and from the Arctic uniformly limited. on which he is a high and well-known authority. PETERSBURG. the author are also due in a special degree to Captain J. the Ocean The to the 'frosty Caucasus. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. the country dealt with large or small.' execution of this task has been facilitated by the generous per- mission of Mr. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. ST. R. for his friendly contribution of a chapter on the Crimea and Caucasus. PREFACE. therefore. and.N. be number of pages is the same. and Finland.. John Murray to draw upon the information contained in the The thanks of Handbook for Travellers in Russia. and Pencil Series will remember that their contents is ' volume Indulgence must. Boutoffsky's Ornement Ritsse. Buchan Telfer. THE are object of this of the Russian ' volumes of the Pen to represent graphically the salient features Readers of the previous Empire and its inhabitants. Poland.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. character was the tenth preserved through century purely Byzantine . be claimed for the unavoidably incomplete character of a work that attempts to sketch by the aid of both pen and pencil the lands and peoples embraced in so vast an area as that which stretches from Poland to Kamchatka. The ancient illuminations that head the chapters of this volume have their It will be seen that been copied from M.

and cities of Russia in both Europe and Asia. been great Reformer. and other niceties as that of variety nevertheless. while at the end of the eleventh century the Byzantine style began to be mingled in Russia with elements of native genius. more especially of its racial or religious prejudice. Hence. to the interest he may already take in the subject. . has been the subject of such numerous literary productions that it is well nigh impossible to say. have not They have been the natural which Russia acquired so late in her had political life. 1698. in the eyes and under the keen observation of states that of form been more or less and the solidified and in the advanced long spirit their civilization and government. so far from being a terra incognita. especially that part situated in Europe. The foreign criticism and animadversion to which Russia has been liable since the produced by consequence of the days. they may deserve our particular observation at this juncture By Dr. him accurate. the more. the more remote the manners. Nevertheless. anything by pen and great position pencil that will not appear to a large class of readers to be more or less a rhhanfft of other travellers' notes and artistic labours. lands. add something peoples. at a time for a good part the printing press was already an active force. the more abstruse their history and surprising in the event. In short. by giving if somewhat scanty. the work may be introduced to its readers somewhat apin the words of an English writer at the end of the propriately seventeenth century 'Tis true. Russia received its first strong impulse from Peter the Great. Crull. J. that the Russian bees have ever since been toiling under the guidance of" gifted and ambitious rulers to build up the colossal fabric we view to-day with an amazement which is not unmingled with disquietude. and of the next. by sea and by land. Dedication to The Antient and Present State of Muscoiy. and consequently hurried on from one extreme to another. or to depict. this relation will not afford the same beautiful of structures. but also. Russia.' 1 I say. London. ' ' : . had become when ' ' It is therefore as in a glass hive comparatively easy and free from danger. when only the area of the modern Russian Empire presents itself for consideration. the hope is not forbidden that the book produced in these circumstances may not only please the eye of the reader into whose hands it falls. and policy of the Italy Muscovites are from other nations of Europe. of time. information about the history. which was gradually much influenced by the art of India and Persia. statues. gardens. when the wall that had surrounded Muscovia had been considerably breached.PREFACE. and when intercommunication with the rest of Europe. among a nation guided for the most part merely by instinct. religion.

7 IO EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.. . Petersburg . St.. Petersburg Peter the Great St.. 44 49 51 The Fortress of Schliisselburg 54 .. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL: The Column St. PETERSBURG. St.. ..BYZANTINE ORNAMENTATION OF THE TENTH-ELEVENTH CENTURY.. Vilna 21 18 Moscow .. Petersburg of the Four- 30 St.. of the Twelfth Lithuanian Peasant 24 27 Museum. from Library of the Synod.. .. in the Public of Alexander I. II. .. Isaac's 38 41 Plan of St. ....... ST.. MS. . teenth Century. Public /<y' in the 5 5 a Manuscript Byzantine Ornamentation of the Tenth-Eleventh Century. St. St. CHAPTER I... 36 The first Fleet built by Peter the Great The English Quay. The Emperor The Empress of Russia of Russia page 14 15 CHAPTER WESTERN Russian Sledging and Coursing An Illumination from a Russian or Thirteenth . Petersburg . Petersburg Preface . RUSSIA. Voronej . in the Imperial . Moscow Map of Russia in Europe . . Cathedral.. . 19 Views in Riga .. . III.. in the Imperial Public Library. An Illumination from a Manuscript of the Thirteenth or Fourteenth Century... Views 31 in and around Petersburg at . . An Illumination from a Russian MS. Petersburg St.. Public Library. An Illumination Fortress and Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. of the Fourteenth Century. Petersburg page . IN THE LIBRARY OF CONTENTS AND The LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. in the Imperial Frontispiece Library. Petersburg from a MS. Century. St. MOSCOW.. .... FROM A MANUSCRIPT THE SYNOD.

. An 98 99 105 Moscow .. in of the Thirteenth or the Mosque at Kazan .. Moscow .. . .. VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. near Moscow Moscow . Holy 75 75 75 75 at Izmailot. . at Moscow Church of the Virgin of Kazan. Nijni Novgorod Nijni . . .. Moscow.. .... 93 93 93 93 94 Church of St. . The Pechersk Monastery The Battle of Poltava . An The Kremlin..... Century.. Library of the ... .. Basil. V. CHAPTER An Illumination from a IV.. ... 1 10 12 Fourteenth Monastery of the Kazan Views in . ... of the Fourteenth Century. MS.... near Moscow page 56 The Solovetsk Monastery .. A Nun collecting Money for A South Russian Woman a Convent 127 from a MS. Sergius. . Sophia at Novgorod the Great .... Moscow . .. at Holmogory. . or New Jerusalem... in the Sacristy of the Monastery of St. in tage 57 61 64 CHAPTER Illumination from a Psalter of the Thirteenth Century. Moscow 66 67 the Belfry the Ivan Veliki Tower. ..CONTENTS. 77 79 So Si Novgorod The Monument at Novgorod commemorating the Thousandth Anniversary of the Empire The Patriarch Nicon The Church in the Monastery of the New . . 107 the Volga Astrakhan Boat Dog Sledge with Fish. THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. . . 129 133 135 120 121 A Ploughing on the Steppes Peasant Girl of Great Russia ... in the Library of the Monastery of the Resurrection. RUSSIA. of the Fifteenth Century..... Moscow One of the Porches of the Troitsa Monastery Cathedral of St. .. . . -91 92 . 1553 Archangel ... Moscow The Crown of Monomachus Cathedral of St. . A Introduction of Christianity into Russia ... 83 SO 88 89 a Church or ... New Jerusalem 1613 72 Monastery The Old Clothes Market. . Money for . in the Library of the Synod. . . . "7 .102 . 73 an 74 The Romanoff House The Sukharef Tower Church of the Nativity .. Modern Tartars of 114 116 ... . Sergius) Monastery 96 CHAPTER A VI. .... Astrakhan . near Cathedral.. 137 .. . .123 .. A Ancient Pirate Raid on the Volga Cossack of the Volga 1 A Tartar An "3 ..... . Landing of Richard Chancellor the White Sea. . .. . . 119 CHAPTER SOUTH An Illumination VII. 69 70 71 The Great Palace. Moscow Russian Peasants near Kuntsevo . Tartar An Illumination from a MS. An old Church at . Pokrofski Village.. 125 Nogai Tartar An Itinerant Shoemaker.. .. Lady . . at Kief. . Moscow - A Peasant collecting Jerusalem Plan of the Church in the Sepulchre General Patrick Gordon Officers of the Streltbi exact copy of the original Church of the The Streltsi of Streltsi of a later ... Date The Troitsa (St. ... A Novgorod Russian Trader with his Tea Urn . New Jerusalem. . MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. . Nicholas... The Great Bell : On . The Kremlin Wall.

. 174 . of the Fifteenth Cen.. Cross. . Petersburg page 140 Mount St.. ... ASIA. of the Twelfth Century. in Library of the Troitsa Monastery. . ...... . . Entrance to the Tomb of a Scythian King.. . 160 161 161 Imeritian Noble wearing the Imeritian Lady .. (at .. in the . 151 Georgian Ladies Naphtha Wells at Baku .. CHAPTER An Illumination VIII.CONTENTS.. . THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. from a MS.. Tartar Bride and Bridegroom .. n the Public Rumiantsoff Museum. CHAPTER SIBERIA. 210 .. with . Moscow .. near Kertch page 152 Feats of horsemanship by Cossacks of the Caucasus 156 A Mingrelian Peasant 158 A Village in Svanneti 159 Inkermann . . .. . . . An Illumination from a in IX.... A 171 Siberian Gold of Siberia Mine Saint Sergius.. of the Fifteenth Siberian Convict ... . . .. . Warsaw Kamenets. Warsaw. FINLAND. . Khiva 203 I9S 197 198 199 202 iSS 189 191 A Khirghiz Bride of the Khanates Map .150 .. X. recently .. . in 179 i^o 182 184 Lake Baikal Winter .164 166 . Moscow Helsingfors . . . . . the Library of the Monastery 01 . The Iron Gate Market Garden) . . from a MS. .. . . of the Tenth or Eleventh Century. Crimea 141 Yalta 144 . 177 Century. The Burning A Siberian Merchant in Winter Travelling Dress 175 of Irkutsk in 1879 Gilyaks in Winter Costume on the Lower Amur . of the Fifteenth Abo 214 215 Cathedral Century.. 218 220 222 223 . .. Turcoman Women A Tekke Village Tekkes Samarkand The Grand Minaret... . . Ostiaks Spinning and Nursing . in Podolia tury. Papanaky . The Cathedral of St.... . MS.. . University in the background . .... Library of the Troitsa Monastery In the Lazienki Park. Tunguz Girls . Vladimir... An Illumination from a MS. Finlanders Finnish Fern Gatherers Viborg Castle . The Mosque Kokan 192 of Hazret-i-Turkestan CHAPTER XL POLAND. . Bakhchisarai . . The Church 204 205 208 of the Holy ... .. . . . Kara'im Jew . St. . . Tim's 163 .. pleted at Khersonesus A A . . . Moscow . . Kiakhta . . 185 186 CHAPTER CENTRAL An Illumination from a MS. . Peter.. 145 147 Batoum com149 An An .. in the Imperial Public Library.212 213 the back of the Saxony CHAPTER An Illumination XII. .170 173 Map . .. Tobolsk .. . Polish peasants.

35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 35 50 Typo KtOiins Co.10 15LoncT itudeEast25fr'>mGrecmvicl. Sr. . MAP OF RUSSIA IN EUROPE.

which forms also its southernmost boundary. the Russian empire had. PETERSBURG. an estimated population of one hundred and nine millions. in 1886. CHAPTER I. exceeded only by the magnitude of the British empire as large as (9. one seventh part of the land surface of the globe.314.000 OCCUPYING miles of railway. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. and which fails to is reach the Atlantic only by the interposition of the kingdom of Norway. before the latter is carried westward across Central Asia to the confines of . from Behring Straits down to Its the frontier of the Chinese empire. of which eighty-four per cent. sway On the north the Russian empire has an arctic coast-line that embraces more than one hundred and forty degrees of longitude. ST. was spread over an area of over two million square miles in Europe.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MANUSCRIPT OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY. already covered with 1 7. EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. and about one quarter of its entire superficies. eastern limits are on the Pacific Ocean. with a population almost three times Russian of the is now under the that which sceptre. The vastness of these combined possessions. on territories measuring about six and a half million square miles.000 square miles). the remainder being more or less permanently settled in Asia.

These have played an Servians. while the modern kingdom of Roumania has become a neighbour on the lower course of the Danube. Persia and to by Pliny the elder (A. few of their The other mass followed the course of and became known as the South Slavonians.D. or the Wends. important part with regard to the entire race. the Grand Duchy of Finland is conterminous with Norway and Sweden. Whether from external pressure. Bulgarians. The dominant population of Russia Proper is Slavonic the Slavs or Slavonians having been a branch of the Aryan or Indu-European race. of Copenhagen. struggle with the Roman empire. Cyril and Methodius preached the gospel in their mother tongue. inasmuch as they were the link between early Christianized civilisation and their own kindred heathen It was to the Danubian Slavs that. of the Slavs south of the Baltic is Winedas or Weonodas. off.' Tacitus mentions them Vcnedi. and on the Black Sea. of which it holds the northern and eastern shores from the Danube to Batoum. by which the greater part of Europe has been occupied from time immemorial. by Dr. and in their northward Great. the Scandinavian name for the same people the Philanders know Russia only as Venaja. They are referred . after which the Baltic and Polish Provinces establish contiguity to the empires of Germany and Austria. century. and the Teutonic tribes ' designated their early eastern neighbours as the Winecid. Settled in a country so remote from the centres of Greek and Roman culture. or by deadly Except in Poland. and . call To this it Vene? From the the Vistula. while in the eleventh and twelfth centuries Vender. who In King Alfred's Orosius the Anglo-Saxon designation survive in Lusatia. from the events which at that period disturbed the greater part of Europe. the Esthonians. On the west. Bohemia.12 RUSSIAN PICTURES. descendants survive. One mass crossed the Vistula. : We and Scandinavia. and populated the tracts between the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic. the Slavs extended eastward the Dnieper. down to the Elbe. in succession to a previous German element exhausted by internecine conflict. on the Caspian (practically a Russian lake). on the opposite side of the Baltic. they began soon after their short-lived subjection to the Goths (in the third or fourth century) to spread themselves to the west in two distinct streams. composed of and Slovens. the Danube. countries with which the empire also comes into close contact. or from an inherent nomadic tendency. 1 use largely the best work on the subject The Relations between Ancient Russia the Origin of the Russian State. Turkey. Vilhelm Thomsen. where the to earliest historical records the locate them. severally. and Moravia. and was day their racial brethren. in the early part of the ninth tribes. 79) as the the Vistula. Croatians. into territory that later became the dominion of the first centuries after Christ they were cut Novgorod During woods and marshes. the Slavs made a late appearance on the stage of history. inhabiting the country beyond as the Veneti .

and having each a In 1 primitive. whose capital. of the We ancient first hear in Nestor's 2 Chronicle of the Slavs the home. now century of the Christian era a number of rude and yet they tribes around Lake with Ilmen. the period in question. . history which joins the Volga at Nijni Novgorod. some of them extant on our voyage down the Volga. and the Dnieper. or Czech. still used in the services of the Russo-Greek Church. without any common political tie. One of the most important of those tribes was that sketching. warring more and more among themselves as their numbers multiplied or as they approached each other's territorial confines. 2 earliest monkish historian of Russia. The most redoubtable of the latter the Khazars had in the latter half of the seventh century formed on the Volga a State ruled from a city near the site of modern Astrakhan. It is only the latter tribe that . and who. together with the Lett and Lithuanian races to the south of them.D. the centre of modern Russia Proper. crushed. however.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. vernacular. the greater part of Southern 'Russia' fell into their hands. the Volga and the Slav territories. appertaining to it. principal limits of the primitive Slav world. thus find that We in the ninth century the extensive country we are dealing with was peopled by a number of ethnologically unrelated heathen tribes. independent Novgorod as a capital. and nearest their boundaries became tributaries to them. We shall Those who occupied absorbed lands nearest to the race. completely excluded the Slavs from the Baltic and the waters by the Slavonic the Mcria. written slightly varied form. by the Rurik princes. the Dvina. in until centuries nations. in the basin of the Oka. as well as A. ago. at Beyond part of ' these ' Russia Finnish tribes. later played so great a part in Russian while the easternmost Slavs were the Viatichi. Nestor asserts that the Slavonian and Finnish Russian To The day anyone acquainted with the modern language has no difficulty in understanding a Bulgarian. He part records that even in the western who remained in their country we are engaged in ninth were not a nation. the greater (a designation that long remained unknown) was peopled the Slavonic tribes Their power was. the a The same is language. throughout the part of what is now Russia. North of the Slavs of Novgorod were the CJihd or Finnish tribes that spread around the Gulf of Finland and the Lake of Ladoga. of all in the alphabet composed a few the Slav by Cyril and Methodius. had reached. Between northern find 969. Servian. the ' 13 old 1 Slavonic. patriarchal form of these this circumstances government. but divided into of the Poliant.' which by the spread of Christianity was. Slavs on their eastern side have long been and survive only in name as the Muroma. dwelt the Finnish tribes. and by hordes of Tartar or Turkish origin more or less by nomadic in their habits. and the Vcs. and near the sources of the Volga. Gradually. with Smolensk as their chief settlement. Kief.

then for the first time be called a Russian monarchy. A. at Novgorod. to send the following message to the Scandigroups of the north combined whose Our navians. us. sailing over in his viking ships to the south coast of the Gulf of Finland. 864. from Rhos or Rnss the clan to which he belonged. however. in accordance with the law of Their adoption of the Greek Odelsret. of the Britons by whom the been only as a conqueror that Roric. The Scandinavian character of the ruling race at Kief was probably not Roric's grandson already bore preserved for more than a few generations.' over points out. penetrated inland. founded what could Clearly it could have THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA.D. but there is no order in it that another Thomsen monkish legend V. ' : . Dr. from depredations they had already begun to suffer come ye and rule land is great and bountiful. a Slavonic name.RUSSIAN PICTURES. religion must have had some effect in estranging o o o them from their Roman Catholic brethren at home . had become essentially Slavonicized. and by the year 1000 the reigning princes who succeeded to the throne of Kief in priority of descent. and establishing himself. in the mouths places almost the same words Saxons were 'invited' to come over the sea.

Varangian thirteenth or fourteenth century to the Germans of the Hanse Towns. ' Novgorod long continued THE EMPRESS OF RUSSIA. between the Princes of Kief and the country of their ancestors. is proved by the fact that in about 1070 Vladimir (Monomachus) married Gyda. That intimate personal relations were maintained. by to ' the north. Their son espoused a daughter of Ingo Strenkelson. . Vaeringjar] signified only the Scandinavian body-guard of the Emperor of Kyzantium.' or men from 1 keep up its character of a and its Scandinavian element gave way only in the city. whom its lucrative trade was absorbed. the stream of settlers ceased to pour in from Scandinavia. after she had fled with her brothers to the Danish Court. the daughter of King Harold. but it had by that time deposited so strong a contingent that a contemporary writer describes the population of Kief in 1018 as consisting 'chiefly of Danes.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. The term was later adopted by the Slavs in the form of Variag^ to denote Northmen. even at the close of the eleventh century. 1 Varangar (Old Norse : not Scandinavians in genera!. '5 After the period to which we have brought down our observations. King of Sweden.

This was the origin of the Russian Udel system. Moscow. as the Norse Russian for is still. He was well read in Autocrat of all the Russias. of the imperial Byzantine blood. and his son Ivan IV. sister of the Emperor Basil and Byzantine lore. under the name of Wercgcld. we bring this chapter to a our rapid but extensive travels through the empire. after his marriage with Sophia His successor. was essentially Scandinavian or Teutonic in its principles. or executed within recent times in Russia. now agreed that the legend of Vladimir Monomachus having received investiture at the hands of the Emperor Constantine and is a mere legend of fabricated in the reign of Ivan IV. and its internal government. through Anne. the Terrible (1534-1584) found himself ' the position of being able to take at his coronation. For instance. the first in Russia. Even the Saxon Witenagemotes had been reproduced under the Slavonic name of Veche. Vasili III.' and added to (or Prince) of Novgorod. and Czar is a corrupt German spelling of the title. pcis. pctchka. is derived from the old Norse or We have indeed found in Norway many more Swedish knut-r a knot. penalties or compensation for manslaughter. Russian historians are wife of Vladimir. and survived more especially at Novgorod and Pskof (in the form of Republics). still prevalent in Norway. as the representative of the extinct imperial line.' covered in the Russian language a host of words (principally for household objects in incipient civilized life) that are unmistakably Scandanavian in their Even the word knut.' the title of Tsar. petch. compiled in the reign of Vladimir (tenth century). its laws. It was Ivan III. Having thus sketched the development consolidation Russia down age of Peter the Great. in lieu of the primitive law of vengeance and retaliation. until the Russian sovereign ' power was concentrated at Moscow. the stove. with which criminals were punished origin.' and in ' 1 ' and desired to be recognised by the Patriarch of Constantinople. Paleologus. (1462-1505) who assumed the title of Grand Duke and all Russia. . Thus it introduced. (1505-1534) absorbed the principalities that had remained independent of Moscow. for hearth or oven. converted into Vira in Slavonian. under which the successors of Roric fought amongst themselves for the paramount throne and facilitated by their dissensions the occupation of Russia by the Tartars during two centuries. to whom he sent a costly present of sable skins.1 6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The first Russian code of laws. his arms the double-headed black eagle. Dr. Vladimir. We have already alluded to the law of Odel. begin to the 1 close. Russia had followed the general European path of civilization and development in its social life. or such words than the learned professor has cited. the first Christian Prince of Kief. Until that catastrophe occurred. or whip. Thomsen gives a long list of proper names of Scandinavian root which long survived the Slavonicization of the He has also disRuss.



inhabited chiefly by Poles and Jews. is of interest as the district. IN THE PUBLIC MUSEUM. their well- which the demand for our passports. CHAPTER WESTERN II RUSSIA. Kingdom of Poland. when we cross the brook Instead ot these we catch a two great empires. but in the beyond. in a fertile and pleasantly accidented its present squalor. At partition of Poland (1/95). majority of British and American travellers bound for Petersburg. and their trim avenues suddenly their neat homesteads.' Even at Kovno. in united with the that third kingdom in 1401. dynastically joined require ' to be reminded. Kovno. and scarcely plains of East Prussia. MOSCOW.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. incorporated with Lithuania fell to the share of Russia. that we are in But geographically we are only in a province of the Holy Russia. We station of Wierzbolow or Wirballen. OF THE TWELFTH OR THIRTEENTH CENTURY. sixty to the Crown of Poland venerable Duchy of Lithuania. by a in it 13S6. and finally 1569. Muscovite ancient on not we are miles ground. which we reach can proceed the same night in about twenty-four hours. notwithstanding last stronghold of paganism in c 2 . London from and in about fifteen hours more enter the Russian Empire at the frontier LIKE the great St. we miss kept roads. Prettily situated at the confluence of the Vilia with the great Niemen River. our first objective point is Berlin. Dreary as we may have found the of poplars. separates glimpse of the blue and gold dome of a Russo-Greek church.

and to Warsaw. the moon-god. having power the form of a beardless youth over death and misfortune. they were driven from their last and holiest shrine. and the Russians. which was burnt sceptre. and we shall later find a good display of them within the Kremlin at Moscow. on the Catholic church. Europe. secured the implicit obedience of pagan kings and princes. the sun-god. of Perkun. on the site of a sacred until the grove within which the pagan worshippers maintained a perpetual fire until Their chief priest. amongst hills that rise to not very apparent from the large and handsome attractions not being in other respects sufficient to we must be content to read in ' ' Murray . have not permitted the survival of any very ancient remnants of The church of St. with a red face sur- of Petrimpa. and its encourage a break in the journey. George while the chapel of St. and forced its inhabitants to accept the religion of Christ. the largest architecture.20 AUSSSAJV PICTURES. Paul at Kovno. with a white band round his head. could be seen erect some of the sacred oaks of ancient days. : Passing junctions of lines that lead severally to the port of Libau. only nine were carried back by the French.000 men. railway station.' We may add that out of eight hundred guns. in rounded by rays and of Pikol. messengers. now years after its stands a Roman end of the fourteenth century. we halt of the Lithuanians in happier for refreshment at Vilna. and therefore represented as a grey-headed old man of deathly pallor. the whose ultimate disastrous retreat is commemorated in the French. in Baltic. in which the Teutonic knights. or foundation. later for political objects. resided at a more ancient place of the same name Romnove in East Prussia. was dedicated in the fifteenth century. the gocl of springs. by 'In following inscription on a monument which stands in the market-place The army 1812. to In 1812 the town was devastated and pillaged have existed since 1503. south and west. the Little Paris and town a Russian now the chief of province of the same name. in the neighbouring province of Courland. sources and fertility. days. are mixed up to a degree that will not admit of any clear account within the limits of these pages. the Lithuanian grand dukes. Ten miles beyond it. the ' ' The beauty of its situation is the east. his whose iron when produced by when Boleslas of Poland invaded Prussia in 1015. Gertrude is known . recrossed the frontier numbering 70. on the River Alle. Peter and St. Only eighty years ago. Strife and warfare. . Russia was invaded by an army numbering 700. Roman like Catholic edifice in Lithuania.000. relates that niches in the sacred oak of ancient Romnove contained effigies . a chronicler of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. the Poles. and one which held out three hundred Niemen. the last mementos of the extinct but once paramount authority which had been wielded by pagan high priests over the greater part of the country between the Baltic and the Carpathians. originally in the name of the true faith. the capital of the Kingdom of Poland. Dusburg. on the Vilia River. the church of St.

Sustained as it was by the advice after seceding from the Church of Rome. 1586) there were already thirty Russo-Greek places their time there and that the most illustrious houses in Lithuania belonged to that confession. and part of The remains of the kindred in race to the Slavs. whose Grand Duke. their prince in Courland were first faith. ' Count D. and the personal visits of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Eustace. had married the 1 History of Romanism in Russia.' at Yilna. and partly by the inlluence of Muscovy. l>y the late Count D.. the testimony is adduced of Baron Emperor Maximilian. Nicholas. 'the Miracle Worker. of Greek orthodoxy in the present north-west provinces of Russia. and killed the martyrs of Lithuanian idolaters. Samogitia. by Anthony. Ivan III. to the effect that were more Russian than Roman Catholic churches in Vilna. notwithstanding of the that the inhabitants not the provinces of Vilna. 1874. They assert that even in the reign of King Stephen Bathory (15/5of worship in that city. also was a centre of heathen (1323). In further corroboration of such a wide and early establishment VILNA. crowns The Castle the of hill worship in days of remote which an octagonal red brick foot of which a fire was kept Roman Catholic uninterruptedly burning until the triumph of Christianity. John. ambassador from the (1517-1526). Tolstoy points with pride to the Lithuania by Russians at a period fact that the Gospel was brought to when Latinism was completely unknown. . repose in the church of St. Tolstoy. at the fire antiquity. Vilna now of as the province is. tower still Jagellon remains. the fourteenth century. and of Alessandro Guagmno. under Olgord. an in of Germany Herberstein. Italian officer in the military service of Poland (1560). Grodno.WESTERN that this RUSSIA.

at the same time. and libraries to the Jesuits. under which. who thereupon proclaimed the union of the two Churches. in a very degraded position. passed over to Romanism. exclusively of Calvinists and Lutherans. the year 1632 there was not a single ' Having suppressed the Reformation. both as a result of the preaching of John Huss. in to the dignity of them by pale of 1570. and gave their churches. and Moscow was absorbed by her own disastrous affairs. the Greek Church held its own. the inhabitants not contrary to the Roman Church. as a measure of conciliation. Constantinople was distant. The Roman Catholic clergy being unable from venality and disunion to struggle against the Reformation.' pillaged their own churches. Lithuania was flooded with Jesuits. powerful protector 1563.' Thirty years of Lithuania were professed en masse. in Calvinists. been printed in the Polish language. was only when Jerome of Prague visited the country (in the fifteenth The pope then century) that Rome began to achieve some success. who re-entered the the Church. a college at Vilna. ' in so far as they were . the authority of the bishops The Reformation The upper classes were ready towards the middle of the sixteenth century.22 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Some of their bishops were ' A gained over. which was a few years later raised a university. and submitted their Church to the pope. drove the ministers of the Reformed Church from the estates which they held. who. the great noble families having already left the Greek Church and embraced Romanism. appointed by the king being frequently movement found Lithuania in this condition. at the dawn of the sixteenth century. who established. the rites and doctrines of the Greek Church could be preserved. the whose expense the Bible had. By Dissenter' in the Polish Senate. orders. often Russian noble of the period states that the clergy of that faith passed their time in drinking-houses. without the preassumed the right of nominating and confirming bishops but it liminary consent of the Kings of Poland. established since 1539 in Poland. Senate soon became composed almost enthusiasm that the Lithuanian disputed. and by the liberty It was accepted with such of the press. notwithstanding the proclamation of the union of the Latin and Greek Churches by the Council of Florence in 1438. John Chrysostom into Slavonic. The Greek priesthood was. daughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania. Vast estates were gradually conferred upon the King of Poland. vindicated and exercised the right of filling the episcopal This led to the disorganisation of the Latin clergy and religious sees. printing presses. for it. The famed Teutonic knights had in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries done their best by violence to introduce Romanism into Lithuania . of Even the Prince Nicholas at Radzivill the Black. however. the Jesuits attacked with increased activity the Russo-Greek Church established in the outlying Polish provinces. later. and that it was impossible to find one among them who could translate the works of St. and by the great nobles.

with records of strife and bloodshed. laid to the account of are in We ' now ' the ' ' ' . line of defence frontier of Russia. operations in 1812. and which falls into running sluggish course. More Polish 1863 and 1864. Tartars. which had been reduced. banks. we notice some other After much suffering in wars with stirring events in the history of Vilna. ancient provinces. the new interests and combinations that have supervened The works form part render the fortress of Dtinaburg of high importance. this shallow and dotted with islands that become in spring. like the Volga and the Dnieper. which. however.' the total number of sick and wounded abandoned by the King the of Naples having been 20. condition ' more than months. and of every other the White Russia. Russians. now triumphal entry into Vilna. leaving in one hospital alone 7. like the rest of the country through which we have passed. to use modern terminology. snipe. the city was plundered and destroyed in the seventeenth century by Swedes. when they joined the An imposing hills. and. mere variety of wild fowl sandy swamps is tenanted by storks. for at navigated only by barges light draught which we momentarily see as we move on towards the great railway junction (with Riga on the one hand. Teutonic knights. when he the residence of the Governor-General. dimmed by of a the recollection of his ignominious in little flight in disguise from five the Grand Army. Except towards its mouth. together with the tortuous stream Riga. Poles.000. recently disasters overtook insurrection of 1831. finally ceded by the Poles to Russia in 1/72.' as distinguished from province of Little Great and Russia. connected. occasionally accelerated about miles. and in Lithuanians. have left many traces in the history of Diinaburg. and the second the western of protecting are intended to render impossible an inimical occupation of the main lines . and in 1/94 it fell to the It was the centre of the French Russians.500 corpses lead one above the other. Although. and now one of her most important fortresses. over the the Valdai the Baltic bridge next takes the train at a solemn pace Western Dvina. and Cossacks. Petersburg and a Moscow. In 1708 it was occupied by Charles XII. rises in iron-lattice between after St. 650 by rapids. and Russian princes. after a gallant defence. and Smolensk and Moscow on the other) at Dtinaburg. 23 After this digression on the ecclesiastical history of Lithuania. later. Teutonic knights. The memory Episcopal of Napoleon's occupied the is Palace. the original combatants have disappeared or been rendered powerless. to the rabble piled like pigs of train. and Muscovites. The tide of the battle the struggle for political dominion in these for Christendom. Swedes. in the province of Vitebsk still..WESTERN RUSSIA. explanatory of the present predominance of Roman Catholicism. when General Mouravieff sternly carried out irom Vilna the measures which averted a threatened dismemberment of the empire. politically. or.

1501 the Lithuanians massacred 4000 of the inhabitants of Ostrof.RUSSIAN PICTURES. at which the citizens deliberated (on one occasion in their shirts) and exercised their right of electing and These had good cause for alarm when they heard deposing their princes. wolves. of Petersburg. played an important part in the. Formidable as a place of arms. and from Riga to Vitebsk. are still in possession. Groups of grey and tumble-down-looking log-huts. which is reached at Ostrof. forming villages of melancholy aspect. and we learn that the broad cuttings through which we are conveyed are the railway from Warsaw to St. sent by barge or rail to Riga. we are not yet beyond the reach of ancient Lithuanian and Polish depredation. hemp. which she had embraced at Constantinople about A. the town is also a centre of considerable trade in flax. Olga. supposed to have been founded by St. hundred of the most distinguished Pskovian families were at the . Witenagemotes. Nevertheless. Pskof had its open-air t>ec/ic (Witenagemote). of of Moscow will these the Grand be Duchy absorption republics by in our account of We need the Great mention described only Novgorod. set up in the great square. emblematical of the majesty of the law. Great) and Khlynof (now Viatka). here that the famed vech bell in the church of the Holy Trinity was taken of the down Three in 1510. Nicholas. It is curious to observe that the earliest tions political institu- country were of a popular character. on the model of our Saxon 1/7 Like Novgorod (the LITHUANIAN PEASANT. of which Pskof was the first Russian outpost. Scarcely twenty-five miles beyond is one of the most interesting political centres of primitive Russia. The fortress that existed here in the In fourteenth its three of century survives only in towers of grey and red stone. and in 1581 was captured by the famous Stephen it Bathory of Poland. 955. and elk. amidst the wailings of the citizens over their lost freedom. the vechd bell ring out. Detached homesteads are now of less and less frequent occurrence. margins of forests of which bears. who partially introduced into Russia the Greek religion. and timber. tell the traveller that he is already in Russia Proper. and saw the club (mace). foundation of the Russian Empire. in the province of Pskof. who a year later caused to be built the church of St. tallow. which is still extant.D. Pskof. The city and its territories formed earliest of the Hanseatic in the period of the great trade with part League The gradual Germany.

Struck with Ivan left the city precipitately. is that to among his faithful Pskovians. 957. who. In 1581 Pskof was besieged by the Poles. and exhorted him not to drink the blood of Christians. but on both occasions the invaders were ultimately repelled. over could not be a desire whom had previously moved by human force. he abide St. But the ancient spirit of independence had not been entirely quenched. may gaze Their base on the east and north is washed by the Pskova River. even by the year 15/0. however. the city was saved from his suspected of treasonable designs.' constructed at the close of the thirteenth century. pursued mendicancy in the guise. while he was warning him of his death by lightning if he injured a single citizen. appeared before the walls of Pskof. and replaced byian equal number of families of the trading class drawn from towns on the The Novgorodians had met with a similar fate thirty-two years Volga. the the sainted prince thereby fire signifying the original cross 1509. assumed rather than inherent. as a token of submission. in the so-called Russo-Byzantine ' ' to an edifice raised in 1368. Dovmont. claimed his relics. he suddenly and miraculously vanished. but not before he had caused the horse of Ivan to fall. built in 1323.U'ESTERX RUSSIA. and forms a square on which once stood the castle of the reigning prince. he addressed the redoubtable monarch as 'Johnny. . which again had been churches built in 1266 and Its site is. . of an idiot. preceded by severally more especially hallowed by the fact that St. a Lithuanian chief elected Prince of Pskof. Unfortunately. while Dovmont's Wall. and ' his sword. after ravaging Novgorod. 1138. coffin Among is the a silver shrine with miraculous Its conspicuous of the numerous relics in this the remains of a godly prince who died in properties are assumed to be such that when the more Novgorodians. St. Such are the latest vicissitudes We well ' The huge style. ruled. according fury by frequent examples in ancient as well as in modern Russia. subjected. being given to seize the idiot. but to eat of the bread and salt to be On orders presented to him in the cathedral. old suspended near the tomb. when Ivan the Terrible of Moscow. was used at the consecration of the Close by is the shrine of the sovereigns of Pskof in this cathedral. 25 same time removed to the dominions of Muscovy Proper.I). earlier. a to monk. springs from their southern face. in was in Trinity almost fills the space enclosed by 1682. in a chapel to the right of the altar screen. inhabitants. to which the ancient city has been on its stout Kremlin walls. without doing any harm to the terror. in which Olga raised at Pskof was destroyed by The tomb of of plain oak. Olga built a church upon it succession A.' offered him raw meat. cathedral 1138. and on the west by the Velikaya. whose citizens he equally However. and in 1618 by Gustavus Adolphus. Capering about on a stick. Cathedral It of the built the Kremlin walls.

its population nations is only 1 70. Traditions several of miracles other churches. and of towns great and small. the capital of Russia religion. in together with Esthonia. marked out by tall poplars. on ancient. performed and a small in discomfiture of foes attach to chapel in opposite in the bazaar is in memory of citizens who fell many ancient and interesting monuments an point insurrection out more especially the fortified 1650. the hall of the Great Guild.000.26 RUSSIAN whose service to the to this city sainted Nicholas Salos. linseed. flax. still Germanic. One here A down Russian couple the of thousand ships of all annually. dating from the The effigy days when the Teutonic knights were paramount (1494-1515). was finally ceded by Sweden to The exercise of the Protestant the Peace of Nystad. rather than on new lines. as advocated by ardent Russificators. neat and solid. it There are also may re- nowned for its catacombs and for the sieges has sustained. although half of its trade is with Great Britain. have already seen in at discharge or Dunaburg the barges load that Dvina the grain. 1200. but fortunately for the inhabitants. as the second port in Russia. and we monastery of Pskof Pechersk. including. more or less mediaeval-German in aspect. stand prisoners Dockmann administered the affairs of the corporation the Docke. branch off again into the to the highest importance ancient activity of Lithuanian Teutonic knights. well be proud of the city of Riga. and all which. ranks capitulation. in a land of farms and mansions. built by Bishop Albert in A. with crenelated towers.' we have already recorded.' Every institution is. and with a sea-board of population of more than two and Russian commerce. consisting of the Provinces of Livonia. in archways. no doubt. one of the over will be found stone of the Holy Virgin. and must ever remain so. 1721 the official and judicial use of the German language. although But this is a question of development perhaps somewhat too conservative. the Idiot. Swedes. Esthonia and Courland. and other native bring products of the Although not the least Russian. ' ' ' ' .D. and as and other laws. with a a quarter millions. railway enables us to reach from Pskof the Baltic Provinces of Russia. Poles. Russian in the country of good highways the since frontier. There is the massive castle. Riga. and being locally called reproduced in miniature in is the Dockc (which equivalent to the present Danish and Norwegian word dock in which suggests that we have here the origin of the The chairman of the Guild sat under in our own country. the neighbourhood. vites. and Musco- A We have space to say only that the civilisation and culture of those We are provinces is still undeniably German. reaching again. and we interior. the trial of offenders against municipal for a doll). the sights at Riga are interesting. at ancient municipal rights and privileges were guaranteed by the terms of that Commercially. ' The empire may Livonia.

of this historical wing edifice is the of the ancient mausoleum Dukes of the last Courland. . built in the thirteenth. to ordered by a were cicerone explains that remains the Prince Dolgorouki to be left exposed. the unworthy favourite of the Empress Anne of Russia. and paintings. The remains are perfect. heraldic distinction. beginning with Gothard Kettler. wig. The palace is also interesting from its occupation in 1 798 by Louis The (later XVIII. an ardent patriot broke with his clenched fist. the fourth equerry. and renovated in the sixteenth A letter from Luther to the Senate of Riga and a very ancient century. ruffles. when in also its castle (rebuilt was erected by Conrad von Medem. lies 1271. and his Queen. was built early in the thirteenth century. Blackheads. Grand Master and first (151 7-1587). the of Courland (incapital with Russia in corporated was founded in 1/95). in ' ' Bible are the of proudest the possessions Library. Cathedral of St. which. they adopted as their honour of head. or groom. grandson of an The German Duke of Courland. in order that patriotic Russians might have the opportunity of reviling their enemy. their patron. Marie Josephine of Savoy. books. who was originally the VIEWS IN RIGA. it is asserted. and contains among treasures of silver. Most the coffins were closed and secured by iron hoops about forty years ago. many ancient relics of the in Moors' heads distinguish the pews of the Blackheads the order. on the Aa River. This city. so called from the device of a Moor's Saint Maurice. Grand Master of the Livonian Order of 1/72) In the left Knighthood. all but the eyes and the nose.WESTERN The Hall of the RUSSIA. and he actually requests visitors not to spit at the mummified body and thereby injure the well-preserved velvet clothing. which.) of France. with the exof Duke ception of the coffin of Duke John Ernest Biron. Mary. &c. City South-west of Riga Mitau.

Petersburg. while we speed on to St. partly on foot. of silver interesting from many and a large English names of donors engraved upon one of the cups. who attended the French monarch on the scaffold. the finest in It was a Esthonia. Rathhaus. Petersburg and the interior of the empire. at a distance of about twenty-seven miles from Reval. and of Narva. The hospitality thus offered by the Paul ceased in 1/92. dating from the a 1219. by represented by a few ruins of the cathedral. we founded town of Dorpat. the Due d'Angouleme. when the royal exiles were compelled Emperor abruptly to leave. on being liberated from the Temple. officiated. the Baltic Brighton. the is a strikingly picturesque foundation archives collection of the town Hall. on the top of a rock. This chapter must now be brought to a close with a mere mention of Hapsal. and of great commercial importance since its . at which the Abbe de Firmont. in Ritterhaus. their eccentric host having suddenly made an alliance with Buonaparte. travellers caught sight on this journey of the arrive at the picturesque in but the railway now skirts navigable Peipus Lake. Its Gothic features were destroyed Gustavus 1632 by Adolphus. . capital of Esthonia. twenty-three miles long at its to the it some distance on Reval. Petersburg. came here to marry her cousin. chapel attached to the Gothic.28 RUSSIAN PICTURES. for Memel. great Several subsequent conflagrations modernised the town. and enclosing and many houses of the ancient nobility. The Guildhall of the Blackheads contains the One of the oldest is now ' ' Knights plate of is the Sword (a Livonian the order). connection old ' by rail with St. perched object. Its Danish castle.. in a chapel of the palace.' the cathedral. with its splendid waterfall and its prosperous manufacturing industry. the seat of a university. daughter of the unfortunate Louis XVI. in mid-winter. one of the way prettiest places on the Baltic. In old posting days. famed monastery even in the early part of the fourteenth century. The environs are as pretty and as interesting as the town itself. Working back by the same railway in the direction of St. but we can only draw attention to the ruins of Padis Cloister. or of Town the churches. a in fire and are 1598. which is supposed to have been founded in 1030 by a Grand Duke of Novgorod.



