USSIAN

THOMAS MICHELL,

C.B.

THE

NEW YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY

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THREE MAIS AND ONE HUNDKED AND TWENTY-FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS NEW YORK SCRIBNER AND WELFORD LONDON THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY 56 PATERNOSTER Row AND 1889 164 PICCADILLY .' ETC. THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION TO NORWAY IN l6l2. AND FINLAND. POLAND.B.' C.RUSSIAN PICTURES IDvawn vvitb pen anb pencil BY THOMAS MICHELL. AUTHOR OF 'MURRAY'S HANDBOOK FOR RUSSIA.

LIMITED. SIKEET AND CHAUING CROSS. .THE NEW YORK PiJ I [PRARY AST Of: LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS O LONDON STAM" 'KD : PRINTKD BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS.

.N. for his friendly contribution of a chapter on the Crimea and Caucasus. ST.' execution of this task has been facilitated by the generous per- mission of Mr. on which he is a high and well-known authority. PREFACE. Boutoffsky's Ornement Ritsse. and from the Arctic uniformly limited.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. and. the country dealt with large or small. and Finland. PETERSBURG. The ancient illuminations that head the chapters of this volume have their It will be seen that been copied from M. Poland. the author are also due in a special degree to Captain J. R. character was the tenth preserved through century purely Byzantine . THE are object of this of the Russian ' volumes of the Pen to represent graphically the salient features Readers of the previous Empire and its inhabitants. therefore. Buchan Telfer. be claimed for the unavoidably incomplete character of a work that attempts to sketch by the aid of both pen and pencil the lands and peoples embraced in so vast an area as that which stretches from Poland to Kamchatka. John Murray to draw upon the information contained in the The thanks of Handbook for Travellers in Russia. be number of pages is the same. the Ocean The to the 'frosty Caucasus. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. and Pencil Series will remember that their contents is ' volume Indulgence must. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

that the Russian bees have ever since been toiling under the guidance of" gifted and ambitious rulers to build up the colossal fabric we view to-day with an amazement which is not unmingled with disquietude. to the interest he may already take in the subject. and consequently hurried on from one extreme to another. Nevertheless. been great Reformer. more especially of its racial or religious prejudice. and when intercommunication with the rest of Europe. when the wall that had surrounded Muscovia had been considerably breached. while at the end of the eleventh century the Byzantine style began to be mingled in Russia with elements of native genius. 1698. which was gradually much influenced by the art of India and Persia. gardens. the hope is not forbidden that the book produced in these circumstances may not only please the eye of the reader into whose hands it falls. . the more remote the manners. Crull. by sea and by land. the more. and policy of the Italy Muscovites are from other nations of Europe. London. him accurate. and cities of Russia in both Europe and Asia. had become when ' ' It is therefore as in a glass hive comparatively easy and free from danger. Russia received its first strong impulse from Peter the Great. among a nation guided for the most part merely by instinct. lands. religion. anything by pen and great position pencil that will not appear to a large class of readers to be more or less a rhhanfft of other travellers' notes and artistic labours.PREFACE. has been the subject of such numerous literary productions that it is well nigh impossible to say. have not They have been the natural which Russia acquired so late in her had political life. Hence. by giving if somewhat scanty. of time. In short. or to depict. but also. this relation will not afford the same beautiful of structures. J.' 1 I say. The foreign criticism and animadversion to which Russia has been liable since the produced by consequence of the days. at a time for a good part the printing press was already an active force. Dedication to The Antient and Present State of Muscoiy. especially that part situated in Europe. information about the history. the work may be introduced to its readers somewhat apin the words of an English writer at the end of the propriately seventeenth century 'Tis true. and other niceties as that of variety nevertheless. Russia. the more abstruse their history and surprising in the event. add something peoples. they may deserve our particular observation at this juncture By Dr. statues. ' ' : . and of the next. so far from being a terra incognita. in the eyes and under the keen observation of states that of form been more or less and the solidified and in the advanced long spirit their civilization and government. when only the area of the modern Russian Empire presents itself for consideration.

. Isaac's 38 41 Plan of St.. Petersburg St...... .. 36 The first Fleet built by Peter the Great The English Quay. Cathedral. . An Illumination from a Manuscript of the Thirteenth or Fourteenth Century. Petersburg . RUSSIA. II. St. . CHAPTER I.BYZANTINE ORNAMENTATION OF THE TENTH-ELEVENTH CENTURY.. Public Library. teenth Century.. IN THE LIBRARY OF CONTENTS AND The LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. .. ST. . Views 31 in and around Petersburg at .. in the Imperial .. Vilna 21 18 Moscow .. . of the Twelfth Lithuanian Peasant 24 27 Museum.. Public /<y' in the 5 5 a Manuscript Byzantine Ornamentation of the Tenth-Eleventh Century. in the Public of Alexander I. . in the Imperial Public Library. An Illumination from a Russian MS. .. PETERSBURG. of the Fourteenth Century.. Petersburg of the Four- 30 St.. from Library of the Synod.... 44 49 51 The Fortress of Schliisselburg 54 . in the Imperial Frontispiece Library. Petersburg Preface . MOSCOW... .. Petersburg from a MS. Century. FROM A MANUSCRIPT THE SYNOD. 7 IO EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. III. .. . CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL: The Column St. Petersburg Peter the Great St... An Illumination Fortress and Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. Voronej . St.. MS. Moscow Map of Russia in Europe . Petersburg .. 19 Views in Riga . St. Petersburg page . The Emperor The Empress of Russia of Russia page 14 15 CHAPTER WESTERN Russian Sledging and Coursing An Illumination from a Russian or Thirteenth . St. St..

77 79 So Si Novgorod The Monument at Novgorod commemorating the Thousandth Anniversary of the Empire The Patriarch Nicon The Church in the Monastery of the New ... Landing of Richard Chancellor the White Sea.. in the Sacristy of the Monastery of St. A Nun collecting Money for A South Russian Woman a Convent 127 from a MS..... Lady . . .. 69 70 71 The Great Palace. of the Fifteenth Century. 119 CHAPTER SOUTH An Illumination VII.CONTENTS. Date The Troitsa (St.123 . .. in the Library of the Synod.. A Novgorod Russian Trader with his Tea Urn .. . Moscow . New Jerusalem. near Moscow Moscow .. Nicholas. Tartar An Illumination from a MS. at Moscow Church of the Virgin of Kazan. An The Kremlin. Moscow One of the Porches of the Troitsa Monastery Cathedral of St. . Moscow - A Peasant collecting Jerusalem Plan of the Church in the Sepulchre General Patrick Gordon Officers of the Streltbi exact copy of the original Church of the The Streltsi of Streltsi of a later . in the Library of the Monastery of the Resurrection. . of the Fourteenth Century. Pokrofski Village.. or New Jerusalem. Moscow 66 67 the Belfry the Ivan Veliki Tower.. A Ancient Pirate Raid on the Volga Cossack of the Volga 1 A Tartar An "3 . ... .. . . Holy 75 75 75 75 at Izmailot.. -91 92 ... .. "7 . Library of the .. .... at Holmogory.. Sophia at Novgorod the Great . . 137 . Money for . .. 73 an 74 The Romanoff House The Sukharef Tower Church of the Nativity .. Sergius) Monastery 96 CHAPTER A VI. New Jerusalem 1613 72 Monastery The Old Clothes Market.. 107 the Volga Astrakhan Boat Dog Sledge with Fish.... . .. VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. . 93 93 93 93 94 Church of St. . . 1 10 12 Fourteenth Monastery of the Kazan Views in . 83 SO 88 89 a Church or .. near Moscow page 56 The Solovetsk Monastery .102 . ... . .. V. in of the Thirteenth or the Mosque at Kazan ... CHAPTER An Illumination from a IV. . Sergius. at Kief. MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL... 125 Nogai Tartar An Itinerant Shoemaker. Moscow. . Basil. The Great Bell : On .... Moscow The Crown of Monomachus Cathedral of St. .. A Introduction of Christianity into Russia . ... . 129 133 135 120 121 A Ploughing on the Steppes Peasant Girl of Great Russia . 1553 Archangel .. The Kremlin Wall.. THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. Moscow . . . . . Nijni Novgorod Nijni ... in tage 57 61 64 CHAPTER Illumination from a Psalter of the Thirteenth Century. near Cathedral. ..... .. ... An old Church at ... An 98 99 105 Moscow . MS. . RUSSIA...... The Pechersk Monastery The Battle of Poltava . Moscow Russian Peasants near Kuntsevo . Century. .. . Astrakhan .. Modern Tartars of 114 116 . . .... .

. in 179 i^o 182 184 Lake Baikal Winter . Moscow Helsingfors . FINLAND. (at ....212 213 the back of the Saxony CHAPTER An Illumination XII. . 185 186 CHAPTER CENTRAL An Illumination from a MS... . the Library of the Monastery 01 . CHAPTER SIBERIA. . University in the background . The Church 204 205 208 of the Holy ... . Tunguz Girls . .. Khiva 203 I9S 197 198 199 202 iSS 189 191 A Khirghiz Bride of the Khanates Map .. . . .CONTENTS. . of the Tenth or Eleventh Century. .. in the Imperial Public Library. from a MS. pleted at Khersonesus A A . . . THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. 174 . Tartar Bride and Bridegroom . Moscow ... 145 147 Batoum com149 An An .. . Petersburg page 140 Mount St. . The Burning A Siberian Merchant in Winter Travelling Dress 175 of Irkutsk in 1879 Gilyaks in Winter Costume on the Lower Amur . An Illumination from a in IX.. . . in Podolia tury. . . . Kiakhta .. . Cross. .150 . X. 177 Century.. Warsaw Kamenets.. ASIA... .. Entrance to the Tomb of a Scythian King.. . . Warsaw. Papanaky . An Illumination from a MS. . Tobolsk . . A 171 Siberian Gold of Siberia Mine Saint Sergius..164 166 . with . Peter. . Moscow .... of the Fifteenth Siberian Convict . Polish peasants. of the Fifteenth Abo 214 215 Cathedral Century.. Crimea 141 Yalta 144 . Bakhchisarai . Library of the Troitsa Monastery In the Lazienki Park. . 218 220 222 223 . from a MS. . .. . of the Fifteenth Cen. . Vladimir.. . .. . The Mosque Kokan 192 of Hazret-i-Turkestan CHAPTER XL POLAND... St. . of the Twelfth Century. . The Iron Gate Market Garden) .... in Library of the Troitsa Monastery.. MS. Ostiaks Spinning and Nursing .. .. . CHAPTER An Illumination VIII. 151 Georgian Ladies Naphtha Wells at Baku . The Cathedral of St... . n the Public Rumiantsoff Museum. . 210 . .. Kara'im Jew . .. Finlanders Finnish Fern Gatherers Viborg Castle . . .170 173 Map .. 160 161 161 Imeritian Noble wearing the Imeritian Lady . .. near Kertch page 152 Feats of horsemanship by Cossacks of the Caucasus 156 A Mingrelian Peasant 158 A Village in Svanneti 159 Inkermann .. recently . .. in the ...... . Turcoman Women A Tekke Village Tekkes Samarkand The Grand Minaret. Tim's 163 . .

35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 35 50 Typo KtOiins Co.10 15LoncT itudeEast25fr'>mGrecmvicl. Sr. . MAP OF RUSSIA IN EUROPE.

was spread over an area of over two million square miles in Europe. in 1886. one seventh part of the land surface of the globe.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MANUSCRIPT OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY. and about one quarter of its entire superficies. exceeded only by the magnitude of the British empire as large as (9. already covered with 1 7. EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. the remainder being more or less permanently settled in Asia. ST. CHAPTER I. which forms also its southernmost boundary.314. on territories measuring about six and a half million square miles. eastern limits are on the Pacific Ocean.000 square miles). PETERSBURG. The vastness of these combined possessions. before the latter is carried westward across Central Asia to the confines of . of which eighty-four per cent. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. an estimated population of one hundred and nine millions. with a population almost three times Russian of the is now under the that which sceptre.000 OCCUPYING miles of railway. the Russian empire had. from Behring Straits down to Its the frontier of the Chinese empire. sway On the north the Russian empire has an arctic coast-line that embraces more than one hundred and forty degrees of longitude. and which fails to is reach the Atlantic only by the interposition of the kingdom of Norway.

in succession to a previous German element exhausted by internecine conflict. by Dr. They are referred . into territory that later became the dominion of the first centuries after Christ they were cut Novgorod During woods and marshes. struggle with the Roman empire. after which the Baltic and Polish Provinces establish contiguity to the empires of Germany and Austria. from the events which at that period disturbed the greater part of Europe. on the Caspian (practically a Russian lake). where the to earliest historical records the locate them.12 RUSSIAN PICTURES. or the Wends.' Tacitus mentions them Vcnedi. the Grand Duchy of Finland is conterminous with Norway and Sweden. inhabiting the country beyond as the Veneti . of the Slavs south of the Baltic is Winedas or Weonodas. Bohemia. On the west. and on the Black Sea. important part with regard to the entire race. Persia and to by Pliny the elder (A. Turkey. in the early part of the ninth tribes. Croatians. or from an inherent nomadic tendency. call To this it Vene? From the the Vistula. who In King Alfred's Orosius the Anglo-Saxon designation survive in Lusatia. and the Teutonic tribes ' designated their early eastern neighbours as the Winecid. and in their northward Great. and . Vilhelm Thomsen. descendants survive. These have played an Servians. 1 use largely the best work on the subject The Relations between Ancient Russia the Origin of the Russian State. : We and Scandinavia. of which it holds the northern and eastern shores from the Danube to Batoum. and Moravia. and populated the tracts between the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic. on the opposite side of the Baltic. and was day their racial brethren. the Slavs made a late appearance on the stage of history. inasmuch as they were the link between early Christianized civilisation and their own kindred heathen It was to the Danubian Slavs that. few of their The other mass followed the course of and became known as the South Slavonians. The dominant population of Russia Proper is Slavonic the Slavs or Slavonians having been a branch of the Aryan or Indu-European race. the Esthonians. off. or by deadly Except in Poland. countries with which the empire also comes into close contact. while the modern kingdom of Roumania has become a neighbour on the lower course of the Danube. Whether from external pressure. the Scandinavian name for the same people the Philanders know Russia only as Venaja. Bulgarians. the Slavs extended eastward the Dnieper. Settled in a country so remote from the centres of Greek and Roman culture. 79) as the the Vistula. of Copenhagen. Cyril and Methodius preached the gospel in their mother tongue. One mass crossed the Vistula. down to the Elbe. while in the eleventh and twelfth centuries Vender. they began soon after their short-lived subjection to the Goths (in the third or fourth century) to spread themselves to the west in two distinct streams. severally. composed of and Slovens.D. by which the greater part of Europe has been occupied from time immemorial. the Danube. century.

EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. the Volga and the Slav territories. at Beyond part of ' these ' Russia Finnish tribes. Servian. principal limits of the primitive Slav world. Nestor asserts that the Slavonian and Finnish Russian To The day anyone acquainted with the modern language has no difficulty in understanding a Bulgarian. and near the sources of the Volga. in the basin of the Oka. and the Vcs. and nearest their boundaries became tributaries to them. of the We ancient first hear in Nestor's 2 Chronicle of the Slavs the home. the a The same is language. but divided into of the Poliant. independent Novgorod as a capital. however. completely excluded the Slavs from the Baltic and the waters by the Slavonic the Mcria. as well as A. and by hordes of Tartar or Turkish origin more or less by nomadic in their habits. history which joins the Volga at Nijni Novgorod. 2 earliest monkish historian of Russia.' which by the spread of Christianity was. together with the Lett and Lithuanian races to the south of them. some of them extant on our voyage down the Volga. the greater part of Southern 'Russia' fell into their hands. He part records that even in the western who remained in their country we are engaged in ninth were not a nation. warring more and more among themselves as their numbers multiplied or as they approached each other's territorial confines. or Czech. Kief. and having each a In 1 primitive. without any common political tie. written slightly varied form. and who. Gradually. crushed. still used in the services of the Russo-Greek Church. had reached. whose capital. . the centre of modern Russia Proper. in until centuries nations. the greater (a designation that long remained unknown) was peopled the Slavonic tribes Their power was. with Smolensk as their chief settlement. Between northern find 969. and the Dnieper. throughout the part of what is now Russia. appertaining to it. by the Rurik princes. of all in the alphabet composed a few the Slav by Cyril and Methodius. now century of the Christian era a number of rude and yet they tribes around Lake with Ilmen. later played so great a part in Russian while the easternmost Slavs were the Viatichi. the Dvina. North of the Slavs of Novgorod were the CJihd or Finnish tribes that spread around the Gulf of Finland and the Lake of Ladoga. Slavs on their eastern side have long been and survive only in name as the Muroma. One of the most important of those tribes was that sketching. patriarchal form of these this circumstances government. ago. The most redoubtable of the latter the Khazars had in the latter half of the seventh century formed on the Volga a State ruled from a city near the site of modern Astrakhan. the ' 13 old 1 Slavonic. the period in question.D. thus find that We in the ninth century the extensive country we are dealing with was peopled by a number of ethnologically unrelated heathen tribes. dwelt the Finnish tribes. vernacular. We shall Those who occupied absorbed lands nearest to the race. It is only the latter tribe that .

