. description of. 143 Kysty. . 219 Verkhneudinsk. defeat of. Cape. fishing. 157 Kakhety. 151 187 Elton Lake. &c. the. NICHOLAS. 168 31. Russian pictures. 196 Troitsk osavsk. 53 Sevastopol. history of. 28 DAGHESTAN. 223 Vilia River. in Lithuania. 106 . Monastery of. Vologda. Grebensky. 162 Tiumen. 146 Irghiz River. 65 Kizyl Arvat. . 143 Alushta. capture of. 19 Wirballen. 112 Cheremyssi. 25 sieges of. 19 YALTA. the. climate of. of. 26 Balaclava. the. 140 Cronstadt. 169 Delijan Pass. 165 Karaim. 116 Brahestad. 131 . 116 Kivatch. Church of Abridges. 27 Abkhases. . the. Dubofka. 19 Kristinestad. 154 Dunaburg. the. 167 Souram. 90 Romanoff House. the. galley slaves. 174 . halls of. 154. description of. UleSborg. of. of. 144 Merv. 42 drojki 42. 65 Olga. 52 Peterhof. 153 Gori. 40 drivers. 114 JACOB RIVER. 220 at. 33 pictures . nego- Ararat. CENTRAL CfRCULATI CHlLUHEN'S ROOM . Ossets. 167 Tepe-kerman. Alupka. Count. 187 Troitsa Monastery. 59 Samara. 144 VALDAI. the. 24 TAGANROG. 65 Onega. So Dorpat. 115 Miirmon Coast. 160 its Tarn an. Museum . 20 GAMLA KARLEBY. 94 Koshtan-tau. in Massandra. 20-23 . 138 Crimea. grave of. 94 . the. 21 welcomes Chancellor. . conversion of. 158 Sourakan. 45 Bjorneborg. doc128 Sukharef Tower. Waterfall of. 112 Kief. the. 39. manufacture of. Bay of. at Kherson. . the. church architecture. 161 . martyrdom Jyvaskila. 76 77 Chinese Town. Turcomans. description 130 : Cathedral of St. 70 buildings of. 28 Paijanne Lake. 50. 59 Kars. the. 25 Pskova River. 218 Agriculture in Holmogory. 121 . 28 Perecop. 168 Armenia. 167 Alexandropol. 200 Schamyl. 134 Kherson. the. the. 101 209 to. 92 Sparrow services of. 152 Akstafa. 108 the. 161 Ingur River. 204 Poltava. 151 Jesuits. 153 Cossacks. AT EKATERINO- Old Believers at Kern. Geok-Tepc. 32 Orlof-Davydoff. 165 Archangel.Karthen City. 95 Kuopio. king of Georgia. the. 24 bell of. 202 Syzran. 214 French invasion of Russia. 127 . 179 Peter the Great founds Petersburg. 164 Alazan. conversion of. . St. in Russia.. 101 UKRAINE. . 55 and . 153 Caviar. description of. 108 history of. 144 HAPSAL. Rembrandt Gallery. story of. Etchmiadzin. Chuvash. . Sophia at. 129 Mishor. 88 . 114 Kanin. 138 Novorossisk. 56 of. the. 60 Howard. Petrofski Park and Palace. nt Pytzounda. Monastery of. description of. 134 St. 101 . Sophia. 152 Solombola Island. Tchentchen. the Black Prince. province of. 50 31 Petersburg. 43 Imperial Public Anitchkoff Palace. 168 Tver. 118 Ivan vi. 26 Rion. the. convicts. of. 78 . 85 Red robes. martyrdom . history. 124. 40 . 98 . 65 Pharnawaz. 115 Erivan. . 181 Ekatcrinenstad. 116-118 Azof. 222 Imeritia. 59 Saratuf. Mangup. 169 Tammerfors. 167 Sympheropol. LIMITED. 49 character of. 158 SLAF. the. . gold mines. 70 Kremlin at. 124 Olonets. 148 Bakii. 219 Ural Mountains. 