IN THE BIBLIOTHEQUE 1MPERIALE. desired to ' 1/03. is difficult being some day overwhelmed by kind. PETERSBOURG. Petersburg a still greater catastrophe of the same . it is well resolute Tsar laid the foundations of his first buildings. ST. for it was well pegged down with the superimposed piles of wood on which the Besides. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL in : III.ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. not to accept the possibility. PETERSBURG. it whose huge and heavy mass has Standing on the gallery under the dome of St. ST. Petersburg rests on a crust of soil which almost floats on the water-logged marshes selected the modern by Peter the Great. 1824. as the site of the look into Europe. RISING their surface Lake Ladoga. with which for many years he comThe chief pelled all carts and vessels coming to the new city to be laden. Isaac's. submerging the greater part of the capital. but the city of St. of St. the rapid. OF THE I4TH. is confined within solid granite quays. weighted with the stones and rubble. long predicted.' The crust itself in 'window' through which he is now secure enough. CENTURY. in succession to many previous floods. bear almost clear and on The main stream capital of the Russian empire. of the Neva. visibly sunk into the marshy subsoil. In danger to which the city has since been mainly exposed is inundation. but treacherous. waters after flowing a distance of forty-two miles. the waters of the Neva rose thirteen feet four inches above their ordinary average level.

not only from but also from of the colossal character of its origin. plain room which the visitor adorn the Round Hall. and on it lies the last military report which the emperor received. in the reign of the great Catherine. it contains objects parison every other country in Europe. his which bears name as by George Dawe. The noble halls and other apartments are edifice. after a fire building erected in 1762 and completed in 1769. However. in should endeavour to see which he died on the camp bed. many buildings. Field Marshals Hall. is the largest. that scarcely any capital in Europe is more described by pen and depicted by pencil. apirs nous le dtlugc we have only to deal with the city as is. of the 1839.. and oppresses the visitor with a feeling of insignificance. It is certainly a remarkable city. and the impression of hugeness and desolation imparted to the traveller by the will vast open their spaces of which and wide rather streets. . on which stands the Winter which had consumed the interior 455 feet in length by 350 in breadth. and his imperial mistress Catherine II. modern annals of Russia. and more especially with pictures of victories by sea and by land since the days of Peter the Great. which. than are from beauty are of their architecture. Travellers are who succeed sometimes fortunate securely kept in an the imperial sceptre. His writing-table remains undisturbed. There is one small. obtaining permission to inspect this palace enough to obtain a view of the crown jewels. the great Palace. renowned in the more Portraits of soldiers of Russia. replete with works of art. The huge so-called Orlof diamond in upper room. and artistic treasures of so great and exceptional with its a value. The stucco. as him to presented by the Pitt diamond of France is the most beautiful. they of materials brick and With a population population of more than one hundred millions.. composed mostly only nearly one million. set in so vast a frame. cover the walls of a large gallery and those of the In the Alexander Hall is a portrait of Alexander I. may be considered as emblematical of the magnitude of the empire and of the power by which it is governed and held together. still covered with his military cloak. down to Alexander II. Petersburg while equally good full-sized likenesses of succeeding emperors. The best starting-point for a tour of inspection is partly restored worthy of being square. the study and bed-chamber of Nicholas I. and to express a fervent hope that the dreaded combination of the : it now elements its never occur. of all the known diamonds . of such great interest. The the best edifices are imposing from immensity. an English artist of celebrity at St. is a desert in comwith Nevertheless. Unlike the huge spaces of which we have spoken this immense in converted into a neat park. from being In this respect only is it typical of Russia.. the city itself in summer looks deserted. in purchased from an Armenian by Count Orlof.RUSSIAN PICTURES. in the hall Russian who is depicted being attended by the Genius and statesmen.

of classical. now in the Imperial Public Library. spent her leisure moments in conEurope. See his Russian Art and Art Objects in Russia (South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks). Scythian. in which Catherine II. 1831. legends and types with those of the barbarians. the royal tomb. men reconstructed floor is between 1840 and of letters. Attracted Nomadic and Royal Scythians. as brilliant in when the Greek artist 1884. PETERSBURG. and Siberian antiquities. together with those of his favourite wife or queen (bearing on her head. D . originally the Pavilion. building was Greek The ground occupied by galleries of antique sculpture. principally west of Kul-Oba about four miles In that year. may principally in the precious metals. for it reveals.100. The Kertch collection is alone worth a visit to St. and in their artistic productions mingled The their mythology. without pretension to archaeological knowledge. and The Crimean (Greco-Scythian) objects that most of them are much later. a mitre-shaped diadem).000. in is this and unrivalled of collection process apparent unique objects of ' ' ' ' antique It art. and by a library of ten thousand volumes on archaeology. from the period of the highest civilisation of Greece to the time of the Mr. buried in his richest robes and adorned with his most precious ornaments. with king. in the most perfect specimens. existence was their first tumuli. is The emperor's crown mounted by a cross formed of five beautiful versation with philosophers. be divided into two classes objects : ' Hidden in a great number of highest artistic value.C. Museum. and of some of The sarcophagus of carved and painted yewtheir clothes and trappings. is the famed Hermitage. remnants of the libraries of D'Alembert. in the artists. essentially Milesian. who. tions. Petersburg. It contained the treasures beside him. now least stands in the Hermitage colour as 1 it was at two thousand years ago. by commerce and by the wealth of the described by Strabo and Herodotus. and Voltaire. but entered by a noble vestibule from Bolshaya Millionaya Street. first Mongol invasion of the Russian plains in the thirteenth century. and surdiamonds fixed on a very large uncut spinel ruby. Kertch. the Greeks from Miletus engrafted their ancient civilisation on them. Alfred Maskell is of opinion that few of the various pieces of goldsmiths' work go back to a period earlier than the third century before Christ. Paul Dubrux. built in 1/65. 33 adorned with noble jewels. from the Crimea and and others from Siberia and Central Russia. are naturally of the in pointed out the spots where important discoveries were made. practically revealed by M. was discovered by soldiers who were quarrying stone for fortifica- mouldered remains of a Bosporian king. Connected with the palace. The style.THE MODERN CAPITAL: in ST. Diderot. They date adjacent districts. the art of the Greek colonies which were founded on the northern coast of the Black Sea nearly six hundred years B. and 1850. with his gold-hilted sword and other arms and the in which wood king lay. of original drawings. Its value is about . like the his attendants and horses.

figures of Greek men and women. Mediaeval and Renaissance sections of the Hermitage. and on a band surrounding the centre are four groups like the Scythians with long hair and beards. when not found in a natural state. estimated to have weighed it paintings golden of pounds. The costumes thus a photograph.34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. which is in the most perfect style of Greek art. a large number of the thin as well as much gold plates with which the royal dresses were covered. are reproduced in one of a the same tomb. . On the ground floor of the Hermitage are galleries of sculpture and of Here also is to be seen the beautiful and matchless Etruscan ceramic art. of tumulus near the town Nicopol. the tumulus was not sufficiently a crowd of people rushed into it and guarded. Thiers was so much struck by its beauty Hermitage. adulterated by a large admixture of Oriental trophies and works of art. But other of which only fifteen pounds were recovered by the sufficient was rescued to render the Kul-Oba even now. finest halls of the cannot be of later date than the fourth century B. with of victories ornamented mounted on chariots. inches high. and subsequently melted down. after the discovery of its rich contents. Kul-Oba tomb was found a very remarkable vase of electrum. As it the is skull evidence that the incidents so skilfully repousse life of the king in whose tomb it has handed down the five small to us. and is twenty-eight The work.C. as it were in in statuettes found affliction. after many a similar character. Russian Government king of vases found at Cuma?. discoveries of authorities. and under cover of night carried away. Polish and Bohemian but of high military standards. or basklik. who in one groups his having discovered leg bandaged. which has been introduced into Russia from the Caucasus within modern times. and warriors with bows and arrows. in in the tomb bears another his tooth drawn. presumed on the vase refer to incidents in the been preserved. and twenty hundred one other treasure. of lotah-shaped. and importance that he declared its possession was almost sufficient to It was found (1863) in a form a casns belli with the Russian empire. scene is These represent episodes in the life of a chief. and other curios. and also in electrum of dental metal obtained. conspicuous among the treasures Kertch collection of the Hermitage so called from the Museum at Kertch in which Bosporian antiquities were amassed before the Crimean the In the It is War. on the Dnieper. Unfortunately. and purchased by the Museum and in a newly-arranged annexe of the with the Campana and other objects. somewhat incongruous. and nomadic occupation of lassoing breaking in wild horses on the wondrous which stands enshrined in the centre of one of the silver-gilt Nicopol vase. We M. which form the collections of armour are Hermitage . excepting the hood. and dressed very much Russian peasant of the present day. by the alloying of gold find the same people represented in the with one-fifth part of silver.

the and the choicest of the equally numerous paintings by Rubens (in same room and in Room xiv. d'Olivares. by Luini. while Walpole its most valuable painlings to the same opportunity. Josephine (Malmaison collection). PETERSBURG. the wife and daughter of Oliver The best of Cromwell. Archbishop these. and German The art of Italy is represented by about 350 specimens. Queen Lord Wharton. 35 whole day might easily be spent in studying this department of the Hermitage alone. Lord Walpole. the British nation lost the chance of possessing the In addition to the great number of pictures sold to the Russian Governacquired from it nineteen of the best pictures now in that gallery. the collection of Spanish pictures is the best and most varied out of Spain. ST. Henrietta Maria. and Empress The gallery contains about 1. Philip. for it contains portraits by Van Dyck.THE MODERN CAPITAL: interest. and several other specimens of the great painter. tazzas. In the Flemish collection we see much more to interest us. and candelabra of malachite.' The so largely and after worthily represented in through the Historical immediately the passing Greek art. from the sixteenth to the However early part of the eighteenth century. from a national point of view. Chaloner. the Descent from the Cross.000. of which a little more than one half are of the Flemish. The best of the six paintings by Velasquez are the portraits of Philip IV. we defer for a moment our proposed systematic inspection of the in A pictures. but of the now the mainly of the three the Marquis de Crozat. ment the 1779 at Museo for . The Spanish and Flemish collections are considered to be Spain by 115. Sir Thomas Wharton. the Ladies Elizabeth and Philadelphia Wharton. Indeed. the number of Murillos alone being twenty. lapis-lazuli. the many * finest By permitting the dispersion museum of pictures in the in of the world. The stately grandeur of the apartments into which we are now ushered makes us feel at once that we are in an imperial palace. the most valuable.. Inigo Jones. Sir Thomas Laud. by Sebastian del Piombo. which cover almost every available inch of the walls. and jasper that stand on the highly-polished inlaid floors of the principal rooms. and that of schools. Here we are Gallery. were once the pride of Houghton larger Italian school pictures of the attract attention the Hermitage Hall. D 2 . in the in which frescoes represent the progress of presence of all older Italian masters. although nominally the picture galleries of the Hermitage. vases. invidious the task. of Charles I. porphyry. The collections pictures purchased by Peter the bulk consists Great were chiefly Dutch and celebrated Flemish works. ). brevity compels us to name only the St. of those of his minister. Sebastian. Struck with admiration at the noble tables. the Earl of Danby.800 paintings. and fill the numerous stands and screens provided for the display of so great an abundance of paintings by the older masters of the principal schools in Europe. the Louvre Madrid owes no fewer than 44 of collection. and Spain. Dutch.35.

an Englishman cannot fail to the recognise compliment PETRU RUSSORUM PETER THE GREAT. J His Danae of art execution allow one to will . is unfortunately unfinished two replicas in The but Cupicl unloosing the Girdle of Venus (known in here charms the eye. The Continence of Scipio. A magnificent Canaletto But represents the reception at Venice of the ambassador of Louis XV. England) French school has enriched the noble classical gallery with . scarcely a picture in this room that is not admirable. Sir Rembrandt Joshua Reynolds's Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpent. of Lieven van and the Copenal. formerly Walpole collection.' a highly-finished cabinet picture on a stand by itself. The great Dutch and Flemish schools of painting may here be studied of the to advantage. Rembrandt's Mother. . and treasures the Prodigal Son by Salvator Rosa. his He especially observe the masterly portraits of old Thomas ' Parr. paid to the British school almost entirely neglected on the rest of the Conti- nentby given the compartment to it in the Gallery. in short. a chef-d'oeuvre of but the lover afford to cannot of escape pictures attention. for example.RUSSIAN PICTURES. are magnificent specimens of every period of the art and subject of that great master. was painted for the Empress Catherine II. pictures by one of the Guido Reni. as the galleries possess many of the finest specimens of all the noted masters. Two portraits. show his earliest dated and his is latest style. there is. from the same brush. In the far-famed Rembrandt Gallery. After glancing at the productions of Franz Hals and Ferdinand Bol. 1634 respectively and 1666. an allegory of Russia vanquishing the difficulties of its youthful state.

but the death . he sometimes drove the horse now stuffed which he rode at the battle of nicknacks the founder We . The stuffed Danish hound in one of the glass cases still wears subjects. the heavy . other pictures by French artists adorn the Second Hermitage Palace. iron staff which his gigantic strength enabled him to a slender stick. for it was executed Having exhausted the manifold objects of interest in the Winter Palace and the renowned Hermitage. painted. although it we find objects illustrative of the and activity Peter the Great. mathematical and other instruments. Choice specimens of Russian painting and sculpture fill the two rooms through which we make our exit. Novgorod. is seen ordinary efforts. the the habit of placing petitions in centre of the gallery is a wax effigy of the great Tsar. carry with ease . Pompeii. it is Numerous supposed.. PETERSBURG. The to is Russian painter of any note founded the Russian school in considered to be The Last Day of earliest have Serpent. has a world-wide reputation. with a notch marking his height at about his books. that The casts on either of his wax mould and moustaches. by Bruni. must be the exact image of him. which he gave the artist. see the small gilt chariot in which of the Russian empire. tools. and presses crowded with valuable The chief interest centres in the relics of of every description. was Lossenko. 37 Moine. and the latter Igolkin. a Merchant of picture of huge size . the collar under which Catherine the I. and Peter the in two of his most extra- The Deluge. by Brtilow. and with a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Vernet. turning seven feet of the teeth he had extracted from the jaws of suffering a collection and lathes. which is not open to the general public. charming pictures by Claude Lorraine. who Mary Magdalene. so different from the conventional Byzantine style of ecclesiastical painting which gives extensive employment to the native iconograph. of from Hermitage. Greuze. at Fotheringay. who may be said Its most important work 1759.THE MODERN CAPITAL: landscapes ST. is a startling academical but the most interesting examples are the two historical pictures by Ugriumoff The Capture of Kazan. we cannot do better than mount the dome of hair at sittings . and Bruni's Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane. Aivazofski. who. are typical of the Russian realistic treatment of Scriptural subjects. Le Watteau. The former has depicted Peter the Great questioning his son. on the of seized point being by his gaolers for having killed a Swedish soldier who Ivanoff's Christ Appearing to spoke disrespectfully of Peter the Great. the forms part of life Great's Gallery is entered Here the Winter Palace. was In in name of his canine favourite. and the Election of Michael Romanoff and those by Matveyeff and Shebuef. like Vereschagin. by a pupil of Clouet. clad in the it dress which he wore at the for coronation of Catherine side face. who embroidered his were taken from furnished with features after purpose. The Creation of the World. The Brazen is represented as a captive in chains at Stockholm. I. Poltava . by Poussin.

ST. laid twenty-one feet long.200.RUSSIAN PICTURES. TETERSDURG. This gives us also the for a bird's-eye view of the city. but commenced in the reign of replaced in 1801 by an edifice which had been Its foundations (364 feet by 315). ISAAC'S CATHEDRAL. alone cost . and its three chief portals of gigantic bronze work are approached from the level of the vast square on which it stands by broad flights of steps composed of entire pieces of polished granite from Finland. Isaac's church built in i/io. It was erected between 1819 and 1858. of the modern cathedrals most remarkable of one of the opportunity visiting in Russia. ST. on the site of a wooden St. Catherine II.000. forest on a of piles the total cost of construction . while and decoration (not including the subsequent Its form is that of cost of propping it up) exceeded three millions sterling a Greek cross.

the purposely-subdued light brings into relief the glittering sumptuousness of the ikonostas. the entire height of the cathedral to the top of the golden cross that surmounts the elegant lantern Four belfries. To the King feet of in Kings. palace This is the main thoroughfare St. instructive. 39 twelve polished granite monoliths that support the four are feet in height and seven feet in diameter peristyles sixty weighing one hundred and twenty-eight tons each. in which vessels are no longer built. mostly in mosaic work. Translated. and with its two nearly parallel arteries governs the direction It is intersected by three canals that drain to of most of the other streets. in miles Nevski three the length. costliness of material and beauty of execution. The As in all interior of Isaac's to is well calculated to inspire feelings of solemnity and veneration. like the lapis-lazuli. the Ascension. at the back of the high altar. these are to which miraculous powers are in not worshipped. or which have its belief ' in images. is not effect easily The Russo-Greek Church distinguishable from actual rejects as idolatrous any carved or moulded representation of sacred or saintly subjects for purposes of worship. which. but applied on The stained window representing copper tubes fitted over cast-iron cylinders. the several texts are : north. three is of the capital. although the ascribed. some extent the city. and is pillars the only work of art within the church that the is not Russian. Alexander Nevski be taken as its terminus. but holds that an Ikon painted. do and west. surmounted by a ship under full The one nearest the great streets radiate like the ribs of a fan. and impress imagination churches. is not solid. south. sail. remarkable for its tall gilded spire.' trust let me never be ashamed . PETERSBURG. ' The king shall : shall rejoice in Thy strength. The to three and yield none in principal bronze portals are the largest in the world. and enable barges of light draught to distribute their . in miniature the central dome. which adorn the walls and pillars of the temple. east. and of the Sanctuary beyond the Royal Doors. they support on each of the four sides of the edifice a frieze with a text in letters of bronze. Russian Strictly speaking. copper. was made in Germany. covered with thickly-gilt is sixty-six diameter and two hundred and ninety-six feet high. The view from dome is extensive and First of all. we observe that from the so-called Admiralty. contain bells fifteen to twenty-nine tons in weight. O Lord. Women It is supported by eight Corinthian are not admitted into this inmost shrine. the of the visitor. with cupolas resembling being three hundred and thirty-six feet. ' O Lord ' ' ' . St. and of the ikons. on a flat surface is not a violation of the Second Commandment. or screen.' The cupola.' adoration. of malachite. ' In Thee.THE MODERN CAPITAL: The one hundred and ST. not been worked by human material hands. Mine I House put my be called an House of Prayer. Lavish use of malachite and lapis-lazuli has been made in the adorn- ment of the Screen. capitals of bronze. and crowned with massive Corinthian . if the monastery of Prospect. or produced in mosaic work.

or Finland. The first and second streets that run across the main thoroughfare are (Great) and Malaya (Little) Morskaya (Naval) streets. the third of the canals before us. relieved only by the numberless sledges in which the inhabitants of either side of the ice-bound river are being silently but rapidly conveyed to and fro on terra finna. and connected with the the Bolshaya by the handsome Nicholas Bridge and the floating bridge that leads from the Winter Palace to the colossal Exchange. The activity revolution in 1825.' under the impression that they were engaged in a pronunciamento in favour site of the ' . full of handsome buildings and shops. The Vasili Ostrof is.. and a general inventor in In one of his manifold capacities he had charge of the the Russian service. Petersburg. the big steamers which. principally fuel. which. has supplied an enjoyable shade to a once cobble-paved square that extended from the huge Senate and Synod houses on the left to the Winter Palace and the Etat Major buildings on the right. we face the Vasili Ostrof. of stone and iron. an architect. thanks to the Cronstadt Canal. discharging their duties as carriers of long granite quays are lined by other steamers that ply to Cronstadt. when the deluded soldiery shouted Constitutia. Off it are anchored. flat-bottomed barges that have to be broken up for firewood come from after the innermost parts of the empire. the first being. The last bridge. Samuel Bentham. recognisable the two in front of it. and abuts on the Fortress. was actively employed in Russia during a part of the reign of Catherine II. or as a naval commander. so called from its being the starting-point for a journey to the adjoining Grand Duchy of Finland. This was the raw produce. Sweden. either as an agent of the British Government for building ships of war at Archangel. practically. which is freight. are now loading grain. Turning in the opposite direction. in order to put an end to the pile-driving ' habitual skulking of the labourers. like the Nevski. Sir construction of the new Fontanka Canal. massive Columns Rostrata: Beyond is another by which stands the British floating bridge that starts from the square on Embassy.40 RUSSIAN PICTURES. so far as commercial is concerned. which has no through railway connection with the other In summer communication with the opposite parts of the Russian empire. is one of comparative desolation. to which we shall refer later.' greatly accelerated the progress of the work. the largest island formed by the numerous branches of the Neva. establishes communication with the Viborg side. A machine which he devised. the commercial quarter of the city. a brother of Jeremy Bentham. a lieutenant-colonel. within the last ten or fifteen years. hemp. in mid-stream. In front of the Cathedral is the Park. from the rough. side of the river is further maintained by the innumerable small steamers that have replaced the quaint-sterned ferry-boats which were formerly so prominently mainland depicted in illustrations of St. and flax. Of course we are speaking of the short summer months of the North. Light steamers also ply on these canals. In winter the scene.


' Prominently standing out from its environment of trees and shrubs is the well-known equestrian I. years ago the drojki drivers satisfaction of those who revelled in The Isvostchiks. well acquainted with the sound of Ptrm. also. see many mujiks clad in sheepskins. The indigenous head-covering to same season is still almost the counterpart of the but it is now which Paddy is wont to carry his dhudeen . with all details on In make themselves acquainted summer the drojkies.42 RUSSIAN PICTURES. essentially Asiatic or Indian. The horses are active. relegated of Moscow wore rural it districts. exactly the same sound is used in the island and we take the fact as a corroborahorses Skye in tion of far in stopping the Scandinavian . by Falconet. regardless of expense. vehicles. although a clear bargain as to the charge for a in order to avoid ultimate disagreement. statue The 782. whose morganatic marriage to a Polish lady had. although few have its sufficient systematic their first patience arrival. Stranger still. are a very decent set course is necessary of men. strange to say. deprived him of the right of succeeding Alexander and placed the throne of All the Russias in the hands of his brother Nicholas. the summer dress It of the peasant. by which their eager course is at once arrested. although only ten seeing those Moscow who in generally. except to to some extent the class who make it their special business ' convey only ' are bent on pleasure. as in of Scandinavia. and. . and that of their inhabitants. which is clearly a modernised of the 'beef-eater's' hat brought to Russia by the adventurous Englishmen who discovered hat in the for sea-board the of Muscovy in the sixteenth ' ' century. We approximation to general to those in search of European dress peculiarities.. may perhaps origin of to advanced linen shirts in this century covering trousers has come over the aspect of the country than the outward appearance change In most of the of its cities and towns. to the its primitive national aspect. erected 1 . or No more striking as far as the knees. in contrast with drivers we find ethnographical on which we gaze with the interest we would bestow on a Hindu or a Chinaman in London. 'the Divine figure of the North. by the great Catherine in grand monolith of polished granite that commemorates the glory and the Both of these virtues of Alexander I. under perfect control. the first remarkable monuments were designed and executed by Frenchmen of Peter the Great. the second by Montferrand. The Nevski travellers Prospect is the next point to of attraction. if not too isolated or distant from are too early Russian civilisation. continues to predominate. the rural districts. and descendant especially the summer head-dress. the of Grand Duke Constantine. urban centres. stands in front of the Winter Palace. although disappointing Nevertheless. by his own consent. and in other types winter the European sledges. is national evident. Their dress is almost a mediaeval survival. the architect of the Cathedral from which we are looking down on those wonderful works. attract us in by their their while peculiarity. wiry animals.

at some of the or traktirs. which have not yet followed the example of similar establishments at St. colonnade of granite monoliths. where the guests are generally served by Tartar Mahomedan waiters in European evening dress. Cossacks. and therefore a good opportunity presents itself of viewing national types of bazaar. the Stchukin and the Apraxin. 43 be seen.THE MODERN CAPITAL: c. Petersburg for any considerable number of years will be impressed by the It used to development that has taken place in the local bric-a-brac trade. restaurants. or a bit of porcelain unchipped and bearing a genuine mark of note. . two hundred and thirty-eight feet in length by one hundred and eighty-two in breadth. this arrangement somewhat crowds the interior. at Moscow. There are cathedral. to this day. extends but. and applied the campaign of the zealous offering of the 1812. Built between 1801 and 1811. in four rows like the balustrade in front. during church plate they had looted. Crowds of purchasers fill the lanes and alleys by which those markets are intersected. and so decidedly Oriental in origin claims our attention after visiting the Kazan ST. . Petersburg. is soon reached on the right-hand side of the Nevski. and those in which are sold or gold. However. diately many costly votive objects and military trophies in this and the Emperor never fails to offer up his prayers here immehis departure on from the capital and his return after a residence at some other imperial seat. or bazaar so common to all Russian towns. foreigners visit the excellent fur shops Russia-leather slippers embroidered in silver In the main every grade. but of great utility on long journeys.' who. it is of silver. The Kazan Cathedral. and adds to its conventional clinginess. it has internally the form of a cross. cushions. thirty-five feet from the four pillars that support the cupola high. hard. PETERSBURG. with its colonnade in imitation of St. and showed the native dealers that a European market was available for their goods. the police circumscribes recipient of such articles. Strings of pearls. in the street that turns off from the Nevski from the upper corner of the Gostinnoi Dvor. The Gostinnoi Dvor. There are also two other markets. and pretty sashes and ties deftly woven at Bric-a-brac hunters revel in the Apraxin Dvor. precious stones of high value. retook from the French it ' Don the to its present use. for. and to secure from among the mass of rubbish a valuable or pleasing picture. asked are not those of the days before trading collectors had discovered this distant mine of wealth. as a revival. but the better vigilance of and renders more difficult its nefarious operations. Those who have not visited St. were frequently picked up at the stalls. the ikotiostas is light and brilliant. but the prices Torjok. Peter's at Rome. the market is a exhibiting the produce of robberies. be an intense pleasure to ransack the shanties we found full of incongruous odds and ends. which were not quite unsuspected of In fact. A although architecturally grand.

The The Alexander Column. 7. The Palace of Peterhof. The German Reformed Church. The Admiralty. it. 3. Resuming our walk up the Nevski. Few libraries in Europe can compete number of printed volumes being over a million. I. PETERSBURG.RUSSIAN PICTURES. Statue of Peter the Great. in front of with its riches. 8. about thirty-four thousand. the that of the MSS. with a the first VIEWS IN AND AROUND ST. in addition to nearly eighty . Winter Palace. 2. and statue to Catherine II. 6. 4. The Church in the Hay Market. is immediately beyond the Gostinnoi Dvor building we notice the Imperial Public Library. Kazan Cathedral. 5.

which capital comparatively had already become the property of the Polish State when Suvoroff captured Warsaw in 1 794. in his History of the Bible in Russia. Mr. the chief glory of this Convent of of of ancient St. 1116. . the volume of English royal letters from Henry VII. is equally The unique noticeable. the British and Foreign Bible Society has been engaged in the distribution of the Holy Scriptures in Russian. Lastly. a complete copy of the Greek in the fourth century. of the Library put together. Astafief. secret State documents. in Early European printing (Incunabula) about eleven thousand volumes. to Charles I. and the correspondence of various sovereigns.. except history or geography of the empire. from kings of France to their ambassadors. and character. The nucleus of this prodigious collection in a so new was the library of the Counts Zaluski. In this connection we may mention that. languages. and sold by improvised auction in the Slavonic . and transferred its contents to St. Finnish. since the beginning of the reign Emperor Nicholas.THE MODER^ CAPITAL: 7 ST. They were taken from the Paris archives by an infuriated mob. 1889. collection twenty-five them being of earlier date in all thousand volumes is than the ninth century. the famous Codex Sinaiticns. a monk at Kief. on its tenth is department. purchased by a Polish gentleman in France The MSS. There are also thirty the that relate to the Russian. 45 thousand engravings and maps. black with bears parchment age. on Mount Sinai. Greek codex of the four Evangelists. it was written about seventy years after the introducfor anything they would Russia. bears the that is. Hebrew and Karaite MSS. PETERSBURG. containing the Evangelistarium. date of 1056 tion of Christianity into is The Ostromir MS. The A brought down to A. thus speaks of the influence of the Bible in Russia What has the Bible as the Word of 1 ' : God been to among them call ? our Russian people during the thousand years of its existence Has it not been " a light shining in a dark place ? " We its to mind the bright opening period of our 1 national life which had St. and other languages spoken by the subjects of the Tsar. from Gutenberg to the year exemplified but more to mankind than all the other treasures 1521. proof of ninth or Chronicle of Nestor. Further acquisitions were subsequently made in Poland. Bible written older Greek century. being of especial interest to ourselves. and discovered by Tischendorf in the still A having been written in the MS. fetch. Petersburg as well as at Odessa. and that it of the maintains an agency at St. Petersburg.D. important almost globe. is the complete series of the Bible printed in all the known languages and dialects of the inhabited parts of the British missionaries and British major part of this grand and lasting monument religious societies have raised to the glory of God and the His Holy Word.. in 1859. Petersburg. Catherine. N. the most valuable of these being the books and MSS. consist of letters during the early part of the great Revolution.

imprisoned 1525 . died 1556. and in A. 1710-11 cherished the thought of translating the Bible from the Ecclesiastical Slavonic into the Russian language of the day.The first died 869 at Rome. tenth century was bound up with the circulation of this Bible and the formation of schools to teach the people 2 to read it. inviied to Russia from Italy. supported in every way Biblical labours. who was deeply acquainted with and who highly valued the Holy Scriptures. who Moscow. the first printer. endeavoured to revise the text by aid of the Greek MSS. 4 or the learned brothers Lichud. who established a complete system of secondary and elementary schools. Both these obstacles were removed during the reign of Alexander I.D. 1652).46 KUSSIAN in under the influence of earnest instruction glorious eleventh and twelfth centuries which birth the Word of God. not come to and from sophistical glosses. . us of 1 those first so remind the 2 And then following this. daughter the Empress Elizabeth. restoration. the patriarch Nikon (A. caused by the Mongols. 4 the Royal Printing Press. and because of the little spread of education.D. printed at Moscow with some emendations. 1236 A. 1 Cyril anil Methodius formed the Slavonic alphabet in order to translate the Scriptures into that language in The acceptance of Christianity by the Russians in the 855-7. writers. sprang from the people and knew their needs. and what could not be completed during the his in lifetime of Peter was finished by Thanks to her energetic persistence. but in 1564 Ivan was driven out.D. The revision of the Slavonic text meanwhile went on in due course. once when men like Maxim the Greek. in consequence of the desolation age of Christianity. 3 He came Of to Russia in 1518. appeared the Ostrojskaya Bible. and called into existence the Russian price. and at last. 3 or Ivan Theodoroff. with revised and emended text. went on. and the Press burnt. established at through the intrigues of the 5 MSS. A. in consequence of the opposition of the adherents of the old style. who had grown accustomed As one who to them. ignorantly but honestly believing them to be truth. accused the printers of heresy. in the year 1663. 1751." in These Biblical labours activity in did not remain without influences people because of their high mass of the the quickening spiritual books of Holy society. though slowly and with interruptions. 1865 .D. at first but few in number. He but the work begun by him as the daily need of the people did Others continued it. endured cruel persecution at the hands of the obstinate upholders of old errors. with his healthy purifying himself fell. for the sake of making it more readily accessible. and with unconquerable energy he from the errors understood the living significance of the laid the foundation for of copyists Word its of God. owing to the want of popular schools. 5 who endeavoured to carry the light of life into the thick darkness of ignorance God was and superstition which surrounded them. it spirit. and the revision of the Slavonic text. But a beginning had been made. . but to the Scripture remained inaccessible.. the long. the second in 885. at last appeared " the so-called Elizabethan Bible. Peter the Great. the Slavonic Bible. nought. long period of darkness when the Word of a rarity in the country.

000 to 800. Italian The principal silver church. 1876. has A. at which the Nevski practically terminates in a huge and slovenly-looking square. Founded 1812 ended 1826. Scriptures or parts of them were translated into fourteen new languages 1. inferior in precedence only to the Lavra It was founded of the Trinity at Moscow and the Lavra at Kief. On the Elizabeth. Alexander Nevski. Past the Moscow Railway Station. recent efforts Much ' has been ' done by the circulation of tracts and other Christian literature.000. being a of St. During its existence 290 auxiliary committees were established in all parts of .THE MODERN CAPITAL: 1 ST. On the opposite side of the square to which the front of the Public Library is turned. the capital degenerates into Its rural suburbs are reached at the Monastery an ordinary Russian town. of which probably 700. made At language.000 copies were distributed in Slavonic and Russian. and we come to the rough stone paving. selling them at low prices and distributing and at the same gratuitously into the Russian Bible the translating them . the activity Now of the Lavra. of those days. and full of pictures and costly objects of art. Russia. Russian Bible. Petersburg. and evidence has not been lacking to show that in Russia. agate.421. internally with In a sumptuous shrine Persian pearls. battle fought on its site defeated built the in 1241.D. Siberian and Teutonic knights in decorated 1/90. marble. school this system has received a wide extension amongst circulation present time the and alongside of the among the people of the Holy Scriptures of every one. by Peter who in Duke a great the Great in honour of a canonized Grand Alexander. to The spread Religious Tract Society has also largely helped throughout Russia the knowledge of the Gospel. PETERSBURG. 47 Bible Society. the glad tidings of salvation by faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ enter the sinful and of the Holy Spirit bring to it penitent heart. one of the most important in Russia. by Count Rastrelli. In its first ten years the receipts amounted to 3. will be seen the Anitchkoff Palace. the residence of their It was built in 1744. is Swedes and of massive St. now the property of the Grand Duke Sergius. as elsewhere. and by the blessing and aid pardon and cleansing and peace. over which carriages and drojkies have to rattle when off the wooden blocks laid down for them from the Palace Bridge to the Anitchkoff Palace and along the whole length of Bolshaya Morskaya Street. the great architect celebrated are the two close to the equestrian groups by palace bridge Baron Klodt.938 roubles. The . 1 weighing twenty-nine hundredweight lie the remains of Alexander. used in the Russian empire. especially in their within made equal progress since the publication of the by the permission of the Holy Synod. and on the other side of it the former Beloselski-Beloserski Palace.' the reach own at a price native language. time it a commencement in the us. which had for its object the circulation of the books of Holy Scripture as generally as possible. for the Empress Majesties when at St. brought from the Cathedral at Vladimir by Peter the Great. Nevski begins to flag.000 copies were printed in twenty-six languages and dialects. or seat of a Metropolitan.

and several other ministers of the brilliant On the mausoleum of the Naryshkins is epoch of Catherine the Great. died are among the most interesting objects shown in the Sacristy. It is for instruction of a selected for the vocation higher order of tutors and to to the more in professors now time to leave the in Nevski. who died young. Peter and is Petersburg and its neighbourhood. Petersburg. at Moscow. hanging gradually on A rope. behind which is a remarkable picture of the St. and also for giving notice of the rising of the Neva to inhabitants of cellars. in 1/03. who died in a sudden and mysterious manner in one of its dungeons after his ' Its guns are used for saluting purposes examination on a charge of treason. inscribed ' . after having been three times damaged tale of singular daring is connected with the repair of the by lio-htning. city. to the raised edges of the copper plates with his fingers. and to the population of the lower parts of the Consecrated in 1733 on the site of a church coeval with the fortress. who died of small-pox when only fourteen. The monastery contains also a seminary. are suspended on the two opposite the Altar. of superintendence the earliest notable occupant was Alexis. Peter. Great are paid by the upper and richer classes for permission to sums Large repose in the adjoining cemetery. founded in 702. pontifical robes of gold brocade. Alexander's crown and the bed on which Peter I. Suvoroff. sister of Peter I. St. a Russian initjik (peasant) climbed to the top. of which an Italian architect. With the aid only of a nail and a angel and cross on the spire in 1830. Rubens.. but the present grim stone work was executed in 1706 under the It is used as a State prison. Rumiantsof. Perugino. his son. the eldest son of Peter I. the ' : ' ' and a theological college promising scholars theological schools. Excepting Peter II. where he was buried.. on imperial fete days. 1 crypt are buried Natalia. and glance at a few of the other places The Cathedral most worth seeing of St. an episcopal staff Portraits of the turned by Peter. in Latin his mother having been a member of that ancient noble family. in which sons of the White Clergy (as distinguished from the Monks) are prepared for the priesthood.. although blood spurted out from under his finger-nails as he ascended. founder of pillars Petersburg and of Catherine II. Some of the Ikons are good copies after Annunciation by Raphael Mengs and Guido. St. and a great number of other valuables.48 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the cathedral was restored in 1757. the summit being 302 feet above the level of The foundations of the fortress were laid by Peter the Great the ground. In its From their race came Peter the proud device. Paul within the fortress on the right beautiful gilt bank of the Neva conspicuous by its spire terminating in an angel bearing a cross. which has also a large collection of mitres set in jewels. Among the six other churches within the walls of the Lavra is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. all the members of the imperial family have . the Kensal Green of St.

It a boat constructed by Dutch in carefully preserved a brick Quitting for the river-bank. the work of four Russian carvers between superbly carved and richly gilt and The ivory candelabrum. PETERSBURG. which is of wood. the Emancipator of the Serfs. under the direction of a Dutch shipbuilder that he acquired the nautical of the tastes which resulted in the construction of a fleet and the extension the fortress by its eastern gate and making Russian dominions. with which traditions of Peter the Great strongly associated. Alexander II. 49 Petersburg been interred under the floor of this marble tombs above marking the places of their Close to the south door is the tomb of Peter the Great.' river in 1668. on the Moskva near the cathedral. near Lake Ladoga THE FIRST FLEET BUILT BY PETER THE GREAT AT VORONEJ. we~pass. are also a small wooden church. was the turned centre by Peter I. the opposite aisle that of the Emperor Nicholas. in its autograph of his found to later within Almighty God in gratitude for the benefit recorded he had derived from ball An 1724. whose martyred son and successor. the white stands in front of the ikonostas. ST. Catherine II. more than ten feet high. lies to the right of the Altar Screen. dedication the use of the mineral waters of Olonets. at the country residence of his grandfather. It he erected between replaces a church which 1703 and E .. that 1722 1726.THE MODERN CAPITAL: since the foundation of St. and in sepulture. almost at the foot of the floating Trinity Bridge. was found by Peter the Great when yet a and it was by sailing it lad. cathedral. building The 'Grandfather of the Russian Navy. reposes alongside of him. is carpenters.

000. like our other ' Petersburg are due. between ' princes its a race nearly as extinct as that of the mammoth. Company. and on other great feast days. was his hatred of lawyers. and of . Those who take an interest in the life of Peter the Great should visit the three or four galleys of his period preserved in the Galley Haven. A boys' school. unfortunately rendered very bare and cheerless-looking.000. The bedroom on the left. and the In 1873 the interior was renovated. effected the discomfiture of Charles XII.5.' present edifice. and I believe I shall hang one of them the moment I get home. which accompanied Peter in his battles and conservative Muscovy. and in which habit of singing as a chorister. at a cost of . his cicerone in London.4. in which he also dined. is a chapel of the Queen's Ambassador.000 towards that purpose. They are kept in the gallery that runs round the cottage. has been converted into a chapel.10. it the who hurled Russia into Western and the outer building by which the cottage and its interesting contents are preserved from decay. ' 1815 by Ouarenghi. an architect ' whom many of the finest edifices having made a grant of . and the wooden bench on which he sat his door. The church owed in to the 'Great Russia The 1/53. A short walk which he built in 703. whom he had asked who were the men in wigs and gowns bustling about Westminster Hall I have Lawyers but two in all my dominions.50 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and an extensive circulating library for the benefit of . on the ground that the chapel. which has outwardly the appearance of only a private mansion. their combined size being about 55 feet by 20 feet in breadth. Petersburg. and of reading the Gospels on the anniversary of the battle of Poltava. and from brings us to his cottage. Parliament Russia Company a contribution Anglican establishments in Russia. at Poltava! Among the other of relics of civilisation at forcibly sovereign path is a boat which he built. origin. The Anglican Church stands on the English Quay. commemoration of the foundation of the St.' Within this church are several objects which belonged to the Great Reformer or were made by him. notwithstanding the addition of stained windows. generally crowded with worshippers. defrayed from :the funds accumulated by the so-called British Factory. The capacious and valuable premises enjoy the boon of ex-territoriality. the palace which he superintended the building of his new capital it contains only two rooms and a kitchen.' in the estuary of the Neva. Peter's cruelty and self-indulgence were strangely blended with his innate 1710 in he was in statesmanship and the devotional feeling he so frequently displayed in a Next to his prejudice against beards. ' : ! ' ' 1 . which at last became obnoxious to the tax-payers. attracted chiefly by an Ikon of the Saviour. once almost exclulike the street in the rear of it. then typical of practical manner. is the outcome of the to work of reconstruction carried out in in St. by British merchant sively occupied. He said to Lord Carmarthen. and injurious to our trade.' in the form of a compulsory tax on British shipping.

and the return tide sets in towards the end of September. converted for the purpose into an Arctic arcadia. and in fact led a life of jollity without even getting an ear or a cheek frozen . and the darkness THE ENGLISH QUAY. and wolves with local sportsmen. Nothing can be imagined as more enjoyable than a Northern summer. elk. PETERSBURG. through which the we have of fragrance passed. light. the young birch all We hail with delight the warm sunshine. In complete arrangements and moral welfare of the British summer all St. window by going clown montagncs russes a refined and toboganing driven in pleasant company in sledges drawn superior at wild kind of speed by three thoroughbred horses abreast. even though we have enjoyed of a winter season at the capital on the Neva and in the Yusupof Gardens. at St.THE MODERN CAPITAL: the ST. and rewards us amply for the frost and snow and life. more . and for the spiritual render made by our countrymen colony. on the premises. We may have skated trees. and yet E 2 . Petersburg is out of town the migration to suburban palaces. to festive establishments on the outskirts of the city. shot bears. become acquainted with the sensation of falling out of a high and the song of the nightingale. two thousand are also British subjects who reside Petersburg the and its vicinity. the warm hospitality and the healthy sport of All the Russias. bursts suddenly into beauty. or less dormant for nearly eight months. villas and cottages commences in the early part of our June. Nature. PETERSBURG. ST.

.52 RUSSIAN PICTURES. little inferior The Samson. collection of 863 portraits of beautiful young girls painted by Count Rotari for the Empress during a journey which he made for that purpose through No two are alike either in position or the fifty provinces of Russia. and from it runs a boat canal that We cannot. unfortunately. adorned with fountains and other ornamental water-works. . and its walls are Beneath the palace is the celebrated garden. was wont to contemplate his infant its terrace. malachite. and marble. pleasure Zoological But we must now leave St. from which moored off Cronstadt. and the Marly Pond. wainscoted with some of his carvings. and many other marvels we can only make grounds fleet Marly. its general character. of banks are the on the of the Little Derevnia. and especially to who have known many winters. The interior is replete with interest. expression but it is more than doubtful whether they are true to Nature or the ethnology of Russia.' spires sun. is a to those of Versailles. and gives a considerable amount of life to In the the branch of the Neva on which its large establishment stands. for it abounds in beautiful tapestry. was built under the directions of Peter I. the red rays of the setting which partly runs Point. and make excursions by rail or and we begin with steamer to some more distant summer residences an Its which Gulf of Finland from overlooks the Peterhof. plainly seen from : of water-engineering here offered to our bare mention of some of the buildings in the Peter I. slop to terminates on the shore of the gulf.. while evening will be found in Gardens behind the the fortress. and on the left and domes of the we see within At this glowing hour the road witching capital crowded with vehicles as the Epsom Club is on Krestofski Island. to which in we before sunset. To the right the banks of the Little Neva are dotted with picturesque chalets standing out to see the ' ' from a background of measurable distance the with the to last ' sombre lofty gilt pines . articles of vertu. the stamp of the French school being veryIn the study of Peter the Great hangs his apparent on every canvas. is almost as The River Yacht road on Derby day. . and even its original yellow colour. palace. are still perpetuated. Novaya ex-village and Arcadia a of Livadia more sober resort Gardens. elevation of sixty feet. and although many additions and alterations have been subsequently made. portrait in mosaic. magnificent jet d'eait eighty feet high. tazzas of porcelain. laid out in terraces and walks. in the centre of the grounds. describe the view. The more accessible villas are on drive a little the islands of the Neva. through Peter's Park. Petersburg. Neva. those the Elysian season will prove to be that of summer. There is an imperial chateau on this island. as well as in pictures representing chiefly the naval victories of Orlof and other Russian In one of the apartments is a generals during the reign of Catherine II. reaching the 'Point' of Yelagin Island time sun go down in golden glory. with charming grounds and a delightful view.

or carriage with three horses abreast. the properties. we have the opportunity of seeing Michaelofski and Strelna. with a contrivance in one of its rooms by which dishes and plates are made to descend from and ascend to the dinner-table through grooves in the summer-house in the Dutch also built in the . of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. steamers drawing commercial outport of St. of many notable families are full of tokens that the dead have not been Over one of the tombs are likenesses from life of forgotten by the living. seventeen and a half miles running along the followed by the steamer. cottages in Nicholas around roof of one of them the Emperor watched with a telescope the movements of the Anglo-French the front of Cronstadt. . founded in 1/34. another ancient by steamer direct to Cronstadt. 53 to which he caused to be stocked with carp and chub. however. who receives them. in 1/03. dispense with the presence of servants at intimate feasts the Pavilions on the Tsaritzyn and Olga Islands the English Palace. where Peterhof. in accordance with his directions Monplaisir. the canal is one of the most remarkable works of its kind in Its result. still summoned by a bell be fed with rye flour. the sea-approach left to of the natural and partly twenty feet Petersburg. is that Cronstadt will before long cease to be the Europe. and become a purely military harbour. night-cap and slippers are exhibited in it the Hermitage. portrait. when of fine pictures. elegance and comfort which few other Russian churches possess. Sergius. reign of Peter. ' Suffer little children to trip come unto Me. and fronting the estuary of the Neva. We proceed to the capital. in the at lower garden. the long. to visit the monastery of St. Petersburg in a swift troika. a . The fortifications we have come the Petersburg.' must be either by rail via Oranienbaum. and Alexandria. it has an air of It is. PETERSBURG. and we can terminate our drive and take But we halt here awhile. a mother bringing her children to the Saviour. needless to say. moreover. built in a with 1781. With its open roof. style. and more especially the church that stands at the back of the grounds.THE MODERN CAPITAL: ST. and its stalls of oak. or Our next an object. when he dispossessed Swedes but. for its celebrated monkish whose at choristers. From squadron By taking from Peterhof the good macadamised road to St. amongst many others. vespers singing The sepulchral vaults (on Saturdays) is particularly fine and impressive. full the Emperor and and with Empress several reside in privacy it. dressing-room. shallow channel to St. taken altogether. none of his wooden . so well known to our readers already. to see were begun by Peter I. By constant is maintained in it. of Her Majesty Oueen floor. . saying to the more prosaic railway carriage at Sergi. which since 1885 enables see. in order to . great ship canal. severally. whose bed. and feet a uniform centre of twenty-two depth dredging. Victoria . so far as modern science can possibly effect such imperial residence. both as a place of busy trade and as a fortress defending in an impregnable manner.