' : . in the mouths places almost the same words Saxons were 'invited' to come over the sea. and by the year 1000 the reigning princes who succeeded to the throne of Kief in priority of descent. had become essentially Slavonicized. The Scandinavian character of the ruling race at Kief was probably not Roric's grandson already bore preserved for more than a few generations. 864. penetrated inland. founded what could Clearly it could have THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA. then for the first time be called a Russian monarchy. from depredations they had already begun to suffer come ye and rule land is great and bountiful.' over points out. religion must have had some effect in estranging o o o them from their Roman Catholic brethren at home . A. however.RUSSIAN PICTURES.D. at Novgorod. a Slavonic name. Dr. to send the following message to the Scandigroups of the north combined whose Our navians. and establishing himself. us. from Rhos or Rnss the clan to which he belonged. in accordance with the law of Their adoption of the Greek Odelsret. but there is no order in it that another Thomsen monkish legend V. of the Britons by whom the been only as a conqueror that Roric. sailing over in his viking ships to the south coast of the Gulf of Finland.

is proved by the fact that in about 1070 Vladimir (Monomachus) married Gyda. . whom its lucrative trade was absorbed. Vaeringjar] signified only the Scandinavian body-guard of the Emperor of Kyzantium. ' Novgorod long continued THE EMPRESS OF RUSSIA. That intimate personal relations were maintained. but it had by that time deposited so strong a contingent that a contemporary writer describes the population of Kief in 1018 as consisting 'chiefly of Danes.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. the stream of settlers ceased to pour in from Scandinavia. 1 Varangar (Old Norse : not Scandinavians in genera!. even at the close of the eleventh century. The term was later adopted by the Slavs in the form of Variag^ to denote Northmen. Varangian thirteenth or fourteenth century to the Germans of the Hanse Towns. '5 After the period to which we have brought down our observations. Their son espoused a daughter of Ingo Strenkelson. the daughter of King Harold. King of Sweden.' or men from 1 keep up its character of a and its Scandinavian element gave way only in the city. by to ' the north. between the Princes of Kief and the country of their ancestors. after she had fled with her brothers to the Danish Court.

Thus it introduced. He was well read in Autocrat of all the Russias. Vladimir. petch. as the Norse Russian for is still.' the title of Tsar. under the name of Wercgcld.1 6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Having thus sketched the development consolidation Russia down age of Peter the Great. or whip. pcis. Russia had followed the general European path of civilization and development in its social life. and Czar is a corrupt German spelling of the title. or executed within recent times in Russia. (1462-1505) who assumed the title of Grand Duke and all Russia. now agreed that the legend of Vladimir Monomachus having received investiture at the hands of the Emperor Constantine and is a mere legend of fabricated in the reign of Ivan IV. we bring this chapter to a our rapid but extensive travels through the empire. or such words than the learned professor has cited. It was Ivan III. pctchka. Even the Saxon Witenagemotes had been reproduced under the Slavonic name of Veche. the first Christian Prince of Kief. begin to the 1 close. the Terrible (1534-1584) found himself ' the position of being able to take at his coronation. Moscow. as the representative of the extinct imperial line. Until that catastrophe occurred. for hearth or oven. We have already alluded to the law of Odel. through Anne. in lieu of the primitive law of vengeance and retaliation. Russian historians are wife of Vladimir. still prevalent in Norway. with which criminals were punished origin. The first Russian code of laws. and its internal government. compiled in the reign of Vladimir (tenth century). under which the successors of Roric fought amongst themselves for the paramount throne and facilitated by their dissensions the occupation of Russia by the Tartars during two centuries. was essentially Scandinavian or Teutonic in its principles. . its laws. the first in Russia.' and in ' 1 ' and desired to be recognised by the Patriarch of Constantinople. For instance. Dr. his arms the double-headed black eagle. and his son Ivan IV. Thomsen gives a long list of proper names of Scandinavian root which long survived the Slavonicization of the He has also disRuss. after his marriage with Sophia His successor. to whom he sent a costly present of sable skins. Vasili III. Paleologus. of the imperial Byzantine blood. the stove. is derived from the old Norse or We have indeed found in Norway many more Swedish knut-r a knot. (1505-1534) absorbed the principalities that had remained independent of Moscow. sister of the Emperor Basil and Byzantine lore. until the Russian sovereign ' power was concentrated at Moscow.' covered in the Russian language a host of words (principally for household objects in incipient civilized life) that are unmistakably Scandanavian in their Even the word knut. This was the origin of the Russian Udel system.' and added to (or Prince) of Novgorod. penalties or compensation for manslaughter. and survived more especially at Novgorod and Pskof (in the form of Republics). converted into Vira in Slavonian.

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RUSSIAN SLEDGING AND COURSING. .

in a fertile and pleasantly accidented its present squalor. and scarcely plains of East Prussia. dynastically joined require ' to be reminded. Prettily situated at the confluence of the Vilia with the great Niemen River. which we reach can proceed the same night in about twenty-four hours. Dreary as we may have found the of poplars. incorporated with Lithuania fell to the share of Russia. notwithstanding last stronghold of paganism in c 2 . by a in it 13S6. majority of British and American travellers bound for Petersburg. MOSCOW. IN THE PUBLIC MUSEUM. and their trim avenues suddenly their neat homesteads. we miss kept roads. when we cross the brook Instead ot these we catch a two great empires. separates glimpse of the blue and gold dome of a Russo-Greek church. Kingdom of Poland. CHAPTER WESTERN II RUSSIA. their well- which the demand for our passports. sixty to the Crown of Poland venerable Duchy of Lithuania. that we are in But geographically we are only in a province of the Holy Russia. inhabited chiefly by Poles and Jews. OF THE TWELFTH OR THIRTEENTH CENTURY. We station of Wierzbolow or Wirballen. but in the beyond. Muscovite ancient on not we are miles ground. and finally 1569. Kovno.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. At partition of Poland (1/95). our first objective point is Berlin. in united with the that third kingdom in 1401. is of interest as the district.' Even at Kovno. London from and in about fifteen hours more enter the Russian Empire at the frontier LIKE the great St.

the sun-god. a chronicler of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. : Passing junctions of lines that lead severally to the port of Libau. with a red face sur- of Petrimpa. Europe. of Perkun. Only eighty years ago. and its encourage a break in the journey. by 'In following inscription on a monument which stands in the market-place The army 1812. and to Warsaw. the Little Paris and town a Russian now the chief of province of the same name. the ' ' The beauty of its situation is the east. the Poles. Strife and warfare. or foundation. the capital of the Kingdom of Poland. the whose ultimate disastrous retreat is commemorated in the French. and therefore represented as a grey-headed old man of deathly pallor.' We may add that out of eight hundred guns. the gocl of springs.000 men. in rounded by rays and of Pikol. they were driven from their last and holiest shrine. on the Vilia River. Dusburg.20 AUSSSAJV PICTURES. south and west. are mixed up to a degree that will not admit of any clear account within the limits of these pages. to In 1812 the town was devastated and pillaged have existed since 1503. amongst hills that rise to not very apparent from the large and handsome attractions not being in other respects sufficient to we must be content to read in ' ' Murray . secured the implicit obedience of pagan kings and princes. on the Catholic church. resided at a more ancient place of the same name Romnove in East Prussia. messengers. Paul at Kovno. Gertrude is known . the moon-god.000. and we shall later find a good display of them within the Kremlin at Moscow. relates that niches in the sacred oak of ancient Romnove contained effigies . originally in the name of the true faith. with a white band round his head. have not permitted the survival of any very ancient remnants of The church of St. . Russia was invaded by an army numbering 700. we halt of the Lithuanians in happier for refreshment at Vilna. and forced its inhabitants to accept the religion of Christ. only nine were carried back by the French. sources and fertility. in the neighbouring province of Courland. the church of St. was dedicated in the fifteenth century. Roman like Catholic edifice in Lithuania. in which the Teutonic knights. could be seen erect some of the sacred oaks of ancient days. having power the form of a beardless youth over death and misfortune. recrossed the frontier numbering 70. and one which held out three hundred Niemen. on the River Alle. his whose iron when produced by when Boleslas of Poland invaded Prussia in 1015. railway station. the last mementos of the extinct but once paramount authority which had been wielded by pagan high priests over the greater part of the country between the Baltic and the Carpathians. now years after its stands a Roman end of the fourteenth century. days. the Lithuanian grand dukes. later for political objects. which was burnt sceptre. George while the chapel of St. Peter and St. in Baltic. Ten miles beyond it. the largest architecture. on the site of a sacred until the grove within which the pagan worshippers maintained a perpetual fire until Their chief priest. and the Russians.

and part of The remains of the kindred in race to the Slavs. ambassador from the (1517-1526). at the fire antiquity. their prince in Courland were first faith. Ivan III. Vilna now of as the province is. whose Grand Duke. an in of Germany Herberstein. In further corroboration of such a wide and early establishment VILNA. and of Alessandro Guagmno. They assert that even in the reign of King Stephen Bathory (15/5of worship in that city. crowns The Castle the of hill worship in days of remote which an octagonal red brick foot of which a fire was kept Roman Catholic uninterruptedly burning until the triumph of Christianity. ' Count D. Italian officer in the military service of Poland (1560). Eustace. and killed the martyrs of Lithuanian idolaters. also was a centre of heathen (1323). Grodno. by Anthony. and the personal visits of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Samogitia. the testimony is adduced of Baron Emperor Maximilian. 1874. had married the 1 History of Romanism in Russia.' at Yilna. and partly by the inlluence of Muscovy. Sustained as it was by the advice after seceding from the Church of Rome. tower still Jagellon remains. repose in the church of St. to the effect that were more Russian than Roman Catholic churches in Vilna. 1586) there were already thirty Russo-Greek places their time there and that the most illustrious houses in Lithuania belonged to that confession.WESTERN that this RUSSIA. the fourteenth century. 'the Miracle Worker. Tolstoy points with pride to the Lithuania by Russians at a period fact that the Gospel was brought to when Latinism was completely unknown. of Greek orthodoxy in the present north-west provinces of Russia. Nicholas. Tolstoy. . John. l>y the late Count D. under Olgord.. notwithstanding of the that the inhabitants not the provinces of Vilna.

of Even the Prince Nicholas at Radzivill the Black. under which. without the preassumed the right of nominating and confirming bishops but it liminary consent of the Kings of Poland. was only when Jerome of Prague visited the country (in the fifteenth The pope then century) that Rome began to achieve some success. Some of their bishops were ' A gained over. and libraries to the Jesuits. the rites and doctrines of the Greek Church could be preserved. established since 1539 in Poland. the authority of the bishops The Reformation The upper classes were ready towards the middle of the sixteenth century. been printed in the Polish language.' pillaged their own churches. and Moscow was absorbed by her own disastrous affairs. a college at Vilna. printing presses. powerful protector 1563. ' in so far as they were . drove the ministers of the Reformed Church from the estates which they held. who established. Vast estates were gradually conferred upon the King of Poland. who thereupon proclaimed the union of the two Churches. the Jesuits attacked with increased activity the Russo-Greek Church established in the outlying Polish provinces. The Greek priesthood was. Lithuania was flooded with Jesuits. The famed Teutonic knights had in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries done their best by violence to introduce Romanism into Lithuania . orders. passed over to Romanism.22 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the great noble families having already left the Greek Church and embraced Romanism. which was a few years later raised a university. and by the liberty It was accepted with such of the press.' Thirty years of Lithuania were professed en masse. later. at the dawn of the sixteenth century. By Dissenter' in the Polish Senate. notwithstanding the proclamation of the union of the Latin and Greek Churches by the Council of Florence in 1438. John Chrysostom into Slavonic. however. the inhabitants not contrary to the Roman Church. often Russian noble of the period states that the clergy of that faith passed their time in drinking-houses. Senate soon became composed almost enthusiasm that the Lithuanian disputed. the year 1632 there was not a single ' Having suppressed the Reformation. in Calvinists. the Greek Church held its own. exclusively of Calvinists and Lutherans. and gave their churches. the whose expense the Bible had. daughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania. Constantinople was distant. as a measure of conciliation. and by the great nobles. who. for it. The Roman Catholic clergy being unable from venality and disunion to struggle against the Reformation. who re-entered the the Church. appointed by the king being frequently movement found Lithuania in this condition. in a very degraded position. both as a result of the preaching of John Huss. in to the dignity of them by pale of 1570. and that it was impossible to find one among them who could translate the works of St. at the same time. and submitted their Church to the pope. vindicated and exercised the right of filling the episcopal This led to the disorganisation of the Latin clergy and religious sees.

connected. when he the residence of the Governor-General.000.' as distinguished from province of Little Great and Russia. over the the Valdai the Baltic bridge next takes the train at a solemn pace Western Dvina. The memory Episcopal of Napoleon's occupied the is Palace. when General Mouravieff sternly carried out irom Vilna the measures which averted a threatened dismemberment of the empire. later. and in Lithuanians. snipe. explanatory of the present predominance of Roman Catholicism. and Cossacks. and Russian princes. to the rabble piled like pigs of train. banks. the new interests and combinations that have supervened The works form part render the fortress of Dtinaburg of high importance.' the total number of sick and wounded abandoned by the King the of Naples having been 20. occasionally accelerated about miles. however. In 1708 it was occupied by Charles XII. operations in 1812. with records of strife and bloodshed. for at navigated only by barges light draught which we momentarily see as we move on towards the great railway junction (with Riga on the one hand. Although. mere variety of wild fowl sandy swamps is tenanted by storks. politically. Teutonic knights. 23 After this digression on the ecclesiastical history of Lithuania. and Smolensk and Moscow on the other) at Dtinaburg. and Muscovites. this shallow and dotted with islands that become in spring. line of defence frontier of Russia. or.WESTERN RUSSIA. Russians. Petersburg and a Moscow. and in 1/94 it fell to the It was the centre of the French Russians. Tartars. dimmed by of a the recollection of his ignominious in little flight in disguise from five the Grand Army. 650 by rapids. rises in iron-lattice between after St. when they joined the An imposing hills. the city was plundered and destroyed in the seventeenth century by Swedes.500 corpses lead one above the other. condition ' more than months. after a gallant defence. and now one of her most important fortresses. like the rest of the country through which we have passed. Swedes. which. the original combatants have disappeared or been rendered powerless. The tide of the battle the struggle for political dominion in these for Christendom. Except towards its mouth. and the second the western of protecting are intended to render impossible an inimical occupation of the main lines . have left many traces in the history of Diinaburg. now triumphal entry into Vilna. leaving in one hospital alone 7. to use modern terminology.. More Polish 1863 and 1864. finally ceded by the Poles to Russia in 1/72. we notice some other After much suffering in wars with stirring events in the history of Vilna. like the Volga and the Dnieper. laid to the account of are in We ' now ' the ' ' ' . recently disasters overtook insurrection of 1831. and of every other the White Russia. Teutonic knights. which had been reduced. Poles. ancient provinces. and. in the province of Vitebsk still. together with the tortuous stream Riga. and which falls into running sluggish course.

which is reached at Ostrof. Nevertheless. Detached homesteads are now of less and less frequent occurrence. of which Pskof was the first Russian outpost. and in 1581 was captured by the famous Stephen it Bathory of Poland.RUSSIAN PICTURES. supposed to have been founded by St. of Petersburg. played an important part in the. tell the traveller that he is already in Russia Proper. Scarcely twenty-five miles beyond is one of the most interesting political centres of primitive Russia. and we learn that the broad cuttings through which we are conveyed are the railway from Warsaw to St. tallow. amidst the wailings of the citizens over their lost freedom. who partially introduced into Russia the Greek religion. emblematical of the majesty of the law.D. the town is also a centre of considerable trade in flax. we are not yet beyond the reach of ancient Lithuanian and Polish depredation. in the province of Pskof. and timber. and elk. on the model of our Saxon 1/7 Like Novgorod (the LITHUANIAN PEASANT. who a year later caused to be built the church of St. which is still extant. Great) and Khlynof (now Viatka). which she had embraced at Constantinople about A. Pskof had its open-air t>ec/ic (Witenagemote). Olga. Pskof. set up in the great square. at which the citizens deliberated (on one occasion in their shirts) and exercised their right of electing and These had good cause for alarm when they heard deposing their princes. Nicholas. forming villages of melancholy aspect. wolves. The fortress that existed here in the In fourteenth its three of century survives only in towers of grey and red stone. sent by barge or rail to Riga. here that the famed vech bell in the church of the Holy Trinity was taken of the down Three in 1510. the vechd bell ring out. of of Moscow will these the Grand be Duchy absorption republics by in our account of We need the Great mention described only Novgorod. It is curious to observe that the earliest tions political institu- country were of a popular character. and from Riga to Vitebsk. 1501 the Lithuanians massacred 4000 of the inhabitants of Ostrof. margins of forests of which bears. 955. hundred of the most distinguished Pskovian families were at the . and saw the club (mace). Formidable as a place of arms. Witenagemotes. are still in possession. hemp. The city and its territories formed earliest of the Hanseatic in the period of the great trade with part League The gradual Germany. foundation of the Russian Empire. Groups of grey and tumble-down-looking log-huts.

and replaced byian equal number of families of the trading class drawn from towns on the The Novgorodians had met with a similar fate thirty-two years Volga. old suspended near the tomb. after ravaging Novgorod. in was in Trinity almost fills the space enclosed by 1682. built in 1323. however. and forms a square on which once stood the castle of the reigning prince. the the sainted prince thereby fire signifying the original cross 1509. claimed his relics. the city was saved from his suspected of treasonable designs. Dovmont. without doing any harm to the terror. But the ancient spirit of independence had not been entirely quenched. when Ivan the Terrible of Moscow. in the so-called Russo-Byzantine ' ' to an edifice raised in 1368. he suddenly and miraculously vanished. springs from their southern face. being given to seize the idiot. is that to among his faithful Pskovians. Struck with Ivan left the city precipitately. . he abide St. and exhorted him not to drink the blood of Christians. . a Lithuanian chief elected Prince of Pskof. inhabitants. to which the ancient city has been on its stout Kremlin walls. and ' his sword. as a token of submission.' offered him raw meat. assumed rather than inherent. may gaze Their base on the east and north is washed by the Pskova River. Such are the latest vicissitudes We well ' The huge style. according fury by frequent examples in ancient as well as in modern Russia. and on the west by the Velikaya. preceded by severally more especially hallowed by the fact that St. 957. whose citizens he equally However. cathedral 1138. 1138. ruled. In 1581 Pskof was besieged by the Poles. Unfortunately. but to eat of the bread and salt to be On orders presented to him in the cathedral. but on both occasions the invaders were ultimately repelled. pursued mendicancy in the guise. in a chapel to the right of the altar screen. was used at the consecration of the Close by is the shrine of the sovereigns of Pskof in this cathedral. he addressed the redoubtable monarch as 'Johnny. but not before he had caused the horse of Ivan to fall.U'ESTERX RUSSIA. of an idiot. 25 same time removed to the dominions of Muscovy Proper. appeared before the walls of Pskof. and in 1618 by Gustavus Adolphus. Capering about on a stick. while Dovmont's Wall. which again had been churches built in 1266 and Its site is. Cathedral It of the built the Kremlin walls. St.' constructed at the close of the thirteenth century. even by the year 15/0. a to monk. who.I). Olga built a church upon it succession A. over could not be a desire whom had previously moved by human force. coffin Among is the a silver shrine with miraculous Its conspicuous of the numerous relics in this the remains of a godly prince who died in properties are assumed to be such that when the more Novgorodians. while he was warning him of his death by lightning if he injured a single citizen. earlier. subjected. in which Olga raised at Pskof was destroyed by The tomb of of plain oak.