53 167 Darial Pass. 144 Dimitri. markets of. Herat. 203 Khvalinsk. 90 beggars in. 179 Derekyuy. in Kuntsevo. history of. Great Palace. 219 the. 55 at.. description of. 157 Mil HI. 76 Kremlin. 115 Tsarskoe Se'lo. 167 Gurzuf. 120 Kikeneis. 48 Nevski. 23 Dvina. . 143 Ak-mesjid. on Cathedral of Basil. description of. . 137 m Chernozem. 198 Anthony. . Isaac's. . 187 ^ Bethany Monastery. 176. . 52 gardens of. Karaim. conquest of. provements 88 . 101 ST. 37 . 165 Askhabad. 91 . 138 BAIDAR VALLEY. . 118 the. 97 Bible. 169 Kul-Oba tomb. 25 Pugatchef. description of. 219 Gautier. 222 Panticapa5um. 132 Kirghiz Steppes. 140 Perm. . . . description of. Lahtis. the Tithes Church. 167 Kalmucks. 27 MIety. bridges. 112 Kiakhta. the. 108 Kertch Collection. 35 . Cheremshansk. 88. 32 Orlof of. description of. 138 tombs in. 157 Poland. 170 natives of. 221 Tchapars.. 198 Cathedral of the Assump84 tion. in Samoyedes. 116 Tula. 200 Samarskaya Lake. 106 of. the. 149 21 John of Vilna. 167 Tashkent. description of. 56 Archangel. 197 Michaelofski. description of. 143. Nevski Prospect. 116 Kama River. 149 Kasbek. 84 Cathedral of Archangel Michael.INDEX. 112 Irkutsk. 53 River. 151 in. 196 Kola. 33 Kertch. 60 94. the. 169 Molokane". . Prince. the town. the. 122 Gunib. the. the. 144 Pavlofsk. . the Patriarch. 51 Yelagin Island. 70 Novocherkask. 104 Nijni Taghil. province . . Library. 154 Bokhara. 104 churches and monasteries. in Crimea. 31 New Jerusalem Monastery. . 136 IDIOTCY. province of. description of. . Russia Company. no Skiit. 23 Vladimir. 160 Great Russia. re- 80 . the. 55 Sergi. 108. the. of. 1 20 Swanny. 47 Grandfather of the Russian Navy. isthmus of. the. 136 Caucasus. 168 Heinola. description of. 222 Kursk. 185 Viborg. the. description of. conquest of. 103 Sturgeon CATHERINE II. 87 Imatra. ruins Circassia. 154. Kayan Cathedral. Kertch collection. 152 Kharkof. 104 Kremlin. 219 66. . 85 tron. 1 20 135 Lesghians. 80 Granovitaya Palace. 42 38 streets Transcaspian Railway. 121 . Russian charity for. 53 Mingrelia. 95 Tsaritsyn. description of. the. 196 Astrakhan. 164 Demidoff mines. the. 179 Simbirsk. 168 Ostrof. Don. 181 Tomsk. 59 Cheboksary. 162 Koutais. 116 Kalmytski Bazaar. 55 Ivan the Terrible before Pskof. English factory at. rebellion of. 84. 135. the. rebellion Streltsi. 131 . 55 Peipus Lake. 146 202 Chimkent. imin. Pityus. monuments of Peter Tsitrakhan. in Russia. White City. Russia. 161 Kovno. 56 Kolomenskoe. 154. St. the. 94 Moravian Brethren at Sarepta. 24 Kremlin of. 64 Sougdidi. 158 Ingush. 65 Oranienbaum. 160 Ph'tchavy. 77 . 124 Vladikavkaz. expedition of. description of. 219 Black Sea Cossacks. Cathedral of the the AlabasAnnunciation. 112 . Inkerman. the. Valley of.

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