These are mostly built at St. Nicholas since Sir The formidable-looking stone forts elate from the reign of They have undergone considerable alteration and improvement of the the clays Crimean to War. I. through a his Charles Napier failed take advantage of passage on the northern side of the island discovered by a couple of That channel is now effectively guarded by a substantial dam smaller ships. 1 r walls remain. is a military harbour. consist of several parallel lines connected by encircles many naval which and earthworks. The the land defences. The southern of stones. for reasons the still unknown. splendid steam factory. A very good statue of Peter the Great whose genius created . on which seven strong batteries have been raised. The dry docks are capable of admitting some of the larger vessels of war. from canal west to east. Petersburg. In the town the storehouses and workshops is bordered with granite. and by a tall iron railing begun in 1721. and brought down to Cronstadt to be fitted. when. and are formed by three lines of forts running channel THE FORTRESS OF SCHLUSSELBURG. defences are the strongest.A USSL4 A PIC TURKS. In the vicinity of the the chief station in the Baltic for the Russian fleet. of batteries recent date. not inferior to Keyham in its mechanical appliances.

. both beautifully ference. after is much full contention. the gilding the contractors in the restoring palace offered having worn off. who had confined himself to building a small cottage. at of the Neva. near the governor's residence and the of what we have so the back of Summer Garden planted by Peter. spent the remainder of his life on this insular Bastille. the source Schliisselburg. however. pavilions. a hot-house. into is divided the Old and the New Garden. is a busy place of trade. Tsarskoe of its Selo. on the left bank of the river. the favourite since it respects to that of Peterhof. and a variety of other attractive buildings. at 55 much the far seen stands on a square middle harbour. originally at of Dunaburg. the consort of Peter.' The dome and the cupolas of the Palace Chapel are now Catherine II. . being at the mouth of the famous canal that forms part of a fluviatile system that connects the Baltic with the distant Caspian. is also a Petersburgians. formerly the Swedish fortress of Noteborg. and a zoological garden on part of the ground now covered with palaces.66. The town of Schliisselburg.000 for the fragments of gold leaf. three miles at distant. imprisoned prison. imperial residence. the Lithuanian I. The present aspect of this beautiful spot is. rest of Ingria.THE MODERN CAPITAL. It who finally delivered it Peter 1/02.' of the able to capital a mouthful of fresh and to enjoy the music of the excellent orchestra that plays every afternoon. mainly due to the care bestowed on it by marine rival. Pavlofsk. laid out and well wooded.. Nihilists has since been used as a State 1756. Ivan VI. is often the object of a day's excursion by steamer. by the Regent Biron). ' alone gilt. and the now son of Empress father. either outside or commodious Vauxhall attached to the railway station. PETERSBURG.. (together with his and conspirators. built in 1744. Originally the structural ornamentations. and alternately. in the roccoco style of was restored and embellished by her. knights and of the Swedes. architecture. so ST. which issues here from the Ladoga lake. The Old Palace. on the ground that she was not in the habit of selling her old clothes. all the statues and the capitals of columns. and later at a lonely spot on the White Sea. eighteen miles in circumprivate villas and as an imperial park. were covered with gold leaf at a cost of more than a million of ducats but. forming rapids easily navigable. engaged . and rush away from the within the the same time the for ' summer encampment resort of those who are air. it Like the of the dominions of formed anciently part Novgorod the for Great. He was killed in an attempt made for his rescue by an officer of the guard. In whom he had been Elizabeth. which the munificent Empress declined to accept. originally by Catherine I. passed of to some time in in the fourteenth century into the hands. is second in some has not the fountains and the cascades But it is much larger in extent both as a town of The latter. .

is broken by the gulf and the straits that give access to the White Sea. a few private whaling and fishing and it. of Archangel and Vologda form together an immense sparsely-inhabited plateau. . slopes rising from a background of bluish-purple hills. destroyed in 1854 of a its administration by an wide English district. and . only (800 inhabitants) upon town in question.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. This is the Murman (Norman) coast. sloping down to the Arctic Ocean. scarcely that of the city of Manchester. together with the integrity of Sweden. NEAR MOSCOW. after a dispute that had lasted for five finally its total population is centuries. SERGIUS. by Great Britain and France in 1855. to which attention is being more and more directed with reference to the possibility of establishing in one of its commodious and never-freezing bays. while Norway. The province of Archalone has an area larger than that of Great Britain and France ' THE The Governments angel combined. into which the region discharges its abundant waters. long coast line. it but. civil has now resumed though comparatively pleasant aspect in an amphitheatre of green. which commences at the Jacob River on the borders of settled in 1826. a Russian Naval Station. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY IN THE SACRISTY OF THE MONASTERY OF ST. as the seat of the gunboat soon arose out of its ashes. CHAPTER THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES ' IV. and guaranteed. connected At present there is but one town with the rest of the empire by rail. OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. was almost in summer. active Kola. the stations. woodless.

Petersburg.' Si.LANDING OF RICHARD CHANCELLOR AT HOLMOGORY. IN THE WHITE (Reproduced by Permission front the illustrated ' SEA. 1553- Niva.} .


Eastward of Cape Kanin. which determines the frontier of Siberia and the limits of European Russia in the North. men who subsist principally on raw flesh. self-eaters. and delighting in the ringing of church bells when they have the opportunity. politically. or Samoyedes. until the sixteenth century. having from him in commandment the 241)1 ' ' On else but his amide and things to deliver to their King. Sir Hugh Willoughby with his own vessel and the Bona Confidentia ultimately reaching with Cornelius Durforth the Bona A much his difficulty a companions. frozen during more than half the year. which had inherited. where he and The Bona- August. by the chartered Mystery Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands. venture alone escaped. Nicholas. death. on the opposite side of the Murman coast.' for the purpose of finding a northern sea passage to China and India. There had been no maritime intercourse between Western Europe and Muscovy. on the Lapland sixty-five in number. who.' by which they are known to the civilized world.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. a native in of Bristol. at a village called Nenocksa. while wearing orthodox crosses round their necks. 1553. and on the other by the White Sea. which were the The Russian name of Samoyedes. although of Venetian parentage. here somewhat tempered in its frigid severity by the Gulf Stream. all these lands from Novgorod the Great. Bonaventure. that they were Englishmen sent unto these coasts from the most certain excellent King Edward VI. They hunt and fish over the vast hyperborean region that extends from the White Sea to some distance beyond the great Enisei River of Siberia. namely. been explored except constituting almost one by the Lopars (Lapps) huge mossy bog and the Saamy. bay near Sviaty Nos. right away to the spur of the Ural Mountains. original home of this Ural-Altaic race. The design was conceived by ' ' Sebastian Cabot. in Chancellor. little The interior. The peninsula thus 59 bordered on the one side by the Arctic Ocean. was Willoughby.' Explaining. appointed in the Bona Esperanza. by mere accident in 1553. storm in the North Sea separated the three vessels. Chancellor cast anchor in the bay of St. and ascertained from some fishermen that he had reached Russia or Muscovie. Sir Hugh tons. and seeking nothing .. the coast is still more dreary and uninviting. of ninety tons. of one hundred and twenty and of commander. the Samoyedes. but in decliningnumbers. and severe Confidentia. still more or less secretly worship their primitive idols of stone and wood. and to the foot of the Altai Mountains. the under him one hundred were placed Richard and sixty tons. by means that remain unknown. has literally the same signification as Esquimaux. the coast of the White Sea was reached by an adventurous expedition fitted out in London. not far from the Korelian mouth of the Dvina. is known as Russian has Lapland. were frozen to coast. when. It is here we begin to find.

after he had friendship. Kazan and Astrakhan. Yaroslaf. gave the three Englishmen ' a cordial and distinguished reception. A charter then granted by the Tsar enabled the Company to trade throughout his dominions without paying any taxes. and tniffique with his people. on the contrary. Persia or China by way of Russia. amounted to two and three profit which. whereby they doubted not but that commoditie and profit would grow to the subjects of both kingdoms. pestilence and easy one.' A new Company was thereupon formed in London by special charter. with a letter to King Edward assuring him that his shippes and vessels may come as often as they please. Pskof. It is not surprising that under such advantages the Company prospered. then on the throne of England. and depots at Novgorod the Great. they carried everything before them. hemp and tallow of Muscovy from Flemish and Lithuanian traders by way of the Hanseatic towns. Instead of getting the furs. 1 1 From Factor^ an agent. permission to repair to Moscow in the ambassadorial character which he had assumed. and in 1555 Chancellor returned to Moscow with a reply from Philip and Mary. not far from Archangel). a Factory at Holmogory (fortyRussia. and obtained firm hold of all the most important centres of commercial With a head agency at Moscow. wax. obtained Ivan the Terrible. and sent them back from Moscow in March 1554. and sold their goods at a to native complaint. they It is were fast being ruined by the execution of so many of their debtorsindeed true that the life of the early English settlers in Russia was not an They had to contend with civil commotions.' great was Chancellor kindly and hospitably received by the equally astonished natives. . according hundred per cent. The important right of coinage was also bestowed upon them. The engraving on page 57 represents him and his two principal companions merchants named Burton and Edwards being received in state by the Governor and other high authorities of the province.60 K^SS/AW PICTURES. and even permission to seize and despoil of his goods the subject of any other Power who might attempt to reach India. When Ivan the Terrible complained of these proceedings to the English Ambassador in 1569. Nicholas soon became an important place of commerce. whereby your country merchants maie with all kind of wares and wheare they will make their market in our dominions. ' . English merchants were now in direct and privileged communication with the country which supplied those valuable a later treaty with Queen Elizabeth secured to them the commodities exclusive right to carry on the new trade in English ships. on the strength of an open Royal Letter with which each of the three vessels had been provided. and the Bay of St. seven miles above the mouth of the Dvina.' and requesting that one of His Majesty's Council should be sent to treat with the Tsar. Kostroma. then Tsar and in the zenith of his glory as the capturer of Kazan and the Suzerain of Siberia. ' ' Holmogory is evidently derived from the Norwegian Holnigaard. they retorted that.

61 when fifteen English Moscow was destroyed by the Tartars in men and women perished in the flames.' was politely rejected. the boyars informed the merchants of the Company that ' their . refuge in the country of the other in case disturbances in their own realm The matrimonial part of these proposals should compel them to do so.' suggested the Tsar should marry Lady Mary Hastings. Above all.. in to enter desired into a treaty to of mutual defence against common skilled He the Queen allow ' navigators and persons warlike ratified shipbuilding to come to Russia. and long fingers. but Elizabeth negotiation. and meanwhile enemies. been effected had not a special Muscovite ambassador reported unfavourably of her age (thirty) and of her personal appearance. however. it was to be by oath between her and himself that either sovereign might take stores to ARCIIANlIKI. negotiations. and their agency house in 1571. daughter of the Earl of Huntingdon. Elizabeth. her chief defects being In the midst of this delicate 'red hair. one of her maids This would probably have of honour. a straight nose. and artillery and other be sent from England.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN famine. Skilful RUSSIA. not only restrained the impatience of the He desired to marry Queen but also filled him with high hope. Tsar. who was not averse to the alliance.

Greig. destroyed the Turkish at Chesme. with about three thousand men. who had great difficulty in Although the important in its trade thus established by thenceforth altered character. subsequently Admiral. so in that of the navy of Russia. The most famous of those officers were Thomas Dalzell (or Dalziel) of Binns. English admirals. Lieutenants Dugdale and McKenzie. Meanwhile.' a which Covenanters were made to suffer. A volume might be well filled with the exploits and services of our countrymen in Russia. now the third. notat made the Earl of Carlisle the a efforts Restoration. and lieutenants were engaged in creating her fleet.' is spoken of in Kirkton's History of tlie C/nirc/i of Scotland as a man whose rude and fierce natural disposition had been much confirmed by his breeding and service in Muscovia. so far as numbers are Dalzell and Drummond concerned. . Orloff got although beginning.KL'SSIA\ PICTURES. especially the Dutch. who profited in no smaller degree by similar aid.N. captains. in condemnation of the people who had put their Charles to death. Russia to obtaining the Tsar's in permission his to return to Scotland ' in whose nickname ' own country became Old Tom Dalzell. Cronstadt was fleet Elphinstone. in Europe. aided mainly by Commander. were in the succeeding reign permitted to participate in the commerce of the country.' Muscovian rigour of Dalzell's military administration in Scotland. As in the case of the army. the English spirit of enterprise in had not benefited Muscovy this direction alone. of Muscovy. Captain Roxburgh. Their exclusive privileges were therefore not English Tsar was dead. British officers were the first and In the reign of Catherine the Great. the credit for them. with Captain |ohn and who. by Scottish formed were regiments and English officers. R. by withstanding ' . long jealous of the English renewed. and some British volunteers. Englishmen was derive immense proceeded advantage from the opening of her seaboard to the commerce of all the maritime nations of Europe. renewal of their ancient privileges was never obtained. 'lent' to Russia in 1/69. who.. so far as eminent services are concerned. 1665. and he was railed against as ' a Muscovian beast ' who used to roast men. foremost organisers "and commanders. monopoly. and William Drummond of Cromlix.. a legion. Her first regular in the reign of Peter the Great's father. Many of them were Peter the Great's ablest coadjutors in the extension and the reform of the empire he left to his successors. and saw There were popular murmurs against the nothing but tyranny and slavery. and for a considerable time after. Even in the reign of Alexander I.' and other nations. They won the earlier naval battles of Russia. in fact. where he had command of a small army. Next.' Generals (created Baron Strathallan in 1685) were credited Muscovite instrument with with the introduction of the thummikins. Their names are. had passed into the service of the Tsar after the defeat and imprisonment of Charles I.' the English were relegated to Archangel and.

There are plenty of other domes and spires. by the blending of races. a Scotchman. are undeniably liable to become effete. practically a 63 colony of British naval it officers and artificers in the service of countrymen taught good and enduring results. longer used. An Anglican church. who accessible port of his new capital. capital that much of the present No greatness of the Russian empire is due. whose foundations were laid by a conglomera- effectually political even the strong hand grasp while he was engaged not it proof that. The colonies of Great Britain have long been individually results attained in the . learning. Nor was the art of war alone that our James Wylie. a friend to the cause of the Pretender. In further support of this view. and a relative of the Earl of Mar. at Moscow. Huguenots. erected at the beginning of the present but no century. and habits of industry and. being not older than the last purpose of seeing the large wooden cross preserved in it as the handiwork of Peter the Great after he had escaped from a storm on the White Sea. from the oldest extant the Archiepiscopal Palace. to their immense advantage. The decline its of trade the to city dates removed British the more is merchants houses building still established reign of Peter the Great. Peter the Great's first school of mathematics was under the direction of Farquharson. We might add name upon name which to in matters. visited for The cathedral may be the . enterprise. which. civil and and regeneration. when strictly kept within narrow bounds of nationality and consanguinity. excepting in ecclesiastical of Peter the Great was able in his great work of is to British skill. undergoing the same regenerative process. learning. is meant to be conveyed by this assertion any Panslavist who may be inclined to take umbrage at it will do well to study the influence of Jews. His chief physician was Erskine. built in 1/84. disparagement to native genius. bears at present little evidence of the importance it acquired in the sixteenth century. tion of races. we may instance the United States of America by the immigraastounding tion of multitudes with acquired skill. in which One of the themselves in great numbers. gilt or coloured. Archangel. but none of the Russian churches are of any antiquity. and the visits in summer of some fifty British steamers to the port on the island of Solombola now alone attest out- common wardly the former importance of Archangel as a place of British trade. and on which he made the century. Flemings. Petersburg was also a Scotchman. so undoubtedly abundant. the older that having been destroyed by one of the many fires ravaged Archangel during the last century. The houses of the early English merchants which stood in the Cathedral Square met with the of timber fate. the Russians with such Sir Russia. while the founder of the Russian Medico-Chirurgical Academy at St. the starting-point of the modernisation of Muscovy. and Germans on the more modern development of the equally vast empire of Great Britain. . in no smaller degree.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA.

however Archangel is the revered water-gate to one of the holiest places in Russia the famed monastery of Solovetsk. landed in 1702. after a long siege. A large number were executed later. by his son Alexis. churches were rebuilt in stone. the Cathedral of the Trans- . under Zosimus. and many of thi monks were put to the sword. Hepworth Dixon said in his Free 1694.' the native point of view. Built of wood in 1438 and rebuilt of stone in 1558. nearly three supported twenty to thirty feet high and twenty feet in their stronghold. the brotherhood refused circumference. one of its first abbots. and broke into a rebellion that lasted It fell at last by treachery.. or sent into exile. Sabbatheus. On the sides of the gateway are models of the two small vessels in which they crossed from Archangel. and further on we come to an obelisk commemorating the harmless attack made on the monastery by the British \YhiteSea squadron in 1855. following inscription in Dutch: In Western eyes. thick. and in to wealth and from the began grow power year About a century later the 1442. to which some ten thousand pilgrims are annually conveyed in a steamer commanded and manned by monks. the remainder being kept in awe and submission by three hundred Streltsi. and between 1590 and 1594 the monks enclosed them within in a wall of granite at boulders. the Peter the Great. however. as the late Mr. The visitor is first shown the chapel erected over the spot on which liturgy sent nine years. ' From the city is a magazine of oats and tar. by the Patriarch Nicon. secure themselves Deeming in 1667 to receive the revised I THE SOLOVETSK MOXASTHRY. It is.64 RUSSIAN PICTURES.' Russia. of planks and skins. when the holy fathers walked in procession round the walls while the shells were flying over their heads. and intervals thousand feet round and by square towers. ' Dat cruys makcn Captcm Piter van a C/it. accompanied six churches of this fortified monastery that will chiefly interest him. It was founded in 1429 by St.

have yet although grandeur to the Imatra Sweden. Nor are military is museum of otherwise sacred objects. In the vicinity are two chapels (1753) containing the tombs of Germanicus and of other reverend fathers of The Cathedral of the Assumption was consecrated in 1557. put up in 1697. miles broad. fishermen and seamen in the White Sea. . is iron Petrozavodsk. a settlement of the been very active as since and who have the innovations of Nicon. local repute. at Old Believers. did good same cause. buried in this monastery. Only a few Russian travelit has been immortalized in one of in the best is also poems of Derjavin. on rich its western shore in is copper. as and seen Trolhatten it. linen gave the gold reliquary adorned with pearls In contrast with those gorgeous vestments is the plain also who chasuble of Zosimus. churches enclosed by the walls were founded severally in 1596 and 1687. silver. equal in Petrozavodsk Falls lers in the \Vaterfall of Finland.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. and restored or renovated in the church dedicated (1667) to height. once Civil Governor of Petrozavodsk. and char.' who the head of which stands Kern. Onuphrius the Great. grayling. and precious stones contributed by Tsars and nobles. Kivatch. At its southern end the White Sea forms the Bay of Onega. and an imposing ikonostas. Philip. throughout the province of Olonets but few scientific fishermen have as yet taken advantage of its wealth in trout. with a belfry 125 feet in The artistic treasures of the monastery. There trophies forgotten in this the armour of the comrades of of a monk. Solovetsk was used as a political prison so recently as the reign of Nicholas. the sword of the Prince alliance with a butcher of Nijni Novgorod. Outside the wall is the eighteenth century. its gold. one hundred and fifty miles long and chapter. patriots who expelled the Poles from Pojarski. There abundance of bear and other shooting in this neighbourhood. and of military banners bearing the emblem of the cross. 65 figuration contains the ponderous silver gilt shrines of Saints Sabbatheus and Zosimus. service in the in who was one of the most active Moscow in 1613. by Ivan the Terrible. and a large collection of ancient Russian and other weapons. ' as is indeed the whole of the region we have so imperfectly described in this fifty The Lake of Onega. About forty-two miles north-west of and mica. are carefully preserved in a special Sacristy. lies about half-way between Onega Bay and Lake Ladoga . The remaining two and the Church of Nicholas Thaumaturgus in 1590. Among the objects of highest value are the sacerdotal vestments. and . who. and precious stones. reject It is also a place of political exile. the capital of the province of Olonets. part of the relics of St. Metropolitan of Moscow. ornamented with pearls of unusual size presented to the monastery in 1550 .

r CHAPTER Moscow : V. until from 1136 they assumed the right of electing or dismissing their prince at a vccJic or witenagemote. in order to destroy effectually their fifty spirit of independence. The city once covered an area forty miles in circumference.' but at last 14/8.D. Trade with the Hanseatic towns. way to Moscow a special excursion should be made by rail to Novgorod the Great. annexed their possessions to the Grand Duchy class of Moscow his . the founder of Muscovite dominion. and water ' communication with the North and South of Russia. THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. impelling them to internecine warfare for its possession. 862.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A PSALTER OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. and. It is here that the Northmen under Roric established themselves A. however.' as the republic became styled. When. and . For a considerable period the Novgorodians were able to boast that no one could in 'contend against God and the Great Novgorod. MOSCOW.. and capital. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE SYNOD. soon rendered the Lord Great Novgorod. the citizens of Novgorod gradually acquired political power and independence. Ivan III. Kief became the seat of the grand ducal throne of the Scandinavian (subse- ON the quently called Varangian) conquerors. the cradle of the Russian empire. a central mart of great importance and prosperity. removed to 8000 boyars or nobles. families I'cche of the merchant own together with their Bell. before they took their viking ships down the Dnieper to Kief.



of Kief. from St. Paul (brought from Khersonesus by St. 1108). More ancient still. Anne I. Archbishop of Novgorod. 1030. Archbishop of Novgorod (d. were thrown into the River Volkhof. consort of Yaroslaf the the A. is by eight massive quadrangular pillars. in 1820 and 1837. is the Byzantine mosaic work behind the altar. original ikons The ikonostas dates The most ancient in it CATHEDRAL OF ST. Vladimir). and precious stones. their son Vladimir 1052). dates from 1050). 1341.clerical. who had contemplated a transfer of their allegiance to the Prince of Lithuania. expired record of deceased Archbishops and Metropolitans of Novgorod is brought down to iSiS from A.D. those of St. Enshrined in silver or bronze are the remains of numerous saints. daughter of Amongst the most venerated King Olaf of Norway. and (d. and probably of the same age as the cathedral. The belfry tower dates from 1439. model of the famous St. with two similar pillars at the altar. supply the usual form of a Greek cupola supported cross. The most modern of the saints in . oak. Thousands of its inhabitants. are those of Peter and (a Byzantine copy of the eleventh century) and St. Sophia. SOPHIA AT NOVGOROD THE GREAT. when even its monasteries and churches were sacked by Ivan the Terrible. and the roof of the cathedral. of John. 1180). which. The ruin of the city grand completed in 1570. and traces painting canonized princes and ecclesiastics of the same kind of (twelfth have above the thronos. with its figured Internally cornice is a remnant of the work of the seventeenth the century. The Sophia St. Only two of the inscriptions over the 86. princely and . In curious fresco the galleries above are representations of .D. or seat of the Metropolitan. of Brave 1 1 (d. 1223. Sophia at Constantinople. Later additions from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries and complete restorations. which is reproduced also at Kief. facing the altar. most ancient of these are relics (d. founder of of Mstislaf Cathedral. have not deprived it of the distinguishing features of one of the oldest churches in Russia.MOSCOH': THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. who but died the 1653. in countless treasures gold. and Nikita. old was The glory of the city survives only in its constructed in 1050 by Byzantine artisans after Cathedral the of St. silver. which is of century) been preserved in the apse.

bearing fifty-four inscriptions in Latin and Slavonic. Petersburg into an empire. They overlaid with bronze plates. a Magdeburg production of the twelfth century. archiepiscopal A. There Acropolis.D. numerous tombs of Novgorodian princes are now legible. or as the Grand Duchy of Moscow. the Governor which were 1104. The life-size . Sv ' ' AN OLD CHURCH AT NOVGOROD. offices are within same place of wooden is erected Rebuilt in in in 1490 by an 1 Italian architect. to in of by Ivan the walls The walls. although the notwithstanding are of wood fecit over The legend Rigvin me explanations were probably added later.D. the head of a man in German dress. has in existed since close which III. still so called. by which those principalities were absorbed whether and ultimately welded at St. after the are several other churches within of the walls of the Kremlin. respectively 1178 At the western or principal entrance to the cathedral are the exceptionally fine and interesting Korsnn (Khersonesus) doors. palace built in and the government stone A. independent or confederated. century. they were 700. in the form of principalities. that their Byzantine origin has long been disproved. They are dated and 1218. or the fifteenth of like Novgorod the tall One tower the city them by. which St. Close the cathedral renovated by Peter the Great the splendid bronze monument erected 1862 to commemorate the thousandth anniversary of the existence of Russia. is quite equal to that of the door of Zenone at Verona.7 RUSSIAN PICTURES. with tongs and a pair of scales in his hands. is alone sufficient attestation of the German and Roman Slavonic Catholic character of the work. resided subjugation 1302.

. monument are emblematical of these several periods of Russian But our object is to reach Moscow.. figures on the history. who caused the neighbouring accidents of country to be named after various sacred sites monastery. jtt THE MONUMENT A'l NuVUuKuI) Ll'MMI.. h rni~ ' . about fourteen miles from a station .MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. we must confine ourselves to a short mention of the famous situated New Jerusalem not far railway from Moscow.MOKATING THE THOUSANDTH^ANNIVERSARY OF THE EMPIRE. . and much as we should wish to say something of the other ancient towns that lie between the two capitals. It was founded in 1657 by the Patriarch Nicon. ifr^Tlriii^tor ffl if-. '- "^ '^\ VS . .

Although the of the church was in these circumstances somewhat original plan departed from. and began. devoting to the attacked he had previously with which clergy for their intemperance and He also endeavoured to restore the Russian Church to other irregularities. a Metropolitan was temporarily invested with the patriarchate. self. ass. his former friend. to banish him to a monastery in the province of Novgorod. . ceremony of riding through led by the Tsar him- For to typify Christ's entry into Jerusalem.. the principal tent-like cupola collapsed. withdrew to New Jerusalem. and. dral on one of the great festivals of the Church but Nicon was far from being daunted. and in public documents assumed a Palestine . he A council alleged. yet internally it remains more like the edifice in which the Crusaders worshipped at Jerusalem than is that church itself since its destruction by fire. of whom he fearlessly sermonised the patriarchal cathedral. In 1/23. and in the pictorial representations of in matters Byzantine purity His arrogance became so great that he exercised jurisdiction sacred subjects. when orders for its restoration were given by the Empress Elizabeth. six years Nicon was a recluse at but in 1664 his worldly ambition reasserted itself. he publicly threw off his pontifical sakkos and mitre. in 1658. of the Eastern patriarchs convoked at Moscow disposed of his pretensions. As a mark dissatisfac- the Tsar absented himself from the cathe. tion. to erect an all it his wealth and all the energy exactly similar structure. arrayed once more in his pontifical robes. having been ordered. while a small chapel built on a mound was called Eleon. New and the Tsar was induced. in civil as well as ecclesiastical matters. Nicon a model of the more the render to order procured complete. analogy Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. . and he Jerusalem made his appearance suddenly in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Moscow. for example. and. of ritual. in brook was made was converted into the Jordan. although unwillingly. relying on the speedy repentance of the sovereign. to resume his seat on the patriarchal throne. a river to represent the title equal in dignity in to that of the Tsar. in a dream. The monastery of the New Jerusalem was thus left uncompleted.RUSSIAN PICTURES. an artificial Kedron. with the gift of the Holy Ghost to work cures. laid down his crozier. and replaced the primate his retreat at the even in the high Moscow on an THE PATRIARCH NICOX. attiring himself in the habit of a monk. and it was not finished and consecrated until some years later. In spite of Nicon's protest that he was still a Patriarch. and remained in that condition until 1749. a village close by was dignified In with Nazareth.

' ( show the present outward form and the internal Nicon is buried in the of this highly remarkable structure. late We cannot : describe ' it more graphically than it the words of the Dean Stanley still Externally. further complicated by the aspect addition of of chapels by. that. suspended from 1 Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. find his way without 1 difficulty through every corridor and stair and corner of the copy. 1869. a traveller who has seen the original can THE CHURCH IN THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. London. beyond Jerusalem. and of the same form dimensions as the church at the actual precisely as the arrangements of that church are. at the foot of the Golgotha. which. with a brass cross. down to our own day. as penance. he wore on his breast. close to the corre)ur illustrations sponding spot in the actual church of the Holy Sepulchre where lie the Over his tomb hangs the iron plate remains of Godfrey of Bouillon. has the an ordinary successive Russian cathedral. intricate built probably any other in the world. the various members of the But internally it is so imperial family in after times. and in its 73 renovation in 1812. . arrangements Chapel of Melchizedek. or in honour of.

This is the Descent from the Cross. Large numbers of them were decapitated by the orders and under the superintendence of Peter. which is preceded on Good Friday by a ceremony that is not performed anywhere else in Russia.' and ecclesiastical life. and in which he wrote his Chronicle of the Church of Jerusalem. the original wooden model of the church of the Holy Sepulchre. a four-storied tower from which Nicon watched the building of the church. We once struck by the busy 1 more or irregular streets. his portrait. to assist at the Easter Eve service of the Russo-Greek Church. his neck by a heavy iron chain. and many other interesting objects. shoes. and sheepskin coat. ' Moscow all the is white-walled. In 1698 General Patrick Gordon defeated the rebellious Streltsi in the vicinity of the monastery. which is in an upper gallery. Much interest also attaches to the skiit.74 PICTURES. On we ' reaching at Our holy mother Moscow. In the sacristy are kept his hat. Pilgrims come in vast numbers to the monastery. or hermitage. is lowered by means of long strips of linen from the Golgotha Chapel. is anointed with ointment supposed to be identical with that used PLAN OF THE CHURCH IN THE NEW JERUSALEM AN EXACT COPY SEPULCHRE. and finally freed Peter the Great from those illdisciplined and even mutinous bands. embroidered on a cloth. . and after being laid on a bier in front of the altar screen. The body of our Saviour. Endearing epithets applied to the city by the Russian people. OF THE ORIGINAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY by Mary Magdalene.' truly 1 are in the are political centre the of that less Russian. the original supply of which has been maintained by the continuous admixture of analogous ingredients.

and trousers. We are received by to which we are bound. tage by even the luxury of cities of . THE STRELTSI OF 1613. seen only at the neck. will served shirts waiters in white Restaurant. and a small round hat gaily adorned with peacocks' feathers. in these days Russia. not our object to describe hotels and the details of travelling in Nevertheless. porters in national dress. the other standing at variety of raw produce his shop door. that is to say. larger a of The Slavianski Bazar. together In their stead driver. the value of which he still totals up on a Tartar abacus. The old drojki has a sort of knife-board on four wheels its tattered and grimy with disappeared. GENERAL 1'ATRICK GORDON. and the accommodation now obtainable in all the and also to its relative cheapness. tall It is Russia. cloth-clad here in their aboriginal from condition looking the one driving long teams of roughwaggons or sleighs. Petersburg. are well-appointed car- riages and swift proliotkis (a miniature victoria) which rattle us over the long cobble-paved streets that lie between the Nicholas Railway Station and the Slavianski Bazaar or Hotel.ATOSCOll': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. laden with every . high boots of polished leather. as in 75 crowded in in summer so as well winter with vehicles and pedestrians. we cannot omit a passing reference to the comfort OFFICERS OF THE STRELTSI. and inviting passers-by to enter and view his goods. STRELTSI OF A LATER DATE. (trader) : The are kitpcts thoroughfares and squares of sheep-skinned innjik (peasant) and the wily. and the ill-filled that respect different St. and the Hermidepreciated paper rouble. which to cover a cloth coats shirt pretend long of dazzling red silk.

has already been mentioned in the French occupation disastrous of of some the incidents the refer to can only his September. and strengthened by a moat in 1394. By the early part of the fifteenth century. thirteenth century its ashes. when the Tartars left no building standing that was not constructed of brick or stone. when a and 1547. . and Napoleon made the moment chosen for setting the . 1367. in order to clear it of the invading legions under Napoleon. and the number grow. This was city on fire. and for three days the flames raged with terrific fierceness. favourable comparison with bear any other corresponding establishments in Western Europe. and 100. devastated on that occasion the southern and central parts of what we now call Russia. after the sack of the city in 1382. They were replaced in masonry A.I>. or fortress. It was he who built her first wooden walls. 1536 of was to ashes. sketch of the history of Moscow must precede any description of its Chronicles record its existence as early as 1147. the remnant of the host of nearly half a What became of this million with which he had crossed the Niemen. Rising from 7 . Napoleon withdrew to the Petrofski but returned to the Kremlin on the 2oth of the outskirts on the Palace. 1812. took possession of the Kremlin on the i4th of population we come had ceased to solemn entry next day. and by the plague. Passing over other disasters by fire in 1611.76 RUSSIAN PICTURES. under Ivan I. with many fine churches the younger son of . Alexander Nevski. which latter encountered a rival in Riazan and it was only towards the middle of the fourteenth century that the Grand Duchy of Moscow became paramount. when the Poles took possession of the city. plunder with which it second chapter. Moscow had regained the and monasteries position of a flourishing capital. who was the progenitor of the Kief had in 1158 lost its subsequently mighty race of Muscovite princes. notwithstanding great and the assault of the Crimean Tartars in 1572. which to in 1771 greatly reduced the the great tragedy of 1812. consisting of Polish and Prussian lancers. Moscow became. 1 9th with S5Q pieces of cannon. a century later it was burnt down by the Tartars under Baati. its governor. and gave to the space they enclosed the Tartar name of krcmlin. led by Prince Murat. and pre-eminence amongst the city of Vladimir.000 of its the reduced considerable part city of these continued to fires in inhabitants perished in the flames or by the sword. the grand- A son of Chingiz Khan. a peace. the Russian was succeeded by principalities. after failing in an attempt to negotiate October he left Moscow with an army consisting of 120. On the September. and we left Moscow. city. with a horde of three hundred thousand men. About principal buildings. towards the end of the the seat of a principality (or Grand Duchy) under Daniel. when the ancient city be the capital in 1771) was fired by the orders of (which Count Rostopchin. who. of the and Grande of the small remnant Armte. Their advanced guard.000 men.

. MtjSCUW. anciently exempt from taxation. in 77 our description of the churches and other buildings connected with its history.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. together with the wallecl Kitai Gorod (Chinese Town). the centre. and. Moscow has now The Kremlin stands exactly in population of three-quarters of a million. a its THE KREMLIN. Black or taxable is the White City. is part of the population having been located in the Earthen City beyond. Encircling these adjoins it. Spread over a circumference of twenty-five miles. which the heart of the city and its chief attraction.

Viliers. trace the main We and ancient circumvallations. once of the head. Our attention is next directed to the bells. chapels. Peter the Great. rebuilt in 1367. and four times heavier than that of It was re-cast after the partial destruction of the tower in Rouen. and which was brought from Smolensk in has 1647.7S RUSSIAN PICTURES. but which have been much restored and extended since they left the hands of the Italian architects by whom they were designed. however. notwithtiles. five times as heavy as the celebrated bell of Erfurt. and the eye ranges over a vast expanse of coloured house-tops. the numerous cicerone who infest the basement. and the season that of summer. with their quaint towers of glazed green has given its name to the great city. when Napoleon and his marshals surveyed the city from it. we ascend by some four hundred and fifty steps to the highest of the five stories of which it is composed. named the Assumption. A much venerated ikon of the Redeemer arch over the of the placed gate. The tower over it was constructed in 1626 by an English clockmaker in a style (Gothic) discordant with the Italian battlements. monasteries and convents. thus named after approach the renowned tower its architect Under the guidance of one of (in 1590) John. 1812. and proceed to enjoy one of the* most striking and unique views in Europe. on the east face of the Kremlin. we Passing through or belfry of Ivan the Great. weighs sixty-four tons. flows the river which standing its humble origin in one of the morasses of the neighbouring province of Smolensk. a out of the metal of ancient but in weakened in bell. given to it the character of a Porta Sacra. and tell of the existence of nearly four hundred churches. which is three hundred and twenty-five feet to the top of the cross on its gilt cupola. and not even the it without conforming to the old custom. were replaced between 1485 and 1492 by the high and stout battlemented walls and towers we now see. stands on a granite pedestal at the foot of the tower. called so from the wall of earth which formerly surrounded it. who executed rigorously enforced. and are pierced by five gates. our eyes Church were made to pay toll it with are dazzled by the glitter of the gilded or star-bespangled spires and domes that surround us on every side. Close under the southern front of the Kremlin walls. whether walking or driving. for which the tower is as famous as for its great height. The King of Cast Bells. more or less embedded in trees. also made use of the gate as a point at which dissenters from the Orthodox emperor can pass through if they wished to preserve their beards. and is. and which has since been converted into boulevards. bared heads. or Ivan. The Kremlin fortifications. If the day be clear. its 1733 huge and other which the treasures the of ladies Moscow jewels composition by streets . They are 7280 feet in circumference. therefore. two years after Gordon's victory over them. The largest of these. the principal of which is the Redeemer Gate. uncovering the Streltsi in front of it.

all surrounded cherubim. and which weig tons. Alexis and it the Empress Anne appear upon in on the are t i relief figures. by Another monster of which the Muscovites ON THE BELFRY : THE IVAN VELIKI TOWER. its is height twenty-six feet its four inches. and scroll below o n representas of the Saviour. of the the broken piece.MOSCOU': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. alone eleven minus h s The weight bell. circumference - sixty seven feet eleven and its inches. maximum two thickness The Tsar feet. . 79 had the thrown liquid into metal with tent. and the Evangelists. the Vir- gin Mary. side in by the it falling of upon heavy some rafters. the large piece (seven that feet high) now rests against the pedestal. nearly two hundred tons. a pious inTsar the lost i Kolokol of its out 737.

A THE GREAT BELL. the Moscow princes and tsars built their habitations. on the banks of the Don. in 1849. great episode is in Russian trated history illus- on an immense canvas ments. is unfortunately not ancient in It stands on the spot upon which. It measures two George. guards the corner of the arsenal. the great beauty and grandeur of the state apartments within render the Bolshoi Dvorets a residence fully befitting the mighty Autocrat of All the Russias. halls the gallery at the top of the noble staircase that leads to those apartDimitri.8o RUSSIAN PICTURES. burned down had a f t e r Napoleon terior. in 1380. Incongruous as is its exodd from the various mixture of periods and forms of architecture which it exhibits. the entire front of which is decorated with cannon taken during the retreat are of the French. These suffered destruction at the hands of Tartars and Poles. a palace built by Cathe- rine II. while its the shining white walls are inscribed in letters of gold the names individuals of all ranks and of the regiments decorated with the bravery or 1769. Prince of Moscow. a cannon of enormous It size. proud is the Tsar Pushka of the Kremlin. and were not unin frequently destroyed the many accidental con- flagrations to Kremlin jected. II. On of the by sixty-eight feet. Palace. which was founded by Catherine in is bestowed only for distinguished acts of . than fifty-eight height is no less order. originally of wood. cast in 1586. The first of the series of magnificent in is dedicated feet to the military order of St. hundred feet. and later The Great of brick. from the earliest times. age or in style. weighing forty tons. has which the been sub- The present which the French edifice replaced. left it. imposing in aspect. is seen defeating the Tartars at Kulikova. and success in the field.

setting perforce the Picture Gallery. From the THE GREAT PALACE. to this in character the Tsaritsas of Moscow received the boyars.Af OS CO IV: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. MOSCOW. elating probably from of the fifteenth century. and a host of At the private apartments. into which open rooms allotted to maids of honour of the We more imperial court. with its fronts cut G . and which are taken to represent the seven councils. and Nicholas I. seven recesses and seats along the walls. 81 must. however. end of a gallery. In the Granovitaya Palata. and foreign ambassadors on great occasions. or Gold Hall. but restored in the style of the in seventeenth century the reigns of Paul I. the clergy. it is supposed to have been an audience chamber of the but it is on record that in a chamber similar patriarchs and metropolitans . leave the modern and magnificent for the antique and of the aside the Winter Garden. a large square building. the chapels. interesting parts palace. the early part is the Zolotaya Palata.

and who in 1689 resigned his share of the government to into facets. who was both mentally and physically incapable of governing. and twenty-five pearls of Ormuz. on lifting the drapery at the back. to Ivan the Boris Godunof. a sapphire and a ruby all of large size spring from extremity. resting on a broad border of dark and surmounted by a plain cross terminating in large pearls at each A topaz. the middle of the sixteenth century is seen in the Crown of Kazan. Three thrones of studded with Persian workmanship. a true restoration of an audience then only seventeen years of age. turquoises. Its high arches rest on a central pillar. and dines with the sovereigns and princes. in token of the ancient descent of their Peter I. after he had conquered the Tartar kingdom of Kazan. which all the Emperors of Russia have assumed at their coronation. is the depository of a vast number of historical objects and of treasures hereditary in the reigning house. A good specimen of Moscow four rubies. and elegant gold arabesques of a work of . who had been charged by the Streltsi with the control of State affairs. bestowed by Ivan the Terrible. The rooms are all very small. The most ancient of the thrones is that of the last Christian Emperor of Con1472 by Sophia Palaeologus on her stantinople.. and other regalia. the superior clergy. a Tartar Khan. however. The Treasury. is the double of throne vermeil in made for the curious. their sister. we find chamber built by Italian architects for the Tsar of Moscow in 1491. and the two upper ones were added in 1636. rubies. Here on the richly gilt throne of silver the monarch sits in his coronation robes. fill the first two rooms. around which is stacked the imperial plate when an emperor is crowned. The ornaments and the and elevated to the dignity of a vassal Tsar. the entire decorations are Oriental. the nobles. Attached to the palace is the ancient (restored) building called the Terem. and yet it was in the Tercm that the first Romanoff sovereigns gave audience to foreign ambassadors. and which we cannot avoid observing from the palace yard. and pearls. The Round Room is full of thrones. crowns. vast power. brought to Moscow in Its ivory is beautifully carved with representations marriage with Ivan III. It is in fine gold filagree work. whom he converted to Christianity.82 RUSSIAN PICTURES. while upon the cap itself are four emeralds. Its two lower stories were built in the early part of the sixteenth century. an aperture is seen through which Sophia. German and Russian. upon Simeon. of the labours of Orpheus and the legend of Thrace. Most Terrible. Germany coronation of Ivan and Peter as the joint successors of Theodore III. prompted Ivan. diamonds. which forms the right wing of the palace. (1682). The Earl of Carlisle was received in it in 1664. the dome of the cap on gold stems. Ancient armour and weapons. and Alexis. originally twelfth-century work. sable. severally. Among the crowns we single out the jewelled cap of Vladimir Monomachus. and the diplomatic personages who have taken part in the great ceremony. belonged.

and cap. part of the regalia of the Russian sovereigns up to the time of Peter I. Some of the orbs of great St. for its large jewels to I. to the Tsar Boris Godunof. but Emperors the III. a The furthest room is museum of gold and THE CROWN OK MONOMACHUS. A. Many topaz.. both of Byzantine workmanship. and the unicorn. the : the griffin. and divided by the four principal zantium lion. and the rises top is surmounted by an enormous cap of maintenance. adorn is it. in magniVladimir by reality made for Ivan eighty-nine two baniu. It is studded with fifty-eight diamonds. beautiful art. and we must preface our description of the more notable cathedrals with a few observations on the origin of the architectural features of those edifices. in the of most style Greek of at- The to plaques coloured enamel. summit. G 2 . decidedly or the Persian character. cannot the fifteenth century.D. the one reputed to have been sent especially Basilius and Constantine. than nine hundred the in addition numerous rubies and are to in fixed on pliant stems.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. generally classed as Russo-Byzantine. or collars. but in which thus see in this relic the record of a Bess refused to centuries. Next Peter it the tiara-shaped crown. ' We very early phase of the great Eastern Question. presented to the Tsar of Moscow by the sovereigns. 988. made A no diamond cross fewer to from immense uncut ruby on diamonds adorn the body of emeralds ficence. together with eight horses. In a good Queen join. symbolical figures of Bythe eagle. and with only a few objects of the fourteenth and fifteenth separate case are some Stuart specimens of English work.' Moscow abounds in churches. mostly of the seventeenth century. The They are escape notice. tached of brocaded the the are represent episodes in life of David. besides a great number of emeralds and pearls. rubies. silversmiths' work. a strip silk. Its panels are ornamented with allegorical allusions to a crusade the Tsar had proposed to make against the Turks. Among the old state carriages preserved in a room below is a coach which Queen Elizabeth sent.

national is size. essentially Italian. They are supported internally by pillars covered with frescoes on a gold ground. Nevertheless. It has been restored several times. The after 1812. whether type in be built Central Russia. the silver shrine of Philip. Among the many tombs in observed. with a later combination of the Polish. under the influence of Georgian as well as Persian forms. when the French used it as a storehouse. or Cathedral of the Assumption. when the original edifice of 1333 was rebuilt by a Milanese architect. built between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries will show that non-existent in Byzantium. and that the Italian architects called in by Ivan III. which at the same time lent itself more easily to the its construction stone.' a wonderful It was considered was built in structure. were covered with copper-gilt plates only in 1684. height. as Dean Stanley correctly dimensions what in the West would be called a chapel architecture. succumbed to the Oriental taste of brick buildings began to the Russians. who. features of the latter style surviving only Byzantine. gained the prefix of Aristotle 'on account of his cunning. dates from 1509. Metropolitan of Moscow an of more than 1566-1569. Their Russian disciples varied again that style according to their own taste. since its sovereigns continue to be 1479 on new foundations by an Italian architect named Fioraventi.84 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Moscow included. For this offence he was dragged from the altar at which he was in the cathedral is and ultimately put to death. especially officiating. including the central cupola. ancient churches of a Byzantine An abundance of timber caused them to purity ever existed. If of tent or cone-shaped pinnacles. adapted their work in accordance with it. a careful study of the Russian churches style of construction. in the centre of the the most venerated pile in Russia. of fact. in their architectural details they are Italian rather than in characteristic their apses. it rather than a cathedral. its grandeur. we shall ecclesiastical architecture reproduced in of Russia or arrive the conclusion when stone predominate over constructions in timber (in the fifteenth century). otherwise have given more light to the interior. the older at subsequently that we examine closely Proper still extant. and brightness being features previously unknown in Its five domes. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael. Byzantine influence was already very feeble. ordinary interest. the the outlines of The Uspenski Kremlin crowned in it Sober. and created a special type of ecclesiastical architecture in a mingled Italian and Persian style. separated from the Assumption by a small paved square. of wood. according to Russian chronicles. similar to that of the Grim representations of martyrs moderate the glitter that would walls. Indeed. the . As a matter in the material or the in all no churches of the early Christian age survive in Russia It is even doubtful integrity of their original forms. Nevertheless. for it is that of a object prelate who had the courage to rebuke Ivan the Terrible publicly for his atrocities.