and of towns great and small. ranks capitulation.' we have already recorded. its population nations is only 1 70. neat and solid. well be proud of the city of Riga. Swedes. was finally ceded by Sweden to The exercise of the Protestant the Peace of Nystad. have already seen in at discharge or Dunaburg the barges load that Dvina the grain. performed and a small in discomfiture of foes attach to chapel in opposite in the bazaar is in memory of citizens who fell many ancient and interesting monuments an point insurrection out more especially the fortified 1650. and we monastery of Pskof Pechersk. no doubt. vites. although half of its trade is with Great Britain. one of the over will be found stone of the Holy Virgin. marked out by tall poplars. with crenelated towers. and other native bring products of the Although not the least Russian. One here A down Russian couple the of thousand ships of all annually. rather than on new lines. ' The empire may Livonia.26 RUSSIAN whose service to the to this city sainted Nicholas Salos. the trial of offenders against municipal for a doll). and all which. ' ' ' ' . still Germanic. including. and being locally called reproduced in miniature in is the Dockc (which equivalent to the present Danish and Norwegian word dock in which suggests that we have here the origin of the The chairman of the Guild sat under in our own country. as the second port in Russia. the hall of the Great Guild. flax. and with a sea-board of population of more than two and Russian commerce. in archways. and we interior. at ancient municipal rights and privileges were guaranteed by the terms of that Commercially. 1721 the official and judicial use of the German language. consisting of the Provinces of Livonia. stand prisoners Dockmann administered the affairs of the corporation the Docke. but fortunately for the inhabitants. the neighbourhood. as advocated by ardent Russificators. more or less mediaeval-German in aspect. and must ever remain so. Poles. it There are also may re- nowned for its catacombs and for the sieges has sustained. the Idiot. and as and other laws. railway enables us to reach from Pskof the Baltic Provinces of Russia. the sights at Riga are interesting. and Musco- A We have space to say only that the civilisation and culture of those We are provinces is still undeniably German. built by Bishop Albert in A. linseed. There is the massive castle. dating from the The effigy days when the Teutonic knights were paramount (1494-1515). although But this is a question of development perhaps somewhat too conservative. Riga. Traditions several of miracles other churches. in a land of farms and mansions.000. Russian in the country of good highways the since frontier.' Every institution is. 1200. the capital of Russia religion.D. Esthonia and Courland. branch off again into the to the highest importance ancient activity of Lithuanian Teutonic knights. with a a quarter millions. on ancient. reaching again. in together with Esthonia.

Grand Master and first (151 7-1587).) of France. wig. The palace is also interesting from its occupation in 1 798 by Louis The (later XVIII. and paintings. &c. Mary. Marie Josephine of Savoy. Cathedral of St. ruffles. when in also its castle (rebuilt was erected by Conrad von Medem.WESTERN The Hall of the RUSSIA. which. Blackheads. lies 1271. and renovated in the sixteenth A letter from Luther to the Senate of Riga and a very ancient century. Grand Master of the Livonian Order of 1/72) In the left Knighthood. they adopted as their honour of head. . it is asserted. The remains are perfect. the unworthy favourite of the Empress Anne of Russia. which. and his Queen. so called from the device of a Moor's Saint Maurice. and he actually requests visitors not to spit at the mummified body and thereby injure the well-preserved velvet clothing. was built early in the thirteenth century. an ardent patriot broke with his clenched fist. many ancient relics of the in Moors' heads distinguish the pews of the Blackheads the order. and contains among treasures of silver. all but the eyes and the nose. This city. heraldic distinction. to ordered by a were cicerone explains that remains the Prince Dolgorouki to be left exposed. City South-west of Riga Mitau. built in the thirteenth. who was originally the VIEWS IN RIGA. on the Aa River. in ' ' Bible are the of proudest the possessions Library. in order that patriotic Russians might have the opportunity of reviling their enemy. the of Courland (incapital with Russia in corporated was founded in 1/95). the fourth equerry. or groom. beginning with Gothard Kettler. grandson of an The German Duke of Courland. Most the coffins were closed and secured by iron hoops about forty years ago. of this historical wing edifice is the of the ancient mausoleum Dukes of the last Courland. their patron. with the exof Duke ception of the coffin of Duke John Ernest Biron. books.

Petersburg. capital of Esthonia. twenty-three miles long at its to the it some distance on Reval. the is a strikingly picturesque foundation archives collection of the town Hall. famed monastery even in the early part of the fourteenth century. connection old ' by rail with St. officiated. . when the royal exiles were compelled Emperor abruptly to leave. dating from the a 1219. The environs are as pretty and as interesting as the town itself. for Memel. Its Gothic features were destroyed Gustavus 1632 by Adolphus. of silver interesting from many and a large English names of donors engraved upon one of the cups. but we can only draw attention to the ruins of Padis Cloister. Petersburg. daughter of the unfortunate Louis XVI. the Baltic Brighton. This chapter must now be brought to a close with a mere mention of Hapsal.28 RUSSIAN PICTURES. travellers caught sight on this journey of the arrive at the picturesque in but the railway now skirts navigable Peipus Lake. and enclosing and many houses of the ancient nobility. The hospitality thus offered by the Paul ceased in 1/92. a in fire and are 1598.. we founded town of Dorpat. Petersburg and the interior of the empire. which is supposed to have been founded in 1030 by a Grand Duke of Novgorod. and of Narva. the finest in It was a Esthonia. on the top of a rock. The Guildhall of the Blackheads contains the One of the oldest is now ' ' Knights plate of is the Sword (a Livonian the order). on being liberated from the Temple. and of great commercial importance since its . perched object. in Ritterhaus. in mid-winter. by represented by a few ruins of the cathedral. in a chapel of the palace. Working back by the same railway in the direction of St. partly on foot. one of the way prettiest places on the Baltic. at a distance of about twenty-seven miles from Reval. or of Town the churches. chapel attached to the Gothic. their eccentric host having suddenly made an alliance with Buonaparte. the Due d'Angouleme.' the cathedral. Rathhaus. while we speed on to St. great Several subsequent conflagrations modernised the town. who attended the French monarch on the scaffold. the seat of a university. Its Danish castle. came here to marry her cousin. at which the Abbe de Firmont. with its splendid waterfall and its prosperous manufacturing industry. In old posting days.

.

. ST. PETERSBURG. .THE COLUMN OF ALEXANDER I.

submerging the greater part of the capital. it whose huge and heavy mass has Standing on the gallery under the dome of St. visibly sunk into the marshy subsoil. not to accept the possibility. for it was well pegged down with the superimposed piles of wood on which the Besides. is confined within solid granite quays. of St. with which for many years he comThe chief pelled all carts and vessels coming to the new city to be laden. bear almost clear and on The main stream capital of the Russian empire. desired to ' 1/03. Isaac's. OF THE I4TH. the rapid. PETERSBOURG.ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. the waters of the Neva rose thirteen feet four inches above their ordinary average level. 1824. but the city of St. ST. In danger to which the city has since been mainly exposed is inundation. in succession to many previous floods. CENTURY. as the site of the look into Europe. PETERSBURG. IN THE BIBLIOTHEQUE 1MPERIALE. Petersburg a still greater catastrophe of the same .' The crust itself in 'window' through which he is now secure enough. Petersburg rests on a crust of soil which almost floats on the water-logged marshes selected the modern by Peter the Great. but treacherous. long predicted. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL in : III. is difficult being some day overwhelmed by kind. RISING their surface Lake Ladoga. of the Neva. weighted with the stones and rubble. waters after flowing a distance of forty-two miles. ST. it is well resolute Tsar laid the foundations of his first buildings.

and his imperial mistress Catherine II. and more especially with pictures of victories by sea and by land since the days of Peter the Great. from being In this respect only is it typical of Russia. cover the walls of a large gallery and those of the In the Alexander Hall is a portrait of Alexander I. The stucco. not only from but also from of the colossal character of its origin. Petersburg while equally good full-sized likenesses of succeeding emperors. plain room which the visitor adorn the Round Hall. is the largest. the great Palace. is a desert in comwith Nevertheless. . and artistic treasures of so great and exceptional with its a value.. after a fire building erected in 1762 and completed in 1769. apirs nous le dtlugc we have only to deal with the city as is. replete with works of art. the city itself in summer looks deserted. Unlike the huge spaces of which we have spoken this immense in converted into a neat park.. The huge so-called Orlof diamond in upper room. of such great interest.. in the reign of the great Catherine. still covered with his military cloak.RUSSIAN PICTURES. than are from beauty are of their architecture. may be considered as emblematical of the magnitude of the empire and of the power by which it is governed and held together. it contains objects parison every other country in Europe. and on it lies the last military report which the emperor received. and the impression of hugeness and desolation imparted to the traveller by the will vast open their spaces of which and wide rather streets. they of materials brick and With a population population of more than one hundred millions. an English artist of celebrity at St. set in so vast a frame. obtaining permission to inspect this palace enough to obtain a view of the crown jewels. composed mostly only nearly one million. of the 1839. in purchased from an Armenian by Count Orlof. and to express a fervent hope that the dreaded combination of the : it now elements its never occur. Field Marshals Hall. which. of all the known diamonds . many buildings. The best starting-point for a tour of inspection is partly restored worthy of being square. The noble halls and other apartments are edifice. There is one small. down to Alexander II. However. Travellers are who succeed sometimes fortunate securely kept in an the imperial sceptre. his which bears name as by George Dawe. His writing-table remains undisturbed. on which stands the Winter which had consumed the interior 455 feet in length by 350 in breadth. in should endeavour to see which he died on the camp bed. that scarcely any capital in Europe is more described by pen and depicted by pencil. It is certainly a remarkable city. the study and bed-chamber of Nicholas I. renowned in the more Portraits of soldiers of Russia. in the hall Russian who is depicted being attended by the Genius and statesmen. modern annals of Russia. and oppresses the visitor with a feeling of insignificance. The the best edifices are imposing from immensity. as him to presented by the Pitt diamond of France is the most beautiful.

C. and The Crimean (Greco-Scythian) objects that most of them are much later. The style. without pretension to archaeological knowledge. together with those of his favourite wife or queen (bearing on her head. and 1850. and Siberian antiquities. and surdiamonds fixed on a very large uncut spinel ruby. principally west of Kul-Oba about four miles In that year. Alfred Maskell is of opinion that few of the various pieces of goldsmiths' work go back to a period earlier than the third century before Christ. Kertch. 33 adorned with noble jewels. building was Greek The ground occupied by galleries of antique sculpture. are naturally of the in pointed out the spots where important discoveries were made. men reconstructed floor is between 1840 and of letters. originally the Pavilion. be divided into two classes objects : ' Hidden in a great number of highest artistic value. practically revealed by M. now in the Imperial Public Library. They date adjacent districts. Paul Dubrux. the royal tomb. See his Russian Art and Art Objects in Russia (South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks). in the most perfect specimens. but entered by a noble vestibule from Bolshaya Millionaya Street. the art of the Greek colonies which were founded on the northern coast of the Black Sea nearly six hundred years B. and by a library of ten thousand volumes on archaeology. Its value is about . Connected with the palace. D .000. tions. Attracted Nomadic and Royal Scythians. Museum. essentially Milesian.100. now least stands in the Hermitage colour as 1 it was at two thousand years ago. and in their artistic productions mingled The their mythology. the Greeks from Miletus engrafted their ancient civilisation on them. of original drawings. in which Catherine II. with his gold-hilted sword and other arms and the in which wood king lay.THE MODERN CAPITAL: in ST. may principally in the precious metals. is The emperor's crown mounted by a cross formed of five beautiful versation with philosophers. buried in his richest robes and adorned with his most precious ornaments. The Kertch collection is alone worth a visit to St. PETERSBURG. as brilliant in when the Greek artist 1884. first Mongol invasion of the Russian plains in the thirteenth century. by commerce and by the wealth of the described by Strabo and Herodotus. built in 1/65. is the famed Hermitage. with king. Diderot. from the period of the highest civilisation of Greece to the time of the Mr. like the his attendants and horses. and of some of The sarcophagus of carved and painted yewtheir clothes and trappings. of classical. was discovered by soldiers who were quarrying stone for fortifica- mouldered remains of a Bosporian king. in the artists. spent her leisure moments in conEurope. Scythian. existence was their first tumuli. It contained the treasures beside him. remnants of the libraries of D'Alembert. Petersburg. for it reveals. from the Crimea and and others from Siberia and Central Russia. a mitre-shaped diadem). 1831. and Voltaire. in is this and unrivalled of collection process apparent unique objects of ' ' ' ' antique It art. who. legends and types with those of the barbarians.

Unfortunately. conspicuous among the treasures Kertch collection of the Hermitage so called from the Museum at Kertch in which Bosporian antiquities were amassed before the Crimean the In the It is War. the tumulus was not sufficiently a crowd of people rushed into it and guarded. The costumes thus a photograph. and twenty hundred one other treasure. which form the collections of armour are Hermitage . on the Dnieper. discoveries of authorities. and importance that he declared its possession was almost sufficient to It was found (1863) in a form a casns belli with the Russian empire. estimated to have weighed it paintings golden of pounds. Polish and Bohemian but of high military standards. in in the tomb bears another his tooth drawn. are reproduced in one of a the same tomb. by the alloying of gold find the same people represented in the with one-fifth part of silver. and also in electrum of dental metal obtained. or basklik. adulterated by a large admixture of Oriental trophies and works of art. and dressed very much Russian peasant of the present day. and is twenty-eight The work. with of victories ornamented mounted on chariots. But other of which only fifteen pounds were recovered by the sufficient was rescued to render the Kul-Oba even now. Kul-Oba tomb was found a very remarkable vase of electrum.34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. finest halls of the cannot be of later date than the fourth century B. . and under cover of night carried away. who in one groups his having discovered leg bandaged. Mediaeval and Renaissance sections of the Hermitage. scene is These represent episodes in the life of a chief. and purchased by the Museum and in a newly-arranged annexe of the with the Campana and other objects. On the ground floor of the Hermitage are galleries of sculpture and of Here also is to be seen the beautiful and matchless Etruscan ceramic art. of tumulus near the town Nicopol. of lotah-shaped. and nomadic occupation of lassoing breaking in wild horses on the wondrous which stands enshrined in the centre of one of the silver-gilt Nicopol vase. a large number of the thin as well as much gold plates with which the royal dresses were covered. We M.C. excepting the hood. As it the is skull evidence that the incidents so skilfully repousse life of the king in whose tomb it has handed down the five small to us. presumed on the vase refer to incidents in the been preserved. when not found in a natural state. figures of Greek men and women. inches high. Russian Government king of vases found at Cuma?. which has been introduced into Russia from the Caucasus within modern times. as it were in in statuettes found affliction. and on a band surrounding the centre are four groups like the Scythians with long hair and beards. which is in the most perfect style of Greek art. after many a similar character. Thiers was so much struck by its beauty Hermitage. and subsequently melted down. somewhat incongruous. and other curios. and warriors with bows and arrows. after the discovery of its rich contents.

which cover almost every available inch of the walls. Sebastian. ST. Philip. and several other specimens of the great painter. ment the 1779 at Museo for . by Sebastian del Piombo. In the Flemish collection we see much more to interest us. the wife and daughter of Oliver The best of Cromwell. the many * finest By permitting the dispersion museum of pictures in the in of the world. tazzas. the British nation lost the chance of possessing the In addition to the great number of pictures sold to the Russian Governacquired from it nineteen of the best pictures now in that gallery. Here we are Gallery. d'Olivares. the collection of Spanish pictures is the best and most varied out of Spain. Sir Thomas Laud. for it contains portraits by Van Dyck. Henrietta Maria. The collections pictures purchased by Peter the bulk consists Great were chiefly Dutch and celebrated Flemish works. and Spain. although nominally the picture galleries of the Hermitage..800 paintings. porphyry. and Empress The gallery contains about 1. invidious the task. Struck with admiration at the noble tables. ). and candelabra of malachite. brevity compels us to name only the St. by Luini. Archbishop these. of which a little more than one half are of the Flemish. lapis-lazuli. PETERSBURG. and German The art of Italy is represented by about 350 specimens. the Louvre Madrid owes no fewer than 44 of collection. 35 whole day might easily be spent in studying this department of the Hermitage alone. of Charles I. the most valuable. Josephine (Malmaison collection). we defer for a moment our proposed systematic inspection of the in A pictures. Queen Lord Wharton. The Spanish and Flemish collections are considered to be Spain by 115.' The so largely and after worthily represented in through the Historical immediately the passing Greek art. vases.35. Inigo Jones.THE MODERN CAPITAL: interest. The best of the six paintings by Velasquez are the portraits of Philip IV.000. D 2 . The stately grandeur of the apartments into which we are now ushered makes us feel at once that we are in an imperial palace. Lord Walpole. were once the pride of Houghton larger Italian school pictures of the attract attention the Hermitage Hall. Dutch. Chaloner. Indeed. Sir Thomas Wharton. the Earl of Danby. the number of Murillos alone being twenty. the Descent from the Cross. and fill the numerous stands and screens provided for the display of so great an abundance of paintings by the older masters of the principal schools in Europe. the Ladies Elizabeth and Philadelphia Wharton. and that of schools. and jasper that stand on the highly-polished inlaid floors of the principal rooms. the and the choicest of the equally numerous paintings by Rubens (in same room and in Room xiv. in the in which frescoes represent the progress of presence of all older Italian masters. of those of his minister. from a national point of view. while Walpole its most valuable painlings to the same opportunity. from the sixteenth to the However early part of the eighteenth century. but of the now the mainly of the three the Marquis de Crozat.