Notwithstanding its Persian form and distinctly Russian workheld to be the original receptacle of the chrism obtained from with Constantinople porting to A on the introduction of Christianity into Russia. and thoroughly renovated in 1867. assisted by his higher clergy. The only emperor buried in it is Peter II. No fewer than forty-seven princes of those families repose in the tombs that literally Frescoes on the walls. cloisonne gold. of the Metropolitan Peter. the monastic vow nil the cathedral. In the old residence overlaid Alabastron. Close by is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. part of the Synodal Buildings within the Kremlin. emeralds. . to Peter the Great. 1 1 They are well described in Mr. ami cannot stay to point out studded with precious stones of great value. record their altar lies Ivan the Terrible. and causes it to be distributed among the bishops oils of the several dioceses. interior is 85 extremely interesting. the entire compound the contents of the Alabastron. and Russian The Metropolitan of Moscow. manship. or all the many cinquecento panagias. against each sepulture. already quoted. under the mistaken could save his erring soul. and other precious ornaments of fine workmanship which the sacristy of the Patriarchs offers to We our view. prepares a new supply of the mir every two or three years at the season of Lent. The 'great mitre. and purhave been a portion of the ointment used by Mary Magdalene. in being The most then hallowed by a drop or two of venerable of the robes that hang the sakkos. emperors consecrated at their coronation. having been perfectly restored to its ancient appearance of a mausoleum of the Rurik and Romanoff dynasties from Ivan I. made but the richest another room. rebuilt in 1489. belief that it having been who also covered the nine domes with of gold. is diadem-shaped. and diamonds (1583). His tomb is covered with a black pall. restored after a fire in 1547. is a large and curious collection of ecclesiastical vestments. with whom the male line of the Romanoffs became extinct in 1/30. Maskell's Russian Art. portable pyxes. the most interesting of the latter being a long-necked vase..MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. covered Of the seven mitres. in Ivan the Terrible after the murder of his son. is numerous glass cases in . the necessary quantity of oil and white wine. notwithstanding O the canons of the Church.. A essential and spices are added to great variety of gums. ornaments and vessels. the Patriarchs. or dalmatic. Next the his numerous offences against administered to him on his death-bed. names and features. to denote that he died a monk. balsams. one is that of the Metropolitan Dionysius 1322 an expiatory gift of with rubies. ' ' few drops only are annually used in the preparation of the sacred oil with which orthodox children are anointed at their baptism. the most ancient belonged to the Patriarch Job (1595). it is in and called the mother-of-pearl. Many of the ikons within it were acquired at the sacking of Novgorod the Great by Ivan IV.' out of four that belonged to Nicon.

Much churches stand side treasure of a similar kind is preserved in the sacristies of the that within the side by at Chudof Monastery and the Ascension Convent. MOSCOW.86 Xl/SS/JV PICTURES. Basil the Beatified. are at once struck by the eccentric appearance of the Cathedral of illustration : St. the Redeemer Gate. where we 1 CATHEDRAL OF ST. BASIL. Our of ' it Theophile Gautier It is description given of the edifice by without doubt the most original monument in the justifies the . We are now the great Red (or beautiful) Square. by which we issue from in the Kremlin.

in the form of heavy iron chains is famed for the relics and the Another penitential weights chapel penance. and belongs to no known One would imagine it to be a gigantic madresore. which the movement of the air will presently cause to change in form. but was not completed until the end of the sixteenth century. It was commemoration of the additional acquisition architect whose name remains unknown. the 1737 great conflagration and all the vessels and domes with its the church. 1555. prototype nor similitude. testant reader must bear in mind that idiocy is a form of mendicancy very common in Russia.- THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. idiotic taken from the Tartars. and danger of the French occupation of Moscow. one is tempted to a whimsical will-o'-the-wisp. side should not produce another structure of equal merit. and the edifice.D.' Ivan the Terrible. although the edifice suffered to the extent of being robbed and in the confusion used as a design. by an Italian whose eyes were certainly not put out. built on this site (anciently a cemetery in which was buried Basil. the great cupolas of Basil the in fire that devastated the Kitai Gorod destroyed all Beatified. Ivan the Idiot. such as it is after subsequent alterations. this curio disappeared in 1812.' of cast iron of ' ' labyrinth of passages. the tutelary saint. when it became known by its present name. 87 nothing that one has ever seen. found in present form. Mosque' to be destroyed. as legends assert. chapels eighteen destroyed Restored seven years later. of Astrakhan. Fortunately for later visitors not of iconoclastic temperament. in order that he Seven years later. a prophet and miracle-worker. and again thoroughly and treasures within it. stable. It has as now eleven domes. after conquering Kazan. it recalls . chapels were added to it. Intercession of the Holy Virgin. connected by a in a chapels Basil. with the treasure he had ' wooden church dedicated rebuilt in to in the stone A. not Thibetan pagoda. each separate places different in colour and surmounting many of worship. it in its strict accordance with ancient 1812. and the innate compassionate feelings of the people are . ask if it is Hindoo. Chinese. It was pillaged and defiled by the Poles early in the seventeenth century. an edifice formed of clouds It might be taken for a fantastically coloured by the sun.MOSCOW'. a for Christ's sake'). reposes emblems his venerated of costly shrine little in harmony with the equally and crosses which he wore for austerity. 1668. In one of the lower from the heavy iron head-piece on which he was wont to carry buckets of The Prowater as an exercise of charity. a thing which has neither colossus. a stalactite grotto turned upside down world . were not carried out. Again.' who acquired also the epithet of Big-cap. Napoleon. a crystallised style. and ordered 'that drawings. and in 1626 a fire which broke out in the dome of one of its chapels spread over the whole of Moscow. his orders. In another renovated in in 1784. or vanish into nothingness. or In looking at this impossible church.

much moved by Another common. longer correct. in which ladies improvements can do their shopping without discomfort either in the heat of summer or the excessive cold of winter. Dvor (Great Bazaar) on Apropos of markets. as well as from the planting of trees in squares and boulevards. recent years from a style of from the imits provement of pal streets. and the old Gostinnoi A some length of time. it. appeal to charity fire. which is certainly betterdressed and more European-looking than even fifteen years ago. The and 1 thoroughfares in about the Kitai are scarcely re- Gorod if** cognisable by one who has not seen Moscow for A PEASANT COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CHURCH OR MONASTERY.88 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in the porches of its churches and chapels. and at the neighbouring monasteries. however. worthy (1818) in memory of Minin and Pojarski. monks and nuns to be seen in the streets of the city. be admitted by any recent visitor to Moscow that the must. most othercities and towns in Russia. feature these is the A the Red Square will be replaced by a building more and of of the the in monument front of erected site. the butcher and the boyar who drove the Poles out of Moscow in 1612. couple of years more. it. consists in the exhibition of sores resulting from accidents by and It it is not unusual even to see beggars going about barefooted in winter. we must not fail to mention the al fresco mart . princi- which are now better kept and lighted. Moslike cow has gained much in more imposing building. Also. is no same observation The may be made with regard to the appearance of the civic population. perhaps more painful. accounts given by previous travellers as to the great number of mendicant men and women. in striking erection of arcades or passages.

. The assemblage is of a decidedly uninviting character. and the rawest material of Mussuffices to covy sented in it. in odour as well as in appearance. whether THE OLD CLOTHES MARKET. of which we give an illustration. 89 ~ ' - ' - under the walls of the Kitai Gorod. MOSCOW.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. is well repre- It view the of sale animated scene and purchase in every possible description of merchandise.

and two arches we find the Iverskaya Chasovnia. represent After this come monuments at of religion in the Iron Age of Russia. mounds that are found scattered over to death with Early Arab geographers give graphic accounts of those sacrificial rites. found in great numbers in the province of of stone in human form. Christian not later than the tenth century. implements. and we a pit-fall. within the Kitai Gorod. on the outskirts of the surging. are in two rooms full of early Slavonic When completed.' or hideous idols details which will not bear reproduction here. at a respectful distance. This is the most venerated image Moscow. was brought from in Mount Athos 1648. or chapel dedicated Iberian Mother of God. A chief lies dead in a boat. Sophia Kief and from those of other Russian churches. art. in Varvarka Street. and from the visits paid by the ikon to the houses of the sick. the it ere he enters the Kremlin. so far as it can be denned. at the various epochs of man's times. busy throng. this unique and comprehensive museum will rival objects. earliest arms. rich and poor. shudder at the ghastly frescoed representations of an interment at Bulgar on the Volga. and typical of Russian ecclesiastical art down to A. stone arrowheads and tools.90 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The between to the its adjoining gate is the principal entrance into the Kitai Gorod. and his wives. and at frequent ceremonies of blessing a new Emperor always stops to pray before its popular belief in annually realised house or public edifice. One of the most remarkable of the modern buildings in Moscow stands at the end of the square opposite the Cathedral of St. Another secular building of high interest is the Romanoff House. ravaged by fire. with copies of contemporaneous the state Frescoes copied from the walls of St. Some of its stone walls are alone of undoubted antiquity but.IX 1125. objects illustrating the Helleno-Scythian period. Indian and Persian in history of illustrated design. worrying The next room brings us to the end of the Bronze Age. in fame and interest the Kremlin and all thereunto belonging. in the shape of mammoth tusks. from A room decorated with age down to modern and ornamented in a style of coeval In the first represents each such epoch. existence. this huge edifice of red brick is a the human species in what is now Russia museum is in which the in course by specimens of workmanship. whose in ikon. three apartments are relics of the Stone and Bronze Ages. frescoes found in catacombs. of being &c. honestly or otherwise acquired. with The Babi. . and from its attendance at the weddings of the affluent. and sacked by the French.. here deposited. horses and dogs are being slaughtered preparatory to the burning of the boat and its contents. it was rebuilt in 1859 in the style of noble Muscovite dwelling-houses of the . Basil. and the miraculous powers is so great that a very large sum is from the donations of worshippers. ' Ekaterinoslaf. the frescoes. Savage man is seen on a and stones sticks a mammoth taken in huge fresco. and models of interments in the South Russia.

The principal exhausted. a is in form of west surmounted by a vane the griffin. and we Temple of the Saviour. bearing the offensive and defensive weapons of the Romanoff coat-of-arms a short sword and a shield. sixteenth century. consist of a vestibule. We in diameter) in it Founded commemorate the deliverance of the city from the French. which has also plate many secret recesses for the concealment of treasures. and a small study. the family on great occasions in this apartment. a room for female servants. carvings built in of wood. and offices. complete the arrangements of this storey.AfOSCOJf: THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. and the household assisted at matins and vespers. was . a panelled stamped leather. Tcrcm. An oratory. and including reception-room the bed-chamber. Above is the THE ROMANOFF HOUSE. or banqueting hall of the palace. was born on this spot. in which priests offered their congratulations on great Church holidays. being on record that Michael. in a house of the same kind. a nursery. and The turret on the affording a charming view of the city from its windows. above the cellars. the first Tsar of the The present dynasty. whose huge gilt dome (ninety-eight feet and attendant belfry-cupolas shine pre-eminently over Moscow. in which are shown two brass ink-bottles like those used in the in the was exhibited days of Chaucer. with adorned with rich wood. 1839. and a large room called the Chamber of the Cross. it boyar's apartments. to sights of the Kremlin and the Kitai Gorod are now are attracted towards the grand go farther a-field. kitchen. As Granovitaya Palata.

Lombardic and Gothic and two hundred and feet high. completed only in 1883. like the military and naval enterprise of our countrymen in more ancient days. it is as dazzling in summer as the sheen ' of the dome and bare-looking the interior of the casket the four cupolas that surmount this otherwise inelegant and But block. and after serving as the location of a naval school. at a cost of two millions sterling. the direction of which was entrusted by Peter I.' is the inscription over the on native material and labour. Being of white sandstone. while THE SUKHAREF TOWER. quarried near Moscow. entrance to the principal portico. to a Scotchman named building has been used as a pressure tower or reservoir in connection with a supply of water. has played no unimportant part in the cation development of the Russian empire. which. supported by thirty-six marble columns. introduced in 1829 from a source twelve miles distant. the stone from which Moscow derives one of her most endearing popular appellations. not the only as a but as an conspicuous object. of such resemblances.RUSSIAN PICTURES. highly-polished Labrador' marble. the main of British capital. representing the mast. Outside have now Tower precincts we visited. the tower. and within recent years perfected by the appli- Farquharson. of Peter the Great in almost exceptionally. in a mixed style. haul reliefs and other ornaments notwithstanding. the activity is connected the ancient empire naval he moved by capital of the In 1695. created. dark. is magnificent and elegant The ' beyond all description. spent exclusively God with us. his enthusiasm for matters. edifice with which. he caused this structure to be built in the form tall of a vessel. brings into relief the gold with which the walls and pillars are abundantly de- corated. thirteen were meant to resemble the bow and the stern the extremities Structural accretion has destroyed all trace of a contemporaneous flag-ship. . the Sukharef claims our attention. and the surrounding galleries the quarter-deck.

There 93 are monasteries in numbers all about Moscow well worthy of if not described mentioned. From the Donskoi.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and the cross. NEAR MOSCOW. in our pages. for the device was used ages before the expulsion of the Tartars from Russia. but it is almost superfluous to being say that a host of other buildings and institutions of high interest must remain un. I'oKROFSKI VILLAGE. It typifies the connection between Mary. the mother of our Lord. CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY AT UMAILOF. AT MOSCOW. CHURCH OF THE VIRGIN OF KAZAN. and Simonof monasteries delightful views of Moscow and its multitudinous cupolas are obtained their churches and sacristies being also well worthy of inspection. CATHEDRAL. 1 FOUR CHARACTERISTIC RUSSIAN CUPOLAS. recorded . NICHOLAS. Danilofski. MOSCOW. 1 . NEAR MOSCOW. The superposition of the cross on a crescent so often seen on Russian cupolas is not emblematical of triumph over Mohammedanism. she being represented in ancient Greek pictures with her feet resting on a crescent. CHURCH OF ST.

nothing remains except the church. Standing on this slight elevation of the left bank of the Moskva. Peter the Great studied the art of war. the finest view of the ancient capital. and it was here also that he discovered Russian Navy. and exultingly shouted. It was built between 1775 and 1800. a village about six miles from the centre of the city. is an ancient domain of the Romanoff family. rebuilt in 1679. the is another Petersburg. however. In the seventeenth century the Tsars had a well-stocked menagerie as well as an aviary at this residence. Moscow ' ! Moscow and ' ! Another favourite trip by carriage or tramway is to the Petrofski Park Palace. In the palace.Kursk Railway. ancient seat of the St. however. on an island of the lake. on Tsars in the . vicinity of Moscow. The well-known Sparrow Hills afford.' a boat now preserved at in a shed the ' Moscow.RUSSIAN PICTURES. we can well realise the feelings of the French invaders when they caught sight of the Kremlin walls and the glistening domes before us. which Napoleon first beheld from their summit. RUSSIAN PEASANTS NEAR KUNTSEVO. Izmailovo. Grandsire of the Kolomenskoe. which we reach towards the hour of sunset. on a glorious northern summer's day. and was occupied by Napoleon after the Kremlin had become too hot for him. of which.

1818. King saving of Prussia. and self-denying Sergius to canonisation. It was established in 1342 by Sergius. . by 30. quantity of agricultural machinery is sold at the two capitals to the larger landed proprietors. which her for is At so short a distance from modernised. villas. which are naturally detrimental to the quality and the . same enemies appeared before its walls a few years later. but unsuccessfully.D. and situated in pretty woodland scenery dotted with off.' viewed Moscow from Kuntsevo. the Canterbury of orthodox pilgrims. a nobleman of Rostof.000 male serfs. Our illustration. Few travellers fail to devote is within easy a day to an inspection of the Troitskaya-Sergieva Lavra. and is of little interest. T . The 1608 the monastery was besieged. within a few miles of Moscow. who was also the father of Peter I. Sergius. Here. where the corn of the peasantry is generally threshed by the A large and increasing equally ancient method of the tramp of bullocks. and the claim of its abbot the pious. To the blessing he bestowed is ascribed the great victory gained on the Don over the and treasure in Lands. and jewels. after his death in 1392.000 Poles. One of the most remarkable of the holy places in Russia reach of Moscow by rail. The mansion is of a somewhat later period. representing a In of at least owed 500. A. and to his extremely rude methods of husbandry. 1388. Thirty minor that vast estates monasteries were later attached to it. The estate came to the Naryshkin family from the Tsar Alexis. were consequently bestowed on the monastery. was rendered all the stronger by the appearance to him (as recorded in the annals of the Russo-Greek Church) of the Virgin Mary and the Apostles Peter and John.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.. quantity of Russian agricultural produce. glad to find a primitive Russian village still occupied by stalwart specimens of the true Slavonic type of Moscow. when its principal cathedral was erected. population fealty and quit-rent to St.000. thanked Moscow. unimpaired by contact with so rapidly becoming we are and factory labour. except in the southern provinces. and such by the middle of the eighteenth century more than 106. gold. shows not only the character of the contemporaneous town life dwellings of the inhabitants of the central part of Russia. or Monastery of the Trinity. but also that of one of their agricultural processes. engraved from a photograph taken on the spot. we find Russian peasant proprietors threshing corn with the Biblical flail ' ' ! The instrument is used throughout the rest of Russia. and German colonists but the serf holds doggedly to his primitive plough and flail. son-in-law of the boyar Cyril Naryshkin. the monastery was re-established fifteen years later. One about six 95 of our miles pleasantest drives on a recent occasion was to Kuntsevo. simple. Laid waste by the Tartars in 1408. but the inscription on a granite pyramid near the conservatory is worth recording : 'On the 4th July. w hen Ladislav of on Prince Dimitri Tartars. having his kingdom. Frederick William III. silver. farmers. and twelve brethren.

circuit. but curious chiefly for its . use or the life the presence of way-worn pilgrims. ' ' screen are seen his pastoral staff and other paraphernalia. incidents in the military of The the history monastery. as much in connection with atrocious crimes as with prodigal The incorruptible remains of St. gift of Ivan shrine of one thousand pounds in pure in whose name recurs so frequently Russian history. the the tutelary saint. Sergius are exhibited in it. is larger. at which monks sell ikons. nearly completed in 1547. not over clean. certain small parts of the body being left uncovered. the most ancient insurgent are the last is the Cathedral of the Trinity. Of the twelve churches which it contains. monastery. Sergius being the principal subjects represented in pictures and photographs. and we a enter ground.000 repair annually to the THE TROITSA MONASTERY. and built in 1585. and on coarse enamel and deft wood-carving. were repaired byPeter the Great. of whom 100. acts of piety. pictorial tapers. the silver. weighing the Terrible. which stands on the of the original edifice raised by The entrance is level with the Sergius. The Cathedral of the Assumption. to whom in his youth they had afforded shelter against Streltsi. typifying the nine celestial hierarchies. the figure of Judas being is Close to the ikonostas. portico full of stalls. for the applications of In a glass case inserted in the altar the kisses of the orthodox faithful. the interior interesting nature of representation alone of brass. Dingy. and a variety of other articles of ecclesiastical crosses. of the is its rendered attractive only by the costliness and the In the archbishop's stall we find a contents. a mile in walls. burdened nearly with jewelled ikons. and somewhat unsavoury from character. oil. the These rights of the newly-elected Michael Romanoff. with nine cupolas. Poland disputed and the most venerated site and doings of St.96 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in Last Supper solid gold.

jewelled crosses. Peter I. Streltsi were seeking to wrest him 97 from his was concealed under the altar when the sister Natalia. established in 1783 and learned Metropolitan of Moscow. to wipe a streaming brow. pious or mundane.' not him who comes in here carry out the dirt short distance ' A ii . and emblazoned with a large cross in rubies of fine colour. who have elected to breathe the pure air of heaven perhaps only once a year. and we are still more impressed with its austerity when we descend to the neighbouring catacombs. in those less tidy days. Female worshippers are admitted once a year into the church at Gethsemane. to whom so many was completed in 1/69. given by the Tsar Michael in 1632. in which vows of perpetual are being fulfilled by human beings in the garb of monks. The sight is a strange one on a hot day in August. in which their thin linen and cotton clothing had not been removed. The interior of the church is remarkable for its simplicity. painted in 1609. effectually walled in. Godunof. and other ornaments. an object Its treasures are of paramount of mostly is not among them a resplendent copy of the Gospels. a half from the monastery is the Sfciif. while the ardent worshippers look and feel as if they had emerged from a steam bath. buried here. headed eagle the throne of in wood commemorates is Boris Muscovy. Evangelists in it is attributed to the early part Of the other sacred of the thirteenth century. In some catacombs beyond. recluses hardly ever leave their subterranean cells. but the extraordinary richness of those at St. which edifices important three hundred feet in height. next to the house in which he lived. and in reality Not a hand can be raised in the densely-crowded edifice far from pleasant. contrasted with emeralds and sapphires of great size and beauty. A of the copy manuscripts. after the profuse gorgeousness of the churches we have just viewed. or Hermit's Cell of Gethsemane. he caused to be inscribed the significant admonition. Chief sacristy. The binding is beautifully ornamented with floral and arabesque patterns in enamel work.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. earlier date than the seventeenth century. designed by in Russia are due. which contains a library of four thousand old books and Sergius Radonejski. It is nearly edifices we need only notice the church of St. an renowned He is equally by Plato. Sergius seem to be worth all the treasures in the cathedrals and monastic establishments at Moscow and About a mile put together. the elegant Count Rastrelli. and a large twohis escape. Let finds he within. buried at the western entrance. dedicated to the Ascension of the Virgin Mary. A detached building contains the curiosity to pilgrims. We are to some extent prepared to see a large collection of imposing ecclesiastical garments. usurper of We cannot but admire belfry. and over which. frescoes. seclusion beyond is the Bethany Monastery. founded by the late Metropolitan Philaret as a retreat from the cares of his high office.

and Khirghizes) to the banks of the Volga. but with little accuracy. and to the exercise of untrammelled liberty but because we desire to see the celebrated fair of Nijni Novgorod. Ptolemy and other great cities on the main water-artery of the WE are bent on descending the Volga. MOSCOW. but were gradually subdued and absorbed by the Great-Russian race.' by century came the Tartars. sixteenth power had been destroyed in the sent fresh masses of nomads China century. OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. and after their Central Asia and ' ' . IN CHAPTER A VOYAGE DOWN VI. The Huns. Khazars. These (Bashkirs. as flowing through the country of the Scythians and Sarmatians.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. and the Russian empire. not because ancient geographers mention. and Bolgars subsequently formed powerful states on it. in 1158. we are inspired by the Vniz po Matushki. established by the Northmen at Kief. after the foundation of the powerful Russian principalities of Suzdal and Murom ' ' (eleventh century) and the removal. the bands armed of a Russian commenced observes writer. TIIK VOLGA. task. down the Volga) made familiar in their childhood as a were Muscovites of tion middle-aged song inciting to deeds of daring. tinder Rurik. vniz po Volge (Down popular Russian robber-song a song with which the present generathe Little Mother. the Rha (great river) or Volga. Kalmucks. to Vladimir of the paramount In the thirteenth throne. were in their turn subdued by means similar to those which have brought The the modern Russians to the frontiers of Afghanistan and Persia.

H 2 .


One of the finest specimens of Russian architecture is the Church of John the Baptist.A VOYAGE Suzdal has DOWN THE the VOLGA. to tion. of cotton. Persian. of brought from the northernmost parts of the in the provinces of Moscow empire. becomes navigable by small steamers. cosmopolitan gathering that it would serve no useful purpose to devote much Neva. ' produced by the ' village industries of Bokharian. are concerned. brought and skins furs Central Asia. from a small lake near the town of Valdai. means of canals communication was established between the Volga when by and the About 5000 craft and 100. now in larger and larger quantities from chiefly sea-borne. who waived his claim to the treasure. the assimilation that results from modernized intercommuniinevitable process of cation by rail and telegraph is rapidly depriving Nijni Novgorod of its older since mercantile features. the banks of the Volga. in honour of our own country. so far as language. and now a great centre of manufacturing industry. now taken refuge in the Russia. of textile goods manufactured chiefly and Vladimir. Rybinsk. the river than at take Yaroslaf. or even at Yaroslaf. have the patience to embark on the great river at Tver. ior been completed by detachments of Cherniayef and Scobelef. still afford rich materials for the study of the aboriginal races by which they were held. at the time when the celebrated So much has already been written about that great fair is being held. the depot in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the English goods imported at Archangel. namely inclined. most important commercial entrepots of the empire. the Chuvashi. particularly the Mordva. religion. of tea. But most travellers are content to make the easy railway journey from Moscow to Nijni (the lower) Novgorod. its travellers Few it where first position in that respect dating from the middle of the last century. while another sacred edifice in it is adorned with two Tradition says it was built (in leopards.' But although thoroughly Russianized. modern arcades which protect his customers and himself from The formerly itinerant however. A recent visit confirms an impression long space to a description of it. 1652) with the proceeds of gold which a Russian trader had discovered in a cask sold to him as containing paint. like that.000 labourers find employment on the artificial waterway which thus connects the Caspian with the Baltic. at Yaroslaf. it We certainly found in in 1888 the same huge stocks of consequence of a severe flood). everything else nationally peculiar in Russia. and the Cheremyssi of Finnish or Ugrian origin. administraand to a great extent. especially for grain. or Armenian. on its course of 2320 miles. if so service of the Almighty or in some benevolent object. has. rain. to which higher up This is one of the a branch line runs from the Moscow Trunk Railway. and desired that it should be employed in the We could. oppressive . formed. and of gaily-painted chests and other articles so extensively iron (most of under water. the great inland Caspian Sea. by an English merchant.

BAZAR : . ' 3 and trim iron petroleum refuse as a cheap. great developbarges. propelled by the use of and commodious substitute for wood ago.102 RUSSIAN PICTURES. cheap and inferior. they are unloading so quaint engaged and mediaeval-looking as they were only a few years ment of steam transport as fuel. and we might fancy ourselves at Leipzig. and who are always mentioned in heat. be dwindling are in Nor the in craft appear numbers. or at any other continental mart.< VIEWS IN NJINI NOVGOROD descriptions to of the fair. and blinding dust. The wares exhibited in those galleries are as a rule German. to the before the Beggars exhibiting repulsive sores fear to withhold their donations lest their superstitiously charitable. more Turkish than Mongolian in features. . mercantile transactions be who in- fluenced by the evil one are likewise types that are fast disappearing under . Even the multitude of stalwart Tartars.~-:v3^^evi-.

to which the pangs of Nijni Novgorod. on these arrangements is made good out of the revenue yielded by the the masses of goods stacked on the banks of the Volga and the Oka. with a bottle of beer beside him. but it is not . rye bread is supplied gratis to the Near the that skirts the Volga are miserable casuals. and we keeping orthodox.} and of about one pound of kasha. at a The financial deficit charge of three copecks. at one of the many restaurants are hunger by all inevitably bring us. soup buck-wheat porridge the staple food of the Russian masses. see as we descend to the Caspian. but tea is available throughout the day. ' ' ' at all spirits rare to find a labourer or ale are allowed. benevolent merchant named Bagroff. for the consumption of the fastshall This alone is a trade of colossal proportions. an ample dinner consisting of in with labourers are them supplied (about \\d. Their clothes. The average consumption of bread alone is one and a half pound per man. supported by a nights of July and August. from the peasant nightly entertainment for all sorts in a It was a novel spectacle to see a Russian untjik sitting upwards. such as they are. Shelter and food are abundantly provided for the absolutely indigent. travelling dclicatesse towards the source of the supply of caviar that delicious which no one can properly appreciate until he has tasted it almost We make our first real acquaintance with it at fresh from the sturgeon. Count Ignatief.A VOYAGE the active DOWN THE VOLGA. Here again. in a room of large dimensions. how important a part it plays in We the occupations of the population on the lower course of the Volga. or less than a penny. which takes its name from the city and its fair.' Siberian Line For the sum of five copecks several soup-kitchens well worthy of a visit. . is the honorary patron of one of several night refuges. and the small amount required as covering during the hot At another of these refuges. but open merry-go-round. supply some of the needed softness for body and head. 103 and enlightened administration of General Baranoff. its first great tributary out of thirty-seven others. of Panslavist celebrity. on the strength of old acquaintance. we visited some very curious places of after a long stroll will and conditions of men. the present governor of the province. or piled on board the floating part of the fair. in which six to seven hundred of the poorer labourers find a resting-place and glad enough are they to take advantage of the wooden ledge and the cast iron cylinder offered to them as a substitute for mattress and pillow. to show us the holes and corners of the fair. specially deputed the obliging governor. not in the air. Under the guidance of an officer of the civil service. No capable of disposing of three pounds. or and black bread ad libitum. our sorely tried olfactory nerves will soon Among discover the masses of dried or salted fish that have been brought from the rich fisheries on the Volga and Caspian. charitable fair. and a cigarette in his mouth. while the poor are fed at a nominal charge per meal.

Macarius.' inhabiting the country now known as the province of Kazan. Persia and India. if life. the Dmitrofskaya and the walls The Kremlin we Tverskaya. The neighbouring unsightly Church of the Transfiguration from 1834. by way of the Caspian. George. and consequently of high interest. There was no disorder and national the student of to shock anything. to whom a monument in the form of a granite obelisk was raised opposite the cathedral in 1826 by 'grateful posterity. see towering on the cliffs of the right bank of the Volga were built in 1511 by a Venetian. is substantially a structure of 1227. who had already. the deliverers of Moscow. a tributary of the Volga. in 1558. and founded a ' strong settlement at the the Volga. distinguishable by its eccentric colouring and dates its existence . However. we need only indicate the Rojdestvenskaya. Nijni to ' ' became conspicuous as the place at which a company of Holstein merchants built the first war vessel ever launched in Russia under a charter for opening a trade with Central Asia. There is no doubt that in this respect we were under deep obligations to the enlightened official who had supreme charge of us. which he named Novgorod the New Town of the Countries. not take it amiss if we record our gratitude towards our good Mr. who may already be known to some of our readers as a learned archaeologist and comsummate connoisseur in matters of Russian ecclesiastical lore and art. side of the ikonostas are dedicated to the patron saints of Minin and Pojarski. much reduced in height and circumference Although restored in 1620. that the Prince of Suzdal took. the removal to confluence of the ' Oka Low with We it of the ancient Fair of Makarief. however.' pass over the common episodes of Tartar invasion and princely internecine strife. and is remarkable only for its octangular. still prominently extant about In the same century. near the mouth of the great Kama. The old walled city of Nijni Novgorod has in itself strong claims on to friend. namely. were. It was for the purpose of arresting the incursions of the godless Bolgars. the intelligent traveller. which they enclose. so called from a privilege granted in 1641 a monastery dedicated to St. the Cathedral of the Arch- angel. who incorporated in them two towers which dated from the fourteenth century. They after a great fire. their city of Oshel. but our be hoped. it is no brawling . in imitation of our countryman. and he will. and come down to the great turning-point in its history. there was not much. Altars on either Tartar-looking belfry on the opposite side of the street. accompaniment by detectives in plain clothes through the Kunavino quarter was sufficient proof that the tranquil surface exhibited to us was in a certain measure delusive.104 RUSSIAN PICTURES. crossed that sea in a ship that bore the red cross of St.' Out of the forty odd churches outside the Kremlin. although in one of its painful and demoralizing phases. Andrei Alexandrovitch Titof. in 1219. Anthony Jenkinson. of Rostoff Yaroslavski. seventy miles lower down the great river. could see the process of we European assimilation at work.

overlooking the . by the Metropolitan sented to of the it Alexis. Prince of the Finnish Mordva to t ribe. cases of swarthy representations. Of the monasteries Novgorod. in all attributed. erec- Critics trace its 1371. on the banks of the Oka. and be must therefore the most ancient it holy image in Russia. 993. Before proceeding on our voyage. when it was ravaged or tion by Purgas. who probably Holy as pre- the ikon Virgin. to Korsun. or drive to we walk the otkos. and which existed. not far from the floating bridge. DOWN THE VOLGA. Count by Gregory Stroganof out of a portion of vast riches acquired by goldmining at Nijni in Siberia. to in some 1229. the is most ancient the Annunciation.A VOYAGE architecture. according authorities. or Khersonese workm a n s h Greek it i p.D. A inscription on testifies that it was in painted A. 105 peculiar It was built in 1/19. or terrace at the extreme end of the city.

criminal and political. and are impressed by the monotony of the landscape. clotted here and there with forests.lo6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. so called after His Excellency Nicholas Novoselski. charge of a couple of men. olga from its junction with the Oka. or stern wheel iron steam barges and tugs that now uses any other description of fuel. and confessed unreservedly that they had never been better taken care of than by the merry commander of the Novoselski. The absence of smoke and of attendant soot was soon explained by the fact that the steam by which we were not ' propelled owed its origin. or wide. and over all was below. but to the refuse of petroleum. the other the should be the trimmer. the Caucasus and Mercury Company are in a position to offer superior in relation to other on the advantages steam-ship companies Volga. one being the five craft stoker. in the matters of punctual speed. are favoured to the extent of We on board during our stay at Nijni. hundred Volga steamers of all kinds and dimensions American riverwith propellers. and our own personal insignificance in relation to the great works V 7 We of the Creator. extinguished some years the cession of the Islands to the Aleutian United States of America. as when we travelled on the Volga some fifteen years before. and of finding a charmingly and eminently intelligent and communicative commander in the person jocose of Sea Captain Felix Alexandrovitch Pietroschiewich. The steamer was one of the many vessels that have American-typed supplanted the earlier pioneers of the Our cabins were our saloons above them. an aboriginal of the coast of Croatia or Dalmatia (evidently the scene of his nativity). ago by He was a real cosmopolitan. Led by the attentive captain to the we found in it engine-room. A majority of our party had travelled from Australia. and culinary requirements. sleeping ' convey either his serious or his merry thoughts. and the originator of several of the greatest and most successful enterprises in Russia. and all the blunt outspokenness of a Russian Slav with a shirdkaya natilra. the founder of the steamship company.' for his duties ' ' more appropriate name of the consisted solely in setting latter alight. Subsidised for the carriage of mails and exiles. with the cuteness and droll levity of a Yankee. in the service of the Russo-American Company. not to wood or coal fuel. on which we paced or settled ourselves comfortably whenever the great heat of the sun was tempered by a kindly breeze or moderated by a welcome cloud. bv .' The engineer.' description were appropriately garbed in the American-English of to which this real salt-water tar had traded during the greater part of his life. now so There is not one of the abundantly supplied from Baku on the Caspian. tolerable accommodation. Volga. see a far-reaching alluvial plain. the spacious top deck. Those of the latter Frisco. expansive mind and habit.' as inscribed autoFew were the languages in which he could graphically in our note-book. Our good fortune has secured to us a commodious berth on board the Novoselski.

and excepting only a village priest. who. notwithstanding occasional disembarkations. was very soon put on shore. scattered into spray as it issues from the supply-pipe. more than usually indigent and untidy in his outward appearance. themselves. from their more lowly in Christian not. They in rows and batches. recourse. or tea- he the had aid frequent with and comA RUSSIAN TRADER WITH HIS panionship of his prikastclii or clerk. were huddled together on the second deck. and the rougher classes of the Russian population were consequently in a minority. There were few races in Europe or Asia that were not represented among the five hundred passengers embarked in the Novoselski. Persians. sufficed to arrest at a stopping-place the further generation of steam. which was spent in eating and drinkand on at the busy activity numerous places of call. knpcts. and Tartars formed Bokharians. The was accompanied by to which urn. All sorts and conditions of men and women above the trader stratum of Russian society were assembled in the saloon cabin. including priests. on the other hand. and peasants. each passenger more or less snug at night on mattresses and felt rugs. Russian silk. 107 a rag saturated with naphtha and ignited by a lucifer match. the fair of Nijni was yet scarcely on its decline. who were merchants or cotton.A VOYAGE means of DOWN THE VOLGA. the jet of petroleum refuse conveyed under each of the lour boilers and set free by the turn of a cock. gazing . distinguished by their cleanliness and their stores of pillows and warm coverings. on the ground of not having paid his fare. and subsequently increased to nearly seven hundred. or trader. We were travelling by one of the best mail steamers. including some of a soldiers TEA URN. madder. There was but little talk among them during the daytime. divided for that purpose into two parts. turquoises. his samovar. All had more or less a well-to-do appearance. like companions. The Asiatics and the and made to burn of steam issuing from the lower classes. ing. The petroleum is furiously over the bottom of the boiler by a jet same nozzle. apart slept soldiers. the closing of which. sleeping. crack regiment of guards on furlough. camps of their own.

Every year also the young girls of the northern forested region of the Volga beat. a town of 5000 inhabitants. The abnormal number of idiotic and deaf and dumb children is another symptom of the moribund condition of the Cheremyssi. we dropped down the Volga at the rate of nineteen miles an hour. which are not nominally Christian. and whom they pursue with wild cries as an impersonification oi death. accelerated as it has also been by the prevalence of goitre and other diseases. have contributed to this result. It is so far the cool. and often retired. this day. slaying to protect . the channels.io8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. them from drought and destructive insects. that a foreigner acquainted with the language is often placed in a condition of some embarrassment. on the right bank of the river. and especially of the Volga provinces. they are in reality more than half pagan. when Ivan the Terrible. and it is equally interesting as the capital of a barren district in which another ancient ' ' Finnish people the Cheremyssi are evidently There are not more than 100. and we soon get accustomed to were being towed up shifting monotonous to attract the Volga through after its strings of barges that shallow. with an army of 150. and next day touched at Cheboksary. the criticisms state of affairs which he cannot help hearing being generally very strong against the present and the powers that be. under similar conditions. dark and the atmosphere that commenced. un- climatic barrenness of the that soil conditions under which they have so long struggled. dancing frantically round each hut. over which the secret police is supposed to keep close watch. and entertained and instructed by the vigorous discussion of political and social questions. representative of different sections of society. and. At Kazan we find a very different population. on the outbreak of murrain among cattle. The days. was then discussed with a freedom that would astonish those who had been led to believe that in such matters Russia is a country of mutes. Although are to known dwellings. too The scenery. It was the ladies had the night become economical sociability condition of the country.000 of them left favourable industries living in out their last the district. was much attention. There indeed no part of Central Russia where these have been better preserved. . With these fellow-passengers. and the unsanitary state of their supplied with chimneys. subdued it.000 men. It is Russian. winding. with a for this is the strong admixture of a handsome and vigorous Tartar element ancient capital of a Mongol kingdom which flourished between 1438 and 1552. until we approached Simbirsk. and have contributed greatly towards keeping alive among the population of the middle course of the Volga the customs and superstitions of remote ages. the they occupy. the unremunerative character of the simple them. is To belabour unmercifully any one who may come in their way during their weird operations. the old women of a village sally out at night unclad. the bounds of newly-sown fields. The reverse outside the precincts of hotels and restaurants. This is the town of towns of the Chuvash race.

in which Peter the Great built a flotilla for the Volga and the Caspian. the costliness of its ornamentation is insignificant compared with that of the copy we have seen in the Kazan the Poles Moscow from Cathedral at St.' to which deliverance of 1613 was attributed. 109 all troops of the Tartar Tsar. Although adorned with a diamond crown presented by Catherine II. and to the left of the causeway our attention is directed towards a pyramidal monument raised on a small mound over the bones of the Muscovites who fell at the capture of Kazan. and its some of its ancient appearance only in its Kremlin Sumbeki Tower. walls The city retains in (of 1568). The most interesting of the churches Annunciation. grapes of which voraciously with the delicious fruits we bought a small sack full for a few coppers at the long row of stalls Hurrying back to displayed that until close to we had made the sun went And glad landing-stage. 1562. spot on which Ivan IV. The site of their graves. so good a provision. pears.. along the high causeway. Petersburg. while far away to the right we see the mosques and minarets of the Tartar rattled. in ! we half-smothered suburb. Similar waste may be observed over a purpose was rich stable manure of within the zone of black earth. It is supposed to have been originally the minaret of the mosque (demolished in 1552) in which the Khans or Tsars of Kazan were buried. The latter is an object of great reverence to the ten thousand Tartars of Kazan. a Lector of the English students have the of the benefit universities language. to visit the city in a carriage that A stoppage of four hours enabled us had been ordered by telegraph. five miles in is connected with the which the river bank. although Oriental languages were formerly the principal As at most other Russian objects of study at this seat of learning. for the heat the we subsequently were became so intense caviar that down we supported ourselves principally on and .A VOYAGE the DOWN THE VOLGA. and in it dust. and attended by about six hundred students. founded in 1804. where the Russia. chiefly of surgery and medicine. planted a cross after he had stormed the the original In the church of a convent close to of the ' the Kremlin walls the is ikon Virgin in of Kazan. under the rude and obstinate sweepings belief that the land is not in need of any stimulant or restorative. on the west face of the tower. built Its altar within the Kremlin is that of the in marks the city. our steamer. Chief among the numerous public institutions of Kazan is its University. apples. It was under city length. who thus keep alive the memory of their ancient rulers. after the model of the Assumption in Moscow. is visited on Wednesdays and Fridays for devotional exercises by crowds of pious Tartars. especially great part thrown of stables are into ravines. by and we were astonished to find that the material used for that partial repair. parched and grimy. We pass the Admiralty suburb. we refreshed ourselves melons.

but nevertheless its fortress the ultimately arrested victorious march of the A century later the IAKTAR MOSOUE AT KAZAN. water-melons. bringing to it a vast number of vessels and rafts laden with salt. the Kama River. who preferred The tanks being filled by means of hose with a supply of oozy petroleum and after embarking a fresh refuse. Numerous on the villages and groups of storehouses river bank tell us thatwe are passing through the great corn-producing districts of South-eastern Russia. rebellious of the Cossack Don . whole . to the wonderment of our less experienced sipping fellow-passengers. washed down by cool cups of Badminton. and we reach one of the centres of the grain trade at Simbirsk. a of travellers. joins the Volga. the Novoselski sped again down the muddy waters of the Volga. itself the contingent recipient of the waters of five hundred and seventy-four affluents. perched chief on a of cliff 560 feet 'above the level It the river. RUSSIAN PICTURES. At about fifty miles from Kazan. and other produce of the interior of Siberia. over a course of 1 1 60 miles. a city of the seventeenth century. insurgents. suffered in greatly 1670 from the bands a robber of Stenka Razin. manufactured out of Caucasian or Bessarabian wine. hot tea.

who personated Peter III. and we can say from personal experience that. There is nothing of interest in Samara. by noble landlords. or fermented mares' milk. like so many other Ermak. also a Don Cossack. and being connected by rail with Moscow on the one hand and Orenburg on the other. be its is alleged far curative properties. which is about the only one that can boast of what is called which. that sparkles like champagne. Although this did not prove the case. in the seventeenth century have long been extinguished. like province Simbirsk. HI country at this part of the Volga joined another rebellion. with thickly-wooded hills beyond. Its efficacy those who are afflicted with diseases of the lungs and kidneys. much of the trade and intercourse of Russia with Central The memories of Kalmuck and Cossack ravages Asia passes through it. We had long watched our approach to the shining silver domes of the red brick cathedral and belfry of Samara. whatever may mares' milk. surroundings would be in keeping with such imposing resplendence. It bears no evidence of being inhabited. village on the right had who previously. This is the magnificent Count Orlof-Davydoff. and had imagined that its in Russian towns. to the trade of Samara in grain and tallow is the supply of celebrity which the adjoining steppes offer to kumyss. under Pugatchef. for its buildings are mean except in the main thoroughfare. An ordinary map of Europe shows the Samarskaya Luka.000. as a student at the University of Edinburgh and as a practical admirer and copyist of all good things that were British. Volga between Stavropol and Samara. and only a few remnants remain of the walls of the fortress by which the inroads of Next in Cossack robbers and nomadic tribes were eventually arrested. from being a repulsive beverage even to the sound and healthy. freely after subdue the rebels. and the Empress had been brought to her in an iron Pugatchef army to its only really pretty part of the Volga right bank rises in cliffs of curious formation. (suffocated some ten years previously). or bend formed Here begins the . except when a copious shower has converted them into the deepest and blackest of mud. and seriously threatened to wrest Moscow from Catherine II. the conqueror of Siberia. A . by the estate of a population of 65.A VOYAGE of the DOWN THE VOLGA. with paving Clouds of dust hang over or pervade its broad streets. It required an breathed more cage. through which men and cattle have to trudge until the sun has reasserted the supremacy of dust. yet it is a city of great commercial importance. has for some time past been recognised in England. the steamer leaves Samara and passes Pretty landscapes open out after bank has been named after the Sulphur Hills. whose late father devoted to its cultivation and improvement the knowledge he had gained in Scotland. is the capital of a rich agricultural of the same name. while the opposite side of the river is one continuous cornfield or grass meadow.

the principal goal of the migrating peasantry. or dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. magnificent in run uninterruptedly from St. asphalte Europe. It enables trains to design and execution. the of snow. From the mouth of the of a widely different character. a town situated at the foot of a hilly background. persecuted by the succession of their bishops as stoutly as it does that of our own Anglican prelates. We religious are not centre an ethnographical and long in reaching. one of whose principal settlements is Khvalinsk. containing the largest deposits of next to those of the Abruzzi in Italy. (From a contemporaneous pritU. the broad Volga is spanned for the first and as yet the only time by a railway bridge.112 RUSSIAN PICTURES. where they had taken refuge when being This still denies the apostolical Russian Church. our next great station. to Irghiz River begin stretch the neat and thriving German colonies . Beyond prosperous domains of the Old Believers. so called from the fact of their having been permitted to return from Austrian Poland. Within the of the district are the Palestine seceders to the Austrian Confession. a Cossacks. Near Syzran. Other villages of piratical origin dot the the Cavern Hills. with patches Petersburg to are the AN ANCIENT PIRATE RAID ON THE VOLGA. been Volga pirate.} of limestone that have the appearance hermit cells of Cheremshansk. until in banks we reach Orenburg. at Ekaterinenstad.

whose Russian modes of husbandry. planted with the agriculture in their primitive That result has object of improving the condition of so far not been attained beyond the boundaries of the colonies. at least In the provinces of Samara and Saratof these colonists number religion. while neighbours adhere doggedly to the Lutherans keep themselves A COSSACK OF THE VOLGA.000..A VOYAGE by Catherine Russia. 300. II. . entirely aloof socially. DOWN THE VOLGA. and retain strongly their prejudices against the Russo- Greek and particularly against intermarriage with those who profess it.