Sir Rembrandt Joshua Reynolds's Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpent. is unfortunately unfinished two replicas in The but Cupicl unloosing the Girdle of Venus (known in here charms the eye. an allegory of Russia vanquishing the difficulties of its youthful state. was painted for the Empress Catherine II. for example. The Continence of Scipio. his He especially observe the masterly portraits of old Thomas ' Parr. are magnificent specimens of every period of the art and subject of that great master. A magnificent Canaletto But represents the reception at Venice of the ambassador of Louis XV. paid to the British school almost entirely neglected on the rest of the Conti- nentby given the compartment to it in the Gallery. scarcely a picture in this room that is not admirable. Rembrandt's Mother.RUSSIAN PICTURES. The great Dutch and Flemish schools of painting may here be studied of the to advantage. J His Danae of art execution allow one to will . an Englishman cannot fail to the recognise compliment PETRU RUSSORUM PETER THE GREAT. and treasures the Prodigal Son by Salvator Rosa. there is. . in short. England) French school has enriched the noble classical gallery with . formerly Walpole collection. Two portraits. as the galleries possess many of the finest specimens of all the noted masters. 1634 respectively and 1666. from the same brush. pictures by one of the Guido Reni. a chef-d'oeuvre of but the lover afford to cannot of escape pictures attention. of Lieven van and the Copenal. After glancing at the productions of Franz Hals and Ferdinand Bol. In the far-famed Rembrandt Gallery. show his earliest dated and his is latest style.' a highly-finished cabinet picture on a stand by itself.

. and the latter Igolkin. was In in name of his canine favourite. The Brazen is represented as a captive in chains at Stockholm. by Brtilow. the forms part of life Great's Gallery is entered Here the Winter Palace. by a pupil of Clouet. iron staff which his gigantic strength enabled him to a slender stick. for it was executed Having exhausted the manifold objects of interest in the Winter Palace and the renowned Hermitage. clad in the it dress which he wore at the for coronation of Catherine side face. who Mary Magdalene. charming pictures by Claude Lorraine. Vernet. see the small gilt chariot in which of the Russian empire. so different from the conventional Byzantine style of ecclesiastical painting which gives extensive employment to the native iconograph. and the Election of Michael Romanoff and those by Matveyeff and Shebuef. we cannot do better than mount the dome of hair at sittings . although it we find objects illustrative of the and activity Peter the Great. it is Numerous supposed. was Lossenko. and presses crowded with valuable The chief interest centres in the relics of of every description. but the death . at Fotheringay. Pompeii. that The casts on either of his wax mould and moustaches. painted. are typical of the Russian realistic treatment of Scriptural subjects. by Poussin. The former has depicted Peter the Great questioning his son. he sometimes drove the horse now stuffed which he rode at the battle of nicknacks the founder We . like Vereschagin. Novgorod. who may be said Its most important work 1759. is a startling academical but the most interesting examples are the two historical pictures by Ugriumoff The Capture of Kazan. 37 Moine. a Merchant of picture of huge size . the heavy . who. Aivazofski. is seen ordinary efforts. and with a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. turning seven feet of the teeth he had extracted from the jaws of suffering a collection and lathes. the the habit of placing petitions in centre of the gallery is a wax effigy of the great Tsar. and Bruni's Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane. mathematical and other instruments. has a world-wide reputation. which he gave the artist. must be the exact image of him. the collar under which Catherine the I. which is not open to the general public. The stuffed Danish hound in one of the glass cases still wears subjects. Greuze. Le Watteau. carry with ease . tools. PETERSBURG. on the of seized point being by his gaolers for having killed a Swedish soldier who Ivanoff's Christ Appearing to spoke disrespectfully of Peter the Great. other pictures by French artists adorn the Second Hermitage Palace. I. of from Hermitage. The Creation of the World. who embroidered his were taken from furnished with features after purpose. The to is Russian painter of any note founded the Russian school in considered to be The Last Day of earliest have Serpent.THE MODERN CAPITAL: landscapes ST. and Peter the in two of his most extra- The Deluge. with a notch marking his height at about his books. Choice specimens of Russian painting and sculpture fill the two rooms through which we make our exit. Poltava . by Bruni.

This gives us also the for a bird's-eye view of the city. but commenced in the reign of replaced in 1801 by an edifice which had been Its foundations (364 feet by 315). Isaac's church built in i/io. It was erected between 1819 and 1858.RUSSIAN PICTURES.200. ST.000. ISAAC'S CATHEDRAL. of the modern cathedrals most remarkable of one of the opportunity visiting in Russia. ST. forest on a of piles the total cost of construction . laid twenty-one feet long. while and decoration (not including the subsequent Its form is that of cost of propping it up) exceeded three millions sterling a Greek cross. on the site of a wooden St. TETERSDURG. and its three chief portals of gigantic bronze work are approached from the level of the vast square on which it stands by broad flights of steps composed of entire pieces of polished granite from Finland. Catherine II. alone cost .

was made in Germany.' The cupola. they support on each of the four sides of the edifice a frieze with a text in letters of bronze. ' In Thee. and is pillars the only work of art within the church that the is not Russian. the purposely-subdued light brings into relief the glittering sumptuousness of the ikonostas. 39 twelve polished granite monoliths that support the four are feet in height and seven feet in diameter peristyles sixty weighing one hundred and twenty-eight tons each. Alexander Nevski be taken as its terminus. is not solid. in miles Nevski three the length. three is of the capital. Russian Strictly speaking. and of the Sanctuary beyond the Royal Doors. capitals of bronze. To the King feet of in Kings. or screen. PETERSBURG. which adorn the walls and pillars of the temple. but applied on The stained window representing copper tubes fitted over cast-iron cylinders. St. and crowned with massive Corinthian . and with its two nearly parallel arteries governs the direction It is intersected by three canals that drain to of most of the other streets. of malachite. ' The king shall : shall rejoice in Thy strength. and of the ikons. Women It is supported by eight Corinthian are not admitted into this inmost shrine. The As in all interior of Isaac's to is well calculated to inspire feelings of solemnity and veneration. or which have its belief ' in images. the entire height of the cathedral to the top of the golden cross that surmounts the elegant lantern Four belfries. contain bells fifteen to twenty-nine tons in weight. south. or produced in mosaic work. not been worked by human material hands. sail. remarkable for its tall gilded spire. if the monastery of Prospect. the Ascension. but holds that an Ikon painted. and enable barges of light draught to distribute their . and impress imagination churches. mostly in mosaic work. do and west. copper. covered with thickly-gilt is sixty-six diameter and two hundred and ninety-six feet high.' adoration. costliness of material and beauty of execution. Translated. at the back of the high altar. is not effect easily The Russo-Greek Church distinguishable from actual rejects as idolatrous any carved or moulded representation of sacred or saintly subjects for purposes of worship. in miniature the central dome. we observe that from the so-called Admiralty. The view from dome is extensive and First of all.' trust let me never be ashamed . Mine I House put my be called an House of Prayer. the several texts are : north. these are to which miraculous powers are in not worshipped. instructive. ' O Lord ' ' ' . palace This is the main thoroughfare St. in which vessels are no longer built. O Lord. although the ascribed.THE MODERN CAPITAL: The one hundred and ST. The to three and yield none in principal bronze portals are the largest in the world. east. which. like the lapis-lazuli. with cupolas resembling being three hundred and thirty-six feet. the of the visitor. Lavish use of malachite and lapis-lazuli has been made in the adorn- ment of the Screen. some extent the city. on a flat surface is not a violation of the Second Commandment. surmounted by a ship under full The one nearest the great streets radiate like the ribs of a fan.

like the Nevski. Samuel Bentham. relieved only by the numberless sledges in which the inhabitants of either side of the ice-bound river are being silently but rapidly conveyed to and fro on terra finna. Off it are anchored. Of course we are speaking of the short summer months of the North. the commercial quarter of the city. which has no through railway connection with the other In summer communication with the opposite parts of the Russian empire. the largest island formed by the numerous branches of the Neva. which is freight. or Finland. The activity revolution in 1825. full of handsome buildings and shops. Petersburg. establishes communication with the Viborg side. within the last ten or fifteen years. and abuts on the Fortress. so far as commercial is concerned. principally fuel. hemp.' under the impression that they were engaged in a pronunciamento in favour site of the ' . The first and second streets that run across the main thoroughfare are (Great) and Malaya (Little) Morskaya (Naval) streets. was actively employed in Russia during a part of the reign of Catherine II. A machine which he devised. we face the Vasili Ostrof.. practically.' greatly accelerated the progress of the work. or as a naval commander. massive Columns Rostrata: Beyond is another by which stands the British floating bridge that starts from the square on Embassy. in order to put an end to the pile-driving ' habitual skulking of the labourers. and connected with the the Bolshaya by the handsome Nicholas Bridge and the floating bridge that leads from the Winter Palace to the colossal Exchange. which. so called from its being the starting-point for a journey to the adjoining Grand Duchy of Finland. is one of comparative desolation. This was the raw produce. and flax. The last bridge. from the rough. side of the river is further maintained by the innumerable small steamers that have replaced the quaint-sterned ferry-boats which were formerly so prominently mainland depicted in illustrations of St. has supplied an enjoyable shade to a once cobble-paved square that extended from the huge Senate and Synod houses on the left to the Winter Palace and the Etat Major buildings on the right. when the deluded soldiery shouted Constitutia. the big steamers which. Sir construction of the new Fontanka Canal. and a general inventor in In one of his manifold capacities he had charge of the the Russian service. to which we shall refer later. the third of the canals before us. a lieutenant-colonel.40 RUSSIAN PICTURES. a brother of Jeremy Bentham. Light steamers also ply on these canals. an architect. flat-bottomed barges that have to be broken up for firewood come from after the innermost parts of the empire. of stone and iron. thanks to the Cronstadt Canal. recognisable the two in front of it. the first being. In winter the scene. The Vasili Ostrof is. Sweden. are now loading grain. in mid-stream. discharging their duties as carriers of long granite quays are lined by other steamers that ply to Cronstadt. Turning in the opposite direction. In front of the Cathedral is the Park. either as an agent of the British Government for building ships of war at Archangel.

.

essentially Asiatic or Indian.' Prominently standing out from its environment of trees and shrubs is the well-known equestrian I. strange to say. except to to some extent the class who make it their special business ' convey only ' are bent on pleasure. and in other types winter the European sledges. see many mujiks clad in sheepskins. years ago the drojki drivers satisfaction of those who revelled in The Isvostchiks.42 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Their dress is almost a mediaeval survival. deprived him of the right of succeeding Alexander and placed the throne of All the Russias in the hands of his brother Nicholas. in contrast with drivers we find ethnographical on which we gaze with the interest we would bestow on a Hindu or a Chinaman in London. whose morganatic marriage to a Polish lady had. regardless of expense. erected 1 . which is clearly a modernised of the 'beef-eater's' hat brought to Russia by the adventurous Englishmen who discovered hat in the for sea-board the of Muscovy in the sixteenth ' ' century. is national evident. although only ten seeing those Moscow who in generally. and descendant especially the summer head-dress. are a very decent set course is necessary of men. relegated of Moscow wore rural it districts. although few have its sufficient systematic their first patience arrival. and that of their inhabitants. by which their eager course is at once arrested. although a clear bargain as to the charge for a in order to avoid ultimate disagreement. The horses are active. We approximation to general to those in search of European dress peculiarities. the of Grand Duke Constantine. although disappointing Nevertheless. well acquainted with the sound of Ptrm. Stranger still. the architect of the Cathedral from which we are looking down on those wonderful works. or No more striking as far as the knees. may perhaps origin of to advanced linen shirts in this century covering trousers has come over the aspect of the country than the outward appearance change In most of the of its cities and towns. wiry animals. urban centres. the rural districts. statue The 782. under perfect control. by his own consent. to the its primitive national aspect. The Nevski travellers Prospect is the next point to of attraction. the first remarkable monuments were designed and executed by Frenchmen of Peter the Great. continues to predominate. the second by Montferrand. by the great Catherine in grand monolith of polished granite that commemorates the glory and the Both of these virtues of Alexander I. as in of Scandinavia. and. exactly the same sound is used in the island and we take the fact as a corroborahorses Skye in tion of far in stopping the Scandinavian . .. 'the Divine figure of the North. also. vehicles. attract us in by their their while peculiarity. The indigenous head-covering to same season is still almost the counterpart of the but it is now which Paddy is wont to carry his dhudeen . if not too isolated or distant from are too early Russian civilisation. with all details on In make themselves acquainted summer the drojkies. the summer dress It of the peasant. stands in front of the Winter Palace. by Falconet.

Peter's at Rome. Petersburg. cushions. for. or bazaar so common to all Russian towns. as a revival. the market is a exhibiting the produce of robberies. which were not quite unsuspected of In fact. Petersburg for any considerable number of years will be impressed by the It used to development that has taken place in the local bric-a-brac trade. the police circumscribes recipient of such articles. to this day. hard. the ikotiostas is light and brilliant. . asked are not those of the days before trading collectors had discovered this distant mine of wealth. extends but. Strings of pearls. it has internally the form of a cross. Crowds of purchasers fill the lanes and alleys by which those markets are intersected. The Kazan Cathedral. be an intense pleasure to ransack the shanties we found full of incongruous odds and ends.' who. and therefore a good opportunity presents itself of viewing national types of bazaar. PETERSBURG. There are also two other markets. and pretty sashes and ties deftly woven at Bric-a-brac hunters revel in the Apraxin Dvor. or a bit of porcelain unchipped and bearing a genuine mark of note. in the street that turns off from the Nevski from the upper corner of the Gostinnoi Dvor. Built between 1801 and 1811. in four rows like the balustrade in front. is soon reached on the right-hand side of the Nevski. and to secure from among the mass of rubbish a valuable or pleasing picture. but of great utility on long journeys. restaurants. the Stchukin and the Apraxin. and so decidedly Oriental in origin claims our attention after visiting the Kazan Cathedral. The Gostinnoi Dvor. There are cathedral. and adds to its conventional clinginess. this arrangement somewhat crowds the interior. precious stones of high value. retook from the French it ' Don the to its present use. However.THE MODERN CAPITAL: c. at some of the or traktirs. Cossacks. but the prices Torjok. and applied the campaign of the zealous offering of the 1812. Those who have not visited St. it is of silver. . thirty-five feet from the four pillars that support the cupola high. diately many costly votive objects and military trophies in this and the Emperor never fails to offer up his prayers here immehis departure on from the capital and his return after a residence at some other imperial seat. A although architecturally grand. and showed the native dealers that a European market was available for their goods. with its colonnade in imitation of St. during church plate they had looted. and those in which are sold or gold. 43 be seen. were frequently picked up at the stalls. but the better vigilance of and renders more difficult its nefarious operations. which have not yet followed the example of similar establishments at St. two hundred and thirty-eight feet in length by one hundred and eighty-two in breadth.in ST. foreigners visit the excellent fur shops Russia-leather slippers embroidered in silver In the main every grade. where the guests are generally served by Tartar Mahomedan waiters in European evening dress. colonnade of granite monoliths. at Moscow.

is immediately beyond the Gostinnoi Dvor building we notice the Imperial Public Library. Resuming our walk up the Nevski. The Palace of Peterhof. Kazan Cathedral. about thirty-four thousand. 3. The The Alexander Column. Few libraries in Europe can compete number of printed volumes being over a million. 6. it. in addition to nearly eighty . Winter Palace. PETERSBURG. the that of the MSS. 7. 4. with a the first VIEWS IN AND AROUND ST. 8. The German Reformed Church. The Church in the Hay Market. Statue of Peter the Great. and statue to Catherine II. in front of with its riches. 2. I. The Admiralty.RUSSIAN PICTURES. 5.

the volume of English royal letters from Henry VII. thus speaks of the influence of the Bible in Russia What has the Bible as the Word of 1 ' : God been to among them call ? our Russian people during the thousand years of its existence Has it not been " a light shining in a dark place ? " We its to mind the bright opening period of our 1 national life which had St. is the complete series of the Bible printed in all the known languages and dialects of the inhabited parts of the British missionaries and British major part of this grand and lasting monument religious societies have raised to the glory of God and the His Holy Word. Finnish. on Mount Sinai. and character. and sold by improvised auction in the Slavonic . In this connection we may mention that. Greek codex of the four Evangelists. of the Library put together.. 1116. PETERSBURG. black with bears parchment age. The A brought down to A. since the beginning of the reign Emperor Nicholas. and discovered by Tischendorf in the still A having been written in the MS. Catherine. . Petersburg. 45 thousand engravings and maps. important almost globe. being of especial interest to ourselves. bears the that is. Further acquisitions were subsequently made in Poland. 1889. There are also thirty the that relate to the Russian. collection twenty-five them being of earlier date in all thousand volumes is than the ninth century. fetch. Astafief. a monk at Kief. They were taken from the Paris archives by an infuriated mob.. except history or geography of the empire. the famous Codex Sinaiticns. the most valuable of these being the books and MSS. in his History of the Bible in Russia. and other languages spoken by the subjects of the Tsar. The nucleus of this prodigious collection in a so new was the library of the Counts Zaluski. languages. is equally The unique noticeable. the British and Foreign Bible Society has been engaged in the distribution of the Holy Scriptures in Russian. containing the Evangelistarium. Petersburg as well as at Odessa. purchased by a Polish gentleman in France The MSS. Mr. N. and that it of the maintains an agency at St. date of 1056 tion of Christianity into is The Ostromir MS. it was written about seventy years after the introducfor anything they would Russia. secret State documents. Bible written older Greek century. in Early European printing (Incunabula) about eleven thousand volumes. the chief glory of this Convent of of of ancient St. a complete copy of the Greek in the fourth century. Lastly. from Gutenberg to the year exemplified but more to mankind than all the other treasures 1521. proof of ninth or Chronicle of Nestor.D. which capital comparatively had already become the property of the Polish State when Suvoroff captured Warsaw in 1 794. Petersburg. Hebrew and Karaite MSS.THE MODER^ CAPITAL: 7 ST. consist of letters during the early part of the great Revolution. and the correspondence of various sovereigns. from kings of France to their ambassadors. and transferred its contents to St. in 1859. on its tenth is department. to Charles I.