1830 and 1848. and murdered all those who rebellion against the shaved in compliance . (1708). it contains. broad and paved tional streets. is passed on the but the most important a bank. miles. In 1700. in wheat. and it may be hoped that the citizens will not much longer delay the of their streets with gas. in the as but was The until 1671. Saratof is now a prosperous emporium of trade produce. German in by Colonel Thomas Baillie. From Saratof the Volga takes a direct southerly course for a considerable distance. and the excepadvantage of waterworks con- structed with the aid of British capital. mostly of the Stenka period. tobacco. a celebrated painter. linseed. its history is one of bloodshed. It was a subsequently ravaged robber bands of Stenka Razin then held century it thriving place on several occasions it so far back by 1635. Russian and foreign. fine tallow. and eighteenth and Nekrasof The redoubtable Pugatchef bombarded it from the Falcon Hill. render city most European-looking on the Volga. bluffs The on the are large left colony. couple of hours after leaving Saratof stopping-place is at Kamyshin. the citizens rose in reforms of Peter the Great. and to this long list of disasters must a neighbouring bluff 560 feet high be added the ravages of the plague in 1807. agricultural Surviving Its all these misfortunes. a town which was founded and fortified . and visitations of cholera in was pillaged by the rebel Cossacks of Bulavin . whose gallery of pictures. and highly other its many public and private buildings. one of the numerous British officers Its fortifications proved very useful in then serving the Tsar of Moscow. frowning undulating ground within an Saratof is a handsome and amphitheatre important of bare of and city 112.000 it inhabitants. lower courses of the Volga. notoriety is prominent Razin Another connected with robber deeds. Each sionally intersected by ravines. A TARTAR LADY OF THE VOLGA. with a breadth of nearly three right bank and are occamostly perpendicular. 1668 instigated by the Don Cossacks. Built on hills. cases has a and in some cliff of name its own.114 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Kalmuck Tartars. Like all the other towns on the middle and the suppression of piracy. with an extensive trade in grain. There was evidence it the and promise of still greater improvement. lighting They have reason to be proud of the Museum of Art with which the city has been endowed by Professor Bogoliubof.

the colonists pursue a variety progress. caused it to be repopulated. yellow sand). 13. Almost buried flies about in clouds like the indigenous Tartar Sari-chin. Although the railway that only with now formerly the capital of the Volga runs between the Volga and the Cossacks. two great and tanneries. At Sarepta. which squalid pigs roam about in most of its dirty unpaved streets. short railway. carries large quantities of salted and dried fish (a species of corigonus) from the Caspian. I 2 . and our passengers rush on shore to obtain a supply of the healing and invigorating cordial. having proved in practice to be inconsistent both with real liberty and with founded in modern of In addition to agriculture.A VOYAGE with his orders.000. and justly acquired the title of the Naphtha King. among other large and thriving villages trading in wheat and in salt. and or Moravian Brethren. looks as if railway and steam communication had roused it too early from the slumber of a Russian provincial town. so called after the enterprising Swede who started the industry. which were subsequently abandoned. we find ourselves suddenly a bright patch of German civilization. and the fine shops it is only and ware- houses in the central square. the south of Russia owes much of its material development. our next stopping-place but one. This is a neat. Ragged children and in fine sand. This to further whom. where the goods are shipped the for Rostof. DOWN THE VOLGA. A amount of timber to Kalatch on the Don. of which the most important is the preparation of mustard. We can now only mention. belonging to the Nobel and other companies is brought from Baku on the Caspian in iron vessels. at the head of the Sea of Azof.000 inhabitants. 115 Pugatchef took the town. growing commercial from the presence of a apparent whatever Jew-baiters may say to the the great and contrary. Not less important is Nobel's Town. raised in Elton Lake. and gives our well-known Colman but little chance of competition. strong balsam is also made here out of industries. with a population mosquitoes. which can be seen travelling in vast numbers over the rail net-work of European ' Russia. and the new large storehouses on the river bank. Sarepta mustard is used all over Russia. potteries. in the petroleum or kerosine trade of Tsaritsyn. and delivered at Tsaritsyn into naphtha-cars. ' ' A mustard seed. yet its former prosperity is to a great extent maintained by its steam mills. and hanged all its inhabitants in 1774. great number of Jews. after which Catherine II. and a considerable. prosperous colony of Hernhuter (Bruderunita) in t 1770 on communistic principles.' is well worth The oil stored on the river bank in the long rows of iron cisterns seeing. stone-built. that is attest importance of the place. Don (the Russian rivers of which the waters are not naturally or artificially connected) has diminished the importance of the place. immediate vicinity. connecting the Volga with the Don. the little town of Dubofka. Tsaritsyn (the of 36.

the later capital of the Tartar kingdom. comparatively lively. on account of their . which many travellers are induced to in order to witness the religious rites of that once mighty Tartar race. subject to Russia since but who. and the Armenians who are most en evidence to the European eye. declining gently towards the Caspian. At the place we have visit. they at one time.' of Muscovy as the Beyond is ' In four and a half days from Nijni Novgorod we end our voyage at Astrakhan. founded by the Kipchak Tartars. A little further down on the same side we come upon a short line of railway abutting on the Boskunchak Lake and The right bank is on the border of the Kirghiz steppe. and forming the province of Astrakhan. to the . in which the it when explored will principal fishing. although be found dotted over with Kalmuck encampments or kibitkas.RUSSIAN PICTURES. and. in alliance with the the wild Bashkirs. of the kingdom of Astrakhan. in which such concentrated. out of a population of 70. after parting with the range of hills that had so long accompanied its right bank. The Volga now makes a sudden bend to the east. 1655. held lower course of the MODERN TARTARS OF THE VOLGA. half cosmopolitan. ruled supreme over almost of Central whole the Asia. known in their later invasions Golden Horde. for we pass villages (locally called Vatagas). To our left the country appears unpopulated. the Tartars. but it extent of about seventy-five per cent. mentioned remains their chief temple. and perhaps in the world. saltworks. which Ivan the Terrible There is not It is now half Asiatic. another town of races is in Russia. the Persians. between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries. the Central Asiatics.000 is the Kalmucks. Tsitrakhan. the capital. Subduing the of Nogai Tartars. conquered in 1554. flows through a vast uniform steppe. is occupation chief is Kalmytski Bazaar settlement the the Mongolian Kalmucks. in the twelfth century. and Cossack settlements. Volga in such force as to be able to threaten Russian towns so distant as Penza and Tambof. The Russians predominate a medley numerically.

and Astrabad. but gave to Russia the sovereignty over the Caspian Sea. and after the capture of Derbent and the acquisition also from Persia of Baku and the provinces of Gilian. and six years later Caspian.A VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. not only made secure the possession of Astrakhan. in we find ourselves within the precincts of the ' Admiralty and . on our view as we approach the vast harbour between the main stream and the Bolda branch of the intricate Volga delta will be found on closer inspection to pencil. who in 1665 checked depredations the trade which frequent by their by permission of the Tsar Alexis the Duchy SrrSS" AN ASTRAKHAN BOAT. of the Caucasus and Mercury Company If we land at the pier Astrakhan. Mazanderan. belong to a variety of quaint craft well worthy of the artist's The history of the city has already been foreshadowed in our reference to Cossack rebels and marauders. of Holstein established with the countries on the opposite side of the The last local rebellion occurred in 1706. Peter the Great reached Astrakhan with a large force. 117 The forest of masts which bursts respectively peculiar dress and features.

At least forty thousand men and women find such employment at the Volga fishing stations. again. produced by a process of drying from the inner part of the from its bladders. which. founded by Peter I. annual catch of these three descriptions of sturgeon is respectively 300. and no fewer than In twenty-five thousand men are engaged in the five thousand and odd vessels and boats that pursue the same industry on the Caspian. and mitres. and a fine fish-glue is obtained are despatched barrels thousand which of The roe yields caviar. 100. name for this delicacy is caviale. The thirty gear used is of the strongest pounds for will in weight. and spring.000. spinal marrow of the sturgeon. shore and cleaned on the spot. at with in are carried hauled up to high landing-stages. owing to the silting of the estuaries of the Volga. sacristy has one of the richest collections in Russia of vestments A Persian mosque stands in the principal street. a collection of old arms and specimens The most striking edifice of the tools used during his reign in shipbuilding. and to a weight . which is intersected by the Varvazzi is originally in liable. the boat in and house built for the great Reformer.000. of 800 and even rapid rate measures run up to 1600 pounds. partly on in of the delta which are too shallow for lines those branches ground navigation. generally unbaited. thousands of labourers flock to Astrakhan to take part in its rich fisheries. to be soaked for about twelve hours in brine. in the salting and drying of the fish.000. Their extirpation has been proceeding at a many years past. important a source of wealth.n8 Port. They are mostly taken partly in nets. and in the preparation of caviar. for they are then harpooned in The larger fish are drawn on shallow places through openings in the ice. winter. as a precaution against the inundations to which the city autumn. At Astrakhan the most valuable product of the Volga is the sturgeon (Acipenser stnrio and The average Acipcnser huso] and the smaller sevriuga (Acipenser stellatus].500. Canal. The in the city is the Cathedral of the Assumption. but transferred as a naval station in 1867 to small Here.' RUSSIAN PICTURES. as well as models of ships. escape the ground-lines with which the many small Nor have the fish any repose even in winter. thirty We may observe in passing that the Russian yearly from Astrakhan alone. but excavated 1 744. and 1. while those of more convenient size are dealt present very difficult for any fish to with closely set hooks. completed in 1710. deepened by a Greek of that name in 1817. or in and then stored Isinglass is an ice-cellar. whence they to store-houses. although averaging nineteen feet in length. the boats. in a Baku. is ikra. and the time is evidently approaching when be adopted by the Government for the preservation of so It is for the sturgeon. channels of the Volga delta are practically barred. caviar being a corruption of the Italian of the only an attempt to reproduce the sound word word . are kept the yacht which he sailed.

drained is and put under a when its superfluous moisture has been made of the bark of the lime tree (bast) packed bags The commoner sort of caviar replaces bread strong press. birds these clever that of the fishermen the disgorge the fish Volga among make a fair division them down on the sand. Petersburg. a semicircle. laying of the total catch. in DOG SLEDGE WITH FISH. . 119 by which the Turks and Tartars knew it ages before its appearance After the fish has been cut open. sieves that retain the in which the roe is conis membrane passed through tained. Fishing in the delta of the Volga is also pursued on a large scale by Spying. in strong brine until it in balls. a of quality. they have pouched. the best being converted either into pressed or grainy caviar. the roe is taken in Southern Europe. ASTRAKHAN. it ripe. with the aid of sentinels. perfection beyond St.A VOYAGE haviar. rest is and packed left in tins or barrels with is a small i. the quantity of dry salt until it can be taken out by . is reserved for the tables of the affluent. swoop down in It is a tradition thousands to gorge themselves on their artfully-earned prey. out and divided into two qualities.. semi-transparent greyish colour. the sentries being also in due proportion rewarded for their vigilant services. the hand off. and. after which. and gradually enclosing it in a shallow bight. while the inferior is merely salted and packed in ' ' The higher sort small barrels for consumption by the less wealthy classes. they form pelicans. a school of small fish. but the grainy on the Volga no taste and with of fish or salt. and can seldom be found in in the daily menu of the labouring classes ' ' . so far as the rest of Europe is concerned.e. DOWN THE VOLGA.

from the north. and on the southAuthentic records attest the existence of east with Tsaritsyn on the Volga. on the west. and in 1095 it was held by Isiaslaf. outpost ceased only towards the end of the seventeenth century. with Riga on the Baltic. the centre of a rich agricultural district connected by rail. the railway passing through the cities of Tula (the Russian Birmingham) and Orel. In 1586 the southern frontiers of Muscovy were fortified. . CHAPTER VII. We are now almost in the heart of the Chernozem. OR NEW JERUSALEM. after Little Russia (the more southerly districts watered by the Dnieper) submitted to the Tsar Alexis. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY IN THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE RESURRECTION. from whom it passed alternately to the Princes of Chernigof In the thirteenth century it was razed to the ground by and of Pereyaslavl. son of Vladimir COMING Russia Monomachus. and the Tartars. SOUTH RUSSIA. Kursk in 1032. three hundred and thirty-five miles from Moscow in an almost direct line. the first town of any importance in Southern is Kursk.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. or black soil country. MOSCOW. Kursk became one of the principal places on that line of defence against Its disasters and sufferings as a military the Crimean Tartars and the Poles.

in fact. for even the churches are mostly not older than the second half of the eighteenth century. or ancient border country. or flat and woodless condition. it had lower class of their horsemen. these into Russia a free man. The more southerly part of the province of Kursk is in the Ukraine. Little Russia was another arbitrary name anciently a to of what has been also known as the Ukraine. It is a great relief to the eye to see at last a handsomely-built city like Kursk. No great part given fixed geographical limits can be assigned to either of these designations. they were absorbed by the dominant Little Russia is. There is. rather. those of Poland. or. and almost smothered in the verdure of numerous gardens. but Turkish and . and other ancient geographers only in their present steppe. marches became safe and populated. later. relatively to the surrounding flatness. however. and. This word is not Slavonic. not much to see within it.SOUTH so called from the rich black RUSSIA. PLOUGHING ON THE STEPPES. perched. on an elevation. Herodotus. a term now used only to denote the Southern Russians as distinguished . and ultimately incorporated into provinces. Its semi-nomadic population obtained in early days the designation of Cossacks. 121 loam of which its surface is composed to a These vast plains were known to depth of two and three yards and more. Strabo. a man free to do been used by the Tartar hordes to designate the From the princes of the House of Rurik southerly districts passed into the possession of Lithuania. although it long denoted in anything he chose. power. and for as the borders or especially to the Ukraine of the Poles or the Muscovites .

122 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Poles and rebels. surrounded by and kept internally in order and cleanliness. He is taller. the fused with the White Russians of the north-west (Mohilef and The and with the Slovaks of the other side of the Carpathians. enriched by the cultivation of large and fertile estates. like those of all Slavs. exhibit a similar superiority over the bulk of their compeers in Great Russia. and and make the most of those qualities by adorning thembeauty grace. Little Ethnographically. with interruptions There are . with thick forests which had to be cleared. genial than that of the more northerly parts of the empire. Their lives are altogether more happy. also. in the case life of the Southern Russian There is a strong bears a strong resemblance to that of the Irish squireen. however. generally. entirely spent in card-playing. refinement of the ease of their lives in a is attributable to the comparative a with climate more country. selves in neat and picturesque costumes. but courageous men engaged in a life-and-death struggle with nomadic The greater hordes. there are well-appointed country seats in the South of Russia in which the long summer days are only for meals. from is principally the Great Russians of the more the central part of the empire. or Great Russian. and favoured in their social development by long contact with the ancient Western civilisation of Poland. The upper classes of South Russia. and later with internal enemies. though a less muscular. There a strongly-marked difference cast in outward appearance. and to a great extent to card-playing. finer-featured. full of deep feeling. although their songs. the every-day Except. of vermin and cockroaches but wattled. of the larger landed proprietors. and even the race. with wild beasts which had to be destroyed or guarded against. and with frost and snow that left scarcely four months in the year for labour in the field. and not without a vein of romance are. The language of thought of these two branches of the Little Russian. gradually . gardens. as he of the con- temptuously called by his more vigorous northern brother. resembling strongly those of the Roumanian and Transylvanian peasantry. man than the Veliko-Ros. Their houses are not like those of other parts of Russia log huts. or Ho/iol. Vitebsk) Malo-Ros (Little Russian) is physically a better. is a cross between the Polish and the Russian. although nearer akin to the Muscovite than to Russians become the Polish tongue. Cossack forefathers. and whitewashed cottages. and same an equal proof the as insouciance to the material future. is the mode Slav of life. social jollification. thatched. There the Great and the White Russians had to contend with a soil much less productive. The men sing of the daring exploits of their plaintive and in the minor key. tinge pensity to reckless hospitality. who were not freebooters like the old Cossacks of the Volga. full. and The women have both less rude and primitive in his domestic surroundings. to sport (principally coursing). with swamps women of Little Russia fertile which had to be drained. Indeed.

absenteeism has been largely on the increase. 123 and vehicles of every description to which but they can be harnessed taking a drive through endless cornfields natural roads or tracks.SOUTH horses in RUSSIA. A PEASANT GIRL OF 'GREAT RUSSIA. on journeys to estates or towns often fifty to one hundred miles distant. indeed. parched. Country life. while Kursk and Kharkof owe much of their riches and . offers but few attractions to the surface presenting the next ladies. and along a of black mud. has no great attractions in any part of Russia plenty in the stable. and of certain capitals and watering-places in Western Thus. cracked. and dusty one day. and ever since the Emancipation of the Serfs and the accompanying extinction of the power and authority of the proprietary classes. progress to the immigration of landed proprietors from the northerly and eastern districts of the Black Soil Zone.' Kief is the resort of the more ' towns. and vehicular locomotion is therefore resorted to only as a matter of necessity. to the advantage solely of the principal provincial Europe. ' ' .' Proper.

Its close intercourse with Constantinople. which they reached by descending the Dnieper and crossing the Black Sea in 200 About A. Partly from motives of policy. first by the Lithuanians (from 1320). and a very interesting epitome of it exists in the History of the Eastern Chnrcli. Traces of them are to be found only in the much-restored Cathedral of St. swept away the grand monuments of sieges Christian antiquity which the city once possessed. gives a very circumstantial account of the conversion of Vladimir in A. grandson Vladimir to establish the Christian religion in his dominions. From century that time also Kief has continued to be the Jerusalem. Nestor. had embraced but it was left to her Christianity at Constantinople about the year 955 . when by a treaty with Poland the Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnieper. 988. In the year 986 envoys from the different religious bodies of the then known world came to Vladimir. who urged him to believe in their religion and to honour Mahomet. an account of the great event which made it glorious and memorable to all ages. Scandinavo-Slavic character of the great city was lost during the occupation of the provinces of which it was the capital. and to become the founder of the Russo-Greek Church. as concisely as the subject will permit. the conversion Muscovy regained Kief. and Kief (of which Kief is the seat of administration) passed finally under the Russian sceptre. 1496. prosperity and importance that in the nth no fewer than four hundred churches stood within its walls. Podolia. viking ships. Sophia. to induce him to abandon pagan worship.D. at The first to arrive were Kief. towns. It with ' ' of the Russian people to Christianity nine centuries ago. as we have previously mentioned.D. who lived between 1050 and 1116. intestine and Tartar wars. Regent of Kief. from here quote a few passages. Mussulmen from the Bolgar kingdom on the Volga. 1500.. in and 1240. viz. and in the ruined stonework of the gilt gate which Boleslas the Brave in the nth century opened with a sword (now in the cathedral at Cracow) that was contributed much The original long after used at the coronation of the Kings of Poland. south-western ' princely landlords of the affected by Polish culture. the Canterbury of the Russian empire. and so his marriage with the to its sister of the Emperor of Byzantium. 882 it became. and then by the Poles until 1667. together was only at the second partition of Poland (1/93) that all the districts which now constitute the South-western Provinces of Volhynia. Olga. we proceed to give. In Kief we see the districts.' Mother of Russian planted men on their from the seat of the paramount throne of the Variag (Var&gr) principalities. strongly and favourably by Northway Novgorod the Great to Byzantium. To the question In what late Dean Stanley's Lectures on tlic which we shall ' . commotions.124 RUSSIAN PICTURES. But interrupting here for awhile our description of the city. after the conversion of Vladimir to Christianity. Conflagrations.

one ' : We fear God. 'we cannot live without it. says the late Dean Stanley. He derided the religion and .SOUTH ' RUSSIA. their religion earth. the Papal See become the prey of ruffians and profligates. the requirements of their and their dissidence from Christians and Mahometans.' he said. were also dismissed law.' Next came the representatives of Western Christendom.' On learning that the law of the Latin Church commanded fasting. and eating and drinking only in honour of God. who made the heaven and was the true the stars and the INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY INTO RUSSIA. 125 does your religion consist ? they replied that they believed in God. however. under a general feeling of desponhaving at that epoch.' Some Jews. in a summary manner. and also in what the Prophet taught circumcision. ' ' A ' Philosopher from Greece ' came last. who explained their belief.' said Vladimir. : accept the prohibitions. nor What.' They came from the Pope to tell him that of the world. and above all. Vladimir told them to go home. which was then ' fearfully ' expecting the end dency. and every living creature. the prohibition of drinking. moon. that we should suffer the same ? ' . They had been led to confess that they had been fathers ' Our did not believe in your religion. you wish to teach others you whom God has rejected and dispersed ? Do you wish. The rude prince would not. whilst thy gods are of wood. abstinence from pork and wine. Drinking is the great delight of Russians. and after death life in a harem.' with the objection ' : did they receive it from the Pope. perhaps. dispersed for their sins throughout the world.

. and at whose presence the people fell on their knees and cried. For this purpose he scene ' . they hastened back to Kief.' It is curious to ' ' . the sister This sacrifice was made. gorgeous with gold and mosaics. Under the stern orders and Christianity. There is no record of any adornment in the rude temples of the Pagan Northmen and Slavs. find in this objection such combine the beautiful and fully satisfied at Constantinople. 2 See p.126 RUSSIAN PICTURES. both of not ' . that the Russian emissaries witnessed a service which had This yearning appears to have been purposely been rendered more than ordinarily magnificent. condemned world the celebration of Mass by the Roman Church Churches triumphed which was of with unleavened bread the had been in the point on which the two greatest torn asunder and explained why the the Jews to 'Germans and Greeks' believed over the ' Him whom by had crucified. they had no ornaments nor beauty. founded by Heraclean Greeks. ! sent wise men 'to examine the faith of each and the manner of their worship.D. envoys. and even their idols were coarsely hewn out of wood or stone. He on was other the envoys of exhibiting Vladimir a tablet the Last Judgment. at that celebrated the of for its ceremonial both of Church and period splendour It was in the Church of St. Vladimir did not long hesitate to act on the recommendations of his But he first besieged the rich city of Khersonesus in the Crimea. and then made as a condition. 147. They were struck but what most by the multitude of lights and the chanting of the hymns filled them with astonishment was the appearance of the deacons and sub. was baptised A. deacons issuing from the sanctuary with torches in their hands and with white linen wings on their shoulders. 988 in the Church of the Holy Mother of God. then all State. and that their stench was insupportable Roman Churches they represented that although they were better than the Mussulman mosques.D. 987 that the Mahometans prayed with their heads while of the German and covered. Kyrie eleison ! They were told by the wily Byzantines that these were angels who had come down from heaven to mingle in the service and wanting no further proof of the trueness of the Greek religion. The prince painted are those who on are the woe to the impelled to exclaim. subjecting to a similar fate the Byzantine capital 1 Lectures on the Eastern Chttrc/i. a marriage between himself and Anne. Sophia. practice of the the Mahometans. now replaced by a splendid cathedral in commemoration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to This was effected wholesale.' These reported in A. which surpassed all others in the grandeur of its form of worship. 300. Happy right sinners who are on the left But he would not consent to be baptized until he had been more fully instructed about each religion. and of his immediate conversion to Christianity. and Vladimir of the Emperor Basil Porphyrogenitus. at 2 Khersonesus. p. ' early evidence of an innate human yearning to the impressive with religious worship.

women. recognise the and in respect of matters of faith and spiritual supremacy of the Pope denies that it the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son. whose doings we sketched on our way to Moscow. Eucharist. scourged by twelve horsemen. indulgences. an AugusBoniface. influence. subjected to changes in matters of liturgy.' It would lead us too far to describe. II. during the reigns of Peter I. connection with autocracy. principally by Nicon. in regard to the . the huge wooden idol. and reformed to a certain extent A NUN COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CONVENT. some plunged in. Catherine and more recent sovereigns. doctrine.' that it must have been ' From this centre the Christian the example. the development of the RussoGreek Church through the four periods into which its history is divided. and a by a Martin. Suffice it to was that it consolidated between the say beginning of the fourteenth century and the middle gradual of the seventeenth. From the Roman Catholic Church differs strongly on many points. in close . except in the case of danger to life and under other urgent circumstances and affirms. Romanism in Russia (the eminent Minister of the Interior. and dispensations of complete submersion of the body at baptism. of course.. on whom the Russian Church has conferred the same tine the title as that of Constanto Great : Isapostolos.SOUTH RUSSIA. or command Both the late Dean of Westminster and the late Count D. whilst the priests procured from Constantinople read the prayers. that the holy bread must be leavened. and Germany were Chris- tianized respectively tine. swam. the author of religion spread gradually over Russia. . all the men. Gaul. and cast into the river. others in the waters of the Dnieper . Tolstoi. We may well agree with Nestor a sight wonderfully curious and beautiful to see. it was without the agency of missionaries. and children at Kief were bathed some sat on the banks. and It remains essentially Eastern. predestination. 127 threats of the prince. Another important distinction is that. almost effected exceptionally in Europe. was dragged over the hills at a horse's tail. by of the lesser princes of the Rurik line. England. Perun. rejects holds the necessity purgatory. it It does not. but there was no in Russia corresponding apostle except Vladimir. however faintly. whilst admitting the doctrine of transubstantiation. on the secular or . point out the prominent fact in this conversion.. recently deceased). or ' Equal an Apostle. namely that.

128 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Their almost entire material dependence on the rude. in his oft-quoted work : ' Maskell of the Greek Church is excessively complex. however. that the Church Slavonic is now practically almost as different as Latin is to the vernacular of We Catholic countries the purest in ethnological descent. marriage priest. which is still used with some modifications. As doctrine regards the Anglican Church. into which the Scriptures were translated after Cyril and Methodius had introduced the semi-Greek alphabet. and which accounts. so much modified the Russian ancient has. and communion between these two have to pass before the Russian clergy attain a high level of culture. scrupulously clean. is to a widowed The Russian Church obligatory. are unreconcileable with those some of of the the principal points of another great stumbling-block against official Churches continues to be the denial by the Russian Synod of the apostolical succession of the But even if these points were Anglican bishops. and clad in a handsome cassock of mauve silk. cannot compress even a superficial reference to the services of the Roman Russo-Greek Church into fewer sentences than those used by Mr.' his to do own tilling and compelled harvesting. and observations was so great that ' the interest he Time propagation of Christianity in Russia without the aid of missionaries. but a man of orthodox learning. for the the father's it ! Russian. who declared that his kindness to the priest was much more than she had expected even from his known amiability The services of the Church are conducted in the old Slavonic. well informed also on lay matters relating to his own country. for which he was profusely thanked by the hostess. although a second marriage is forbidden also retains the Gregorian Calendar. the lady of the house highly-educated noblemen in Russia. The Englishman. ' ' white clergy. following anecdote. This was an advantage which Pagans converted by the Latin Church were not permitted to possess. took a seat beside him. said to him one day she had a great favour to ask. and the symbolical which it the represents meanings by dogmas of religion are everywhere made the subjects of " minute observance. who parishioners in their happened took in to ' know little was mistaken for an excessive politeness. it is difficult to see what practical harmony and conceded. or associated with his staying at country ' ! love of vodki . language. and after much genuine hesitation on the part of the lady. the Not very many years ago a young Englishman was house or mansion of one of the greatest and most To his surprise. co-operation could be established between the Churches for any useful purpose. in some degree. During the greater part of the Mass the " royal doors (in the altar screen) The ceremonial . she divulged that she would like to ask the village priest to dinner And yet he was no ordinary rural pope. Many generations will Russo-Greek faith. uneducated masses with which they are socially blended militates against their worldly Their position in the social scale is well exemplified in the regeneration.

in the deep bass tones of the men mingling with tive the ol is plain- trebles younger indescribIt voices which able is in its harmony. crossing himself and responding ' officiating priest K . and is the . . . and a fleeting another a single one intones. incensing holy pictures answered in deep tones by the deacons without. the most gorgeous ceremony of the Russian Church is that of Easter Eve. of extraordinary It is depth and power are the most desired. Now from one corner comes a chant of many closed . barbaric music. . unable to follow and in ignorance of the meaning. tones now used Church long been written as in in the Russian are comparatively They have clef. in turn the voice of the officiating priest is raised within.SOUTH are RUSSIA. modern. now and again entering for a short or pope popes pass throughout the church. the deacons remain to for the time.' The cords religious music dis- of Russia ' has a peculiar charm of its own. unlike any other lies yet underneath original the tinge of Orientalism. the closed again suddenly. From time time a voices. amongst the crowd.' the modern four lines style with five lines in not the Gregorian. effect is bewildering. Now the doors fly open. the treble clef. the wailing tones of all No kind. Then they are the thick the celebrant rolling clouds of incense. no is instrumental music of any voices Bass permitted. 129 most part without. far above the barbarous that are to be heard in Greek and other churches of the East at the present moment. in on the tenor or bass Next to a coronation at Moscow. through glimpse is gained of To a stranger. that the in said A SOUTH RUSSIAN WOMAN. There is a sweetness and attractiveness in the unaccompanied chanting of the choir. accompaniment. now from .' on which each member of the crowded congregation falls on his knees. when as the clock strikes twelve the announces that Christ is risen.

and groats mixed with hempseed oil. and therefore win the wager It is curious that the which may be the damaged egg or a small coin. days. and hard-boiled eggs dyed mostly red. chandeliers. Easter-tide game is existence Monday. ' day. on Pace-egg of very similar games with eggs 1 has recently been reported from Northumberland. by which which rolls furthest his and he can also win the competing eggs own well-directed egg may touch while rolling. the city is divided into (being therefore one of the greatest the Old Town.' or Easter less curious No is it to know that a competitive tapping of dyed eggs at Easter-tide prevails also in some parts of Sweden and Norway. 1889. and the Podol.' The choir . Another favourite on the smooth floor. and huge this great occasion bathed in light from of illumination from the no small amount the candelabra. or hymn has not been in Russia its merriest peals.RUSSIAN PICTURES. as a matter of fact. the people rush back to their homes. with Christ is risen. for the previous forty days. . the site of the famed monastery of that name. beer and vodka continue ' ' to flow throughout the country for sudden break from subsistence on several fish. verily Easter He has risen. the hardest point crack the weaker shells. As soon as the service is over. congregation adding wax taper which each worshipper. the ancient Borysthenes. while the tables of the higher and middle classes groan also with viands and refreshments of a more solid kind. meat and drink. ' exchanged with each friend or acquaintance. and no one who village rings out can realize the impressive effect of the ringing of so many bells. James's Gazette. and is regularly laid out with broad streets worthy of the handsome houses 1 St. \Yine. and so are the games played with those such as rolling them down a hollowed-out piece of wood raised at one end ecrgs The victory is to the owner of the egg a stand about twelve inches high. do so for some time after Easter Sunday. Picturesquely perched on bank of the Dnieper. bursts out the Church bell in The churches are on the largest and sweetest in tone of any in the world. as a rule of 'Yea. prince or pauper. or Town on the Cliff. then give to each other three kisses. time to return to Kief. . with the result that this dried mushrooms. the Pechersk. Those with the testing of the relative strength of eggs. The latter is the commercial quarter. beforehand. in the beautiful simultaneously every city. town. April 27. more or less strictly. to inordinate indulgence in on the public health after Easter is over. will be found even in the lowliest cottage. is bound to carry in his Friends. both consecrated and a kind of conical cake made of curds. irrespective of sex. however. sotto voce. lustres. It is now. continue to the paschal salutation. until the salutation has been hand. tells heavily The exchange of dyed or painted eggs at the time of paschal salutation is a general custom throughout Russia. steep elevations of the right after a course of more than 1000 miles Sea Black the into falls which rivers in Russia). to break the fast which a majority Bread of them have kept.' and.

on the stall.SOUTH RUSSIA. and in a lower tier. Church of St. enclosed within earthen ramparts anciently the site of the Pagan Pantheon from which Perun (or Jupiter) was . to wean the Ruthenian or South Catholicism Roman made by attempt Russo-Greek Russian peasantry from the Church. This edifice is only erected a Christian church dedicated to St. K 2 . with the relics of a Metropolitan who was decapitated by the Tartars in 1497. although consecrated only in 1842. 1 The Lithuanian Perkiin. wearing the These effigies bear witness to the Catholic tonsure and with shaven chins. built A.Hungary and the Balkan peninsula. Basil.U. ritus Greed]. Above the Metropolitan's stall are figures in mosaic of Byzantine prelates of the third and fourth centuries. the above Equally interesting Metropolitan's hemispherical vaulting are the Greek frescoes on the wall-supports and partly in the upper galleries. St. have been preserved on the altar walls and in places on the wall-supports and the arches. and they have survived the results of those labours. All these were discovered in 1843 under the whitewash which had been applied to them while the cathedral was (1590-1633) in the possession of the Uniats (Catholics. is Another remarkable a superbly executed representation of the Lord's Supper. Tartars. and thoroughly restored in 1826. its adherents having been re-united to the Russo-Greek Church by official 2 conversion and 'administrative measures. mosaic floor in front of the principal altar belonged to the original church. who. Sophia at Constantinople has been much altered by repairs and additions. Vladimir. nominally Here also is the great Cathedral of 1695. and the ancient structure has in reality been preserved only where we also find internally some in the centre of the existing mass. is between the Pechersk the latter was quarter and the Old Town. and shaded with fine old trees. which in early ages contained chapels. 989 by Greek artists and artisans. Some of their beautiful mosaics remnants of the work of Byzantine artists. which. in the place of Perun's temple. the Sophia. for the Uniat Faith or Church exists no longer. destroyed two centuries later by seventeenth in the and restored between century. The best part of the city. is erected on the site of a sacred edifice bearing the same name. is among the principal treasures of St. whose priests are depicted on the pillars that support the dome.' The tomb of Yaroslaf. Sophia. in the twelfth century and again in it for was reconstructed extant. 1017. the most ancient basilica in Russia of the Byzantine style. This. repaired 1385 a reduced copy of the Its original form and renovated once more in 1850. founded in A. The Uniat Faith is spreading among the Slavs of A us tro. containing the principal official and other residences. Tithes Church. 1 ignominiously dragged by Vladimir. 1390. 131 which line them. stands in a chapel dedicated to St. convex surface of the figure in mosaic is that of the Virgin Mary. is considered to be an exact reproduction of The Its the original. the founder of the cathedral.I>. divided from the upper by wide bands of ornamentation in similar work.

on the occasion of the celebration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to Even the Archbishop of Canterbury was present in the spirit.132 RUSSIAN PICTURES. of These are now deposited under a block of grey marble within the latter the new church. the and coloured and of domes the spires monastery. and an Orthodox Ecclesiastical Academy. in which also regret was expressed that. Russia. sympathy. is reached by a fine avenue of trees. the Apostle of Greece and of Scythia. brought into strong gilt relief by the massive fortress walls and bastions. with only the head. built in the elegant proportions of the style of Louis XV. predicting that on hills about there shall be a great city. The belfry alongside is more than three hundred the hill . the first shall hereafter shine cross seen in Russia. Vladimir. planted.' We have left to the last our mention of the most interesting sight in This is the Kief. according to an ancient legend. the view from St. Pecherskaya Monastery. Christianity. Andrew's terrace is more than ordinarily striking. ancient in origin (1055). For a view of the Podol quarter we must repair to the terrace of the Church of St. 1888. owing to an assembly in London of the Universal Episcopate of the Anglican Church. or the first in rank in and the most Lavra. Approached from the east. and standing on the spot on which St. Andrew. the first two abbots. It is easy among such surroundings and such memories to realise the of the spectacle great gathering of the prelates and priests of the Russoand of the Eastern Churches in close communication with it. Theodosius. the ruins Ill of St. Greek Church that took place at Kief in July. Early in spring. when the Dnieper huge assumes in front of Kief the dimensions of a vast lake. which was while on the left are the shining cupolas of the formerly a Jesuit College for Ascension Convent Women. it had been found impossible to send a bishop to Kief to represent the Church of England. flanked by the cells of the brotherhood. effect. were found the tomb. and one for which the city is well worth visiting. with a handsome cathedral built by Mazeppa for the use of the Uniats. with seven gilt cupolas. and God shall cause forth the grace of God many churches to rise within it. while its barracks are capable of accomKief is the most important strategical point modating thirty thousand men. in 1 744. Andrew. enclosed within the immense fortress that crowns ' .' To the right we now see the gilt domes of the Bratski Monastery. and is intended to serve as a basis of operations. have a strikingly picturesque almost every part of Kief. and goodwill to the Metropolitan of Kief. ' of the Pechersk quarter of the city. in the South of Russia. Its principal cathedral. . Anthony and St. The monastery is entered by a gate ornamented with frescoes of St. and at once arrest attention from We en mention passant that the huge arsenal which the fortress shelters supplies all the troops in South Russia with arms. for his grace addressed a letter of congratulation.

chasubles.SOUTH feet RUSSIA. in river-bank. Vladimir. the style of architecture is neither elegant high nor imposing. although the veritable tomb which contained vessels. it is undoubtedly in the Tithes Church of which the principal we have spoken. 133 internally. the limestone of the high They extend a considerable distance in passages blackened by the torches of visitors. in the shape of ikons. kept constantly burning by pilgrims who come from every part of the empire. An object of special veneration is the true head of St. sacristies have been described that we must pass over the many already light even by the of the innumerable tapers which are treasures of the Pechersk Monastery. and pectoral crosses of great value and religious interest. however. The richly-decorated ceiling is scarcely seen . which the cathedral claims to hold in a side chapel. and the ancient stalls of the monks perpetuate its somewhat Roman Catholic appearance. church THE PECHERSK MONASTERY AT KIEF. Anthony and St. of its The monastery owes excavated part celebrity and of its revenues to the neighbouring catacombs of St. and . Theodosius. and who are So certainly not fewer than two hundred thousand in number each year.

to the south of those of St. are on a smaller scale. Sugar. with South Russia. for as to be able to receive the devotional In kisses of the who individually apply distinct saint most renowned removing some one cell are the remains of eleven 'martyrs/ who besetting and one and the same time immured themselves in it. as they believed. of Northern and Central Russia are spread products throughout the provinces to the east and south. when Poland finally seat of trade population of 160. but their origin and history have not yet been ascertained. Anthony. over which the railway What a contrast passes. In proximity to it is the splendid Mr. they are not held in equal we find here also the remains of ten monks selves ' veneration. Nestor. saints in . is considered to be It was built between 1848 and 1855 a noble monument of engineering art. through the small windows from which we turn away with a shudder. wool and hides from the central provinces. on either side of which lie worked in gold and silver for the intercession of the sin. Theodosius. Black and Azof Seas. is the being a centre from which the a and manufactures ' . died from his neck for some months . 6755 feet in length.' and corn. until they died. between these primitive works of man and the achievements of the skill and labour of the nineteenth century. down even to the Caucasus. by girder bridge constructed by a Russian engineer. and at voluntarily took food. in ' martyr being buried almost up to his still who had immured themOne order. The catacombs of St. Nevertheless. largely produced in this part of Russia from beetroot and bounty-fed. are largely sold at the five fairs held each year at Kharkof. to gain the kingdom of heaven. Kharkof became the capital of the Ukraine.000. brandy. Anthony. with palls of cloth and silk their mummified hands are so placed pilgrims. lies in the first catacomb. typified in the two grand bridges by which the Dnieper is spanned close to Kief! The Nicholas Suspension Bridge. and the Christian character of also remains. the interments is evidenced by the pectoral crosses that have come to light. open coffins. is exhibited who. the annalist. his small chapel and the cell in which he passed the last fifteen years of his life without breathing the fresh air. principal to the east in of Kief. at the extreme end of the gallery. in fulfilment of a vow of continence. human remains and coffins have been found in them. which has also reason to be proud of its university with upwards of six hundred students. its founder. and as they contain only forty-six bodies (the others have seventy-three) of departed saints of a secondary order. Englishman. Charles an Vignolles. and of its connection by rail with the shores of the Baltic and those of the In 1/65. and We are shown St. and in that posture body Other ancient catacombs have recently been discovered under the city Numerous itself. after having been a Cossack outpost town since 1647.I 34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Kharkof.

descending of barge accompanied by Joseph II.. and which has been reduced to one-sixth in the edifice that was The town consists of only one row of buildings. It was only a the river from Kief in a stately village when Catherine II. a bronze statue which represents . Anciently. 135 ceded the province to Muscovy. whether from the Crimea or the shores of the In the province of Kharkof are found those remarkable idols Caspian. The centre of the field so disastrous to the THE KAI'I I. consecrated only in 1835. King Stanislaus Augustus Poland and a brilliant suite.SOUTH RUSSIA. which have yielded coins establishing the fact of an early intercourse both with Rome and Arabia. also a place of extensive trade. of Austria. almost with concealed Dnieper. On that occasion she laid the first stone of a cathedral which was not destined to be completed on the imposing scale she had projected. in gardens and the Catherine's running for nearly three miles parallel Palace. Two monuments commemorate the victory.K or POLTAVA. of stone which we have seen in the Historical Museum at Moscow. raised it to the dignity of a town bearing her own name. this was the camping-ground of nomadic tribes. and a vast number of tumuli. At Ekaterinoslaf we are again on the great Dnieper. is familiar to us in connection with the defeat of Charles XII. and later the high road of -the Tartar invaders of Russia. and cattle. principally in wool. by Peter the Great in 1 709. Swedes is marked by a mound which covers the remains of their slain. particularly of the Khazars. horses. Poltava.

with a sun-dial on one face and a portrait-medallion on the An inscription on it in Russian and Latin tells us that Howard other. however. in 1787. to Kherson. he caught a cold. painted blue and red. brings those who do not proceed by steamer to the great naval station and commercial port of Nicolaef. is its Jewish population. he set out from Kherson on philanthropist In Kherson. somewhat relieved in its monotony by numerous ancient tumuli. in the 65th year of his age the ' recorded his principal achievements. Prince Potemkin. and es.' By her directions. 1 789. part of the country was called after its conquest Chesme . son of the admiral of Scotch parentage who. Nicolaef is the handsomest as this Russia. died on the 2oth January. number of she caused to be inscribed in Slavonic over the Cathedral of St. Alios Salvos Fecit. with the aid of some equally gallant countrymen.the floor of the crypt. and restored to a more fitting marble. or Ingul with the Bug. Ad Sepulchrum Stas. and the garden of her magnificent Prince Potemkin. at the junction of the It was the site until 1775 of a Cossack setch. tion of Admiral Samuel Greig. Catherine 'Dedicated to the Saviour of the human race by Catherine II. the founder of the town. horseback to visit a lady at some distance on the banks of the Dnieper.' is : Johannes Howard. was buried in this cathedral in 1791. A fortified of a Russian fleet in the Black authorities. huddled together the bazaar. marked by a tombstone of white Church of the Assumption is a simple obelisk. won for the Russians the naval battle of Sea. in her clad Roman armour and crowned. drive 1 settlement. and to be buried in a hole under. Ouisquis Amici. over forty miles of steppe. in the year 1790. We now follow the route taken by Catherine II. ordered the remains to : be exhumed.136 RUSSIAN PICTURES. striking feature of which. Nicholas. and descend In commemoration of her visit. and the Ekaterinoslaf Prospect is dotted with their stands and their moneychests. the more favourite. over his grave is a block of marble surmounted by a sun-dial. Within a high circular wall near The great English Vixit propter Alios. but her son. Nicolaef re-asserted its It owes much of its present affluence to the sound administraof Sevastopol. on which typhus fever supervened. considerable in a special quarter between the river and ' ' A them pursue the favourite Jewish occupation of money -changing. the ' inscription 1790.' died and was buried in a village about four miles north of the month of November. according to his last wish. and in 789 it received its present appellation in commemoration of the capture of Otchakof from the Turks on the feastDestined from the first by Potemkin to be the harbour day of St. constitute the sights of Ekaterinoslaf. Next to Odessa. at the delta of the Dnieper. temporarily neglected by the naval claim to that proud position after the fall town in New in 1769. from which they were again disinterred in 1874. on which are abiding-place. the Emperor Paul. Being lightly The monument clad.

&c. as at Nicolaef. although steamers have at a considerable distance from it. wool. British shipping is chiefly . Alexander to anchor the is died in 1825. Of the six ports on the neighbouring Sea Azof. and. is the most considerable. has been connects this important harbour of with Kharkof and other rich agricultural centres. Taganrog. The annual value of its exports of corn. tallow. 1.SOUTH from the RUSSIA. Its large trade. greatly promoted by the railway. owing to the shallowness of roadstead. where A NOGAI TARTAR. which now mostly in grain. I. about five millions sterling.37 Turks and Tartars..

Huns. It was not until 1791 that the fortress of the Greeks. the capital of the Country ' of the Cossacks. but from 1718 they were gradually brought under subjection to the Tsar. It is usual to bestow on the Russian heir-apparent the Cossacks. Ginestra of the and the Genoese.' anciently the abode of Scythians. when confirmed.) to construct a town and harbour. received in Various privileges and 1 795 its present modernized name of Odessa. Much of the produce shipped here comes from Rostof on the Don. title of ' Ataman ' of the Don the The last investiture with Cossack baton 1 took place also the reigning circle. employed the Neapolitan De Ribas and the Frenchman De Volante (both in her military sen-ice. Catherine II. Until the reign of Peter the Great the powerful and independent Cossacks were not much interfered with. They attacked the Tartars and Turks. at a assemblage. when renegades from Muscovy and vag- rants of every description formed themselves into Cossack or robber communities. Hadji-Bey of the Turks. whom they powerfully assisted The town subsequent wars. the La Hadji-Bey and the whole of the Turkish provinces of Otchakof were annexed to the Russian empire. in virtue of the Treaty of Jassy. immunities were later granted to the city. an d is adorned with in a bronze monument or chief) to the Platof.' Emperor in 1887. all the ancient rights and privileges of the warlike Cossacks of the Don. The present population Don dates from the sixteenth century. famous Hetman leader (Ataman of the Cossacks between 1/70 and 1816. the chief centre of inland trade in the south-east provinces of Russia. employed in the trade. A short distance above this great mart is Novocherkask. open-air or Odessa on the Black Sea of is the Odessns AN ITINERANT SHOEMAKER. Khazars and Tartars. was founded in 1804. Sarmatians. peopled mostly by Greeks and Albanians. but it owes its present prosperity . and in 1637 took the Turkish fortress of Azof. Bolgars.138 RUSSIAK PICTURES. which. and one in which many industries (especially the manipulation of tobacco grown in the Caucasus and the Crimea) are pursued.

000. however. 139 to the talents and energy of the Duke Emanuel de Richelieu. trees and gardens of great beauty. to which the members of it is fact. H. thirty miles distant. brought from the Dnieper. harbour. and dependent for its supply of water upon rain-tanks and a few brackish springs.R. who in 1823 took up his between 1817 and 1857. in the following . The combination of Russian. of which one-half are have the advantage of an institute and Consul-General Stanley. to the disabilities under which the made for the be should allowance Jews have so long struggled in Russia. the population It is now 240. in a great measure to the privileges of a free port. a chartered a notice certain in body in the sea-bathing put up by years ago. carried on with great vigour and enlightenment the works of construction and improvement thanks Under such advantages contemplated by his foreign predecessors.SOUTH chiefly RUSSIA. and ample means of quenching thirst thanks to the expenditure of over a million pounds sterling by the British still holders are Odessa Waterworks Company. and under the annually visited by at under the British flag. only a secondary influence in the capital.' It is much to be desired that a more sober and correct view in regard and that clue Israelite community at Odessa should supervene. power city. as they did in days long gone by in England and in other countries to which they resorted. ' : The notice was words No clogs or Jews are allowed to bathe here. Formerly enveloped in clouds of fine dust. with no small advantage to the states in which they were permitted to become free citizens and loyal subjects. Odessa has now an atmosphere pure and bright. least fifteen Their crews 1875 by reacling-room. we are not surprised to find that Odessa has developed into a handsome city of South European aspect. city residence at Odessa as Governor-General of New Russia. through thirty-inch pipes. also a Frenchman. the Duke of Edinburgh. enjoyed by the Prince Woronzoff. whose suffering sharewailing over the unprofitable (to them) investment of so much is hard cash. and with an export trade now valued at ten Its splendid millions sterling. when he was succeeded by Count Langeron. is hundred steamers. rendered secure by a breakwater initiated or designed by Sir Charles Hartley. who became its first governor in 1803. of Odessa had grown from nine to twenty-five thousand. a French emigrf. Eleven years later. being carefully filtered. not many that community are periodically subject. affairs. Greek and Jewish sharpness that prevails at Odessa has not on the whole been favourable to the employment of foreign The Greek element has. Limited. baiting likely to disappear under the This culminated. established in patronage of H. devoid of any vegetation beyond a few shrubs and sickly acacias. Nor is the ' ' establishment of which it contrived to dispossess the municipality. after The water administration of local the although it prevails in the great export trade of In of the Jews so considerable as it once was.

is being . energetically proceeded w ith throughout the empire. customs and religion. even though studiously strategic. largely teeming with corn. CAUCASUS. PETERSBURG. as we shall discover in our observing their of this chapter. ST. and government. In those days the Crimea was a somewhat distant land whereas we may now pack up our traps and set foot at Sevastopol on the sixth day after leaving Charing Cross. it is . speaking their own tongue and own been engaged with a great European power. CHAPTER THE CRIMEA AND is VIII. subject to similar rule may be said. extending over a distance of forty-five miles. from the of its extension over so an almost boundless of the expanse of race level and yet. from its having been the battle-field of the last war in which England has many continue to live. Like that part of the Russian continent with which r connected by the narrow isthmus of Perecop. no portion of the of surface of the globe more adapted mankind than the Russian empire.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. except where the Tauric range. although all it many diversities human are brought into near contact. to a cir- THERE homogeneity cumstance territory . for Russia's network of railways. is one vast steppe. consisting of about nine thousand square miles. journey over the Crimea and the Caucasus the subject The Crimea has a special interest for Englishmen of this generation. still do apart. while many of its incidents must be fresh in the memory of the middle-aged. the Crimean peninsula. OF THE TENTH OR ELEVENTH CENTURY IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY.



which afforded so we many good through valley. the peonia. crocus . copses. this valley the road leads over a spur Gate. a place to which three ladies repaired. and beautiful region in close proximity to the sea. and violet. sturdy pines and junipers looking like tufts of verdure as they overhang the perilous scape. we from time to time pass masses of gigantic blocks of granite thrown up at various periods by the convulsions of Nature. juniper. Baidar the towards the Baidar one of the grandest that it is possible to a offered combination of mountain. are seen from the road. none attractive in their architecture. maple. in the affair of the diamond necklace of Marie Antoinette. Lower down. lorded over the Ai Petri precipitous heights by majestic (St. while here constructed through a wealth of vegetation. and Mishor. and the fir and beech which attain a very large size. and of the Emperor. lilies geranium and orchids. One of those purpose of converting the Tartars to Christianity. poplar. to the inhabitants on the declivities that slope to the sea a of the and prolific Riviera. under different circumladies.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. Alupka. where the irregular declivities pine juniper project into the sea. to our beleaguering troops. Here the Tartar villages lie embosomed in the midst of truly lovely scenery. brooks. the as the Countess de la Mothe. at Livadia. where two Wellingtonife gigantece planted in 1869 by the Prince and Princess of Wales are shown. elm. ash. with vegetation varied suggestive 143 and rising to ensures climate beyond by the description. veronica. shaping the most fantastic of sea-boards. The cypress and magnolia are beautiful in their development. but all surrounded by perfectly fascinating scenery. at which point there suddenly bursts on the view From and there from fissures in the rocks strike forth again the and or the beech. and beyond is Gaspra. with luscious pastures. and sweet-pea. the seat of the late Prince Woronzoff. Peter). are within a few miles of each other. reminding one much of an English land- ot (carriage) road. oak. yew. conceive. Starting from Balaclava. during the bathing-season. the indigenous trees comprising the Tauric pine. concerned The residences of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. The first genuine Tartar village is Kikeneis. its comfortable hotels and luxurious clubs attracting the wealthy from for the all parts November.. the road is brinks. even some of the luxuries things. and cornfields with green hedges. in the reign of Alexander I. embedded in the midst of sumptuous cultivation and as we proceed. at the first west pass extreme of the the range. an altitude of three thousand to four thousand feet. was better known. Woronzoff possession of life. who was publicly whipped for being stances. At Yalta we are in the most fashionable watering-place in the South of Russia. Countess Guacher. sights by In front rise the bold cliff. and the banks are seen covered with the of the valley. which begins in April and continues to Excellent carriages and good saddle-horses facilitate excursions .



up the smiling valleys, horsemen being enabled to visit the interior of the Yalta is peninsula by crossing the passes above Derekyuy or Uchan-su. the westernmost point of the wine-growing district, which includes Massandra, Partenite, where is a church of the eighth century, Gurzuf. and Alushta at the eastern end of the range, from which village the carriage-road turns sharp away from the coast, and leads direct to Simpheropol, the capital. The Russians are very proud of the wines grown on these shores, but connoisseurs prefer the wines of France and Germany. The yield, including the produce



Sudak on another

million gallons,

part of the coast, consists of Bordeaux,

amounts annually to about three Burgundies, Hocks, Madeira, and

some sweet wines
times have nations fought for, and disputed, the narrow classic as the scene of the strip of territory possession wanderings of Ulysses because of the golden harvests to be gathered from over the hills, and of its own even temperature. History asserts that the




Cimmerians were the first inhabitants of whom so little is known they were succeeded by the Tauri replaced, seven centuries before the
; ;









supplied their



from what had become known as the granary of Greece.' Then came the Huns, who were succeeded by the Goths, the earliest Christian settlers, and they held possession until the proud Republic of Genoa sent forth her galleys laden with men and arms to seize, if
during several

upon so












as Caffa,


settlements, appointing

subsequently every other point of vantage along consuls or governors, establishing

r*M .,.,jji &





an extensive and powerful hierarchy, and at the same time constructing those Sudak, Theodosia, and Balaclava, of which splendid defences at excite the of every passing traveller. to admiration remain enough to the south coast for the benefit of sea-bathing Visitors who throng travel by rail to Simpheropol, the chief town, and thence continue their
journey either

by way of Sevastopol, or take the but the more favoured route to Alushta


carriage-road already via Odessa, where

bi-weekly steamers convey passengers to Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia, and Kertch, continuing the voyage to the ports of the Caucasus. It was near Eupatoria that the British and French forces landed, on
I4th September,
1854, not to evacuate the peninsula until July,

1856, during



which period were fought the decisive battles on the Alma and Chernaya, at Balaclava and on the heights of Inkermann, and the fortress of Sevastopol was evacuated after a lengthened siege and bombardment. The country between Eupatoria and Sevastopol has been compared by travellers to that around the Dead Sea, owing to its sterile and uninviting aspect, but the Saki mud baths in those parts attract numerous patients suffering from rheumatism and diseases of the skin. The Bay of Sevastopol, four miles in length and nearly one mile at its widest part, is one of the securest harbours in the world, having an almost uniform depth of ten fathoms. The handsome town which stood on the of hill and the extended to the water's edge, was completely destroyed slope during the war, and has only of late years commenced to recover from its calamities, for it has again been decreed a naval, military, and commercial port and station, while the railway gives an immense impetus to export trade. The hotels are good, and guides are obtainable for visiting the sites of the several camps, batteries, and battle-fields, which, in a few years, will be inaccessible to the traveller, by reason of those localities becoming
enclosed within







the warriors


during the siege, they were laid within small enclosures inside the divisions and batteries of attack and defence in which they were serving, so that


evacuated by the contending parties it was seen to be dotted with numberless cemeteries, of which one hundred and twenty-six were inside the British lines. The Russians and French early availed themselves of facilities afforded for removing their dead to grounds

the land was

and raising to their memory mausoleums which remain objects of veneration, even to the destructive Tartar herdsmen, who persisted, year after year, in inflicting every kind of damage upon the memorials of our own dead until at length the reproaches of travellers of all nations and creeds stirred to action a small body of Englishmen,
specially set apart for the purpose,

with supported by the Prince of Wales monuments have been removed from the





our soundest

cemetery, called Cathcart's, after Inkermann the walls of the old

scattered enclosures to the largest the gallant officer of that name who fell at

are levelled, and the graves covered with two to three feet of earth, so that in a few years the very sites



be forgotten.


After a length of time the lab'ring swains, turn the turf of those unhappy plains,

Shall rusty piles from the ploughed furrows take. * * * * * *

Amazed at antique titles on the stones And mighty relics of gigantic bones.'


Quite near to Sevastopol stood the ancient city, Khersonesus, founded Grecian colonists seven centuries before Christ, and of whom it is





their independence,

and owed

their prosperity

state of civilisation during the space of one thousand years to the free institutions they enjoyed, and to competence for self-government. This

and high

became city to enjoy its



Russian Prince

empire, continuing, however, until taken municipal institutions, by siege by the Vladimir, who restored it to the empire as one of the conreceiving


of the





be seen

Christianity and built the church, the in the crypt of the cathedral lately

Vladimir marriage. foundations of which are








Khersonesus as

being a flourishing city



features of its neighbourhood exquisite detail the is the student able to verify with extraordinary minuteness so that coasts, most exact of geographers, and fix the graphic delineation of that

day, and describes in and of the adjoining




upon the


so delightfully illustrated by honest

In the Eight miles from Khersonesus, says Strabo, is Symvolon-limen. is mentioned as but it the of we it as the know Odyssey port Lsestrigons,










L 2


miles from Bakhchisarai. because the larger the display. George. and occasionally their teeth. that lies ensconced amidst luxuriant gardens founded and vineyards reaching to the sea. as a rule. although intercourse with others. the cooking department and guest-chamber apart on the being ground floor. but equally removed from the fanaticism of Mahometanism. . as everywhere else on the occupation has disappeared. and at all times willing to welcome the belated or worn-out traveller. are They hospitable. mackerel. affluent are These Tartars are very indolent. and one respectfully preserved. the last capital of the thirty of the largest towns inhabited entirely by Tartars. or veil. during which period it is agreed among them that no festivities shall take place. they do not wear the yashmak. bream. Their children are fair to look upon age. for the the during remembrance of that lady Sevastopol is Khans. upon which are spread reclining mattresses and bolsters in satin or velvet. the delight of the ancients. silver. and of England too. the floors are covered with expensive Turkey carpets. and well furnished with mattresses and pillows of every hue. nor do they hesitate to receive aliens in their houses.and toe-nails. . the latter freely decorated with an abundance of towels embroidered in gold. Some of the Genoese defences of the British fourteenth century remain. The road from haddock. should occasion arise. or nobles.148 RUSSIAN PICTURES. is of dyeing and uniting their eyebrows with a straight dark their finger. the cleanly more In the supposed to be the circumstances of the inmates.. houses of the mnrzas. entirely from those of the men. of the Genoese. For instance. since it was the only port oi debarkation for all our materiel of war. obelisk in the tenth century. nevertheless the females do not retain their good looks in adult whilst the practice line. locked harbour. the plain which was the scene of the famous cavalry charge under Lord Cardigan. its inviting situation presenting a very . stricter is Sunnites than their co-religionists on the south coast. Sevastopol to Balaclava almost skirts. and for the rest of the year they remain idle. and coverlets richly embroidered in gold. their staining certainly not to and advantage. war are shown by the monks with unaffected satisfaction. . In their cottages the women's apartments are on an upper story. on the left. they are. etc. different aspect to the sterile surroundings north of the cliff by which it is The apartments that were occupied by Florence Nightingale sheltered. here engaged in the pursuit of fishing and salting their gains for import the sea at this part abounding in turbot. now marked by an and a branch road to the right leads to the Monastery of St. or silk. shores of the Black Sea. but nearly every vestige The inhabitants. and a species of pilchard. and the females are not in the habit of holding monogamists. are Greeks. and the of the sole safe haven for our shipping. and never think of learning a trade they work in their gardens and orchards from the end of May to the third week in August.



be married, he goes about for three days with a handkerchief over his head, so placed as to conceal his face, for he is a man ami the bride during that same period remains with shame
a Tartar


' ;



screened off
body. mother's


in a darkened room, quite ready to sob if spoken to by anythe wedding-day, the bride, closely veiled, takes her place at her side in a carriage, a pile of gaily-coloured handkerchiefs being on

the seats in front, one of which

given by the mother as a wedding favour



who may approach

it moves left arm, along, in which that in other the relatives carriages following silently, turn out a the is the bride. Should the procession pass through people village, and stretch a rope across the road, as is the custom in the Vosges, and

the kerchief round his

to offer his congratulations and joins the procession as

that friend ties

slowly and

but there is no spirit in the procompel the bride to pay her footing And when the not one merry shout ceedings, no fun, no cheering, no bride finally alights at the door of her future home, she is seized by a crowd of women who are in waiting, and dragged or even carried into the house and de.'/.mi. ^j :.\l rA v \ j liverecl to the 'happy man,' after which
; !






exciting, but


immediately had assembled. Bakhchisarai
work, useful

noiseless scene, the guests disperse as silently as they





and ornamental,



supplies Tartar continues



his tastes,

be very remaining perfectly indifferent

every description of improvement intro duced from without, whether in manuto




trappings, centuries.
his native



and so we agriculture the same kind of shoes or slippers, belts, cushions, horseas have been in use amongst this people during many

The Tartar does not despise even cutlery, now also manufactured at

the old flint-lock gun, and prefers Bakhchisarai, but formerly made


Karasu-bazar, a place which, in its prosperity, used to turn out as many 400,000 sword blades annually, chiefly for use in the Khan's army, but also for export to the Caucasus. The great attractions of Bakhchisarai are the places of interest within
Jews' fortress,' on the easy distance, such, for instance, as Chufut-Kaleh, summit of a rock, said to have been a stronghold since 460 B.C., and the cradle of the Karaim, a sect of Israelites opposed to the Talmudist Jews, by whom they are looked upon as heretics. The Karaim reject all tradition and Rabbinical writings, adhering solely to the Old Testament, whence



Karaim, or readers readers of Holy Writ the plural designation, Kara, a reader. They esteem the high moral teaching of Jesus Christ,

no part, accusing more they took but they look for of having shed innocent blood especially the Pharisees the coming of the Messiah from the house of David, and for the rebuilding The Karaim are energetic and industrious, and hold the of the Temple.






where they number about 5000. Their largest part of trade in the Crimea, as much as thou wouldest, desire that do canst not 'If thou is precept

thou mayest do as much


thou art able to perform.'

The Karaim



the foundation of their sect from the period of the Maccabees, in the second of the century B.C., when traditional lore was introduced to the prejudice books of Moses but, according to the Rabbinists, who form the larger


of Jews, their reputed founder was one Anan-ben-David (Hannassy), Anan of the race of Betzur, in the eighth century of the Christian era. the since ever has been which a at erected great Jerusalem, synagogue Such centre of the Karaim, who acknowledge his successors as their head.














Turkey hold


Greek, and




It is computed that there are from 50,000 to 60,000 Karaim in various parts of the globe. At the foot of the is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, a Jews' fortress

the Arabic.



cemetery of great antiquity, in which every Karai'm would wish to be buried, and wherein is pointed out, with pride, the grave of Isaac Sangaris (A.D. The countless tomb-stones 767), who converted the Khazars to Judaism.
are very varied in form, some being in the shape of a sarcophagus, others like coffins or kysts, but the more remarkable are finished off with head

and foot


itself is pierced with a number of Katch-kalen, Cherkess-kerman, etc., provided, with reclining places, corn-pits, water-tanks, chimneys and other conveniences formed out of the solid rock originally, in all probability, together with similar the The more numerous localities, many dwellings of the wild Tauri. of these cave habitations are at Tepe-kerman, but the more remarkable are









near the summit of Mangup, where one chamber measures twenty-one feet by seventeen feet. The citadel of Mangup was


principal defence of the Goths of their prince, within its


and of the


still remains standing a wall, believed to be of the fifteenth century. Near Bakhchisarai are two pillars of calcareous rock of striking appearance, a liisns natures. The




her village, her daughter pursued her to bring her back, when suddenly the would-be apostate was turned to stone for wishing to desert the true faith,

was once a woman who desiring to become a Christian


whereupon the daughter, herself became petrified






Travelling in the Crimea, as in all steppe country, is dreary work, for the beds of the larger water-courses they cannot be called rivers are almost arid, not presenting even the appearance of those

summer and autumn

verdant meandering lines exhibited by the prolific orchards on the banks of such smaller streams as the Alma and Belbek, orchards from which Russia
annually supplied with a large variety of most excellent apples and pears In these streams are taken trout, something like ,200,000. roach, and dace, and salmon are speared at their estuaries, cray-fish being

to the value of

also abundant, but chiefly in pools and ponds. bustard, attains a large size and is in great


bird of the

steppe, the

profoundly of his mortal him rifle and who has to stalk with bullet man, shy enemy, unless he prefers milder sport such as quails, pigeons, snipe, and partridges, all plentiful enough in season, as are many kinds of waterfowl on the coast, especially to the north-east and north-west.

demand, but he



was a



wretched village Stary-Krim, in the east of the peninsula, called Solghat, that could count 100,000 men on a war

at Ak-mesjid, now Simpheropol, the chief town footing, the viceroy resided has become the neutral ground of Russian, It and seat of government

Greek, Israelite, Armenian, and Tartar traders, and of gipsies, who meet here periodically over and over again, but as if they had never met before, deporting themselves with perfect indifference towards each other, scarcely exchanging a nod of recognition as they jostle one another in the crowded bent market-place or bazars, and avoiding all mutual intercourse, but each on the hardest possible bargain with his neighbour. Occasionally, a





his appearance, his dealings, not

more reserved than the




boisterous, setting value upon time, and if not respected he is at least

town, the chief and central mart, roads converge from every part of the peninsula, its caravans of double-humped camels, where the railway has not yet been


introduced, being in constant communication with the south coast and

Kertch, the city and fortress at the extreme eastern point of the Crimea, where we must now hasten as being our port of embarkation for the Caucasus, of which there is so much

having regard to its extent and the interest ever excited by that
to say,

fascinating land. Kertch, as




peninsula, has a remarkable history,

like something time the from twenty-four centuries, when it first received a name that of Panticapceum to the clay when a handful of the allied forces effected a landing in 1855, to occupy and to hold! A unique feature in its neighbourhood are the countless barrows that extend in every direction dismal-looking hillocks, the silent and imperishable monuments



wealthy people, who, after they laid their dead, These tumuli or barrows vary in size, and thus piled the earth over them. hundred feet in one of the some when, largest, measuring one years ago, direction height and one hundred and fifty feet in diameter, was explored by of the Russian Government, it was discovered to be the tomb of a Scythian us by scrupulous left to king, verifying in every particular the account Herodotus, who relates that when a king died, his wife and attendants were

an ancient, great,


conciliated Conciliation. together with himself. after extensive and toilsome cuttings. etc. warriors. those of victors.' resorted to chiefly in the more accessible and densely-populated territory. of horses and It has been already noted on golden vessels. however. excavations are conducted during two or three months every year by a member of the Archaeological Commission of St. of which we now take leave. that not until the year he was able to announce to the 1863 did the 'the commander-in-chief feel that Emperor But the country was not pacified Caucasus. of attendants. The result denuded condition of Circassia. happy and of vegetation O habitations in various stages of decay. nation's will. page 33. that the tombs have been rirled. the superb Kertch gallery at the Hermitage. unless the seventy nations spoken of by in ' ' Strabo as holding the fastnesses in the o great mountain chain were either or subdued. the complete subjugation far from it. and recovered out of this very sepulchre. Interspersed human German . though outwardly restored. to wit. perhaps by Venetian colonists in the fifteenth century. and the vessels of gold. the same stubborn resistance. silver. at some early period. St. fourfold they appear Large as is the on the opposite with the lasting necropolis of Phanagoria. confirmed the annexation of his dominions to Russia The To possess Georgia. many of which are pronounced to be the most perfect specimens in These of the high condition of art Greece in those early times. rendering abortive many a campaign. and bid farewell to the Crimea. directed their Petersburg. that were bronze. Petersburg. in search of treasure. process of subjection was shortly commenced. to the King of Georgia. was not to keep it. his weapons. was out of the and so the question. find therein. the brave mountaineers offering. J O and are here there with the some natives that remain. carefully preserved. upon the supplication of that monarch that he might be defended against his enemies. 153 strangled and his horses killed. the remains of the king and to attention to the number shore of opening of tumuli tumuli around Kertch. But besides the tombs of kings. recognized by the golden wreaths that had adorned their brows. who. protection afforded by the Emperor Alexander I. will queen. disputing each acre of ground with so much <_ tenacity. Circassia oppression which drove no less than 250. it was soon discovered.000 of four tribes of . that they might be laid in his tomb. are sometimes attended with the most unsatisfactory results. the country into which is we perceptible in the are first about to pass after crossing lands. as is known. a name that vies in its antiquity Panticapaeum. when he discovers. and priestesses have been brought to light. where tracts of once cultivated now present the distressing sight of tangled growths homes. however. and a profusion of exquisite golden ornaments and trinkets. that visitors their trappings.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. ceded as it had been against the 1799. year after year. whose labours. with the Straits of Kertch. electrum. and oppression was of Circassians to seek expatriation to Turkey.

' From the Molokane (milk-drinkers) sprang the Uukhobortsy. whence their origin . our Lord having said that He and His are not of this world and they dissent from the Orthodox Church. ' : make to thyself images. together with the adjacent Black Sea Cossacks.. maintained at half a million.154 RUSSIAN PICTURES. waist. a name signifies. and a few Molokane. the vernacular whose and to the customs of their forefathers. which every or twelve sockets. o 20. Russia.' etc. treatment of animals. good agriculturists. tightened only belt from which are suspended dagger. tongue has never been forgotten by them. The late Alexander II. . Grebenski continuing to preserve their identity with the natives of Great and although the whole of this imposing force. their land. and sword. who style themselves the Real Spiritual Christians.000 of those new warrior settlers consisted in barring all egress from of stations that extended first fortified line the mountains. 'Wrestlers with the Spirit' as the name implies. sectarians originally deported hither by Alexander I. or Dukhobortsy. by which they mean Thou shalt images. Catherine's from having been founded by the sovereign of that name and bestowed. and they are now free to go whithersoever they will but how are these poor people to give up their homes. true to the orthodox faith Caucasian mountaineers.' as ' distinguished from all others.' Ekaterinodar. The number of Cossacks in Transcaucasia being very limited. on the Zaporogian. The dress so universally worn by the male sex. who refuse to recognise any kind of temporal authority. of ' the Kouban gift. each of a size to hold a cartridge. territory. trustworthy. Little of the is that still Russians. the type amongst the Zaporogians to Vladikavkaz. and tempted them to the The first service of some Kuban with o grants of land and other l privileges. the back and a tall across is man possesses. for a few are stationed in each principal town. and specially district remarkable is for their kind The which chief town literally. because the true Church consists of an assemblage of such as are chosen by God to walk in the Light and Life without the use of any distinguishing signs or symbols. garment. whom they indiscriminately call Worldly. of the Caucasus. removed from them the ban of exile. in 1792. ' on the principle that all men are equal and a monarchy unnecessary. settlements. by means of a ' ' where they united with the descendants of the Grebenski The predominant Cossacks. chiefly as an escort to the closely at the with a a . consists of a single-breasted but reaching almost to the ankles. having on either breast a row of ten A rifle. and frequently pistol. long since Cossacks remain has adopted the dress of the even from boyhood. sheep-skin hat finished slung off at its summit with a piece of coloured cloth completes the costume. since God's command to Moses was in these words ' ' . subsequently known as the Catherine mistrusted their power and influence. their cattle now ? They are steady and not . in in all parts like a frock-coat. with whom they are not to be confounded.



he will to enter into proceed eastwards. then Pityus. reached escaped the general destruction. where we again tread classic ground. their duties . now addicted to thieving when the opportunity is afforded them. indolent and lawless race. A favourite feat. a noble race. is the principality of Mingrelia. Should the traveller elect range. Christianity was here introduced by Justinian. and wolf. and occupying about one hundred miles of the coast in the Black Sea. is to throw their hat and rirle to the ground. and in pursuit. landscape like we are as struck at the the aspect afforded by the numerous whitewashed Mingrelians. with the imaginary enemy fire as if at an enemy left heel resting on their steed's hind quarter. To the south of the Circassians. Practically. which the coast. every such edifice being occupied and One church. they will stand on the saddle and fire all round at an or throw the body completely over to the right. Pitzuncla. the first amongst the Circassians blood of the they are the friendly relations with Russia to ' ' . an and trained in like manner from irregular force. early youth in those singular exercises and break-neck evolutions for which the Cossacks of the Caucasus have become so famous. of being an the reputation. and sitting astride facing the horse's tail. thoroughly domesticated. with seldom a roof to cover him other than the vault of heaven but the ordinary traveller is likely to encounter difficulties and delays that he would prefer to avoid. who have enjoyed from time immemorial. but north of the great meet with the Kabardines. continued to be the seat of the Catholicos of Abkhasia until the twelfth century. In a Mingrelian too. box. amongst many others. had the Abkhases not destroyed them in their struggles against the Russians. governor of 157 are performed by Chapars. who constructed many churches that would have been notable specimens of Byzantine architecture. and extending some way inland irom the sea. for they are determinedly inimical to Their mountains abound in forests of magnificent walnut and where the enthusiastic sportsman will find the bear. his destination having Abkhases are at present heathens. and pick them up whilst going at the province. incurably cottages their they in dot neighbours whom the given to indolence. the horse's fullest speed. the Earther south. . Caucasus. remarkable as being the place to John Chrysostom was banished at the instance of the Empress Eudoxia although the exile never strangers. anciently given to piracy. hyaena. equally dashing horsemen. and plenty of smaller game. are the Abkhases. The we have just quitted. and useful breeders of cattle. and is a striking object to passing vessels. or turn clean round. Being the mother church in the Caucasus. Setting their horses at full gallop. has been thoroughly restored of late years. wheel. except well-wooded hills. keep up a rapid fire. are making of wine from their .THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. hospitable to strangers. at Pitzunda on converted by the latter into a military post. inasmuch as our wanderings have brought us to the /Ea of Circe and the Argonauts.

every imaginable flower is seen in its wild state. A MINGRELIAN PEASANT. and all undergrowth even. the earth is thus gorgeously arrayed. in miles of the upper at no part exceedingare cut off from all and width. meadow.' writes a snow. in con- sequence of the passes being blocked with The scenery in this valley. For or instance. strange rites. indeed wherever the pure air of heaven and its divine . and they thenceforth become man and burials. the Svanni have been to keep to the observances of the Russian Church. continue is to officiate after ancient custom. minister. They may certainly be included amongst the handsomest people in Transcaucasia. say from to near its water-shed Sougdicli. with their The Dadian. or prince. is of great beauty and wildrecent traveller. prolific through they are content to live on the produce of the interposition of a beneficent Providence rather than to any agricultural diligence on their part. after the disposal of the body with over the grave. Between Mingrelia and Abkhasia courses the Ingur. although a formal submission in 1833. the mourners abandon themselves to feasting in first upheld was and brawls. when a couple other at about to be hips their garments funerals are attached each the by the who .I 5 8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and wife or at at several villages in the valley are churches of comparatively recent date . we should find ourselves amongst the well-known military station a very wild and singular people. and if we ascended a journey easily accomplished on horseback. but in most their communities married. most profuse vegetation. and bank. own priests. well-defined features and usually raven black hair. and grand beyond description 4 ' . utters a sentence two. the Svanni. rather than preserving the property and contenting himself with a smaller income. hill-side and grass plot are literally covered in every forest with all that is most lovely and grove. is the wealthiest of the dispossessed rulers : the foresight of his predecessor and his own European training having taught him the clanger of disposing of land and squandering the proceeds. amid the ness. their orchards. if they may be to so designated. They fifty occupy some forty or the Ingur. vineyards otherwise abundant .' the ordination of a priesthood in 1859. light is Since required not obstructed. outside communication between the beginning of September and the end of May. whose farther complete it they made valley of ten miles subjugation dates back no may be said than 1876. in drunkenness the clay ending Christianity and Svanneti by the sovereigns of Georgia as early as the tenth century.

The price of a life is estimated hundred roubles. money A very notable feature in their villages are the towers of defence. the erect A VILLAGE IN SVANNETI. crime being met by the one paid or the at six circulation. whose language is a very distinct dialect of the Georgian. filling the churches with the horns as offerings. preferring rather to leave this strange . been careless and doubtlessly prudent in rarely undertaking to attack the Svanni in their isolated strongholds. and keep Lent without knowing why they so . Murder is rife. equal to the amount ~o to ^80. and yet they will cross as a caution to trespassers. the services being conducted mechanically by Russian or Georgian priests in a tongue quite unknown to the people. but '59 they remain empty. The Svanni fast on clo Wednesdays and Saturdays. but are ever ready to a tall staff surmounted by a do commit depredations upon not They steal from strangers.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. that the price of blood shall be in of the murderer has to forfeited. used as a place of refuge in The Russians have days of feud by a member or even an entire family. fully sixty feet in height. with which each cottage is provided. life inviolable law. each other. but there being no be made up in cattle or land. they fix the skulls of animals about the fences and walls of their habitations for the purpose of warding off evil influences.

exported in large quantities. towards the development of the resources of this beautiful country. with barley. of their feelings towards strangers. and the destruction of female infant life. to Russia in 1878. Ozurgheti. regards their be desired. The upper years by the members valley reason of of its the Ingur has been the brought to notice of late of our having Alpine Club become have starting-point effected the ascent in from of which Elbruz. a is situated from Guria. its annexation since that has tended in no small degree. and of their hospitality Koshtan-tau. and yielding with . corn. a contingency that is certain as the result of frequent deaths through personal animosities. where Returning to Mingrelia military station and commercial port. the ancient Phasis. the hills and their declivities being overspread handsome returns. and oak the box. which flows through the country whence was The Rion divides introduced into Europe the Phasian bird our pheasant. Batoum. we find it bounded on the Rion. intersected somewhat pestiferous but important and good roads through valleys highly cultivated with maize. Contrary to earlier experience. population to its own gradual extinction. and other of the highest peaks . another principality. consideration for the property of others there is much yet to south by the River Mingrelia.i6o RUSSIAN PICTURES. recent travellers speak in more favourable terms of the but as Svanni. the great range. the birth of a female child being usually deemed a reproach to its parents.

M . was the residence of the rulers who lie interred at the ancient monastery and episcopal church. affect European assuming the bonnet or hat. and is sometimes ornamented with gems. to the left is Imeritia. to great rate Khytaea. which lies over the front part of the head. the main for which will take him to Kutais. where he may tarry for a while may exchange. Imeritia. the residence of great It is the . Passengers from Odessa and the Crimea landing at Batoum find the train in readiness to convey them to Tirlis. the capital of the whole of Transcaucasia. not forgetful that at one period or other their dominion extended over neighbouring territories. falling from it Archaeologists would delight in an inspection of what remains of the . 161 the chief town. stiffened. and worn round the brow like a coronet it is embroidered with gold or silk thread. a city advantage. On highlands of the old kingdom of Armenia. AN IMERITIAN LAI>V. do not disdain to wear the papanaky. the traveller in the distance. or velvet. right. but interest. the men. fifteen reached in about hours. silk. the train travelling slowly enough.E. Chemokmedy. and Kakhety. through a land of much the historically and pictorially. WEARING THE of ^Etes any PAPANAKY. of the past. like Mingrelia and Guria. may be de- scribed as consisting of a narrow black velvet band. the chief town of the old kingdom of Imeritia.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. dress generally in use amongst females of the upper classes. chiefly in Georgia. cleverly arranged. attractively situated. here beauty. about six miles distant. and is fastened with The headstrinofs under the chin. If so inclined. beautifully situated little on the banks of the Rion. ancient at AN IMERITIAN NOBI. Although many of the well-to-do noted for their fashions in women. a thin white veil. are the a Rion station. The natives pride themselves not a on the distinctness of their nationality. antiquity. a glory. branch at line. in loose folds. a small lozenge-shaped piece of leather. less frivolous.

By Captain Telfer. the European. and the National Theatre. 1 many The groups are ornamented with cornices. to British capital . mouldings. on the banks of which it is built. Between Kutais and TiHis is the Pass of Suram. Titiis. Having driven through the suburbs on his way from the railway terminus.if>2 RUSSIAN PICTURES. six miles away. Uplytz-tzykhe. three thousand and and enterprise. the romancers of Georgia. in succession the public gardens. main thoroughfares lead to as many separate quarters. which having a population of about hundred of perfectly barren at once brings him to the principal street. is obtainable. and is believed to have been the burial-place of the great Queen Thamara. and yet the whole has been entirely hewn Tradition is replete with incidents in the and shaped out of the solid rock. is hills. . gymnasium. Governor-General. carrying away An old and equallywith them every movable decoration of value. R. public library. but faithful historiographers hitherto refrained from endorsing any of the tales that have been handed down by General. an edifice of in century. the where the wealthy live in well-built nouses of elegant construction An extensive bazaar. but which a mixture the Armenian and Byzantine. as is the entire railway. watered by the Kur and its tributaries. it were well to halt at this station for accommodation fairly good the purpose of visiting the unique rock-cut town. situated at the Since plain. native bazaars.N. smaller dwellings and and partitions. over which are laid the lines of rail by gradients of one in twenty-two feet over a distance of about eight miles a triumph of engineering skill due. at an altitude of twenty-seven feet. openings for light. etc. beams and pillars. of a glorious while are separated by streets and lanes. viz. Here is a town there can be no other designation for it conif such a term sisting of public edifices may be employed of large habitaeach being for others. and the first is ever constructed of the style now accepted Georgian. would be almost uninhabitable. tions. the traveller crosses the Kur over the Woronzoff Bridge. the eleventh as cathedral. and but for unpleasantly situated between ranges the River Kur. after which date it became the sepulchre of the sovereigns of Imeritia. The Turks destroyed it in 1691. the chief seat of Government and one residence of the Governor- thousand souls. conveniently divided. have history of these remarkable excavations. palace main guard-house. unquestionably for water-courses. reached Palace Street and Erivan Square. some eight miles off. presumably for the great. a restoration of the eleventh century. where are situated the best From the square three hotels and restaurants. museum. where he passes of the . law-courts. and grooves have been cut. and the market-place and Russian view of the city and an interesting sight is obtained from the eminence : . having doorways. the by which time he will have 1 The Crimea and Transcaucasia. interesting edifice is the Episcopal Church of Genath at Ghelaty. limits Beyond this pass the train stops at Gori.

however. friends meet together to join in the national dance. whence rise the confused sounds of human cries and the din from the iron. and ever seek to drive away dull care by indulging in their favourite Kakhety two bottles being the usual allowance to a man's dinner. buffalo. The Georgians are merry folk. 163 crowned by the old fortress which immediately overlooks the Asiatic quarter and bazaars. goat. the wine of the country being kept in or sheep-skins laid on their back. brass. and encloses that most precious Georgia. in the fourth relic with which the nation was converted to Christianity century nothing less than a cross of vine stems bound with the hair of M 2 . called the Lezghinka. of an evening. The Cathedral of Zion was formerly the church of the Patriarch of It dates from the fifth century. and presenting the disagreeable appearance of carcases swollen after lengthened immersion in water. of furriers. or eating and wine-shops. apart from other trades.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. As is the custom elsewhere in the East. greatly exceeded when. those of one trade congregate together. armourers. and copper-workers. an allowance. rarely allowing themselves to be depressed by the troubles of life. and so are passed a succession of silversmiths in their stalls. They love wine and music.

so that identical with that of respects Russia. who first has long been suppressed. the St. 7124 feet . ~_. Nina. - preached the truth replaced by a Russian ! The patriarchate in all Exarch. first 587 and allowance be made power in for will interregnums it be found that their reign extended years.. and died shortly afterwards amid the execrations of his late subjects. a day railway will convey passengers and goods the entire Some distance from Georgia into Armenia. for having ignominiously betrayed them. whence travellers on their way south have to content themselves with the post-road which goes over the Delijan Pass.for Bagrations to if the rose . signed his renunciation of the crown the 1 in favour of Emperor Paul in 800. GEORGIAN LADIES. and is the Georgian Church may be considered ^-. George XIII. patron saint. over during 1092 the twelve earliest centuries that elapsed from their election. and are the representatives of one of the most ancient monarchies of the world -. The' palace of the kings has entirely disappeared. for not a vestige remains. but for the present the line is constructed as far as Akstafa only.164 RUSSIAN PICTURES.. Many of his descendants are in the service of Russia.

long a Turkish fortress town. special sea. Kurds. defying Cossacks and custom officers alike. the first abode of Noah after he came forth from the ark. At fairly Erivan. and probably also his last. Greeks. Lesser Ararat. are Alexandropol and Kars. .840 feet. 12.' in 1829. almost symmetrical in its outlines. and so called the only-begotten Son of God here descended and appeared to because The convent. a beautiful Gregory. As in most Russian towns. in a silver-gilt case. the traveller will find good accommodation. for Persia ruled here during a but at the bazaars one considerable period until vanquished by Russia meets with other nationalities. peerless among the mighty works of the Creator. fly across Within a short distance of Erivan. relics ! Another priceless brought hither by the Apostle Thaddeus in the year 34 is carried about which relic is the hand of St. above the Armenia. upon which they will the frontier. but orders granted to officials or others on duty always take precedence. such as Tartars from the steppes. or in the broad streets and unpaved quarter laid out by the Russians since their occupation of the province by a boulevard and gardens fair to look upon. An and frequently cause immeasurable inconvenience to the ordinary traveller. and the post-station nearest to the Persian frontier. where crooked lanes are lined with high walls. who eagerly escort strangers to see it. surnamed the Enlightener. available by carriage-road. and Turkish dealers in search of good horses. the former being the largest and most powerful fortress and the the latter. Kars was finally ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. is Nahitchevan. the identical spear-head with which our Lord's side was pierced. the cradle of the Gregorian Church. that mask the dwellings within like the defences of a fortress. excellent carriages are obtainable at Erivan. .' the founder.916 feet above the sea. Other still more important towns in Armenia. since his tomb is reverently shown by the inhabitants. for which must be held in great part responsible the magnificent mountain that exhibits itself suddenly at a dip in the road Well may the Armenians glory in long before the plains are in sight. Gregory. their Ararat. even though enlivened . the largest city in Russian Armenia. and rising to an altitude of the southern slopes into the plains of order for post-horses may be obtained at any post-town. but the place is dull enough. so is Armenia essentially the land of legend and tradition. until the garrison was starved into surrender by General Mouravieff. principal arsenal in Transcaucasia was gallantly defended in 1855 by Sir Fenwick Williams and a few British officers.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. looking almost dwarfed by the side of its ' ' mighty neighbour. whether in the Persian quarter. 165 descending. whence a two hours' drive over a good road brings the visitor to the Monastery of Etchmiadzin. ' ' edifice standing within high battlemented walls presenting the appearance of in its treasury one of the most extraordinary of sacred encloses a fortress. The population is Armenian and Persian. As Georgia is the land of wine and song.