5 who endeavoured to carry the light of life into the thick darkness of ignorance God was and superstition which surrounded them. endured cruel persecution at the hands of the obstinate upholders of old errors. 4 or the learned brothers Lichud. 3 He came Of to Russia in 1518. endeavoured to revise the text by aid of the Greek MSS. us of 1 those first so remind the 2 And then following this. 1236 A. but in 1564 Ivan was driven out. ignorantly but honestly believing them to be truth. at first but few in number. and in A. and because of the little spread of education. nought. the second in 885. He but the work begun by him as the daily need of the people did Others continued it. in consequence of the desolation age of Christianity. imprisoned 1525 . in consequence of the opposition of the adherents of the old style. with revised and emended text. the Slavonic Bible. sprang from the people and knew their needs. not come to and from sophistical glosses. 1865 . 3 or Ivan Theodoroff.46 KUSSIAN in under the influence of earnest instruction glorious eleventh and twelfth centuries which birth the Word of God. . 4 the Royal Printing Press. and the Press burnt." in These Biblical labours activity in did not remain without influences people because of their high mass of the the quickening spiritual books of Holy society. printed at Moscow with some emendations. 1751. for the sake of making it more readily accessible. and with unconquerable energy he from the errors understood the living significance of the laid the foundation for of copyists Word its of God. once when men like Maxim the Greek. established at through the intrigues of the 5 MSS. tenth century was bound up with the circulation of this Bible and the formation of schools to teach the people 2 to read it. 1710-11 cherished the thought of translating the Bible from the Ecclesiastical Slavonic into the Russian language of the day. the patriarch Nikon (A. caused by the Mongols. and what could not be completed during the his in lifetime of Peter was finished by Thanks to her energetic persistence. with his healthy purifying himself fell. Peter the Great. owing to the want of popular schools.D. appeared the Ostrojskaya Bible. went on. writers. restoration. 1 Cyril anil Methodius formed the Slavonic alphabet in order to translate the Scriptures into that language in The acceptance of Christianity by the Russians in the 855-7. at last appeared " the so-called Elizabethan Bible. though slowly and with interruptions. in the year 1663. The revision of the Slavonic text meanwhile went on in due course. the long. who was deeply acquainted with and who highly valued the Holy Scriptures.D. but to the Scripture remained inaccessible.D. the first printer. and called into existence the Russian price. daughter the Empress Elizabeth. who established a complete system of secondary and elementary schools. who Moscow. and the revision of the Slavonic text. Both these obstacles were removed during the reign of Alexander I. and at last. . supported in every way Biblical labours.. long period of darkness when the Word of a rarity in the country. died 1556. A. who had grown accustomed As one who to them. 1652).The first died 869 at Rome. it spirit. accused the printers of heresy. But a beginning had been made. inviied to Russia from Italy.D.

as elsewhere. used in the Russian empire. selling them at low prices and distributing and at the same gratuitously into the Russian Bible the translating them . In its first ten years the receipts amounted to 3. marble. and on the other side of it the former Beloselski-Beloserski Palace. the capital degenerates into Its rural suburbs are reached at the Monastery an ordinary Russian town.THE MODERN CAPITAL: 1 ST. Siberian and Teutonic knights in decorated 1/90. PETERSBURG.' the reach own at a price native language.000 to 800. is Swedes and of massive St.938 roubles. and we come to the rough stone paving. especially in their within made equal progress since the publication of the by the permission of the Holy Synod. 47 Bible Society. the activity Now of the Lavra. Russia. being a of St. of those days. will be seen the Anitchkoff Palace. recent efforts Much ' has been ' done by the circulation of tracts and other Christian literature. During its existence 290 auxiliary committees were established in all parts of . and full of pictures and costly objects of art. at which the Nevski practically terminates in a huge and slovenly-looking square.D. Petersburg.000 copies were distributed in Slavonic and Russian. Nevski begins to flag. and by the blessing and aid pardon and cleansing and peace. Founded 1812 ended 1826. Italian The principal silver church. inferior in precedence only to the Lavra It was founded of the Trinity at Moscow and the Lavra at Kief. battle fought on its site defeated built the in 1241. agate.000 copies were printed in twenty-six languages and dialects. by Peter who in Duke a great the Great in honour of a canonized Grand Alexander. to The spread Religious Tract Society has also largely helped throughout Russia the knowledge of the Gospel. Scriptures or parts of them were translated into fourteen new languages 1. of which probably 700. Past the Moscow Railway Station. which had for its object the circulation of the books of Holy Scripture as generally as possible. On the opposite side of the square to which the front of the Public Library is turned. Russian Bible.000. made At language. On the Elizabeth. The .421. by Count Rastrelli. the glad tidings of salvation by faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ enter the sinful and of the Holy Spirit bring to it penitent heart. has A. 1 weighing twenty-nine hundredweight lie the remains of Alexander. 1876. Alexander Nevski. over which carriages and drojkies have to rattle when off the wooden blocks laid down for them from the Palace Bridge to the Anitchkoff Palace and along the whole length of Bolshaya Morskaya Street. the great architect celebrated are the two close to the equestrian groups by palace bridge Baron Klodt. or seat of a Metropolitan. internally with In a sumptuous shrine Persian pearls. one of the most important in Russia. brought from the Cathedral at Vladimir by Peter the Great. time it a commencement in the us. for the Empress Majesties when at St. now the property of the Grand Duke Sergius. school this system has received a wide extension amongst circulation present time the and alongside of the among the people of the Holy Scriptures of every one. the residence of their It was built in 1744. and evidence has not been lacking to show that in Russia.

who died of small-pox when only fourteen. St. which has also a large collection of mitres set in jewels.48 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in 1/03. on imperial fete days. hanging gradually on A rope. the summit being 302 feet above the level of The foundations of the fortress were laid by Peter the Great the ground. an episcopal staff Portraits of the turned by Peter. In its From their race came Peter the proud device. 1 crypt are buried Natalia. although blood spurted out from under his finger-nails as he ascended. behind which is a remarkable picture of the St. With the aid only of a nail and a angel and cross on the spire in 1830. in which sons of the White Clergy (as distinguished from the Monks) are prepared for the priesthood. It is for instruction of a selected for the vocation higher order of tutors and to to the more in professors now time to leave the in Nevski. Excepting Peter II.. Great are paid by the upper and richer classes for permission to sums Large repose in the adjoining cemetery. the eldest son of Peter I. Suvoroff. to the raised edges of the copper plates with his fingers. in Latin his mother having been a member of that ancient noble family. pontifical robes of gold brocade. Alexander's crown and the bed on which Peter I. and several other ministers of the brilliant On the mausoleum of the Naryshkins is epoch of Catherine the Great. Peter. founded in 702. and to the population of the lower parts of the Consecrated in 1733 on the site of a church coeval with the fortress. died are among the most interesting objects shown in the Sacristy. the Kensal Green of St. and also for giving notice of the rising of the Neva to inhabitants of cellars. are suspended on the two opposite the Altar. where he was buried. but the present grim stone work was executed in 1706 under the It is used as a State prison. Petersburg. all the members of the imperial family have . who died young. Peter and is Petersburg and its neighbourhood. and glance at a few of the other places The Cathedral most worth seeing of St. and a great number of other valuables. a Russian initjik (peasant) climbed to the top. inscribed ' . sister of Peter I. Paul within the fortress on the right beautiful gilt bank of the Neva conspicuous by its spire terminating in an angel bearing a cross. St. who died in a sudden and mysterious manner in one of its dungeons after his ' Its guns are used for saluting purposes examination on a charge of treason. Perugino. of superintendence the earliest notable occupant was Alexis. Some of the Ikons are good copies after Annunciation by Raphael Mengs and Guido. Among the six other churches within the walls of the Lavra is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. city. of which an Italian architect. founder of pillars Petersburg and of Catherine II. Rumiantsof. the cathedral was restored in 1757. Rubens. The monastery contains also a seminary. the ' : ' ' and a theological college promising scholars theological schools. at Moscow. after having been three times damaged tale of singular daring is connected with the repair of the by lio-htning.. his son..

more than ten feet high. at the country residence of his grandfather. whose martyred son and successor. with which traditions of Peter the Great strongly associated. PETERSBURG.THE MODERN CAPITAL: since the foundation of St. which is of wood. almost at the foot of the floating Trinity Bridge. It he erected between replaces a church which 1703 and E . the opposite aisle that of the Emperor Nicholas. lies to the right of the Altar Screen. was the turned centre by Peter I. near Lake Ladoga THE FIRST FLEET BUILT BY PETER THE GREAT AT VORONEJ. is carpenters. 49 Petersburg been interred under the floor of this marble tombs above marking the places of their Close to the south door is the tomb of Peter the Great. It a boat constructed by Dutch in carefully preserved a brick Quitting for the river-bank. Catherine II. ST. building The 'Grandfather of the Russian Navy. that 1722 1726.' river in 1668. are also a small wooden church. reposes alongside of him.. on the Moskva near the cathedral. in its autograph of his found to later within Almighty God in gratitude for the benefit recorded he had derived from ball An 1724. the Emancipator of the Serfs. cathedral. we~pass. the work of four Russian carvers between superbly carved and richly gilt and The ivory candelabrum. was found by Peter the Great when yet a and it was by sailing it lad. dedication the use of the mineral waters of Olonets. and in sepulture. the white stands in front of the ikonostas. Alexander II. under the direction of a Dutch shipbuilder that he acquired the nautical of the tastes which resulted in the construction of a fleet and the extension the fortress by its eastern gate and making Russian dominions.

attracted chiefly by an Ikon of the Saviour. the palace which he superintended the building of his new capital it contains only two rooms and a kitchen. They are kept in the gallery that runs round the cottage. his cicerone in London.' in the estuary of the Neva.' in the form of a compulsory tax on British shipping. unfortunately rendered very bare and cheerless-looking. by British merchant sively occupied. The bedroom on the left.000.000. is a chapel of the Queen's Ambassador. and of . and the In 1873 the interior was renovated. once almost exclulike the street in the rear of it. notwithstanding the addition of stained windows. origin. and from brings us to his cottage. which has outwardly the appearance of only a private mansion. A boys' school. generally crowded with worshippers. their combined size being about 55 feet by 20 feet in breadth. at Poltava! Among the other of relics of civilisation at forcibly sovereign path is a boat which he built. was his hatred of lawyers. between ' princes its a race nearly as extinct as that of the mammoth. and the wooden bench on which he sat his door.10. and of reading the Gospels on the anniversary of the battle of Poltava. defrayed from :the funds accumulated by the so-called British Factory. is the outcome of the to work of reconstruction carried out in in St.000 towards that purpose. Company.' Within this church are several objects which belonged to the Great Reformer or were made by him. it the who hurled Russia into Western and the outer building by which the cottage and its interesting contents are preserved from decay. commemoration of the foundation of the St.4. effected the discomfiture of Charles XII.50 RUSSIAN PICTURES. at a cost of . Those who take an interest in the life of Peter the Great should visit the three or four galleys of his period preserved in the Galley Haven. which accompanied Peter in his battles and conservative Muscovy. and an extensive circulating library for the benefit of . Petersburg. and in which habit of singing as a chorister. The Anglican Church stands on the English Quay. He said to Lord Carmarthen. has been converted into a chapel. and injurious to our trade.' present edifice. which at last became obnoxious to the tax-payers. The capacious and valuable premises enjoy the boon of ex-territoriality. The church owed in to the 'Great Russia The 1/53. in which he also dined. like our other ' Petersburg are due. A short walk which he built in 703. and on other great feast days. whom he had asked who were the men in wigs and gowns bustling about Westminster Hall I have Lawyers but two in all my dominions. then typical of practical manner. ' 1815 by Ouarenghi. and I believe I shall hang one of them the moment I get home. Peter's cruelty and self-indulgence were strangely blended with his innate 1710 in he was in statesmanship and the devotional feeling he so frequently displayed in a Next to his prejudice against beards. an architect ' whom many of the finest edifices having made a grant of . on the ground that the chapel. ' : ! ' ' 1 .5. Parliament Russia Company a contribution Anglican establishments in Russia.

Nature. PETERSBURG. elk. converted for the purpose into an Arctic arcadia. and rewards us amply for the frost and snow and life. Nothing can be imagined as more enjoyable than a Northern summer. villas and cottages commences in the early part of our June. more . or less dormant for nearly eight months. and the darkness THE ENGLISH QUAY. and for the spiritual render made by our countrymen colony. In complete arrangements and moral welfare of the British summer all St. on the premises. through which the we have of fragrance passed. and yet E 2 . and wolves with local sportsmen. the warm hospitality and the healthy sport of All the Russias. even though we have enjoyed of a winter season at the capital on the Neva and in the Yusupof Gardens. window by going clown montagncs russes a refined and toboganing driven in pleasant company in sledges drawn superior at wild kind of speed by three thoroughbred horses abreast. PETERSBURG. shot bears. become acquainted with the sensation of falling out of a high and the song of the nightingale. and in fact led a life of jollity without even getting an ear or a cheek frozen . Petersburg is out of town the migration to suburban palaces.THE MODERN CAPITAL: the ST. at St. and the return tide sets in towards the end of September. two thousand are also British subjects who reside Petersburg the and its vicinity. the young birch all We hail with delight the warm sunshine. light. bursts suddenly into beauty. ST. to festive establishments on the outskirts of the city. We may have skated trees.

' spires sun. and many other marvels we can only make grounds fleet Marly. little inferior The Samson. slop to terminates on the shore of the gulf. Neva. . articles of vertu. pleasure Zoological But we must now leave St. laid out in terraces and walks. its general character. collection of 863 portraits of beautiful young girls painted by Count Rotari for the Empress during a journey which he made for that purpose through No two are alike either in position or the fifty provinces of Russia. of banks are the on the of the Little Derevnia. is almost as The River Yacht road on Derby day.. and its walls are Beneath the palace is the celebrated garden. describe the view. and make excursions by rail or and we begin with steamer to some more distant summer residences an Its which Gulf of Finland from overlooks the Peterhof. palace. the stamp of the French school being veryIn the study of Peter the Great hangs his apparent on every canvas. The more accessible villas are on drive a little the islands of the Neva. and marble.52 RUSSIAN PICTURES. to which in we before sunset. and the Marly Pond. adorned with fountains and other ornamental water-works. the red rays of the setting which partly runs Point. and even its original yellow colour. reaching the 'Point' of Yelagin Island time sun go down in golden glory. Novaya ex-village and Arcadia a of Livadia more sober resort Gardens. is a to those of Versailles. was built under the directions of Peter I. and on the left and domes of the we see within At this glowing hour the road witching capital crowded with vehicles as the Epsom Club is on Krestofski Island. malachite. in the centre of the grounds. unfortunately. and although many additions and alterations have been subsequently made. portrait in mosaic. elevation of sixty feet. with charming grounds and a delightful view. from which moored off Cronstadt. through Peter's Park. Petersburg. and especially to who have known many winters. and from it runs a boat canal that We cannot. are still perpetuated. To the right the banks of the Little Neva are dotted with picturesque chalets standing out to see the ' ' from a background of measurable distance the with the to last ' sombre lofty gilt pines . and gives a considerable amount of life to In the the branch of the Neva on which its large establishment stands. . The interior is replete with interest. There is an imperial chateau on this island. those the Elysian season will prove to be that of summer. while evening will be found in Gardens behind the the fortress. . for it abounds in beautiful tapestry. plainly seen from : of water-engineering here offered to our bare mention of some of the buildings in the Peter I. as well as in pictures representing chiefly the naval victories of Orlof and other Russian In one of the apartments is a generals during the reign of Catherine II. expression but it is more than doubtful whether they are true to Nature or the ethnology of Russia. tazzas of porcelain. wainscoted with some of his carvings. magnificent jet d'eait eighty feet high. was wont to contemplate his infant its terrace.

built in a with 1781. in the at lower garden. seventeen and a half miles running along the followed by the steamer. the properties. moreover. dispense with the presence of servants at intimate feasts the Pavilions on the Tsaritzyn and Olga Islands the English Palace. full the Emperor and and with Empress several reside in privacy it. PETERSBURG. in 1/03. severally. By constant is maintained in it. great ship canal. steamers drawing commercial outport of St. to visit the monastery of St. From squadron By taking from Peterhof the good macadamised road to St. the canal is one of the most remarkable works of its kind in Its result. and become a purely military harbour. dressing-room. amongst many others. shallow channel to St. who receives them. ' Suffer little children to trip come unto Me. and Alexandria. 53 to which he caused to be stocked with carp and chub. reign of Peter. it has an air of It is. when he dispossessed Swedes but. which since 1885 enables see. so far as modern science can possibly effect such imperial residence. Victoria . . With its open roof. needless to say.THE MODERN CAPITAL: ST. whose bed. vespers singing The sepulchral vaults (on Saturdays) is particularly fine and impressive. and its stalls of oak. portrait. to see were begun by Peter I. and feet a uniform centre of twenty-two depth dredging. and fronting the estuary of the Neva. for its celebrated monkish whose at choristers. still summoned by a bell be fed with rye flour. The fortifications we have come the Petersburg. of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. and more especially the church that stands at the back of the grounds. founded in 1/34. of Her Majesty Oueen floor. a . so well known to our readers already. when of fine pictures. is that Cronstadt will before long cease to be the Europe. night-cap and slippers are exhibited in it the Hermitage. cottages in Nicholas around roof of one of them the Emperor watched with a telescope the movements of the Anglo-French the front of Cronstadt. or Our next an object. with a contrivance in one of its rooms by which dishes and plates are made to descend from and ascend to the dinner-table through grooves in the summer-house in the Dutch also built in the . the long. elegance and comfort which few other Russian churches possess. in accordance with his directions Monplaisir. both as a place of busy trade and as a fortress defending in an impregnable manner. style. of many notable families are full of tokens that the dead have not been Over one of the tombs are likenesses from life of forgotten by the living. and we can terminate our drive and take But we halt here awhile. however. saying to the more prosaic railway carriage at Sergi. the sea-approach left to of the natural and partly twenty feet Petersburg. a mother bringing her children to the Saviour. in order to . we have the opportunity of seeing Michaelofski and Strelna. taken altogether. Sergius.' must be either by rail via Oranienbaum. We proceed to the capital. or carriage with three horses abreast. where Peterhof. none of his wooden . another ancient by steamer direct to Cronstadt. . Petersburg in a swift troika.

and brought down to Cronstadt to be fitted. defences are the strongest. on which seven strong batteries have been raised. is a military harbour. I. when. Nicholas since Sir The formidable-looking stone forts elate from the reign of They have undergone considerable alteration and improvement of the the clays Crimean to War. for reasons the still unknown. The southern of stones. and are formed by three lines of forts running channel THE FORTRESS OF SCHLUSSELBURG.A USSL4 A PIC TURKS. In the vicinity of the the chief station in the Baltic for the Russian fleet. of batteries recent date. not inferior to Keyham in its mechanical appliances. In the town the storehouses and workshops is bordered with granite. 1 r walls remain. The the land defences. splendid steam factory. These are mostly built at St. from canal west to east. A very good statue of Peter the Great whose genius created . through a his Charles Napier failed take advantage of passage on the northern side of the island discovered by a couple of That channel is now effectively guarded by a substantial dam smaller ships. and by a tall iron railing begun in 1721. The dry docks are capable of admitting some of the larger vessels of war. Petersburg. consist of several parallel lines connected by encircles many naval which and earthworks.

laid out and well wooded. at of the Neva. a hot-house. on the ground that she was not in the habit of selling her old clothes. three miles at distant. .THE MODERN CAPITAL. Nihilists has since been used as a State 1756. and the now son of Empress father. passed of to some time in in the fourteenth century into the hands. spent the remainder of his life on this insular Bastille. Tsarskoe of its Selo. the consort of Peter. the Lithuanian I.000 for the fragments of gold leaf. is second in some has not the fountains and the cascades But it is much larger in extent both as a town of The latter. the gilding the contractors in the restoring palace offered having worn off. near the governor's residence and the of what we have so the back of Summer Garden planted by Peter. however. all the statues and the capitals of columns. Pavlofsk. originally at of Dunaburg. built in 1744. either outside or commodious Vauxhall attached to the railway station. who had confined himself to building a small cottage. The town of Schliisselburg. it Like the of the dominions of formed anciently part Novgorod the for Great. in the roccoco style of was restored and embellished by her. pavilions. and a variety of other attractive buildings. were covered with gold leaf at a cost of more than a million of ducats but. by the Regent Biron). The Old Palace. and later at a lonely spot on the White Sea. He was killed in an attempt made for his rescue by an officer of the guard. after is much full contention. forming rapids easily navigable. both beautifully ference. imperial residence. into is divided the Old and the New Garden. on the left bank of the river. is a busy place of trade.' of the able to capital a mouthful of fresh and to enjoy the music of the excellent orchestra that plays every afternoon.. imprisoned prison. so ST. knights and of the Swedes. Originally the structural ornamentations. at 55 much the far seen stands on a square middle harbour. being at the mouth of the famous canal that forms part of a fluviatile system that connects the Baltic with the distant Caspian. mainly due to the care bestowed on it by marine rival. eighteen miles in circumprivate villas and as an imperial park. formerly the Swedish fortress of Noteborg.. the favourite since it respects to that of Peterhof. originally by Catherine I. and rush away from the within the the same time the for ' summer encampment resort of those who are air. is often the object of a day's excursion by steamer. is also a Petersburgians. .66. (together with his and conspirators.' The dome and the cupolas of the Palace Chapel are now Catherine II.. engaged . PETERSBURG. the source Schliisselburg. It who finally delivered it Peter 1/02. and alternately. In whom he had been Elizabeth. Ivan VI. rest of Ingria. and a zoological garden on part of the ground now covered with palaces. architecture. ' alone gilt. which issues here from the Ladoga lake. which the munificent Empress declined to accept. The present aspect of this beautiful spot is.

while Norway. active Kola. after a dispute that had lasted for five finally its total population is centuries. it but. slopes rising from a background of bluish-purple hills. sloping down to the Arctic Ocean. NEAR MOSCOW. which commences at the Jacob River on the borders of settled in 1826. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY IN THE SACRISTY OF THE MONASTERY OF ST. The province of Archalone has an area larger than that of Great Britain and France ' THE The Governments angel combined. together with the integrity of Sweden. OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. is broken by the gulf and the straits that give access to the White Sea. into which the region discharges its abundant waters. This is the Murman (Norman) coast. destroyed in 1854 of a its administration by an wide English district.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. was almost in summer. by Great Britain and France in 1855. long coast line. to which attention is being more and more directed with reference to the possibility of establishing in one of its commodious and never-freezing bays. scarcely that of the city of Manchester. the stations. . a few private whaling and fishing and it. SERGIUS. a Russian Naval Station. connected At present there is but one town with the rest of the empire by rail. civil has now resumed though comparatively pleasant aspect in an amphitheatre of green. and guaranteed. CHAPTER THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES ' IV. and . of Archangel and Vologda form together an immense sparsely-inhabited plateau. as the seat of the gunboat soon arose out of its ashes. only (800 inhabitants) upon town in question. woodless.

LANDING OF RICHARD CHANCELLOR AT HOLMOGORY.} . 1553- Niva.' Si. IN THE WHITE (Reproduced by Permission front the illustrated ' SEA. Petersburg.

.

Bonaventure. The design was conceived by ' ' Sebastian Cabot.. little The interior. while wearing orthodox crosses round their necks. been explored except constituting almost one by the Lopars (Lapps) huge mossy bog and the Saamy. all these lands from Novgorod the Great. and seeking nothing . by mere accident in 1553. of one hundred and twenty and of commander.' for the purpose of finding a northern sea passage to China and India. when. a native in of Bristol. frozen during more than half the year. namely. not far from the Korelian mouth of the Dvina. original home of this Ural-Altaic race. and delighting in the ringing of church bells when they have the opportunity. There had been no maritime intercourse between Western Europe and Muscovy. They hunt and fish over the vast hyperborean region that extends from the White Sea to some distance beyond the great Enisei River of Siberia. who. and on the other by the White Sea.' Explaining. storm in the North Sea separated the three vessels. on the Lapland sixty-five in number. men who subsist principally on raw flesh. which determines the frontier of Siberia and the limits of European Russia in the North. or Samoyedes. appointed in the Bona Esperanza. by the chartered Mystery Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands. venture alone escaped. until the sixteenth century. which had inherited. and severe Confidentia. on the opposite side of the Murman coast. the under him one hundred were placed Richard and sixty tons. death. right away to the spur of the Ural Mountains. was Willoughby. in Chancellor. the coast of the White Sea was reached by an adventurous expedition fitted out in London. Sir Hugh Willoughby with his own vessel and the Bona Confidentia ultimately reaching with Cornelius Durforth the Bona A much his difficulty a companions. where he and The Bona- August.' by which they are known to the civilized world.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. and ascertained from some fishermen that he had reached Russia or Muscovie. and to the foot of the Altai Mountains. politically. Eastward of Cape Kanin. here somewhat tempered in its frigid severity by the Gulf Stream. but in decliningnumbers. The peninsula thus 59 bordered on the one side by the Arctic Ocean. that they were Englishmen sent unto these coasts from the most certain excellent King Edward VI. bay near Sviaty Nos. Chancellor cast anchor in the bay of St. 1553. at a village called Nenocksa. the coast is still more dreary and uninviting. were frozen to coast. has literally the same signification as Esquimaux. still more or less secretly worship their primitive idols of stone and wood. although of Venetian parentage. the Samoyedes. Sir Hugh tons. It is here we begin to find. is known as Russian has Lapland. which were the The Russian name of Samoyedes. self-eaters. having from him in commandment the 241)1 ' ' On else but his amide and things to deliver to their King. by means that remain unknown. Nicholas. of ninety tons.

hemp and tallow of Muscovy from Flemish and Lithuanian traders by way of the Hanseatic towns. The engraving on page 57 represents him and his two principal companions merchants named Burton and Edwards being received in state by the Governor and other high authorities of the province. A charter then granted by the Tsar enabled the Company to trade throughout his dominions without paying any taxes. Kostroma. permission to repair to Moscow in the ambassadorial character which he had assumed. a Factory at Holmogory (fortyRussia. and sold their goods at a to native complaint. English merchants were now in direct and privileged communication with the country which supplied those valuable a later treaty with Queen Elizabeth secured to them the commodities exclusive right to carry on the new trade in English ships. not far from Archangel). amounted to two and three profit which.60 K^SS/AW PICTURES.' A new Company was thereupon formed in London by special charter. The important right of coinage was also bestowed upon them. .' great was Chancellor kindly and hospitably received by the equally astonished natives. seven miles above the mouth of the Dvina. Persia or China by way of Russia. and even permission to seize and despoil of his goods the subject of any other Power who might attempt to reach India. and depots at Novgorod the Great. Pskof. and obtained firm hold of all the most important centres of commercial With a head agency at Moscow. they carried everything before them. whereby they doubted not but that commoditie and profit would grow to the subjects of both kingdoms. and the Bay of St. they It is were fast being ruined by the execution of so many of their debtorsindeed true that the life of the early English settlers in Russia was not an They had to contend with civil commotions. wax. on the strength of an open Royal Letter with which each of the three vessels had been provided. and in 1555 Chancellor returned to Moscow with a reply from Philip and Mary. Instead of getting the furs.' and requesting that one of His Majesty's Council should be sent to treat with the Tsar. according hundred per cent. obtained Ivan the Terrible. ' . after he had friendship. then on the throne of England. whereby your country merchants maie with all kind of wares and wheare they will make their market in our dominions. gave the three Englishmen ' a cordial and distinguished reception. then Tsar and in the zenith of his glory as the capturer of Kazan and the Suzerain of Siberia. and sent them back from Moscow in March 1554. 1 1 From Factor^ an agent. ' ' Holmogory is evidently derived from the Norwegian Holnigaard. on the contrary. and tniffique with his people. with a letter to King Edward assuring him that his shippes and vessels may come as often as they please. they retorted that. When Ivan the Terrible complained of these proceedings to the English Ambassador in 1569. It is not surprising that under such advantages the Company prospered. Nicholas soon became an important place of commerce. Yaroslaf. pestilence and easy one. Kazan and Astrakhan.

and artillery and other be sent from England. and long fingers. daughter of the Earl of Huntingdon. one of her maids This would probably have of honour.' suggested the Tsar should marry Lady Mary Hastings. in to enter desired into a treaty to of mutual defence against common skilled He the Queen allow ' navigators and persons warlike ratified shipbuilding to come to Russia. her chief defects being In the midst of this delicate 'red hair. it was to be by oath between her and himself that either sovereign might take stores to ARCIIANlIKI.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN famine. Above all. and meanwhile enemies. Skilful RUSSIA. been effected had not a special Muscovite ambassador reported unfavourably of her age (thirty) and of her personal appearance. a straight nose. 61 when fifteen English Moscow was destroyed by the Tartars in men and women perished in the flames. but Elizabeth negotiation. negotiations. who was not averse to the alliance.. not only restrained the impatience of the He desired to marry Queen but also filled him with high hope. Tsar.' was politely rejected. Elizabeth. the boyars informed the merchants of the Company that ' their . and their agency house in 1571. however. refuge in the country of the other in case disturbances in their own realm The matrimonial part of these proposals should compel them to do so.

so far as eminent services are concerned. so in that of the navy of Russia. the English spirit of enterprise in had not benefited Muscovy this direction alone. British officers were the first and In the reign of Catherine the Great. who.' Generals (created Baron Strathallan in 1685) were credited Muscovite instrument with with the introduction of the thummikins. in Europe. renewal of their ancient privileges was never obtained. 'lent' to Russia in 1/69. Cronstadt was fleet Elphinstone. a legion. A volume might be well filled with the exploits and services of our countrymen in Russia. As in the case of the army. Meanwhile. English admirals.. Next. Their names are. Even in the reign of Alexander I. Russia to obtaining the Tsar's in permission his to return to Scotland ' in whose nickname ' own country became Old Tom Dalzell. and for a considerable time after. with about three thousand men. Greig. were in the succeeding reign permitted to participate in the commerce of the country. foremost organisers "and commanders. Their exclusive privileges were therefore not English Tsar was dead. now the third. had passed into the service of the Tsar after the defeat and imprisonment of Charles I.' Muscovian rigour of Dalzell's military administration in Scotland.KL'SSIA\ PICTURES.' a which Covenanters were made to suffer. and saw There were popular murmurs against the nothing but tyranny and slavery. The most famous of those officers were Thomas Dalzell (or Dalziel) of Binns.N. who had great difficulty in Although the important in its trade thus established by thenceforth altered character. of Muscovy. aided mainly by Commander. Her first regular in the reign of Peter the Great's father. in fact. where he had command of a small army. long jealous of the English renewed. They won the earlier naval battles of Russia. notat made the Earl of Carlisle the a efforts Restoration. subsequently Admiral. by withstanding ' . Many of them were Peter the Great's ablest coadjutors in the extension and the reform of the empire he left to his successors. monopoly. R. destroyed the Turkish at Chesme. Lieutenants Dugdale and McKenzie. who profited in no smaller degree by similar aid. and William Drummond of Cromlix. by Scottish formed were regiments and English officers. especially the Dutch. . Captain Roxburgh. 1665. Englishmen was derive immense proceeded advantage from the opening of her seaboard to the commerce of all the maritime nations of Europe.. and some British volunteers. and he was railed against as ' a Muscovian beast ' who used to roast men. Orloff got although beginning.' and other nations. with Captain |ohn and who. and lieutenants were engaged in creating her fleet. so far as numbers are Dalzell and Drummond concerned. captains.' the English were relegated to Archangel and.' is spoken of in Kirkton's History of tlie C/nirc/i of Scotland as a man whose rude and fierce natural disposition had been much confirmed by his breeding and service in Muscovia. the credit for them. in condemnation of the people who had put their Charles to death.

There are plenty of other domes and spires. when strictly kept within narrow bounds of nationality and consanguinity. from the oldest extant the Archiepiscopal Palace. at Moscow. undergoing the same regenerative process. and habits of industry and. practically a 63 colony of British naval it officers and artificers in the service of countrymen taught good and enduring results. and on which he made the century. the Russians with such Sir Russia. disparagement to native genius. a Scotchman. enterprise. are undeniably liable to become effete. being not older than the last purpose of seeing the large wooden cross preserved in it as the handiwork of Peter the Great after he had escaped from a storm on the White Sea. bears at present little evidence of the importance it acquired in the sixteenth century. visited for The cathedral may be the . Flemings. and the visits in summer of some fifty British steamers to the port on the island of Solombola now alone attest out- common wardly the former importance of Archangel as a place of British trade. Archangel. built in 1/84. . while the founder of the Russian Medico-Chirurgical Academy at St. and Germans on the more modern development of the equally vast empire of Great Britain. gilt or coloured. longer used. civil and and regeneration. the starting-point of the modernisation of Muscovy. The decline its of trade the to city dates removed British the more is merchants houses building still established reign of Peter the Great. whose foundations were laid by a conglomera- effectually political even the strong hand grasp while he was engaged not it proof that. in no smaller degree. which. a friend to the cause of the Pretender. erected at the beginning of the present but no century. The houses of the early English merchants which stood in the Cathedral Square met with the of timber fate. His chief physician was Erskine. capital that much of the present No greatness of the Russian empire is due. The colonies of Great Britain have long been individually results attained in the . to their immense advantage. in which One of the themselves in great numbers. We might add name upon name which to in matters. Huguenots. but none of the Russian churches are of any antiquity. by the blending of races. so undoubtedly abundant. the older that having been destroyed by one of the many fires ravaged Archangel during the last century. who accessible port of his new capital. An Anglican church.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. In further support of this view. excepting in ecclesiastical of Peter the Great was able in his great work of is to British skill. Peter the Great's first school of mathematics was under the direction of Farquharson. learning. Nor was the art of war alone that our James Wylie. and a relative of the Earl of Mar. learning. we may instance the United States of America by the immigraastounding tion of multitudes with acquired skill. is meant to be conveyed by this assertion any Panslavist who may be inclined to take umbrage at it will do well to study the influence of Jews. Petersburg was also a Scotchman. tion of races.

as the late Mr. The visitor is first shown the chapel erected over the spot on which liturgy sent nine years. nearly three supported twenty to thirty feet high and twenty feet in their stronghold. or sent into exile. under Zosimus. churches were rebuilt in stone. and between 1590 and 1594 the monks enclosed them within in a wall of granite at boulders. landed in 1702. A large number were executed later. when the holy fathers walked in procession round the walls while the shells were flying over their heads. by the Patriarch Nicon. It was founded in 1429 by St. On the sides of the gateway are models of the two small vessels in which they crossed from Archangel. Hepworth Dixon said in his Free 1694.' the native point of view. after a long siege. by his son Alexis. ' From the city is a magazine of oats and tar. secure themselves Deeming in 1667 to receive the revised I THE SOLOVETSK MOXASTHRY. It is.64 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the Cathedral of the Trans- . Sabbatheus. thick. the remainder being kept in awe and submission by three hundred Streltsi. however Archangel is the revered water-gate to one of the holiest places in Russia the famed monastery of Solovetsk. and further on we come to an obelisk commemorating the harmless attack made on the monastery by the British \YhiteSea squadron in 1855. accompanied six churches of this fortified monastery that will chiefly interest him. and many of thi monks were put to the sword. of planks and skins. ' Dat cruys makcn Captcm Piter van a C/it. following inscription in Dutch: In Western eyes. and broke into a rebellion that lasted It fell at last by treachery. and in to wealth and from the began grow power year About a century later the 1442. the Peter the Great. however. to which some ten thousand pilgrims are annually conveyed in a steamer commanded and manned by monks. Built of wood in 1438 and rebuilt of stone in 1558.' Russia. the brotherhood refused circumference.. and intervals thousand feet round and by square towers. one of its first abbots.