Baku presents a distinctly picturesque appearance. some handsome residences and well-paved the principal being the busy quay. with its sombre numerous minarets. being Gospels and devotional works. Tartar city brought into prominence of late years through the introduction of railways is Elizavetpol. streets. The some early printing-press issue in various parts of the globe. so called from its begrimed condition.. where the . where we must now from the creation. of where the the houses look as it they were the other and lining the shore new or Russian quarter being at the Modern Baku contains the pretty little bay. and the palace of the princes of bygone days old towering above the piled the one above base. the wealth of Baku. citadel. at the west end of Baku compose the Black Town.166 RUSSIAN PICTURES. purpose of healing the sick and performing other miracles. and from being of greystone masonry. constructed of massive blocks of naphtha. is embarked for transport to the interior Russia by the Volga. the sea. where neither Viewed from NAPHTHA WELLS AT BAKU. town. vegetable nor animal life can possibly find an existence. to journey pick ourselves up after having retraced our steps by rail to dismal-looking Baku a town of recent approached through a desert of sand and stones. and in it for the is also employed the consecration of the patriarchs. Numerous refineries. on the line between Tiflis and the MSS. plains. or for conveyance across the Caspian to Central Asia. worth inspecting. all religious books for the use of Gregorian congregations library contains and from the A Caspian.

who never fail in their hostility is towards others. occupy the mountainous region known as Interior Taiil in and Eastern Daghestan mountaineers. where still stands the wall constructed by King Heraclius as a defence against the frequent attacks of which thin the mountaineers of Daghestan. and even from India. The two principal towns in this wine country are Telav in Upper. in Georgia. hidden by trees. for they cannot forget that they were employed by Shamyl to assist him in subduing them. continued to be guarded by fire-worshippers from Yezd in Persia. shot down their enemies in scores as they advanced in column up the narrow defiles. The Chentchen are a wild. which he owes entirely to his own industry and thrift and from being strictly a trader. and cool under fire.' said the great Tartar chief when addressing the numerous tribes who placed themselves The mountaineers posted themunder his leadership to repel the invader. is the work of its own people. as far as the slopes of the great range. whom the strength of Russia was unequal to subdue during the space of thirty Do the Russians say that they are numerous as the grains of sand ? years. that the Georgian makes merry. ' Then are we the waves that will carry away that sand. watered by the river of that name. a suburb of Baku. The Lesghians. the foremost and most enterprising trader encountered everywhere being the Armenian. with the connivance of the Government. some even perpetually indeed. In Daghestan is Gunib. are good tacticians. this neighbourhood been considered holy by fire-worshippers. because of the many naphtha springs that were constantly burning. Kakhety. sexes. the Armenian is careless about . Georgians are rarely met with outside the confines of their country proper. until. grateful even in the days of Strabo. Stretching and even from the shores of the Caspian. ago by the increasing number of speculators engaged in a trade which has now completely driven out of the market all American produce. as Lesghians are Mahometans. is and acid. plain from time to time. the fires at Surakan. who is no favourite among the different populations. whilst in truth their religion consists of a love of independence and an unconquerable aversion to Russia. the . red and white. agriculture. are second to none in bravery. they were hustled away some ten years . Nominally. more especially the Lesghians. the richest vineyards being in the Valley of It is with the wine of Alazan. Kakhety. giving it the preference over the wine of Mingrelia. and. After a predatory fight. from the province of Baku. when the opportunity them. three afforded . which. ungovernable tribe. who invaded the and carried off females and the young of both these marauders are called.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and Sygnak in Lower. the vine is successfully cultivated in the Georgian district of Kakhety. 167 Since a remote period has ever enveloped in clouds of the densest smoke. they call themselves distinction to the Tartars who occupy the declivities and plains. selves on the heights. the last stronghold of the brave Shamyl. because of his prosperity.




years ago only, with their hated neighbours, the Chentchen resorted to an that of amputating the hands of their wounded ancient and cruel custom Other tribes and them to the doors of their dwellings. enemies, nailing and Kysty, the Ingush are scattered to the west of the Chentchen











Chentchen, not a little


singular mixture

Mahometanism, the

of Christianity and Paganism, tinged with talismans they wear about their persons

being inscribed with passages from the


Adjointhe Ingush and Kysty, and near the Kabardines, whose acquaintance made in Circassia, are the Ossets, a numerous tribe to the west of the



Arabic or Persian.

River Terek and in the valley of the Ardon, whose origin and history, long a subject of debate amongst ethnologists, has finally resulted in an almost general admission that the Ossets or Osses are descended from and inhabit the same parts as were anciently peopled by the Alains or Alans, mentioned for the first time by Josephus. The Ossets occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Terek, in the hilly parts where they adjoin the Hefsurs, Ph'tchavy, and Tushines,

rude tribes of puzzling religious tendencies, and exceedingly superstitious. The Hefsurs are a proud and supercilious race, inimical to Russia, as are


and Tushines, so that they rarely quit their impregnable homes in the most inaccessible sites on the mountains, and live much the same life they led a hundred years ago. The great thoroughfare between Transcaucasia and Russia is from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, the terminus of the Moscow-Rostof railway, by way
of the Dariel road, a stupendous engineering success completed in the reign This road winds over a pass 7977 feet above the sea, and is of Nicholas.

and clear for traffic in winter by the Ossets, whose country it which service they are exempt from all taxes. The traverses, post stations are the best in the Caucasus, and the distance, 126 miles, is The first usually accomplished in something less than twenty-four hours. station at which horses are changed after leaving Tiflis is Mz'hett, the site of the most ancient city in Georgia, its first capital, and residence of its
in repair in return for

Pharnawaz, 302-237 B.C. The cathedral, restored in the seventeenth century, in which many monarchs and patriarchs are interred, is worth


For ages was here inspecting as a perfect example of Georgian architecture. preserved the seamless garment of our Lord, the handiwork of the blessed

but unhappily when the Persians overran Georgia, the precious relic Virgin was sent for safe custody to Moscow, where it has remained ever since. From another station on this road is obtained a near and beautiful view


of Kazbek, ascended, twenty years ago, to its very summit, 16,546 feet, by several members of our Alpine Club, notwithstanding local traditions which
assert that the

peak of Kazbek, being a holy



inhabited by a


and that the

man who




by an unseen power

arrested by a storm, and compelled to retrace his steps. of the station the road, keeping the right bank Mr. Douglas D. through the celebrated Dariel Pass, of which











The bold and broken forms of the gigantic mountaineer, says arrest the attention of even the most indifferent observer of The mere fact of the existence of a carriage road is some detraction
' :







had nothing


yet we agreed gorge from a comparison with the finest





defiles of the Alps.'

completed the journey from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, he will have arrived at the depot and point of transit for all goods brought by rail from Russia, and there transferred, for conveyance to the Transcaucasian provinces, to clumsy, unwieldy carts or vans drawn by those in charge of the caravans never being in a hurry, horses or oxen as to when they start, or when they arrive at their indifferent completely destination, and rejoicing in a lengthened stay at Mlety station, after having accomplished the most toilsome part of the distance the ascent and descent Vladikavkaz was founded in 1785 on the site of an Osset of the pass.




and became the headquarters and chief military depot of the Russians during their lengthened struggle for supremacy with the stoutit is now the chief town and seat of government for the hearted hillmen The population province of Kuban, and still an important military station.

of Circassians, Armenians, and Russians, and a few Ossets at The chief industries are the bazaars, for the natives made off long ago. the manufacture of silver and gold lace, arms, burkas, the Caucasian's allThe hotels are fairly good, but there weathers cloak, silver ornaments, etc.

made up

being nothing at Vladikavkaz itself sufficiently inviting to encourage a longer stay than is absolutely necessary, the following choice of routes lays before He may post through Eastern Caucasus and embark at the stranger.
or take the Petrovsk for Astrakhan and the tedious voyage up the Volga route to en Moscow or travel rail to Novorossisk by railway to Rostof
; ;

on the

Black Sea,



Ekaterinodar, post thence to

embark Tanian and


following that line as cross the straits to Kertch.
and Bashan.



Travels in the Central Caucasus







in fact,

have, within the compass of a very few pages, to sketch the leading features of Asiatic Siberia, which, having an area of nearly five million English square miles, is almost three million square miles larger than It comprises, the whole of European Russia, including Poland and Finland.

one thirteenth part of the globe. On the other hand, the population, sparsely scattered over eight provinces, is scarcely that of London, for it amounts to little more than four millions, giving less than one inhabitant per

For thousands of mile, against forty-one in European Russia. miles Siberia has a northern seaboard on the Arctic Ocean, and an eastern







degrees Europe, and on the south its limits come into contact with the empire of China and with the dominions of Russia in Central Asia. A gloomy desert of frozen tundras, or mossy boglands, on the north,

of latitude.


Sea of Okhotsk that embraces nearly the west, the Ural Mountains separate


the rest of this vast country is in some parts green and fertile as the prairies and pampas of America, in others mountainous, with alpine lakes, glaciers, and snow-clad peaks. The principal rivers are the Ob, the Enisei, and the Lena, which, after being fed by numerous tributaries, discharge their mighty waters into the Arctic Ocean, on points of the seaboard practically inaccessible



shipping for the steady and reliable prosecution of trade. Railways will soon be constructed to bring the rich produce of the great Siberian rivers to a westerly harbour on the Polar Ocean, more free from ice than the fjords,

On the south, Siberia has a convenient waterbays, in the Kara Sea. way into the Gulf of Tartary, namely, the great Amur river, with its tributary, the Usuri, which


diplomatically acquired from China in 1859 and 1860. So far, Asiatic Siberia





that from Perm, on the European side of





Ekaterinburg and Tiumen, it will not be long before the Ural chain is





southerly point Great Siberian



which was opened as far as Ufa,




Omsk, Tomsk, Kras-

and Irkutsk. and the Russian coast on the Pacific are




railways or under


points of construc-






rality of our readers only as a land of penal or


from early impressions conveyed by



or the Exiles of Siberia, and

more recently from the reports of
to the Russian convict system, be said to be a land flowing with

who have devoted
in the



Siberia, except

extreme north,


milk and honey,' requiring only the energy of man and the resources of civilization to raise it to a condition of great affluence. The sparseness of its population is an obstacle which greater facilities of communication are rapidly removing.


strong tide of immigration has set


from Central and Southern Russia,

even towards the distant basins of the Amur and the Usuri, where the Russian peasant finds himself in contact, not with bears, but with tigers. The natives whom the Russians have displaced as masters of Siberia are no longer to be dreaded, and their numbers are dwindling rather than
Ethnographically, the aboriginal races are grouped as the Arctic, roaming on the frozen lands of the Arctic Circle, from the mouth of the Lena









with settlements also at the


Amur and

the island of Sakhalin



of Samoyedes and of Ostiaks, and other Finnish tribes,






north-western part of Siberia, principally between the Ural

Mountains and the Enisei, from the shores of the





Enisei, from which, however, they are cut off by strong Slav

sources of the



the districts


E nisei sk and Kras-

noyarsk; the Titrkish, which
supplies fishing and hunting Yakuts to a large tract of

country intersected by the Lena, and nomadic Khirghizes,

Nogais and Bashkirs,


west of the



represented by Buriats

Mongol, and

Kalmucks, who, starting as a narrow ethnological wedge from the Arctic shore east


tribes of the

extend southwards until they meet the Tunguz and Lamut MancJiu race, dominant from the head of the Sea of Okhotsk to the Russian outpost at Vladivostok, on the Gulf of Tartary. The origin of Russian dominion in this part of Asia is worth tracing. In the most remote times, the Slavs, and mainly the Novgorodians, had

and Tiumen. and established their power at Sibir (the name which the Russians gave to Isker). of which site of the the principal mart was at Isker. and capital present city of Tobolsk. ganoff derived great riches from its Siberian trade. and on a second expetraders dition. and traders from Novgorod the descended the tributary streams of the Ob river in search of furs. A SIBERIAN MERCHANT IN WINTER TRAVELLING DRESS. and other aborigines. on the Irtysh. Early in the sixof teenth century the Muscovite Tsars. in suc- ceeded of capturing of the Isker. which had exploited long been of the Stroby agents which family. Ural territory. after Ermak was soon and the the Irtysh. or Siberia. was known to ancient Arab merchants and missionaries. and in mountain passes. .' of the that to lands within of the ' the basin ' Ob. Cossacks. demoralized also by the danger of their position in the face of inimical native tribes. long but the construction of fortified Cossack posts at the confluence of resisted rivers. at portages. a little above the a Tartar of the was Isker kingdom. A Cossack robber band under Ermak followed in the footsteps of the and trappers. eventually reduced them to . '75 commercial intercourse with the tribes settled on Ural Mountains. were forced to later abandon a conquest which was virtually effected Muscovite The Tsars thus became masters of the Transby troops. The Buriats on the Angara.SIBERIA. but with the loss over half Cossacks crossed drowned in who the had Ural. Tobolsk. having annexed the wide dominions the Asiatic slopes of the Great are known to have Novgorod. style to began Lords themselves ' of the territories of the ( )1> and is the say. the Koriaks. Kanda. in 1581.

from which Russian dominion was consolidated and extended. perished settled in villages along the 1 Russian revised Edition ol Rechis. in the thirteenth century. on Chinese territory. in the Gulf of Tartary. in isolated forts. as in the law having thus been the remainder was we have already said. The plains of Mongolia. and condemned. Towards macious Little Russians Streltsi whom the most Peter the Great had spared. near Tobolsk. The sovereigns who more immediately succeeded Peter I. were succeeded. or perpetrators of fraud and crime against the State. Amur was gained. on the sufferer in this respect was the tocsin Volga. by successive established a semi-Asiatic form hands of those on ineffaceable injury race. But a desire to entire possess an outlet ' in the in Pacific for the huge continent of Siberia led the establish. a century and a half previously. nose. just annexed to Muscovy. and Cossacks. and sent to guard. have spoken. like a human criminal. which was formally banished in 1591 to Pelym. distant confines of his empire. Boris Godunof. for the offence of ringing out an alarm while the emissaries of Prince the usurper. Some of their descendants are 1 banks of the Lena. of the territory through which the Celestial empire is now dangerously vulnerable. and nine points dealt with. were exiled in batches to Siberia. in Russian Government. numerically The Russian but later trappers. by first only from the sevenboth criminal and political. Many of them.176 RUSSIAN PICTURES. by skilful diplomacy and the Chinese Government made a formal cession. to at 1851. son of exiled to doing to death the young Among of the earliest in State criminals Siberia were the citizens the town which that the end of the seventeenth century. in 1860. Tobolsk became the central seat of government. Isker. 'trading the mouth of the Amur. in Russians and Siberia. are now in the Mongols and Tartars inflicted such well-nigh suffering. . submission. having been swept away by a flood. the first bell of the town of Uglitch. of which the population was later increased by Dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. branded or maimed in tongue. In 1689. or Sibir. Dimitri. victims of Court intrigue. political. began to supply Siberia with a new class of exiles noblemen and ex-favourites. Russia. whom and the of government at Moscow. from which had issued. and portage connecting that river with De Castries During the Crimean War the left bank of the two extremities of the Bay. were Ivan the Terrible. Poles. the hordes that devastated common to the rest of Europe. and by the small remnant of the tragedy took place. Strange to say. to which we are indebted for much information in a concise form. the militarily occupied. . preponderate century. the Tsar was compelled to order the evacuation of the settlements formed by Cossacks on the Amur. or ears. to lose its tongue and ears. representing the Slav traders. contuof the Ukraine. under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. arrested her in a development invasions. factories at spite of that treaty. of teenth whom we exiles. and ultimately.

drawn attention to the dreadful sufferings still endured by exiles in Siberia. where no friendly hand could help them. which has Buriats. Catherine II.SIBERIA. Of these. deported to the same wilds large bodies of Poles. the custom to guard against the escape of convicts trils. the messenger of glad tidings was generally unable to find them. has in three shirt. 972 were sent as convicts. and the considerable contingent of Polish exiles suppression of the insurrection 1500 as settlers certain circumscribed dis- Like the ordinary criminals of every grade who have been poured into Siberia for the last century exiles and had. in days happily gone by.' SIBERIAN CONVICT. it was. where. 177 miserably in the forests .ind tundras of Siberia. and about within tricts. about 900 Poles. with by tearing out their nosUntil 1864 they were branded a hot iron on the forehead . Nevertheless many is. ' who are only one fugitive skin. and where. or chained in It took gangs to long iron poles. to make or five thousand on foot. other parts of Siberia. still escape obedience to the call of ' General Kokushka. even if pardoned. to sent join their countrymen performed the same dreary journey after the of 1863. ' See Dr. the four political until recent journeys miles of days. while his the leanest his coat. who had served under the in In the reign of Alexander banners of Napoleon. and on both cheeks but at present runaways are simply placed the pale of the law. xxxvi and xxxvii. them two years to reach places of banishment in the Trans Baikal as well in as province. tied. 685. when it more especially to 1 ' the crowding of political offenders and criminals. p. were last I.' that the cuckoo 2 The Howard Association has recently proclaims the advent of spring. Siberia. Kennan's articles in The Century. a half. and the tender mercies of the beyond left to Tunguzes and reported to prefer the chase of an escaped convict to that of a wild goat. kaftan? and some kind of sheepskin entirely. . vols. Russian edition of Reclus. with the coat The long worn by peasants.

Russia. when the benefit of of Russian juries. of intentional deportation mitigate the although of present government or the superior cruelty or negligence in the matter of very great deal has already been done to the felons still sufferings condemned and banished a large revolutionists. plunderers felons.. doom of labour in the mines of Nerchinsk should have a considerable amount of may. Tomsk and the university recently and Russian no doubt. to whose steppes he banished gentleman Without pretending to . do much both to sustain and to raise . in ocean steamers which embark their miserable and dangerous freight at Odessa. however. themselves to a great extent the descendants of exiles.' and the punishment for the most atrocious murder or series of murders does not by jury. island of Sakhalien. who lead Siberia is a pleasant land to convicted other public institutions. it cannot in truth be said that their lot in Siberia. is now a very hard one. present punishment by exile might be made more impressive and more effectively of activity in centres remote deterrent of crime. we may interest our readers by mentioning in 1863 met. of the inmates are conlargest of which ' stantly officials ill . and are able to find occupation and recreation of one The intellectual level of the Siberians is markedly higher kind or another. than that of the population of European Russia. As regards the generality of political exiles. among the Bashkirs. die. except in its polar region. Polish established at that level. of banks and a to free. even.' No can accuse a of . here salutary terror to prospective criminals. Russia but.. They are by the local inhabitants. honest and more than ten per critic cent. and to numerous other happy. after they have once reached the places of their banishment.' which save him from the full the habitual rigour of the law.i 78 RUSSIAN PICTURES. at In some respects. in filthy prisons. and to their a unable to acquit prisoner clearly culpable. a Russian Howard would undoubtedly find field watching over and improving the system in its details. innocent wives and children of the former. Corporal punishment having been abolished in 1863. ' In this respect it appears necessary that a exceed twenty years' hard labour. and it has trial great amount of crime thus escapes punishment in become a serious question to Russian statesmen whether A suddenly introduced in 1865.' in one of the more than twenty-five per cent. has not done more harm than good to the moral condition of the people. and perhaps luxurious life at Tomsk or lenity Tobolsk. bring forward a typical case of comparative that a Polish felicity in exile. thanks ' proneness. the from the eyes of philanthropic governors. criminals to the that the worst are now observe deported We on the Gulf of Tartary. to give him extenuating circumstances. will. owing to the continuous cordially received influx of educated exiles. the penalty of death is now inflicted only in cases of political and other crimes requiring special measures of repression.

a voyage of four days from Novgorod by steamer. St. and at Aziatskaya station begins our descent into Asia. Not far from the principal works. take rail to Ekaterinburg. irregularly disposed. its low wooden houses.SIBERIA. down the eastern side of the Ural Mountains. in proximity with the famous Demidoff copper mines. who the of hawking. we we have been sketching via Perm. resuming work in his original profession of an advocate and the knowledge he had acquired from his Irish friend enabled him to undertake English business. the aspect of a Siberian city is given to Perm by A SIBERIAN GOLD MINK. of which there eleven. we find a minerals found in museum well Siberia. the Crimea. from which malachite is raised. Petersburg. We Siberian carried must now towns. visit some of the principal Until the great country on the River Nijni the Ural. and with whom he followed in the sport deserter from the British language. 179 was relegated. an Irish taught him the English exile liberated settled at . Kama. army Recalled after a couple of years. and to retire after a very few years with a considerable fortune. started by a Stroganoff in the sixteenth century. The great specimens of the many iron works of Neviansk are some thirty stocked with N 2 . It is an important centre of we Here metallurgic industry. At their foot lies much are Nijni Taghil. Although within across railway to Ufa is have to reach the the confines of Europe.


Of the twenty churches that stand out from among the modest wooden houses of Tobolsk. and in their immediate in neighbourhood In are the first gold washings to which we come Siberia. after a somewhat monotonous voyage between low and flat banks inhabited by Ostiaks and other aborigines. aqua marine. Irtysh. by descending first the and then ascending the Ob in a steamer. the Cathedral of St. distant East. already referred to. and the British and Foreign Bible Society have consequently selected it as the most suitable place for a thorough and systematic dissemination of the it has water is communication with the it Word of a of God among Steamers run the political prisoners.SIBERIA. jasper. in large numbers. and the the exiled bell of Uglitch. opals. was founded 1723. for while Ob. and is a handsome districts. and bears in the forests that have not yet disappeared under the great demand for wood fuel used in possesses The Crown a factory in local gems and stones. the capital province of the same name. from Tiumen in a day and a half to Tobolsk. but as they are more than a hundred miles away. like that of many an exile. we find ourselves at Tomsk. on the Tura River. lapis lazuli. and seven times as large as Great Britain and Ireland. a town founded in 1586 on the site of an ancient Tartar city. it must suffice to take note of the fact of their existence. beryl.000). bristling with domes and spires. There is also a laboratory in which the gold raised in Siberia is smelted into ingots. Although the Ostiaks in these regions still live in tents. Close to it is a belfry in which hangs fortress of front. This is the most important commercial centre in Western Siberia. . or more than a quarter of the total gold world (estimated at about 144 tons).. precipitous not far from the city by the Tobol.600. of and . named by Peter the Great after Catherine in of gold production in the tons I. of elk. was yielded by Siberia. as we also do of the presence. and at our feet spreads out the joined lower town. thirty-two (^4. and to several gold washings in the neighbourhood of the city. wolves. at Tiumen. 181 miles beyond. Ekaterinburg. through its great affluent the also the goal of caravans from China and other parts of the Irtysh. such smelting ore. We are told of the emerald mines that belong to the State. In eight days more.' and in a:s great importance as the centre of rich the seat of the State 'administration of the it which are cut and polished garnets. alexandrite (crimson by day and green by night). and a number of other stones more or less rare and precious.extensive mining mines. Our railv/ay journey ends. 1884. In addition to iron and copper works. the oldest and most populated in Siberia. there is a mine of gold quartz at Berezof which most travellers are induced to inspect. Sophia is the most handsome. city. Exiles are distributed from this point over Eastern Siberia. jacinths. topaz. The upper town Tobolsk occupy a commanding position on a hill with a and from which we gain an extensive view of the Irtysh.

takes a fortnight neighbouring Enisei . of subjugation and annexation until the towns of Eniseisk and Krasnoyarsk were founded importance for the will same purpose on the Enisei River. and is it can also look forward to the benefits it of the in it great railway which destined sooner or later to pass through Pacific coast. Siberia. along roads (in the as any in England. and have not.-A TOBOLSK. like their congeners on the Built in 1604. via Irkutsk. Its prosperity and revive now that it has become the seat of a university for . both of to reach China and the At present Irkutsk with province) as well made and kept post horses. the direction. retained their Enisei. they are more or less Russianized.182 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Tomsk remained a centre ancient dress.



on the opposite side.000 English square miles. and other trees. and before a great of Eastern Siberia. being made under the impetus of Its leather. called the A beautiful view is soon obtained of Lake Baikal. great mass steep decline and forming rapids nearly of rock. and presents magnificent views of After passing a foot of their slopes with pines.000. which rises not a population of 36. 400 miles long by 20 to 50 in breadth. the seat of the administration picturesque Angara River. also This sheet of water. At Verkhneudinsk. and the transit trade in tea. &c. rises picturesquely in the middle of the A rushing waters. cedars. by a steamer the depth close Fine fish in great variety abound in its in shore is a thousand fathoms.. 185 Irkutsk. the Angara will be found rolling down a four miles in length.SIBERIA. soap. however. fire 1879 was the finest town in Siberia. is the junction of the roads . the largest fresh water lakes in the world. and never passed by them without an act of devotion. in large after the establishment enjoys is likely to attain a considerable development of railway communication. Travellers bound to Kiakhta can reach it from Irkutsk in four days by post and steamer. more rugged part of the valley. also tenanted waters. The road winds along the wooded part of the Angara hills crowned and covered to the valley. and candle works are being continued industry and trade. THE BURNING OF IRKUTSK IN 1879. lies on the It has far off in Lake Baikal. and occupying an area of 14. which mountains is surrounded and occasionally attain a height of 7000 by is crossed At the station from which it feet. Holy Sea. Rapid recovery is. which are by the ocean seal. is one of It is 1364 feet above the ocean. from Kiakhta which it on a scale. held sacred by the followers of Shamanism.

II. Selenginsk. . Yule. On the (. and in an enclosed cemetery we find the graves of Mrs. of the labours of the devoted themselves English missionaries who. YAKS IN WINTER COSTUME ON THE LOWER AMI'K. beyond. between 1817 and 1840. lead that and at severally to Pekin and to Vladivostok on the Pacific a small and miles we modern 110 reach the scene town. Sixty miles further on. and three of their children. bank of the Selenga are still extant some of the outbuildings of the house in which they lived.1 86 RUSSIAN PICTURES. at the end of a heavy and sandy road that runs along a parched and undulating tract of land covered here and there with a little grass. Mrs. Stallybrass. to the conversion of the Mongolian Buriats. is left .

187 Troitskosavsk. resulting in a spirit of freedom and a broadness of view. already for the the icy north. of the is ' ' exile. even Russian It was founded as a fort about officials are not allowed to sleep. a A Lamasery is among the principal sights of this place. and follow the travels deteriorated in or way of the grand country of the Amur a vast and one also of high importance to Russia from a strategical kingdom Our readers must be content with the sketch we have point of view. ' great wall of Kalgan). on the other hand. . The theory that tea carried overland is superior to that which aroma. where. bidding fair to render The Russian is already in the richly-stuclcled Crown of All the Russias. for there has been a great mingling of blood in this new country. drawn by oxen. imported via Odessa and St. where a better exclusively quality is produced than in the south. seen to greater advantage in it than on his native dreary plains. and thereby becomes As a matter of fact. making rapid strides numbers and Sibir one of the most valuable jewels prosperity. a great trade still exists in that article. 1728. the leaf brought to Kiakhta is long been exploded. where In its we have a so-called carts square to alight in a dirty inn infested with vermin. the growth of the northern provinces of China. the advantage of cheaper carriage by sea. From want of space we cannot return to Verkhneudinsk. notwithstanding that its cathedral is Buriat endowed with gold and jewelled church properties. we stop to gaze at the corn and hay market Mongolian wheels. under existing arrangements with China. and mounted on wooden discs instead of walk along a macadamized road brings us to the Russian frontier town of Kiakhta. a town inhabited palisade of Maimachen. nor as mingling with in exclusively the land the honest banished.' women Notwithstanding the competition of sea- borne tea. has strength by sea. since its free in population. and Chinese by three thousand male Celestials. and which forms the bulk of the tea consumed in European Russia. Petersburg. and an incessant interchange of thought of a high intellectual order. gravitation of its development is towards the genial long road to the Pacific by in itself. 220 is yards wide. separates entered through a gate the in Russian the The latter empires. A and so is still richly miserable-looking place. Neutral ground. in strong contrast with the comparatively low level of general culture in the European parts of Russia Proper.SIBERIA. south. which can no longer be considered as the land of made of Siberia. which enjoys. in from becoming rooted to the being rigidly excluded (from beyond the order to prevent the subjects of His Chinese Majesty soil.

the Khirghiz steppe country. OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY IN THE PUBLIC RUMIANTSOFF MUSEUM. abutting on the east on the empire of China. includof ing the Aral Sea. MOSCOW. : of the earth's surface into the Transcaspian region. has been more and more prominently brought to the notice of the British public in connection with SINCE and the country is now so well that none of our readers and physical political aspects will expect or require to derive any additional light from our sketchy pages. terminating on the the third : . provinces south-eastern shores of the Caspian to Merv and the Afghan frontier. indicating the territories beyond the Caspian. a terra then almost incognita. within its steppes of Siberia. and historically three distinctive and politically important. and bounded on the south by the governor-generalship the stretching from Turkestan. beginning at the southern limits of Siberia. CENTRAL ASIA. between the Oxus Jaxartes. The time has arrived when we should set aside the vague geographical designation of Central Asia. the days of the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny the question of Central Asia.FROM A MS. within which are comprised the lands great division east at the Tianshan and the. bounded on the south by the dominions of Persia and Afghanistan. but Central Asia has converted portion the this final large. To our immediate forefathers the greater part of the country thus consolidation bounded was known as of Russian dominion in Independent Tartary. and merging on the north into the Russian advances focus in in the direction of India. CHAPTER X.



C. and planted the roots of Mahometanism so deeply that to this day the most orthodox champions of Islam are to be found in the mosques of Khiva. and Bokhara. which gradually merges into the Kopet Dagh range of mounThe tains. J. as the natives do even now. ruled afterwards Parthians. combined area of these three satrapies is over a million and a half English square miles. this expedition the Hindu of Alexander when hunted the fugitive then. separating Northern Persia from the Turcoman deserts and oases. early in the eighth century. 191 Mountains and the Pamir. Samarkand. the Scythians in turn by the Persians. while their total population is little more than five millions. . Geddie's excellent work on The Russian Empire. the fire overwhelmed the Bactrian empire. 1 1 For this digest. and founded the On their way to the Indus. who. on inflated skins or trusses of hay Kush. we are to a great extent indebted to Mr. crossed in . the limits of Turkestan are marked by the Hindu Kush. centuries. at the foot of the great tablelands of Thibet and Chinese Tartary. laid waste Maracanda (Samarkand).CENTRAL ASIA. region is afforded by the famous the year 329 B. proselytized with and sword. On the south. advanced kingdom. and for much other information tersely conveyed. Our first glimpse into the interior of the Great. which survived for to the Bactrian several Jaxartes. and Chinese. They were succeeded by Arabs of the Khalifate. he passed Persians across the Oxus.

then. and was assassinated Turcoman deserts in humanity' who overthrew the Persian and reared the height of his fame. and Kokan. Khiva. or the lame). had no title to the name as the seat selected and Turks burst in from the the until north-east. behind the mountain screen of Persia. in 1219.RUSSIAN PICTURES. conquered Delhi (1525). pally by races of Iranian origin. the but of great 'scourges in was Nadir Shah. of the successors of Timur in Bokhara and in Kokan. latter the terror of the world. and chased the remnants of his Long and cruel army through the Afghan passes and across the Indus. the subjects of laid waste Bokhara and Samarkand. but he Ferghana. as the ruling power in the country. to withstand unable was himself at Samarkand. selves at Samarkand known took the as and Shah. but the Mongol hordes of Chinghiz Khan. the ruler of famous Baber. and fleeing ultimately through Afghanistan of the Great the and founded 'Empire India. the Twice called the province of Ferghana. . Seljuk The of their power Khorassan. from which they entered upon a deadly struggle with the nomads who held the steppes The Shahs who ruled over Kharesm (Khiva) established themor deserts. issue in by Tamerlane (Timur-Leng. waged between the direct descendants of Chinghiz and their neighbours and kinsmen the chiefs of the Golden Horde were brought to an they defeated whom KOKAN. massacred and slew. peopled princiof Turkestan. established to the onset of the Uzbegs. countries traversed by the Oxus and the Jaxartes. his the half of the fourteenth century. The subsequent national history of Turkestan is largely made up Another flood of invasion from the northern Mogul. which thus became Turkestan. overthrew the rule and now again.' of struggles for ascendency the last between the the Khanates of of Bokhara. wars. Mogul empires. who made Samarkand steppes capital. in 1747.

. and two missions to Bokhara. the Dutch. the sea the approaches to those countries being then jealously guarded by the Spaniards and Portuguese. on which he planted a thousand families of Don forty thousand attacked prosecution of his plans required the conquest of the Caucasus. The o . in 1722. In 1694. Ivan III. the Chinese Wall. a Genoese. and took This enabled him to advance provinces in which those towns were situated. Peter I. and several unsuccessful attempts were made. 193 The gravitation of Muscovy towards the Russian Drang Nach Osten) began after thrown off. in 1537. and to establish commercial relations with the Central embassy to Asiatics. into the possibility of trading to India by way of the Caspian and Oxus. on the roads to India. the powerful and ambitious prince who then to the foundations of the Russian empire. During the reign of Alexis.. Astrakhan. Cossacks. two adventurous Russians from Astrakhan reached Balkh and Cabul.CENTRAL ASIA. a scheme which though begun in his day was not completed until 1864. to the court of Ivan IV. also with the character of a mission. With an a military line of frontier to the west of Tsaritsyn. who had The geographical position kingdoms of Kazan. Bokhara. gold. at the mouth Baku and Derbent. from and the other maritime nations brought home which the Dutch. great request. established the road now traversed by a military railway.' by which Turkey. a large caravan. Portuguese. a annexed the Tartar with the Khanates of Central Asia. Between 1669 and 1672. abundance and in he. heard the Great had much of the Peter land of India. and foreigners Muscovy long finally ' countries of the Far East (the 1480. George. Persia. therefore. and all further fear of a barbaric invasion of the rest of Europe was removed. had been was broken surrounded. Holland. whose silks had come into The mission of 1675 was instructed to report on the Oxus.. entered into relations began lay with the neighbouring states of Western Europe and with the Sultan of In the reign of Ivan IV. his frontier to the Terek. and brought back the first direct intelligence of the wealth of India. In 1558 Anthony Jenkinson equipped a small war vessel on the Caspian. as the most convenient route to Bokhara. treasure in . those acquired by conquests brought Muscovy into commercial communication Foscarini. which he crossed flying the flag of St. was despatched gave the first strong impulse to It was his master-mind that first pointed out to his countrymen. after defeating the Turcomans who opposed his passage. when the Tartar yoke was began to visit it. and India. we find Paul Centurione. and Siberia. Khiva. army of men. He reached Bokhara with his merchandise. to When in Persia. with the English. Russian trade and travel Central Asia. Meanwhile. with the of the Terek. Balkh. he appeared suddenly. In 1695. So inquiring at Moscow the early as 1520. and the Italians were occupied idea of reaching India and China by an overland route. down. on the Volga. the Terrible. Muscovy sent her first Pekin. A similar object brought Marco Venetian.

the 1 but in 700 and 1 703 the Khivans. diplomatic. from disease and exhaustion. A large force was sent in 1839. sorely pressed by the Bokharians. without agents approaches to them.194 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the original base of operations against Central Asia. Kirghiz country between Siberia and the present possessions of Russia in Central Asia were brought within the sphere of Russian administration. was taken after a severe combat. . after the interchange of some missions since 1629. Three years later another fort was planted on the Irghiz River. being despatched by Russia. and expeditions. the Khivans entered into negotiations for peace. or perished miserably in Peter the Great left a legacy the desert between the Aral and the Caspian. Small war next built on the Sea of vessels were Aral. Heyfelder Hanover. Great Horde all the tribes who held the submitted. and by 1853 Ak-meched (Fort Perofski). in 1718. in 1714. scientific. O. From Siberia. liberated a great number of Russians whom they had kidnapped and held in bondage as slaves. Although thus confronted by an irresistible Khanates long and ignorantly disdained the power of Russia force. the Russians began to descend systematically in the year 1845. against Khiva but it was unable to overcome the hardships of crossing the steppes in winter. and returned to Orenburg with the loss of one third of the troops . established on the Sea of Aral. by careful study of the Khanates and the Not a year passed. Russia against their enemies the Kalmucks. and in 1732 the middle Kirghiz horde recognised the sovereignty of Russia. M. encouraged the Central Asiatics to believe in their impregnability. 1888. by fortified places in the province of Orenburg and in the Ural Mountains. which is in reality only a lagoon two the year on the 1 Transkaspien und seine Eisenbalm nach Aden des Erbauers. from 1718 to 1850. submitted to Peter the Great. the first Kokandian stronghold A flotilla also was Jaxartes. Annenkof. and had also. Frightened at last by the evident intention of the Russians to renew their attempt to reach Khiva. under General Perofski. by the possession of Siberia Caucasus in the centre. and agreed to admit Russian traders to Khiva. Parallel with these operations in the Caucasus was an advance made The Kirghiz Kaisaks obtained the protection of eastwards from Siberia. had. By the year 1827. . by dominion over the north. when the fort of Uralsk (Irghiz) was established in the Kirghiz steppe. . By Dr. and these found it necessary to carry out his behests slowly and deliberately. A solid basis was now acquired for further progress in Asia in the in the south. A military expedition sent by Peter for the purpose of establishing the ascendency of Russia terminated in a disaster that confluence of the ' when ' ' : . Lieut. of vengeance to his successors. Gen. supplicated his aid against the robber Turcomans. Prince Bekovitch Cherkaski and his army were massacred. . and forts established at the ' ' ' ' the Or and the Ural and at Orenburg. or military.

by forty-five miles in breadth. At about the same time the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Persian frontier at the Atrek became Russian. Even it. and Tashkent became. and Kokan The Kokandians lost their fortress of Chemkend length stan later. On the west coast the white walls of a few old cities. near which disembogues the Gurghen.CENTRAL hundred and 1858 all ASIA. a year Russia. and Shahrisiabs in 1870. and fringed with barren sand dunes and salt marshes. it the city of river whom in the Middle Ages called the ' Gog and Magog. Its southern shores are visited belong and eastward of Arabian writers Astrabad. and the sea itself a Russian lake. the bays and inlets on the But their dimensions are necessarily small eastern side being mostly shallow. anciently defended by a wall against the inroads of nomads. which still holds the port of Resht. the capital of a Russian 'TurkeGeneral consolidated the conquests made in 1864 province. . to Persia. these dismal shores only by wandering bands of Kirghizes and Turcomans. such as Derbent and Baku (the emporium of petroleum). Bokhara. in 1864.' Cherniayeff and 1865 by beating the Bokharians at Idjar. Samarkand was taken in 1868. It Persian trading companies have no right to now bears on its frequently boisterous waters sail merchant vessels on (ninety-eight feet below TURCOMAN WOMEN.' now O 2 . 195 sixty-five miles in the Kirghizes between and operations in became comparatively easy. Except where at long intervals a Russian fort has been built. the level of the Euxine) a multitude of Russian steamers and sailing craft. In Orenburg and the Jaxartes submitted to the directions of Khiva. overhang the blue waters.

when Krasnovodsk was taken and fortified. General engineering. All the materials. want of water. 1 but one. fortress which Scobelef captured from the we are Tekkes it in in proximity to the iSSi with great in Askhabad. the first of Russians in the Tekke forts seized the but permanently 1877. year 1868. the importation of labourers from Smolensk and Kief in aid of two Transcaspian Railway Battalions. Petersburg.' and the introduction of petroleum refuse from Baku for purposes of fuel and light. the eastern coast of the Caspian began to be utilized as a basis of operations against the marauding Tekkes and the Khivans. Transcaspian Railway greatest feats of modern and reflects on its constructor. was occupied is mills near the the same 1888 says that decidedly the best built Sea of Azof. At Geok-Tepe. Petersburg. and Bokhara. over 1500 miles long. St.' Shy at first. for the route established by rail from Uzun-Ada. Some reverses and the necessity of them General Scobelef to recommend the construction of a impelled avenging the From head of Krasnovodsk of one the Bay. the train brings us across the Ust-urt Desert to Kizyl Arvat. including a passage of three days across the Caspian from As soon as Baku obtains direct railway communication with Astrakhan. Tekke-Turkomans and Persians flocked to the earth-works until close upon eighteen thousand of them obtained employment. and the extension of Russian dominion to Sarakhs and Merv. The greater part of the rails were manufactured and supplied by English . of Ghilan and Mazanderan are the lofty ranges of the Elbruz. Built in 1 880-81. We have no space for a description of the enormous difficulties that were surmounted by the active and zealous general. to the ancient capital of Tamerlane (about nine hundred miles) can be reached in nine and a half days from St. unpopulated wastes. the present starting-point on the eastern shore of the Caspian. The Times correspondent year. the boring of artesian wells and the establishment of other waterworks. imperishable credit Annenkof. London. almost tropical heat. when it became one of the bases of operations which resulted in the total discomfiture of the Turcomans. and the absence of wood or other fuel. These necessitated the planting of shrubs on embankments. by occupied only in 1880. where those who have obtained permission to travel on this military line railway from his fortified position at Mihailofsk. at the ' This ' is ' stop for refreshment at a European station in buffet. the next slaughter. and their highest summits crowned with eternal snow. such as shifting sands. with their sides clothed with forests.196 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Travelling at the rate of twenty-five to thirty-five miles an hour. the journey will be easily performed within a week. Samarkand. its extension from the original terminus at Kizyl Arvat was commenced in 1885. from sleepers to rails and rolling-stock. has now been almost entirely abandoned. The old caravan route from Orenburg to Tashkent. At the back of the rich slopes represented in effigy at the Guildhall. and completed in 1888 at Samarkand. were Russian.