' as is indeed the whole of the region we have so imperfectly described in this fifty The Lake of Onega. on rich its western shore in is copper. silver. its gold. Philip.' who the head of which stands Kern. Outside the wall is the eighteenth century. lies about half-way between Onega Bay and Lake Ladoga . and of military banners bearing the emblem of the cross. who. In the vicinity are two chapels (1753) containing the tombs of Germanicus and of other reverend fathers of The Cathedral of the Assumption was consecrated in 1557. throughout the province of Olonets but few scientific fishermen have as yet taken advantage of its wealth in trout. is iron Petrozavodsk.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. At its southern end the White Sea forms the Bay of Onega. ornamented with pearls of unusual size presented to the monastery in 1550 . Among the objects of highest value are the sacerdotal vestments. are carefully preserved in a special Sacristy. and precious stones. the sword of the Prince alliance with a butcher of Nijni Novgorod. Kivatch. Nor are military is museum of otherwise sacred objects. part of the relics of St. Onuphrius the Great. and an imposing ikonostas. service in the in who was one of the most active Moscow in 1613. About forty-two miles north-west of and mica. Only a few Russian travelit has been immortalized in one of in the best is also poems of Derjavin. equal in Petrozavodsk Falls lers in the \Vaterfall of Finland. did good same cause. 65 figuration contains the ponderous silver gilt shrines of Saints Sabbatheus and Zosimus. miles broad. Metropolitan of Moscow. at Old Believers. . have yet although grandeur to the Imatra Sweden. by Ivan the Terrible. as and seen Trolhatten it. a settlement of the been very active as since and who have the innovations of Nicon. There trophies forgotten in this the armour of the comrades of of a monk. churches enclosed by the walls were founded severally in 1596 and 1687. reject It is also a place of political exile. Solovetsk was used as a political prison so recently as the reign of Nicholas. linen gave the gold reliquary adorned with pearls In contrast with those gorgeous vestments is the plain also who chasuble of Zosimus. once Civil Governor of Petrozavodsk. one hundred and fifty miles long and chapter. with a belfry 125 feet in The artistic treasures of the monastery. grayling. patriots who expelled the Poles from Pojarski. and a large collection of ancient Russian and other weapons. put up in 1697. buried in this monastery. and precious stones contributed by Tsars and nobles. local repute. and . There abundance of bear and other shooting in this neighbourhood. fishermen and seamen in the White Sea. and restored or renovated in the church dedicated (1667) to height. the capital of the province of Olonets. The remaining two and the Church of Nicholas Thaumaturgus in 1590. and char.

MOSCOW. Trade with the Hanseatic towns. 862. Kief became the seat of the grand ducal throne of the Scandinavian (subse- ON the quently called Varangian) conquerors. When.' as the republic became styled. until from 1136 they assumed the right of electing or dismissing their prince at a vccJic or witenagemote. For a considerable period the Novgorodians were able to boast that no one could in 'contend against God and the Great Novgorod. families I'cche of the merchant own together with their Bell. soon rendered the Lord Great Novgorod. and water ' communication with the North and South of Russia.D. The city once covered an area forty miles in circumference. and. and capital. way to Moscow a special excursion should be made by rail to Novgorod the Great. the cradle of the Russian empire. a central mart of great importance and prosperity. It is here that the Northmen under Roric established themselves A. the founder of Muscovite dominion. annexed their possessions to the Grand Duchy class of Moscow his .. Ivan III. and . before they took their viking ships down the Dnieper to Kief. r CHAPTER Moscow : V.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A PSALTER OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. the citizens of Novgorod gradually acquired political power and independence. removed to 8000 boyars or nobles.' but at last 14/8. in order to destroy effectually their fifty spirit of independence. however. THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. impelling them to internecine warfare for its possession. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE SYNOD.

F 2 .ONE OF THE TORCHES OF THE TRO1TSA MONASTERY.

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The belfry tower dates from 1439. facing the altar. when even its monasteries and churches were sacked by Ivan the Terrible. those of St. or seat of the Metropolitan. founder of of Mstislaf Cathedral. 1030. who but died the 1653. The most modern of the saints in .D. which is of century) been preserved in the apse. 1341. SOPHIA AT NOVGOROD THE GREAT. who had contemplated a transfer of their allegiance to the Prince of Lithuania. oak.MOSCOH': THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and traces painting canonized princes and ecclesiastics of the same kind of (twelfth have above the thronos. Archbishop of Novgorod (d. Vladimir). Anne I. of Kief. dates from 1050). original ikons The ikonostas dates The most ancient in it CATHEDRAL OF ST. in 1820 and 1837. is by eight massive quadrangular pillars. More ancient still. Sophia at Constantinople. Archbishop of Novgorod. with two similar pillars at the altar. were thrown into the River Volkhof. silver. The Sophia St. daughter of Amongst the most venerated King Olaf of Norway. of Brave 1 1 (d. 1108). of John. princely and . and probably of the same age as the cathedral. is the Byzantine mosaic work behind the altar. and (d. which. expired record of deceased Archbishops and Metropolitans of Novgorod is brought down to iSiS from A. most ancient of these are relics (d. have not deprived it of the distinguishing features of one of the oldest churches in Russia. Thousands of its inhabitants. and Nikita. with its figured Internally cornice is a remnant of the work of the seventeenth the century. from St. Later additions from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries and complete restorations. supply the usual form of a Greek cupola supported cross. which is reproduced also at Kief. are those of Peter and (a Byzantine copy of the eleventh century) and St. and the roof of the cathedral. old was The glory of the city survives only in its constructed in 1050 by Byzantine artisans after Cathedral the of St. and precious stones. Sophia. in countless treasures gold.clerical. In curious fresco the galleries above are representations of .D. consort of Yaroslaf the the A. 1223. The ruin of the city grand completed in 1570. 1180). Enshrined in silver or bronze are the remains of numerous saints. Paul (brought from Khersonesus by St. Only two of the inscriptions over the 86. their son Vladimir 1052). model of the famous St.

numerous tombs of Novgorodian princes are now legible. They are dated and 1218. archiepiscopal A. has in existed since close which III. that their Byzantine origin has long been disproved. the Governor which were 1104. after the are several other churches within of the walls of the Kremlin. the head of a man in German dress. The life-size . Petersburg into an empire. They overlaid with bronze plates. There Acropolis. by which those principalities were absorbed whether and ultimately welded at St. or as the Grand Duchy of Moscow. offices are within same place of wooden is erected Rebuilt in in in 1490 by an 1 Italian architect. respectively 1178 At the western or principal entrance to the cathedral are the exceptionally fine and interesting Korsnn (Khersonesus) doors. is alone sufficient attestation of the German and Roman Slavonic Catholic character of the work. independent or confederated. with tongs and a pair of scales in his hands. they were 700. is quite equal to that of the door of Zenone at Verona. century. Close the cathedral renovated by Peter the Great the splendid bronze monument erected 1862 to commemorate the thousandth anniversary of the existence of Russia. to in of by Ivan the walls The walls. or the fifteenth of like Novgorod the tall One tower the city them by. resided subjugation 1302. although the notwithstanding are of wood fecit over The legend Rigvin me explanations were probably added later. bearing fifty-four inscriptions in Latin and Slavonic.D. still so called.7 RUSSIAN PICTURES. palace built in and the government stone A. which St. Sv ' ' AN OLD CHURCH AT NOVGOROD. in the form of principalities. a Magdeburg production of the twelfth century.D.

about fourteen miles from a station . ifr^Tlriii^tor ffl if-.MOKATING THE THOUSANDTH^ANNIVERSARY OF THE EMPIRE. It was founded in 1657 by the Patriarch Nicon. we must confine ourselves to a short mention of the famous situated New Jerusalem not far railway from Moscow. . figures on the history..MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.. . h rni~ ' . and much as we should wish to say something of the other ancient towns that lie between the two capitals. who caused the neighbouring accidents of country to be named after various sacred sites monastery.. monument are emblematical of these several periods of Russian But our object is to reach Moscow. '- "^ '^\ VS . jtt THE MONUMENT A'l NuVUuKuI) Ll'MMI.

with the gift of the Holy Ghost to work cures. Although the of the church was in these circumstances somewhat original plan departed from. although unwillingly. analogy Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. tion. In 1/23. ass. he A council alleged. and remained in that condition until 1749. As a mark dissatisfac- the Tsar absented himself from the cathe. of whom he fearlessly sermonised the patriarchal cathedral. in 1658. yet internally it remains more like the edifice in which the Crusaders worshipped at Jerusalem than is that church itself since its destruction by fire. and in the pictorial representations of in matters Byzantine purity His arrogance became so great that he exercised jurisdiction sacred subjects. and replaced the primate his retreat at the even in the high Moscow on an THE PATRIARCH NICOX. Nicon a model of the more the render to order procured complete. when orders for its restoration were given by the Empress Elizabeth. laid down his crozier. devoting to the attacked he had previously with which clergy for their intemperance and He also endeavoured to restore the Russian Church to other irregularities. and in public documents assumed a Palestine . to erect an all it his wealth and all the energy exactly similar structure. while a small chapel built on a mound was called Eleon. self. New and the Tsar was induced. dral on one of the great festivals of the Church but Nicon was far from being daunted. he publicly threw off his pontifical sakkos and mitre. a Metropolitan was temporarily invested with the patriarchate. .RUSSIAN PICTURES. . arrayed once more in his pontifical robes. six years Nicon was a recluse at but in 1664 his worldly ambition reasserted itself. of the Eastern patriarchs convoked at Moscow disposed of his pretensions. to resume his seat on the patriarchal throne. and began. ceremony of riding through led by the Tsar him- For to typify Christ's entry into Jerusalem. and. in civil as well as ecclesiastical matters. an artificial Kedron. in brook was made was converted into the Jordan. for example. to banish him to a monastery in the province of Novgorod. his former friend. and he Jerusalem made his appearance suddenly in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Moscow. relying on the speedy repentance of the sovereign. The monastery of the New Jerusalem was thus left uncompleted.. and. attiring himself in the habit of a monk. of ritual. a village close by was dignified In with Nazareth. in a dream. a river to represent the title equal in dignity in to that of the Tsar. having been ordered. the principal tent-like cupola collapsed. In spite of Nicon's protest that he was still a Patriarch. withdrew to New Jerusalem. and it was not finished and consecrated until some years later.

at the foot of the Golgotha. he wore on his breast. intricate built probably any other in the world. down to our own day. find his way without 1 difficulty through every corridor and stair and corner of the copy. which. the various members of the But internally it is so imperial family in after times. suspended from 1 Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. a traveller who has seen the original can THE CHURCH IN THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. and in its 73 renovation in 1812. beyond Jerusalem. or in honour of. close to the corre)ur illustrations sponding spot in the actual church of the Holy Sepulchre where lie the Over his tomb hangs the iron plate remains of Godfrey of Bouillon.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and of the same form dimensions as the church at the actual precisely as the arrangements of that church are. with a brass cross.' ( show the present outward form and the internal Nicon is buried in the of this highly remarkable structure. arrangements Chapel of Melchizedek. that. has the an ordinary successive Russian cathedral. . 1869. London. further complicated by the aspect addition of of chapels by. late We cannot : describe ' it more graphically than it the words of the Dean Stanley still Externally. as penance.

In the sacristy are kept his hat. is anointed with ointment supposed to be identical with that used PLAN OF THE CHURCH IN THE NEW JERUSALEM AN EXACT COPY SEPULCHRE. Endearing epithets applied to the city by the Russian people. a four-storied tower from which Nicon watched the building of the church. In 1698 General Patrick Gordon defeated the rebellious Streltsi in the vicinity of the monastery. and many other interesting objects.' truly 1 are in the are political centre the of that less Russian. OF THE ORIGINAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY by Mary Magdalene. . his neck by a heavy iron chain. ' Moscow all the is white-walled. embroidered on a cloth. and after being laid on a bier in front of the altar screen.74 PICTURES. which is preceded on Good Friday by a ceremony that is not performed anywhere else in Russia. On we ' reaching at Our holy mother Moscow. The body of our Saviour. and finally freed Peter the Great from those illdisciplined and even mutinous bands. which is in an upper gallery. to assist at the Easter Eve service of the Russo-Greek Church. Pilgrims come in vast numbers to the monastery. the original wooden model of the church of the Holy Sepulchre. This is the Descent from the Cross. Large numbers of them were decapitated by the orders and under the superintendence of Peter. shoes. his portrait. is lowered by means of long strips of linen from the Golgotha Chapel. and sheepskin coat. the original supply of which has been maintained by the continuous admixture of analogous ingredients. Much interest also attaches to the skiit. or hermitage. and in which he wrote his Chronicle of the Church of Jerusalem. We once struck by the busy 1 more or irregular streets.' and ecclesiastical life.

and the ill-filled that respect different St. will served shirts waiters in white Restaurant. seen only at the neck. we cannot omit a passing reference to the comfort OFFICERS OF THE STRELTSI. porters in national dress. cloth-clad here in their aboriginal from condition looking the one driving long teams of roughwaggons or sleighs. the value of which he still totals up on a Tartar abacus. and trousers. and the accommodation now obtainable in all the and also to its relative cheapness. (trader) : The are kitpcts thoroughfares and squares of sheep-skinned innjik (peasant) and the wily. not our object to describe hotels and the details of travelling in Nevertheless. together In their stead driver. that is to say. larger a of The Slavianski Bazar. the other standing at variety of raw produce his shop door. are well-appointed car- riages and swift proliotkis (a miniature victoria) which rattle us over the long cobble-paved streets that lie between the Nicholas Railway Station and the Slavianski Bazaar or Hotel. and the Hermidepreciated paper rouble. tage by even the luxury of cities of . and a small round hat gaily adorned with peacocks' feathers. laden with every . GENERAL 1'ATRICK GORDON. STRELTSI OF A LATER DATE. THE STRELTSI OF 1613. tall It is Russia. We are received by to which we are bound. which to cover a cloth coats shirt pretend long of dazzling red silk. The old drojki has a sort of knife-board on four wheels its tattered and grimy with disappeared. high boots of polished leather. and inviting passers-by to enter and view his goods. in these days Russia.ATOSCOll': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. Petersburg. as in 75 crowded in in summer so as well winter with vehicles and pedestrians.

76 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and strengthened by a moat in 1394. sketch of the history of Moscow must precede any description of its Chronicles record its existence as early as 1147. which latter encountered a rival in Riazan and it was only towards the middle of the fourteenth century that the Grand Duchy of Moscow became paramount. who was the progenitor of the Kief had in 1158 lost its subsequently mighty race of Muscovite princes.I>. after failing in an attempt to negotiate October he left Moscow with an army consisting of 120. 1367. Passing over other disasters by fire in 1611. the Russian was succeeded by principalities. Moscow became. after the sack of the city in 1382. Alexander Nevski. led by Prince Murat. About principal buildings. when the ancient city be the capital in 1771) was fired by the orders of (which Count Rostopchin. which to in 1771 greatly reduced the the great tragedy of 1812. took possession of the Kremlin on the i4th of population we come had ceased to solemn entry next day. . when the Poles took possession of the city. the grand- A son of Chingiz Khan. under Ivan I. and we left Moscow. consisting of Polish and Prussian lancers. or fortress. with a horde of three hundred thousand men. and gave to the space they enclosed the Tartar name of krcmlin. in order to clear it of the invading legions under Napoleon. 1 9th with S5Q pieces of cannon. 1536 of was to ashes. of the and Grande of the small remnant Armte. when a and 1547. 1812. By the early part of the fifteenth century. city. and by the plague. its governor. when the Tartars left no building standing that was not constructed of brick or stone. Napoleon withdrew to the Petrofski but returned to the Kremlin on the 2oth of the outskirts on the Palace. and 100. favourable comparison with bear any other corresponding establishments in Western Europe. devastated on that occasion the southern and central parts of what we now call Russia. They were replaced in masonry A. and the number grow. the remnant of the host of nearly half a What became of this million with which he had crossed the Niemen. towards the end of the the seat of a principality (or Grand Duchy) under Daniel. Their advanced guard.000 of its the reduced considerable part city of these continued to fires in inhabitants perished in the flames or by the sword. thirteenth century its ashes. This was city on fire. Rising from 7 . notwithstanding great and the assault of the Crimean Tartars in 1572. It was he who built her first wooden walls. and Napoleon made the moment chosen for setting the . has already been mentioned in the French occupation disastrous of of some the incidents the refer to can only his September. and pre-eminence amongst the city of Vladimir. plunder with which it second chapter. who. On the September. Moscow had regained the and monasteries position of a flourishing capital. with many fine churches the younger son of . and for three days the flames raged with terrific fierceness.000 men. a century later it was burnt down by the Tartars under Baati. a peace.

MtjSCUW. which the heart of the city and its chief attraction. together with the wallecl Kitai Gorod (Chinese Town). Black or taxable is the White City.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. in 77 our description of the churches and other buildings connected with its history. is part of the population having been located in the Earthen City beyond. Moscow has now The Kremlin stands exactly in population of three-quarters of a million. the centre. and. Spread over a circumference of twenty-five miles. a its THE KREMLIN. anciently exempt from taxation. . Encircling these adjoins it.

whether walking or driving. its 1733 huge and other which the treasures the of ladies Moscow jewels composition by streets . when Napoleon and his marshals surveyed the city from it. Viliers. who executed rigorously enforced. five times as heavy as the celebrated bell of Erfurt. The tower over it was constructed in 1626 by an English clockmaker in a style (Gothic) discordant with the Italian battlements. Peter the Great. A much venerated ikon of the Redeemer arch over the of the placed gate. and four times heavier than that of It was re-cast after the partial destruction of the tower in Rouen. and which has since been converted into boulevards. and is. but which have been much restored and extended since they left the hands of the Italian architects by whom they were designed. the numerous cicerone who infest the basement. once of the head. The Kremlin fortifications. and are pierced by five gates. The largest of these. more or less embedded in trees. uncovering the Streltsi in front of it. and which was brought from Smolensk in has 1647. on the east face of the Kremlin. They are 7280 feet in circumference. stands on a granite pedestal at the foot of the tower. and proceed to enjoy one of the* most striking and unique views in Europe. or Ivan. for which the tower is as famous as for its great height. thus named after approach the renowned tower its architect Under the guidance of one of (in 1590) John. monasteries and convents. Our attention is next directed to the bells. were replaced between 1485 and 1492 by the high and stout battlemented walls and towers we now see. however. The King of Cast Bells. two years after Gordon's victory over them. therefore. weighs sixty-four tons. the principal of which is the Redeemer Gate. a out of the metal of ancient but in weakened in bell.7S RUSSIAN PICTURES. also made use of the gate as a point at which dissenters from the Orthodox emperor can pass through if they wished to preserve their beards. we ascend by some four hundred and fifty steps to the highest of the five stories of which it is composed. Close under the southern front of the Kremlin walls. and the season that of summer. rebuilt in 1367. our eyes Church were made to pay toll it with are dazzled by the glitter of the gilded or star-bespangled spires and domes that surround us on every side. If the day be clear. named the Assumption. given to it the character of a Porta Sacra. which is three hundred and twenty-five feet to the top of the cross on its gilt cupola. we Passing through or belfry of Ivan the Great. bared heads. called so from the wall of earth which formerly surrounded it. notwithtiles. and not even the it without conforming to the old custom. and tell of the existence of nearly four hundred churches. with their quaint towers of glazed green has given its name to the great city. and the eye ranges over a vast expanse of coloured house-tops. chapels. trace the main We and ancient circumvallations. 1812. flows the river which standing its humble origin in one of the morasses of the neighbouring province of Smolensk.