According to the Merv of Tekkes warlike and the recent the most statistics. the sacred city of the Shiite Persians frontier of The their saint Mahmud Riza. A monument perpetuates and a fine public garden. energetic oasis River. etc. as their name number about 105. the line crosses the river of that flows past Sarakhs. The Queen ' once a vast and glorious city. such the Saryks.. and surrounded by a brick wall. rendered fertile by irrigation. Khorassan has for some time been on our soon reach a point which is scarcely more than eighty miles right. The oasis of Merv. Afghans and Kurds. whose ancestor in Russia was Mr. '97 There are some very good streets. a future station on the way to Herat. intersected by the Murghab the Russians built new the the old of town. and we the burial-place of distant from Meshed. profusion of wild grapes. the Great. but differ in their characteristics the Persians. lull of shops. Salors.CENTRAL place on all ASIA. While as Taken together with other tribes. The semi-nomadic and once predatory Turcomans are. implies. ruins remain by city. consists of several parallel streets and neat-looking houses of brick. has an area of only 2400 square miles. supposed to have been built by Alexander A TEKKE VILLAGE. Scobie.' Eighty miles beyond we are at Merv. as well as from their neighbours from the Bokharians and the . a the railway.000 souls. the memory of Scobelef. of Turkish race. a Scotch schoolmaster. name which Before reaching the station of Tedjen.000. the total Turcoman population is at least 700. crumbling on the left bank of the Murghab. and Pearl of the World.

has horses. hats to preserve their heads from the sun in summer and the cold in winter. From early youth the Turcoman is accustomed to long journeys on horseback over the desert. hunger. the Amu-Daria. and weaving. ornaments are in common use horses alone sharing with the women the . spinning. generally of the TEKKES. latter are The clever in and a wadded khdlat or robe. they have so far left agriculture to their slaves thirst. falls into the Sea of Aral after a course of fifteen . The great Karakoum Here we reach desert is left on the borders of Bokhara at Chardjui. knitting. They a fired from stand are also provided with other weapons. Merv is which. only two hundred miles from Herat. beautifully embroidered. finest metal. and produce carpets of such high quality in taste and texture that they are largely The men wear high sheep-skin exported to Russia. from the matchlock Their women are to the modern breech-loading rifle. and France.198 RUSSIAN PICTURES. distinction of being thus adorned. and Mongols. they are capable of supplying the best irregular cavalry in the world. and Herat about three hundred and fifty miles from our outpost at Candahar. Persia. and not unfrequently in a jacket Gold and silver In cold weather a khalat is worn. Devoting themselves to the chase and to robber raids. and to endure fatigue. Considering also the excellence of their and women. attired in Turkey-red trousers and a shirt. like the Jaxartes. the Oxus of the Greeks and the Jihun of the Arabs. although there been a considerable intermingling of blood amongst them all. from which hangs a sword.

also mosque built by Tamerlane. he saw twenty more men huddled together with hardly room to move. Sur- rounded by a wall of sun-baked mud. namely. or Its dome is one hundred feet in height. attached to it is a minaret two hundred feet high.' Its history is it associated with B. kand. Happily.CENTRAL ASIA. stands the prison in which It is a low Stoddart and Conolly. The unsanitary condition of Bokhara is well worthy of the attention of Russian administrators. is principal mosque. Writing in 1888. . again. humanity has undeniably gained much from the establishment of Russian but it is to be hoped that the Tsar's mission of authority in the Khanates civilization will be carried out no less fully and rigorously than the establishment of his military power. The Khan's palace. with adjoins railway station. which is from the quantity of native products floated down the river for land carriage at this point. Like the Khanate of Khiva. one hundred and eighty-five miles from Bokhara. was a still deeper one the hole into which our countrymen were let down. a Turkish bath at a of with mud on side like the dome one top building tiles. with fine columns mosque. stand out from among low-lying. under Russian pressure. built by Tamerlane. two Englishmen. 199 A Russian town. in the new province of Turkestan and four stations beyond this we arrive at Samar. in front of the palace. out . and . with a ceiling that nearly touched the heads of the visitors. we are again on territory not ostensibly but de facto annexed by Russia. dirty prisoners. Whatever may be the political and commercial aspects of the question. the Times correspondent described the in which he saw twenty-five half-naked. as not more room. and approached by tortuous alleys and dirty thoroughfares. Close by is the from its summit. In a well. Bokhara is nominally independent. or citadel. the lower dungeons have been filled up and closed for ever and it is to be hoped that ere long the Khan will be compelled to raze these barbarous dungeons to the ground. it still contains some interesting buildings. faced with glazed white gardens. two great names Alexander of Macedon. . The and blue carried Sentences of death were formerly arranged in curious designs. the condemned by hurling ancient of Mir and another Arab. hundred miles. ' the head of Islam. more than a thouplanted on a conical elevation within the Ark. Constantinople. and theatre. At Sary-Bulak. or colleges. and square. At one side of the artificial hill that supports the citadel. Nearly four hundred mosques and over one hundred medresseh. Below this well.C. to be devoured by insects and vermin. a church. who conquered 325. approached by a small door in the right-hand wall of this chamber. were executed in 1842. but practically neither can have any other will than that of Russia. the steam mill. is that of Baliand. than twenty feet long by ten feet broad. one of great commercial importance. mud-built dwelling-houses ensconced in sand years old. is in the Reghistan. The town of Bokhara is sixty miles further to the north-east.' as : Mecca ' is its heart. and pierced by eleven gates.

or Tomb of Timur. and power of the Eastern world. now outside its This attenuated precincts. mosques. Tamerlane the Great. but it has suffered sadly from being a type of is that of Gur the destroyer's .200 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Living King. and It was under his care that Samarkand became the centre of the colleges. learning The city preserves some remains of its ancient magnificence. who lavishly expended the pillage of the rich countries to the south and west in rearing and beautifying its palaces.' but the lofty portals and domes. resting-place of a martyred is in fact a collection of prophet. make it worthy of the palmy era of Samarkand. Its chief architectural glory is the immense mosque of Shah-Zindeh. the arabesques. carved wooden pillars that support them. The buildings are much out of repair with blue and white porcelain tiles. date 1868 which has passed is signified . the belief in mosques surrounding the whose re-appearance at a SAMARKAND. faced forming mosaic patterns and tints. The most interesting ruin Amir. the interior walls overlaid with arches and ceilings covered with pendent alabaster work. the and the finely by the title of ' marble and tiled staircases.

now prettily laid-out garden that adjoins the residence. of the college or home of the astronomers attached by that ruler to his capital. in which the finest building is the residence of the with turf and their numerous mosques of Tashkend. about two hundred miles distant from Samarkand. Tashkent has long been considered a place of exile or temporary retirement by the Russians who repaired to it. This was restored by the Russian Government in and with 1888. and is equally buried in verdure and intersected by streams It was taken in 1864. consists of Iranian who Tajiks (Sarts). captured by Cherniayef in 1865. severely large citadel now half ruined. We however. Why you going to Tashkent ? all With these attractions.' Chimkent. remember a young officer of the Imperial Guards being asked: 'Are also To which the significant reply was. is prettily situated on a branch of the Chirchik River. is The city. and in great part composed subjects. tea. stretches out on the north can hire a real Muscovite drojki. avail himself of the benefits of in the Here the will get cup of fragrant civilization. and otherwise be interested European He the native population. occupied Sogdiania before it became the land of the and of Turks. and its quaint and bizarre native quarter is separated by a ravine from the new Russian town. Surrounded by gardens. Nor have new Mahometan Governor-General. when the and irrigation works. lies eighty miles to the north of the capital of Turkestan. the pride of the somewhat rivalled by the city is its park of a thousand apricot trees. numbering about 30. flowers. an excellent visitor pavement. centre of the bazaar we see the ruins of the Ulug Beg Observatory the first erected in Asia. Hindoos. the administrative centre of A the Province of Turkestan. almost the only one of any antiquity is that of Khoja Akhrar.CENTRAL hand. and gipsies. ' ' have no debts. Within its walls are the crumbling remains. The well laid-out Russian town. population suffered of the hands A at the Cossacks. and even the great block of greenish-black stone which marks the On a hill in the cenotaph of the conqueror has been broken in twain. and only a question of time. There are two large squares bright and an with orthodox church in the centre of each. prolongation of the line to Tashkent.000.' Uzbegs of the Turanian tribes that were wont to descend upon ' the lands watered by the Jaxartes and the Oxus since the days of Chinghiz Khan. occupying an area as wide as that of Paris. Jews. which. should I ? I . the officiating Imam on that occasion making an address descriptive of the benefits conferred by the Russian Government. opened great ceremony in the presence of the GovernorGeneral. and stating that never had the native population of Turkestan enjoyed so tranquil and prosperous an existence as now. still surmounted by a high minaret. The bazaars are also full of Persians. over four hundred years old. a with side of a boulevard and citadel. the Russians omitted to satisfy the religious requirements of Among the of them. the Green Town. ASIA.

. and falls.> . as therefore. its name to a province . it. It is. rises in we approach the Celestial several streams in So much of its Mountains. 5 ? it. one hundred and the Syr Daria. All we have space to say of the ancient town of Turkestan is that. it gave in the days of Tamerlane. for and waters are deflected that its middle lower courses upper irrigation are sluggish and shallow. Hazret-i-Turkestan. or'. -.202 RUSSIAN PICTURES. into the Sea of Aral. j v .. Ji. is high veneration. and testifies to the ancient strategical importance of the At Turkestan. a Mahometan saint held to this day in mosque It an interesting and curious group of buildings. along a which was called Jassy who in 1397 began the construction of a huge of in honour Hazret-Yusufi. Mf' . the old post road that we travel hence to Orenburg starting-point for Central Asia.. ' r > . above towers place. like the Oxus.- . i" i^:v". which five miles to the north-east. THE GRAND MINARET. KHIVA. and but little available for navigation.

that traffic. found a A Russian military expedition in 1873 put an end for ever to ready sale. Under the influence of Russia. These are almost the only buildings of brick at Khiva. is now constrained to be on his best behaviour. kidnapped by the Turcomans on the shores of the Caspian. are in the citadel. prisoners has brother of Bok- The city is little more than a collection of hovels of baked mud. but only a relatively small THE MOSQUE OF HAZRET-I-TURKESTAN. or on the tablelands of Persia and Afghanistan. who. flanked here and there by pools of foul. sur- rounded by a low earthen wall. and the only mosque with any pretensions to architectural beauty is that which holds the tomb of Our illustration shows the minaret Polvan. They were attacked by disease or massacred by the Turcomans on their march in small detachments across their number reached original the desert.CENTRAL ASIA. and gave liberty to 37. Afghans. .000 slaves. Its fame is that of a which slave mart market in Asia at the chief slave chiefly Persians. of its outer walls have from the Russian cannonade suffered inscriptions directed have in 1864 against the citadel in which it stands. semi-independent Khanate. and travellers (Kostenko and MacGahan) have described it stagnant water as containing more cemeteries than Its mosques and medresseh gardens. 203 The glazed bricks and incised evidently unfinished by its Persian architect. and earthquakes many places fissured this seventh wonder of the world. but requires passing notice as the of a large.' in ' Khiva Russian is not legitimately within a the scope of our sketches capital of the empire. and Russians. the torturing his of quite recently been forbidden by the Khan. homes. and within easy striking distance from the Russian military station on the opposite side of the river. . the patron saint of the Khivites. within which dwell the Khan and his principal officers. occupying an oasis bordered by the left bank of the lower course of the Oxus. like hara. in front of that mosque.

and co-operation with Western civilization.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. like that of Russia. have an aggregate area of 49. permitted the Poles to work out their own development on lines so widely question.. CHAPTER POLAND. . the remainder being Jews (in the proportion of thirteen per cent. apart from those pursued amalgamation of these practical impossibility. as in history . of Poles. Germans. and other odd kindred remnants.157 English square a population of eight millions. and became. composed to the extent of sixtyand miles. five per cent. Lithuanians.Vistula Provinces. and other aliens. asserting that the descended on the Polish coast of the Baltic. Czechs Contact (Bohemians). kingdom created at the great settlement of political accounts in 1815 has been officially styled 'The Cis. their language differing but little from that of the Russians. The Poles (the Polacks of Shakespeare) are a branch of the Slav race. MOSCOW. Bulgarians. Russians. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TRUITSA MONASTERY. Servians. that Polish Szainocha. XI.' ever since the absolute incorporation with the Russian empire in 1868. and settled chiefly in towns). OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. with Scandinavian invasion a reliable authority of the present century. The provinces in tutional THE Czar still bears the title of King of Poland. and escape from Tartar subjugation. Northmen begins. the complete been a matter of two great Slav branches has long by their Russian brethren. but the consti- ten in number.

1 ft S^^s^aWi^ .


The was still further diminished. brought and one of the reasons that led the Cossacks strong intolerance with them. already limited by and the crown became elective. After Pomerania. absconded from Cracow in order to become Henry III. who had saved Vienna for the Austrians. who were of the nobles. ancestors of noble houses. Louis. 207 On the other hand.. While occupied in besieging the Huguenots at Rochelle. Augustus. Silesia. of the Swedish Wasa family. under Minin and Pojarski. and White Russia. After compelling his daughter to marry. where the Polish kings were ever after crowned. who founded a dynasty that was superseded only in 1385 by the Lithuanian was introduced by the fourth of the Piasts. as far as the Dnieper.POLAND. but Jagellon. it is on record that Russia. which. in succession to Sigismund II. Christianity in the being partitioned. in virtue of their to under the name of Ladislas) subjects to Christianity. in accordance with the principle that long obtained were of Poland territories the component neighbouring Russian principalities. of Lithuania. introduced in the next . by the bestowal of benefits on the peasantry. elected Jagellon (baptised Magna Charta. not William of Austria. the by Vladislaf (Ladislas) the Short. gained for himself the title of Rex Rusticorum. the Brave. in Casimir Cracow. Moravia.D. Sobieski. Jagellons. the throne of Poland. his sister's son. reign. a peasant. 964. He was the last sovereign of the Piast period. Boleslas I. Henry of Valois but he quickly was elected to the throne. On to his death. Jesuits. of Sigismund II. Jagellons. of France. A. Moscow had been occupied in 1610 by the Poles in the name of Ladislas. could not keep Kief and Little Russia for the Poles. elected to the Muscovite throne by the Russian boyars. the Great. was retained as part of the Coronation Oath so long as there were Polish kings to be consecrated. who He conquered Dantzig and gave a solid foundation to the Polish State.. -was called its the throne but in order the ensure in all continued possession compelled re-instate nobles their privileges. and at a time when Poland enjoyed more religious liberty than any other country in Europe.D. the last of the that of two chambers. and to convert his Duke offered to unite his extensive and adjacent dominions the nobles. subject to alterations made at Diets. under a he was Pacta Conventa. .. or freeadscripti glebce. On the death. and it was a sovereign of the same House. of the Polish Ukraine to solicit Russian protection was the inferior position Roman to which their Greek religion had been reduced in relation to The Russians and Poles had been at war with each other for Catholicism. 842) was Piastus. two centuries. to 1320. and by the limitation of the power holders. who established his capital. King to of Hungary. the first Grand Duke of Poland (about A. which thus became own pagan dynastically united (1386) with that of Lithuania. reunited at Polish Justinian (1334-1370). . in 1572. that of Stephen Bathori. the power of the king. but soon expelled by the patriots. who with those of Poland. whom she loved. son of Sigismund III.

State. as well as with and of Tartars and Frederick Augustus II. under which even Warsaw was absorbed by Russia. Cossacks. The second followed in 1793. in the third Previous to these several partitions.IA. Cracow. Such was the outcome of disorders and revolutions in the wars with Muscovy. during which he was superseded by Stanislas I. rights Roman Catholic Church played a great part. Dissension and anarchy became next still more general ' the Civil war. resulted in the intervention of ' the reign of the question of in the Prussia and Russia. under an arrangement between the same countries. the ashes of the Prague suburb. IN PODOI. which had taken alarm at a liberal constitution voted by the Polish Diet in 1791. Calvinists.. KAMENETS. especially as it had provided for the emancipation of the The struggle made by Thaddeus Kosciuszko ended in the adscript! glcba. and . and reigned until 1733. in which sovereign. and in 1772 the first partition of Poland was consummated. with an interval of five years.208 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and Sweden. Elector of Saxony. obnoxious to the dissidents and other of Lutherans. In addition to the kingdom proper. Augustus III. succeeded Sobieski. Turkey. Poland occupied a territory much more extensive than that of France. and entry of Suvoroff into Warsaw over dismemberment (1795) of ancient Poland. it included the province of Posen and part of West Prussia.

into the administration of the kingdom. Moldavia. and in 1862. appeared to offer to the Poles the prospect of no inconsiderable influence over the independence began to manifest itself. This was first constituted into a Grand Duchy under the King of Saxony. and the lynx. and the Polish language proscribed in the public offices. from Moscow. the most populous to Austria.POLAND. supplying from time imcorn-bearing memorial vast quantities of superior grain for shipment from ports in the Baltic. Outside Warsaw and its immediate vicinity there is little in Russian Poland to interest the tourist. or buffalo. Napoleon I. the bison are strictly preserved from the hunter. and now form the last retreat in Europe of the Bison Europoeus. Although much worried by the wolf. when Galicia (with Cracow) was restored to Austria. and which. It is produced on the larger estates of two hundred to fifteen hundred acres. not without encouragement from Napoleon III. Polish provinces that had fallen to the share of Catherine II. with the result we have indicated at the head of this chapter. Warsaw became The old again a kingdom under a constitution granted by Alexander I. which has so long been ruthlessly slaughtered in the United empire. heath. and the most commercial short distance Prussia. province of Grodno. and part of the In 17/2 Dantzig was a seaport of Poland. an insurrection broke out at Warsaw. and in 1815. and it is only towards the north and east that the ground may be said to be heavily timbered. the survivor of the Aurochs (Bos primigcnius). Galicia. anciently Polish. The finest in . in combination with many liberal and pregnant reforms in Russia Proper. the bear. Silesia. and forest. spirit destinies of the Russian the old of national States. the provinces of Volhynia and Podolia. These successive partitions gave the most extensive portion of Polish territory to Russia. Dense forests stretch down from the Russian. when also the constitution of 1815 was withdrawn. and Posen to Prussia. The country is generally level and monotonous. Bessarabia. present province of Kief. belonging to more than eight thousand proprietors. In still earlier times. and are therefore not likely to disappear like the Bos Americanns. with wide expanses of sand. but were not fully to subjected to a Russian administration until after the great Polish insurrection of 1830. and to within a . at the partitions remained incorporated with the Russian empire. Notwithstanding the wide measures of Home Rule introduced by Alexander II.. Interspersed among these barren or soil wooded tracts are areas containing some of the Europe. the national army abolished. which is supposed to have been the original stock of our horned cattle. stronghold against Turkey north its frontier extended almost to the walls of Riga. 209 Lithuania. revived a Polish state out of the provinces that had been seized by Prussia and Austria. Kaminets. and Livonia were embraced within the Polish possessions. in its while to the west and border Podolia.

WARSAW. and their habits of life but little superior. and. WITH UNIVERSITY IN THE BACKGROUND. their mode of agriculture being almost as rude as that of the Russian peasantry. Petersburg or Moscow. Consequently we confine ourselves to Warsaw. others we may say the great majority are poor and squalid. THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS. Founded in the twelfth century. frequently industrial.210 RUSSIAN PICTURES. which we take on our way by rail to or from St. the seat of the appanaged Dukes of Masovia. replaced Cracow as the residence of the Polish kings . Russia. peasantry. Towns. visit affording no accommodation that would render possible the of even the least fastidious traveller. large and occur than in more and while some are rich and small. contribute who next hold more than 240.000 farms seldom exceeding forty acresto nothing towards exportation. Warszawa. during the Piast period. especially in the matter of drink.

built in the thirteenth century. the country seat of the consort of John Sobieski . and the military hospital at Uiazdov. also Mariemont. and the pretty. built in in is 1832-35. or castle. Petersburg and Moscow. and now the residence of the Emperor when he visits Warsaw. ever-changing. a pretty spot on the Vistula commanding a fine view. The hung ceilings of this chateau were painted by Bacciarelli. Crossing a large square. churches and chapels. with its outlying fortifications. were in out indiscriminately put every direction from the sword. In the Stare Miasto. to Stanislas Augustus Poniatovski. on which city. The left bank of the Vistula. not including the Russian officers and men.500 capital of Poland. (eighty- The five). and divided as Poland itself. Opposite vantage. It 211 has now is garrison of 31. is the recovered from inhabitants the assault Prague suburb. Contiguous to the Lazienki Park are the extensive gardens of the Belvedere Palace. but a considerable distance from the town. here shallow. on the election of Sigismund III. in Near Novi Sviat (New World) Elys&'s.' and which is on its way from the Carpathians to the Baltic. built the Dukes of Masovia. Its pictures and objects of art are now at St. Warsaw its with chiefly built. or Old Town. when to fortified. as a penalty for the insurrection In the same direction. Street. this . gay. are numerous and so are the monasteries and convents (twenty-two).' in 1861. and therefore as the (1586). formerly by Suvoroff in 1 794. place of entertainment much frequented by the inhabitants of and Bielany. wide squares. and the old royal apartments are occupied by the Governor-General. from Sigismund III. A still more ancient sacred edifice is the Church of Our Lady in the Nove Miasto. a country seat of much elegance built by King Stanislas front of elegant Augustus. and its walls are with portraits of numerous beautiful women. and animated stately lines of streets. bordered by fine lime-trees we find the Avenues. stands the cathedral.POLAND. is high. strongly old German in aspect. is ' picturesquely disposed along the brow of the cliff and on the plains above. we reach the fine park of Lazienki. in which the Poles attempted in the Grand Duke Constantine. the Beyond great Sapieha and Sierakovski Barracks towers the Alexander Citadel. a Warsaw. formerly a castle of the Kings of Poland. and restored on the last occasion by King John Sobieski. or Champs private residences. The square in front of the castle was the scene of the last Polish 'demonstrations. We drive 1830 to get rid of their hence in less than an p 2 . Kaskada. its has sixteen never thousand A vast panorama and spreads melancholy dirty point of is the Zamek. mostly Roman Catholic. 1830. when it was twice stained with blood. and spacious gardens. which. in which the troops are exercised. viceroy. or New Town but it certainly retains no traces of deep antiquity. Across the broad sandy bed of the stream. by and enlarged and restored by several of the Polish kings. On page 205 we give an illustration of the prettiest portion of the grounds.000. a population of about 445. at the expense of the city.

objects of art. On the same For want of more strongly attracted by an original known in England. again we must plead guilty of omitting of . now repose after driving the Turks from the walls of Vienna. many palatial among which is one to Copernicus. who died in it. and other curiosities. built the Castle by John Sobieski. historical is full of of Countess the property Potocka. victory. In the gallery Seneca pictures although we are is of we notice an admirable Rubens the Death portrait of Bacon. The apartments .212 RUSSIAN PICTURES. of his beautiful consort are of great elegance. This is hour to one of the most interesting places near Warsaw. which but little to describe space. monuments. portraits. brought back the trophies of his mighty deeds The chateau. of Villanov. sought this To suit of armour presented by the Pope to Sobieski in memory of his great \ ' *#* POLISH PEASANTS. the Polish founder of modern astronomy. of which the most interesting is the magnificent in retreat he and here arms. and several noticeable residences.

theatres. one Cockerell. is cemeteries. ground 213 we pass in over of handsome which.POLAND. . to whom Belgium owes Evangelical Cemetery. much of her industrial prosperity. and buried John THE IRON GATE MARKET (AT THE BACK OF THE SAXONY GARDEN). gardens. the public so buildings.

In both these respects Norway very closely. and a good part of its sea-margin on the Gulf of Finland. and after a separate negotiation between the Finnish Diet and Alexander I. streams. to the peasantry. and a population slightly in excess of two or about it sixteen inhabitants to the square mile. the people are more thriving. sustenance .255 English square miles. of the and who are almost as much driven to emigration as the Norpopulation.' as Finland is poetically called by her loving sons. deep. from the Swedish frontier on the Tornea River. in the North of It has a superficial area of Europe. Land of a Thousand Lakes. ' XII. THE millions. occur but inland. for the sea gives them lucrative occupation. are second only to those of Norway. 144.. In 1809 Sweden ceded to Russia her rights over Finland. a peculiarity from which has been derived the poetical designation of the country. who form about eighty-five per cent. wegians. present a succession of fiords and rocky headlands similar to those of Norway. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TROITSA MONASTERY. the poor stony patches of soil afford but a scanty occasionally.FROM A MS. CHAPTER FINLAND. or resembles The The hilly interior is intersected by a vast number of lakes and grand. MOSCOW. Along the coasts. the Estates swore allegiance to the Emperor as the Grand Duke of Finland. but not equally wide. possesses physical charms which. formed by the recession of the sea. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. long coast-line on the Gulf of Bothnia. Fertile plains.



in recent years under a system of general military conscription. These are already highly developed. excepting only its foreign relations. to is the the exploration of the less frequented parts of with a handbook only scenery and intelligent traveller armed or a dictionary can easily make his way. upon forest and attempts to seize his prey. which renders the Finnish marc. and they are carried chiefly by the national which merchant navy. He is represented at Helsingfors by a Governorincluding the right of veto. contribution independent tariff a distinct coinage. and grayling fishing. lard that is attached to a long rope at the back of the sledge. and placed mother under the Russian War Department. bearing no imperial charge or . and therefore best calculated to sustain a sound system of finance and to promote trade and navigation. with a sucking-pig to squeak by twisting his as a lure. carried the well-ordered country An excellent system of education is zealously superintendence of the Lutheran clergy. in the shape of salmon. a great stumbling-block But the Finnish interior. In regard to religion and education. which. or franc. tar. In winter he can shoot as many wolves as he chooses to pursue on a The pig is kept in a bag. together privileges. they have a Diet their jealously guarded Charter of Rights. nominated by the Crown. sledge. and dairy produce much more are exports. gives employment to more than twelve thousand men. are : Among the most important privileges thus enjoyed a separate budget. Office. and enjoy not life which comparatively few tourists have witnessed. composed of four Estates (nobles. Timber. The Finnish language. the Finlanders have reason to be proud of the results of the legacy bequeathed to them by their old Scandinavian the principal masters. who do not or in man woman that admit to the Communion any person who is unable to read or write. burgesses. when a Parliament of two Chambers was established in The maintenance of the Lutheran religion with all the Extensive powers are reserved to the sovereign. which continues to this day to be In virtue of it. of the national army. were assured to previous rights the Philanders in a solemn manifesto. clergy. established is also who Commander-in-Chief General. as in Sweden until 1866. so different from all other European tongues. The latter are dealt with by the by the Imperial Foreign Finlanders . country. The accommodation outside of the towns is of a somewhat rougher . char.FINLAND. A committee composed of a Secretary of State and four other members acts at St. but enterprising and also excellent sport. and made the wolf darts out from the dark which tail. 2 17 and the integrity of their conand stitution. deceitfully represented by the wisp of straw smeared with. Petersburg as a kind of delegation of the Senate at Helsingfors. and peasantry). that There read out under is cannot scarcely a the Bible. trout. and an independent of the fluctuations of the Russian rouble liberal than that of Russia. administers the affairs of the Grand Duchy.

on landing.218 RUSSIAN PICTURES. to find an air of desolation A and destroyed two-thirds of the city. and the willingness to brave slight discomforts. its interior renovated without detriment houses at considerable distances . yet its rude and heavy Gothic exterior has been preserved. enjoyed. This is reigning over the place. to the quay where our passports and luggage are examined. As we steam up the small and shallow Aura joki. imparted by the wide. public buildings taught the citizens the necessity of rebuilding their public edifices and private raged the for two days in 1827. in smooth and sheltered water except for about two and a half hours. personal acquaintance can soon be made. It is disappointing. or river. including 1640). cross over from the Swedish capital to Abo. after the charming landscape we have ABO CATHEDRAL. description than in Norway. a valuable library. and such of its university (established as had been spared from many previous conflagrations. with this fascinating country. Henry was completely gutted on that occasion. but with a well-assorted stock of absolute necessaries (including insect powder and mosquito netting). and by the deserted appearance of the thoroughfares. roughly-paved streets. by the prevalence of low wooden fire which houses. Although the Cathedral of St. while the steamer passes through the moderate waves of the open part of the Gulf of Bothnia. in from each other. we have a pretty view of via Gothenburg and hours we the city. In fifteen Stockholm.

the border of ancient Osterbothnia a stone wall. a lies peasant before she wore the Swedish diadem. especially at the largest and midway rapids of Pyhakoski. fore- most among which is the trip to the pretty island of Runsala. its walls after their consecration by Bishop Magnus in A. The scenery. or in one of the tar-laclened craft that have so fragile an appearance. . Uleaborg lies at the mouth of a great and rapid river which flows out of Lake Ulea. and descend the river in a hired boat. 1857 by Kristinestad. Svertschkoff. The stained windows. . the present terminus considerable amount of shipping of the railway from St. of her misfortunes and in The secular Finlander. a large block buildings of the city are unimportant. in which Bishop since surrounded wooden house. . when shooting the numerous rapids of the Those who are in search of excitement cannot do better than drive Ulea. the creation of Count Per Brahe in 1649. embellished by a stained window allegorical of her love for Sweden and Finland. at the mouth of the Kumo and not far from which is a River. excepting the Residence. A fishing abounds in most of the rivers that of affords the several to Tornea water opportunity inspecting snug trip by little ports. . first preached Christianity in Finland in the two neighbouring parishes of which the Finnish national costume is still though exceptionally worn Nikolaistad. an Englishman. which bend as if they were made of pasteboard.. some sixty miles distant. a (transferred after 1827 to Helsingfors). and black-haired Philanders (all others being very light) Brahestad. such as Bjorneborg. 219 to The first episcopal chair of Finland was previous architectural features. A large and now occupied by government officers. . in tar and deals. or Vasa. but whose name betrays a Russian origin. add to the interest of the cathedral. number of charming excursions can be made from Abo. near the Myllyranta Ironworks on Lake Ulea. The sun may be seen at midnight from Mount Aavasaksa. designed by V. is very fine. and there is in reality no danger of death by drowning on such an excursion. chiefly with Great Britain. within instituted 1300. one of the most progressive towns in Finland. an active-looking town of the gulf and the islands on it of tarred roofs. and is one of the principal ports in Finland.FINLAND. to a place called Vaala. founded in 1558. from the interior in peculiar boats made of thin planks. and the frescoes in the chancel by which is one of the chapels. when the girl city itself was removed up the to its foundations a short distance river. The present site from its pagan consort of Eric XIV. University by (Adolphus) opposite Ekman. with a Russo-Greek church commanding a splendid view Gamla Karleby. . built Gustavus the cathedral. Petersburg. with a good deal of shipbuilding and a considerable amount of The tar is brought down trade. and salmon fall into the Gulf of Bothnia. Henry. . and possessing a and lastly Uleaborg. for the IV. an old royal domain now dotted with villas.D. a native of Abo.

from which of the night Eve and Day) swarms of travellers arrive to see the midnight sun. in which a goodly number of Englishmen are will employed as foremen. with the Swedish capital. however calm and sheltered. the most northerly town in Finland. John's to sell the tongues. leaving only the most energetic to post fifty miles to Mount Aavasaksa. at the junction of two lakes which supply an immense water power to cotton. when daylight ' lasts only three hours. with their swift reindeer and sledges. although it does not remain entirely above the horizon for more than seventy-two hours. and was once distinguished by the appellation of Little Stockholm. is separated from the Swedish town of Haparanda by a dried-up branch of the Tornea River. and many other industrial establishments. The extension of the railway from Uleaborg to Tornea F1NLANDEKS. and skins of the animals their whole support while in summer. on the . the Manchester of Finland. Tornea. no doubt deflect from the present yachting route to the North Cape the many would-be travellers who dread the sea. As almost everywhere else in this country of wood. from which the sun is visible at midnight for fourteen days. In winter. or cabin accommodation ever so roomy and convenient. .22C RUSSIAN PICTURES. As a contrast to this coast trip the railway may be taken to Tammerfors. but also impresses the mind most deeply and with more awe than any other cosmic marvel among the great and glorious works of the Omnipotent Creator. it is visited by Laplanders. and paper mills. and who yet would like to gaze at a phenomenon which not only fascinates the eye by its strange grandeur and by the weird effect of light it produces. until 1809. flax. hams. they derive 23rd-24th of June (St.' from its brisk trade.

from the top of the splendid dome. Resuming our railway journey. and well taken care of as the Norwegian animal. preaches congregation to the curious acoustic properties of the edifice. and from which Kuopio. There is but little to see in this town beyond a church in which the altar is placed The clergyman in the centre of the edifice.' Norwegians are also taught the same maxim. not as Sharp the pitches in the hill next the driving in Finland may be called furious. and the Russian form of a Greek cross The two distinguishes it from the usual architecture of Lutheran churches. railway brings us to the southern extremity of Paijanne Lake. and in which stands the throne of the Grand Duke. reached by flights of steps. can be reached cart. whose life-sized portrait hangs in each of the rooms occupied by the several administrative divisions of the Senate. exemplified as is in ' . is the Church of St. in a two-wheeled in trotting capacities of its horses.000 books in Russian and Polish.FINLAND. but little inferior to the Norwegian carriole. which form a separate collection. and owes much of its prosperity to the Finland with Russia. with a central hall. Just before reaching it. The speed at which the by Finlanders travel is curiously out of keeping with the general dilatoriness of intelligent it one of their favourite proverbs. Jyvaskila. road are descended at full gallop. 221 water. and a good part of The small horses are as quiet. On the south side of the same square we find the Alexander University. with a large seminary for teachers. with the pews radiating from it. hardy. we soon come to the picturesque old town of Tavastehus. Steamers run hence to a pretty place a and to called Heinola. being eighty miles long by about eighteen at its widest part. owing altar. Nicholas. and The University Library contains attended by nearly a thousand students. Hurry only when catching fleas. the views obtained on this journey are lovely. on a mass of granite fifty-nine feet high. which can easily accommodate three thousand worshippers. seat of a university political connection of the city. an echo repeats the discourse. and par- ticularly the view from the bridge that spans the Helsingfors has been the capital of the Grand Tammerfors Rapicls. the seat of a bishopric and Station At Lahtis the a district renowned for the by road But. used on great occasions. . and a far-seen landmark from seaward. ascended at a round trot. Its style is that of the Renaissance. Facing this church. over and above the 50. The most prominent object in some than porticoes of Corinthian columns. charming little town. and rock. In summer the Imatra hotel. raised (1830-52) in Senate Square. Duchy since 1819. although perhaps not as small boys who drive them. about 150.000 volumes. situated in the midst of enchanting their character. Norway. his back the from the with towards but. constructed in 1832. our attention is called to a modern castellated villa lying in a pretty park to the left of the line. one of the largest in Finland. is the Senate House. are very handand no finer view of Helsingfors and its pretty environs can be obtained . and the since 1827.

golden light. not only from St. crowded of with tourists. who no heed of the deafening taking Sunrise is the best time to see the Imatra-Koski.222 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Viborg can be reached either by returning to the railway at Villman- . the mist having risen. when. who come to see the Imatra formed by the Vuoksi rushing through a narrow chasm between two steep granite rocks. but from Falls. grinds into small fragments the empty watch barrels that are thrown into it for at the last edification of visitors. noise it produces. but with a gradual slope over about half a mile. this awe-inspiring work of Nature is seen through a for hours the seething water. giving a difference of sixty-one feet between the top and the end of the rapids. all parts or rapids. is scenery. The fall is not perpendicular. Petersburg. Europe and America. The rush and roar of the It waters are very grand and imposing.

or i- inhabitants. the principal features of the great Russian empire. Repos. CENTRAL CIRCULATE CHILDREN'S ROOM . with a considerable trade is artificially represented Here we may being full of fine statuary and monuments.FINLAND. both in Europe and in Asia. the home park VIBORG CASTLE. by pen and pencil. built in 1293. 223 Viborg. appropriately terminate the labour of attempting to describe. where by taking the pretty canal route from Lauritsala. in in its port in Mon is miniature. stands an old castle. within a narrow compass. shipped from the domain of Baron Nicolai. s now a town of seventeen thousand strand. Trangsund Bay. Its show place where the scenery of Finland timber.

165 Askhabad. 143 Kysty. 160 Ph'tchavy. 59 Sarepta. 149 Jews. 219 66. the. 132 . . Belfry of Ivan. 19 Kristinestad. 165 Ermak. galley slaves. 157 Poland. Andrew. description of. 55 Peipus Lake.i. Stary-Krim. 56 Archangel. description of. Vologda. . 88 . 138 tombs in. 197 Telav. 151 in. 181 Tomsk. 90 Romanoff House. Orenburg. 95 Moscow. the. 25 sieges of. the. 60 Russo-Greek Church. English factory at. voyage on. 56 Kolomenskoe. 220 at. 32 Orlof of. 80 of. 37 . 152 Stavropol. history of. 23 Dvina. 116-118 Azof. 39. 31 diamond. description of. the. 28 Perecop. Kayan Cathedral. the. . 179 Derekyuy. 203 Khvalinsk. 28 Paijanne Lake. description of. the. history of. no Neva River. the. 81 the Terem. 80 Granovitaya Palace. Waterfall of. 154 Monastery of the Trinity. 43 bazaars. 132 Kirghiz Steppes.. Pechersk Monastery. 52 Peterhof. 20 Rostof. . 70 Kremlin at. Valley of. Black Sea. 108 Sygnak. 87 Imatra. 167 Kalmucks. the. 146 202 Chimkent. . 138 BAIDAR VALLEY. 188-192 Tushines. 52 Petrofsk. 55 Sergi. 165 Eupatoria. 26 Balaclava. galia. 157 RADZIVILL. defeats Tartars. 53 River. the. 137 m Chernozem. Mangup. the. Jews 74 Oka Stretna.. 25 Pskova River. 165 Narva. in Russia. So Dorpat. 181 Ekatcrinenstad. description 130 : Cathedral of St. &c. in Crimea. 185 Viborg. 74. 49 character of. 52 Krestofski Island. Geok-Tepc. . in Stenka Razin. 131 . Khersonesus doors at. in Kuntsevo. 21 FINLAND. the. description of. province of. description of. 60 Izmailovo. death of. convicts. 115 Novgorod the Great. 59 Cheboksary. 22 Riga. 219 Verkhneudinsk. dangerous situation Winter Palace. 151 Terek River. . Isaac's. 221 Taoul mountaineers. description of. 157 people of. the. 43 Imperial Public Anitchkoff Palace. description of. 101 209 to. 167 Tedjen. 40 . nt Pytzounda. 90 beggars in. martyrdom of. 152 Purtenite. 167 Sympheropol. 144 HAPSAL. 152 Kharkof. 154 . Nevski Prospect. Bay of. 222 Imeritia. 218 Agriculture in Holmogory. description of. 53 Mingrelia. 95 Tsaritsyn. 28 Rybinsk. . 108 Kertch Collection. White City. 28 Hefsurs. 55 at. 27 MIety. king of Georgia. 114 Kanin. Kamyshin. Sophia at. at Kherson. . 94 Moravian Brethren at Sarepta. 121 . 164 Demidoff mines. 168 31. Turcomans. of. 136 Nicon. Valley of. 165 Alle River. the. 135 Pskof. 82 . 97 Bible. . . the. the. 161 . -222 KABARDINES. martyrdom . description of. Count. 146 Siberia. Allied. 157 Abo. 167 Alexandropol. Pityus. description of. the. 50 Anglican Church. 124 Vladikavkaz. Peter the . 26 Rion. 116 Kivatch. in Samarkand. province of. history. . 85 Red robes. 53 Orel. 140 Cronstadt. 219 Gautier. 70 Novocherkask. 51 Yelagin Island. 124. imin. CENTRAL CfRCULATI CHlLUHEN'S ROOM . St. grave of. 158 Ingush. 64 Sougdidi. 129 Ekaterinburg. 152 Solombola Island. 112 . 115 Miirmon Coast. . 115 Sary-Balak. 168 Armenia. 200 Schamyl. 167 Tepe-kerman. 24 TAGANROG. 85 tron. 23 White Sea. religious history of. 174 . the. description Elbruz. . Nenocksa. 36 . . 56 Music. 196 Troitsk osavsk. 42 38 streets Transcaspian Railway. conquest of. gold mines.INDEX. WARSAW. 103 Sturgeon CATHERINE II. the. the. the. 120 Chersonesus. 135. monuments of Peter Tsitrakhan. 154. 25 Pugatchef. Russia Company. 144. 33 Kertch. rebellion of. 95 ikon. Great Palace. 31 New Jerusalem Monastery. expedition of. church architecture. the. doc128 Sukharef Tower. 223 Vilia River. nego- Ararat. 60 94. Library. Ossets. 161 Kovno. 112 Kief. the. 168 Tiflis. 34 Kulikova. 20 Temple Hills. 168 Basil. 101 ST. 138 Crimea. 167 Lithuania. . 21 Little Russia. 160 tiations with Elizabeth. 138. . the. 136 Caucasus. 86 German colonies. 162 Koutais. 90 . 174 political history of. 147 Syr Daria. 56 Jehoshaphat. 169 Novoselski. conquest of. . 60 Howard. AT EKATERINO- Old Believers at Kern. 152 Symvolon-limen. 219 the. 24 Kremlin of. . 157 Mil HI. 169 Ai Pctri. 92 Sparrow services of. 88. the. 24 bell of. 149 Kasbek. 143 Ak-mesjid. UleSborg. 78 . Etchmiadzin. . 77 . the. 49 . 165 Archangel. 112 Cheremyssi. 118 Cemeteries. Alupka. 50. conversion of. 169 Petrozavodsk. province of. the. 151 Jesuits. 158 Sourakan. 21 welcomes Chancellor. 161 . description White Russia. 116 Tula. 146 Irghiz River. the. Russia. Cape. Cheremshansk. 168 Phasis. 115 Dukhobortsy. fisheries of. description of. 187 ^ Bethany Monastery. 140 Perm. 28 DAGHESTAN. 118 Ivan vi. 53 167 Darial Pass. 95 Kuopio. 149 21 John of Vilna. St. 106 . Rion River. 19 Wirballen. 101 . 23 EASTER IN RUSSIA. capture of. 154. description of. 161 Ingur River. 131 . 169 Kul-Oba tomb. Dubofka. Monastery of. 168 Tver. 52 gardens of. John. halls of. 160 Great Russia. 219 Ural Mountains. description of. 106 of. description of. 169 Delijan Pass. 219 Black Sea Cossacks. 157 PADIS CLOISTER. 136 IDIOTCY. 153 Caviar. 70 buildings of. 122 Gunib. 45 Bjorneborg. 168 . 185 manufacture of. . markets of. rebellion Streltsi. Church of Abridges. 144 VALDAI. Great's Gallery. . 19 Nijni Novgorod. 221 . 101 Vasa. . 59 Utchan-su. LIMITED. expedition Wierzbolow. 98 . 201 Tartars of the Crimea. 179 Peter the Great founds Petersburg. 203 Orlof diamond. 145 Eustace of Vilna. the. 143. in Massandra. 112 Kiakhta. 202 Syzran. in Russia. Kertch collection. 116 Kama River. Prince. 181 Torne. 124 Olonets. STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 154 Bokhara. Chuvash. 84 Cathedral of Archangel Michael. 1 20 135 Lesghians. 37 St. 104 Nijni Taghil. 139 . description of. 153 Gori. 104 Kremlin. bridges. manufacture of. the. the. 101 UKRAINE. . tomb of. 143 Alushta. people of. 162 . . provements 88 . . 169 Volga. 76 Kremlin. Monastery of. 23 Vladimir. 166 LADOGA LAKE. 20 GAMLA KARLEBY. the. description. 115 Erivan. fishing. the Tithes Church. 214 French invasion of Russia. 120 Kikeneis. 138 Novorossisk. 65 Olga. of. 94 Koshtan-tau. 78 Bells of. Petrofski Park and Palace. 167 Tashkent. re- 80 . 160 EHzavetpoI. 32 Orlof-Davydoff. the. Karaim.. 167 Gurzuf. 197 Michaelofski. 151 187 Elton Lake. 40 drivers. the town. . 143 Mz'hett. 115 Tsarskoe Se'lo. 47 Grandfather of the Russian Navy. 59 Samara. Sophia. 196 Kola. 76 77 Chinese Town. 59. use of. Tatars defeat Kumyss. 44 47 Monastery of Alexander the Fortress. 179 Nobel's Town. 97 Solghat. 65 Kizyl Arvat. 42 drojki 42. 198 Anthony. 85 Square. Tchentchen. in Lithuania. no ODESSA. 144 Dimitri. 112 Irkutsk.. 56 of. 196 Georgia. Vitebsk. 148 Tavastehus. 116 Kalmytski Bazaar. 55 Ivan the Terrible before Pskof. Grebensky. 165 Karaim. 59 ZAPOROGUE. 59 Saratuf. 162 Tiumen. description of. 86 . 148 Bakii. Russian pictures. 168 NAHITCHEVAN. 143 Baikal.Karthen City. isthmus of. 59 Kars. 103 . 19 YALTA. 154. conversion of. description of. 25 Isinglass. 153 Cossacks. 158 SLAF. 144 Pavlofsk. 136 Khiva. 84. 108 the. 116 Brahestad. 86. 166 Baltic provinces. 152 Akstafa. 35 . 118 the. description of. of. . 63 Solovetsk. Bay of. 72 Niemen River. . ruins Circassia. 197 Turkestan. description of. no Skiit. Museum . province . in Samoyedes. 164 Alazan. 144 Amu-Daria. Church. Pass of. 104 churches and monasteries. sacred at. . Vasili Ostrof. description of. 1 20 Swanny. the. 204 Poltava. Inkerman. Don. the. of. Cathedral of St. the. 160 Rornnove. Cathedral of the the AlabasAnnunciation. 199 Boskunchak Lake. 146 Chancellor. the Black Prince. 33 . on Cathedral of Basil. defeat of. 108 history of. 20-23 . 179 Simbirsk. of the Saviour. 19 Vilna. 53 Sevastopol. Kouban district. 162 Gouria. . 27 Abkhases. 114 JACOB RIVER. 91 . 94 . 154. Kour River. description of. 134 St. 222 Kursk. 144 Merv. 147 Batoum. 168 Ostrof. description of. description of. story of. . 170 natives of. 82 . 69. 71 Nicolaef. history French in. of. 169 Tammerfors. dress of people. Rd. Herat. 154 Dunaburg. Lake. 169 Molokane". 221 Tchapars. 200 Samarskaya Lake. 65 Onega. 127 . 33 pictures . 48 Nevski. the Patriarch. 187 Troitsa Monastery. . the trines of. . 22 Jews' fortress. 134 Kherson. 32 Hermitage. climate of. 154 LONDON: WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. Rembrandt Gallery. 222 of. 167 Souram. and Alexander. 168 Heinola. NICHOLAS. 160 its Tarn an. the. the. 176. Russian charity for. 196 Astrakhan. martyrdom Jyvaskila. 167 Schlusselburg. 65 Oranienbaum. 185 Bakhchisarai. 168 Kazan. 112 Ekaterinodar. . 222 Panticapa5um. 181 Tobolsk. 50 31 Petersburg. people of 122 MAIMACHEN. 198 Cathedral of the Assump84 tion. 63 Ardon River. 157 Kakhety. 55 and . 143 Yaroslav. 169 Ekaterinoslaf. the. AA RIVER. 121 . the. Lahtis. . 108. 65 Pharnawaz. 129 Mishor. 222 Helsingfors.

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