. alone eleven minus h s The weight bell. 79 had the thrown liquid into metal with tent. circumference - sixty seven feet eleven and its inches. of the the broken piece. by Another monster of which the Muscovites ON THE BELFRY : THE IVAN VELIKI TOWER. and the Evangelists. and which weig tons. the Vir- gin Mary. Alexis and it the Empress Anne appear upon in on the are t i relief figures. and scroll below o n representas of the Saviour.MOSCOU': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. nearly two hundred tons. maximum two thickness The Tsar feet. the large piece (seven that feet high) now rests against the pedestal. all surrounded cherubim. side in by the it falling of upon heavy some rafters. a pious inTsar the lost i Kolokol of its out 737. its is height twenty-six feet its four inches.

II.8o RUSSIAN PICTURES. age or in style. and success in the field. the Moscow princes and tsars built their habitations. left it. burned down had a f t e r Napoleon terior. These suffered destruction at the hands of Tartars and Poles. imposing in aspect. The first of the series of magnificent in is dedicated feet to the military order of St. proud is the Tsar Pushka of the Kremlin. a palace built by Cathe- rine II. which was founded by Catherine in is bestowed only for distinguished acts of . Palace. Prince of Moscow. while its the shining white walls are inscribed in letters of gold the names individuals of all ranks and of the regiments decorated with the bravery or 1769. in 1849. has which the been sub- The present which the French edifice replaced. originally of wood. is seen defeating the Tartars at Kulikova. than fifty-eight height is no less order. On of the by sixty-eight feet. is unfortunately not ancient in It stands on the spot upon which. Incongruous as is its exodd from the various mixture of periods and forms of architecture which it exhibits. from the earliest times. weighing forty tons. hundred feet. on the banks of the Don. A THE GREAT BELL. in 1380. great episode is in Russian trated history illus- on an immense canvas ments. guards the corner of the arsenal. cast in 1586. and were not unin frequently destroyed the many accidental con- flagrations to Kremlin jected. halls the gallery at the top of the noble staircase that leads to those apartDimitri. and later The Great of brick. the entire front of which is decorated with cannon taken during the retreat are of the French. the great beauty and grandeur of the state apartments within render the Bolshoi Dvorets a residence fully befitting the mighty Autocrat of All the Russias. a cannon of enormous It size. It measures two George.

and a host of At the private apartments.Af OS CO IV: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and foreign ambassadors on great occasions. with its fronts cut G . into which open rooms allotted to maids of honour of the We more imperial court. the early part is the Zolotaya Palata. it is supposed to have been an audience chamber of the but it is on record that in a chamber similar patriarchs and metropolitans . seven recesses and seats along the walls. but restored in the style of the in seventeenth century the reigns of Paul I. In the Granovitaya Palata. MOSCOW. leave the modern and magnificent for the antique and of the aside the Winter Garden. 81 must. end of a gallery. From the THE GREAT PALACE. the chapels. elating probably from of the fifteenth century. and Nicholas I. a large square building. or Gold Hall. however. to this in character the Tsaritsas of Moscow received the boyars. and which are taken to represent the seven councils. the clergy. setting perforce the Picture Gallery. interesting parts palace.

an aperture is seen through which Sophia. in token of the ancient descent of their Peter I. bestowed by Ivan the Terrible.82 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and the two upper ones were added in 1636. German and Russian. rubies. their sister. vast power. severally. who was both mentally and physically incapable of governing. Three thrones of studded with Persian workmanship. and which we cannot avoid observing from the palace yard. Germany coronation of Ivan and Peter as the joint successors of Theodore III. The Round Room is full of thrones. we find chamber built by Italian architects for the Tsar of Moscow in 1491. crowns.. and who in 1689 resigned his share of the government to into facets. fill the first two rooms. a Tartar Khan. brought to Moscow in Its ivory is beautifully carved with representations marriage with Ivan III. belonged. however. and yet it was in the Tercm that the first Romanoff sovereigns gave audience to foreign ambassadors. upon Simeon. and twenty-five pearls of Ormuz. diamonds. the superior clergy. and elegant gold arabesques of a work of . and Alexis. the dome of the cap on gold stems. and dines with the sovereigns and princes. It is in fine gold filagree work. turquoises. The rooms are all very small. after he had conquered the Tartar kingdom of Kazan. which forms the right wing of the palace. is the double of throne vermeil in made for the curious. prompted Ivan. Most Terrible. around which is stacked the imperial plate when an emperor is crowned. Here on the richly gilt throne of silver the monarch sits in his coronation robes. a true restoration of an audience then only seventeen years of age. to Ivan the Boris Godunof. Ancient armour and weapons. the nobles. of the labours of Orpheus and the legend of Thrace. A good specimen of Moscow four rubies. while upon the cap itself are four emeralds. on lifting the drapery at the back. Among the crowns we single out the jewelled cap of Vladimir Monomachus. Attached to the palace is the ancient (restored) building called the Terem. (1682). Its high arches rest on a central pillar. The Treasury. and other regalia. is the depository of a vast number of historical objects and of treasures hereditary in the reigning house. who had been charged by the Streltsi with the control of State affairs. Its two lower stories were built in the early part of the sixteenth century. whom he converted to Christianity. the middle of the sixteenth century is seen in the Crown of Kazan. the entire decorations are Oriental. resting on a broad border of dark and surmounted by a plain cross terminating in large pearls at each A topaz. The ornaments and the and elevated to the dignity of a vassal Tsar. The most ancient of the thrones is that of the last Christian Emperor of Con1472 by Sophia Palaeologus on her stantinople. originally twelfth-century work. a sapphire and a ruby all of large size spring from extremity. and the diplomatic personages who have taken part in the great ceremony. The Earl of Carlisle was received in it in 1664. and pearls. sable. which all the Emperors of Russia have assumed at their coronation.

the one reputed to have been sent especially Basilius and Constantine. 988. and the unicorn. decidedly or the Persian character. cannot the fifteenth century. but Emperors the III. mostly of the seventeenth century. than nine hundred the in addition numerous rubies and are to in fixed on pliant stems. or collars. both of Byzantine workmanship. a strip silk. part of the regalia of the Russian sovereigns up to the time of Peter I. Its panels are ornamented with allegorical allusions to a crusade the Tsar had proposed to make against the Turks. made A no diamond cross fewer to from immense uncut ruby on diamonds adorn the body of emeralds ficence. in magniVladimir by reality made for Ivan eighty-nine two baniu. Many topaz. In a good Queen join. rubies. and we must preface our description of the more notable cathedrals with a few observations on the origin of the architectural features of those edifices.D. Next Peter it the tiara-shaped crown. G 2 . presented to the Tsar of Moscow by the sovereigns. symbolical figures of Bythe eagle. summit. It is studded with fifty-eight diamonds. but in which thus see in this relic the record of a Bess refused to centuries. in the of most style Greek of at- The to plaques coloured enamel. together with eight horses. ' We very early phase of the great Eastern Question. and divided by the four principal zantium lion. the : the griffin.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. beautiful art.' Moscow abounds in churches. silversmiths' work. and the rises top is surmounted by an enormous cap of maintenance. besides a great number of emeralds and pearls. adorn is it. Some of the orbs of great St. for its large jewels to I. and cap. and with only a few objects of the fourteenth and fifteenth separate case are some Stuart specimens of English work. generally classed as Russo-Byzantine. A. tached of brocaded the the are represent episodes in life of David. The They are escape notice. a The furthest room is museum of gold and THE CROWN OK MONOMACHUS. Among the old state carriages preserved in a room below is a coach which Queen Elizabeth sent. to the Tsar Boris Godunof..

of fact. the the outlines of The Uspenski Kremlin crowned in it Sober. Nevertheless. in the centre of the the most venerated pile in Russia. ordinary interest. Nevertheless. including the central cupola. as Dean Stanley correctly dimensions what in the West would be called a chapel architecture. and brightness being features previously unknown in Its five domes. especially officiating. national is size. features of the latter style surviving only Byzantine. Metropolitan of Moscow an of more than 1566-1569. ancient churches of a Byzantine An abundance of timber caused them to purity ever existed. Indeed. succumbed to the Oriental taste of brick buildings began to the Russians. or Cathedral of the Assumption. a careful study of the Russian churches style of construction. under the influence of Georgian as well as Persian forms.' a wonderful It was considered was built in structure. it rather than a cathedral. its grandeur. the silver shrine of Philip. Byzantine influence was already very feeble. Their Russian disciples varied again that style according to their own taste. The after 1812. whether type in be built Central Russia. It has been restored several times. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael.84 RUSSIAN PICTURES. since its sovereigns continue to be 1479 on new foundations by an Italian architect named Fioraventi. of wood. dates from 1509. Moscow included. the . in their architectural details they are Italian rather than in characteristic their apses. They are supported internally by pillars covered with frescoes on a gold ground. similar to that of the Grim representations of martyrs moderate the glitter that would walls. according to Russian chronicles. we shall ecclesiastical architecture reproduced in of Russia or arrive the conclusion when stone predominate over constructions in timber (in the fifteenth century). built between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries will show that non-existent in Byzantium. If of tent or cone-shaped pinnacles. and created a special type of ecclesiastical architecture in a mingled Italian and Persian style. otherwise have given more light to the interior. separated from the Assumption by a small paved square. height. gained the prefix of Aristotle 'on account of his cunning. when the French used it as a storehouse. the older at subsequently that we examine closely Proper still extant. were covered with copper-gilt plates only in 1684. essentially Italian. Among the many tombs in observed. adapted their work in accordance with it. which at the same time lent itself more easily to the its construction stone. and that the Italian architects called in by Ivan III. For this offence he was dragged from the altar at which he was in the cathedral is and ultimately put to death. with a later combination of the Polish. As a matter in the material or the in all no churches of the early Christian age survive in Russia It is even doubtful integrity of their original forms. for it is that of a object prelate who had the courage to rebuke Ivan the Terrible publicly for his atrocities. when the original edifice of 1333 was rebuilt by a Milanese architect. who.

' out of four that belonged to Nicon. covered Of the seven mitres. His tomb is covered with a black pall. and Russian The Metropolitan of Moscow. balsams. 1 1 They are well described in Mr. the most ancient belonged to the Patriarch Job (1595). the necessary quantity of oil and white wine. Many of the ikons within it were acquired at the sacking of Novgorod the Great by Ivan IV. prepares a new supply of the mir every two or three years at the season of Lent. and other precious ornaments of fine workmanship which the sacristy of the Patriarchs offers to We our view. under the mistaken could save his erring soul. Next the his numerous offences against administered to him on his death-bed. the entire compound the contents of the Alabastron. manship. ornaments and vessels. No fewer than forty-seven princes of those families repose in the tombs that literally Frescoes on the walls.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. is diadem-shaped. cloisonne gold. the most interesting of the latter being a long-necked vase. and diamonds (1583). and purhave been a portion of the ointment used by Mary Magdalene. The 'great mitre. in Ivan the Terrible after the murder of his son. the monastic vow nil the cathedral. ' ' few drops only are annually used in the preparation of the sacred oil with which orthodox children are anointed at their baptism. against each sepulture. interior is 85 extremely interesting. made but the richest another room. to denote that he died a monk. one is that of the Metropolitan Dionysius 1322 an expiatory gift of with rubies. or all the many cinquecento panagias. portable pyxes. Close by is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. of the Metropolitan Peter. emeralds.. In the old residence overlaid Alabastron. Notwithstanding its Persian form and distinctly Russian workheld to be the original receptacle of the chrism obtained from with Constantinople porting to A on the introduction of Christianity into Russia. is numerous glass cases in . belief that it having been who also covered the nine domes with of gold. Maskell's Russian Art. names and features. part of the Synodal Buildings within the Kremlin. notwithstanding O the canons of the Church. already quoted. and thoroughly renovated in 1867.. record their altar lies Ivan the Terrible. the Patriarchs. assisted by his higher clergy. or dalmatic. . A essential and spices are added to great variety of gums. emperors consecrated at their coronation. and causes it to be distributed among the bishops oils of the several dioceses. in being The most then hallowed by a drop or two of venerable of the robes that hang the sakkos. The only emperor buried in it is Peter II. restored after a fire in 1547. it is in and called the mother-of-pearl. to Peter the Great. having been perfectly restored to its ancient appearance of a mausoleum of the Rurik and Romanoff dynasties from Ivan I. rebuilt in 1489. is a large and curious collection of ecclesiastical vestments. with whom the male line of the Romanoffs became extinct in 1/30. ami cannot stay to point out studded with precious stones of great value.

We are now the great Red (or beautiful) Square. Much churches stand side treasure of a similar kind is preserved in the sacristies of the that within the side by at Chudof Monastery and the Ascension Convent.86 Xl/SS/JV PICTURES. BASIL. where we 1 CATHEDRAL OF ST. the Redeemer Gate. MOSCOW. by which we issue from in the Kremlin. are at once struck by the eccentric appearance of the Cathedral of illustration : St. Basil the Beatified. Our of ' it Theophile Gautier It is description given of the edifice by without doubt the most original monument in the justifies the .

- THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. after conquering Kazan. it in its strict accordance with ancient 1812. with the treasure he had ' wooden church dedicated rebuilt in to in the stone A. Chinese. and the edifice. in the form of heavy iron chains is famed for the relics and the Another penitential weights chapel penance. one is tempted to a whimsical will-o'-the-wisp. were not carried out. and ordered 'that drawings. reposes emblems his venerated of costly shrine little in harmony with the equally and crosses which he wore for austerity. and danger of the French occupation of Moscow. this curio disappeared in 1812.' Ivan the Terrible. It has as now eleven domes. and the innate compassionate feelings of the people are . an edifice formed of clouds It might be taken for a fantastically coloured by the sun.D. the tutelary saint. 1668. 87 nothing that one has ever seen. of Astrakhan. which the movement of the air will presently cause to change in form. when it became known by its present name. and belongs to no known One would imagine it to be a gigantic madresore. the great cupolas of Basil the in fire that devastated the Kitai Gorod destroyed all Beatified. but was not completed until the end of the sixteenth century. It was commemoration of the additional acquisition architect whose name remains unknown. idiotic taken from the Tartars. Fortunately for later visitors not of iconoclastic temperament. his orders. a crystallised style. or In looking at this impossible church. it recalls . 1555. the 1737 great conflagration and all the vessels and domes with its the church. side should not produce another structure of equal merit. Mosque' to be destroyed. and in 1626 a fire which broke out in the dome of one of its chapels spread over the whole of Moscow. prototype nor similitude. ask if it is Hindoo. Intercession of the Holy Virgin. each separate places different in colour and surmounting many of worship. a stalactite grotto turned upside down world . Ivan the Idiot. although the edifice suffered to the extent of being robbed and in the confusion used as a design. Again. built on this site (anciently a cemetery in which was buried Basil. connected by a in a chapels Basil. by an Italian whose eyes were certainly not put out. In one of the lower from the heavy iron head-piece on which he was wont to carry buckets of The Prowater as an exercise of charity. or vanish into nothingness. as legends assert. in order that he Seven years later. testant reader must bear in mind that idiocy is a form of mendicancy very common in Russia. a for Christ's sake'). stable. chapels eighteen destroyed Restored seven years later.' who acquired also the epithet of Big-cap.' of cast iron of ' ' labyrinth of passages. found in present form. In another renovated in in 1784. chapels were added to it. a prophet and miracle-worker.MOSCOW'. a thing which has neither colossus. such as it is after subsequent alterations. It was pillaged and defiled by the Poles early in the seventeenth century. Napoleon. and again thoroughly and treasures within it. not Thibetan pagoda.

perhaps more painful. consists in the exhibition of sores resulting from accidents by and It it is not unusual even to see beggars going about barefooted in winter. couple of years more. Also. princi- which are now better kept and lighted. in which ladies improvements can do their shopping without discomfort either in the heat of summer or the excessive cold of winter. and the old Gostinnoi A some length of time. Moslike cow has gained much in more imposing building. the butcher and the boyar who drove the Poles out of Moscow in 1612. much moved by Another common. be admitted by any recent visitor to Moscow that the must. however. in striking erection of arcades or passages. which is certainly betterdressed and more European-looking than even fifteen years ago. monks and nuns to be seen in the streets of the city. it. Dvor (Great Bazaar) on Apropos of markets. as well as from the planting of trees in squares and boulevards. recent years from a style of from the imits provement of pal streets.88 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in the porches of its churches and chapels. longer correct. appeal to charity fire. we must not fail to mention the al fresco mart . accounts given by previous travellers as to the great number of mendicant men and women. most othercities and towns in Russia. feature these is the A the Red Square will be replaced by a building more and of of the the in monument front of erected site. it. worthy (1818) in memory of Minin and Pojarski. and at the neighbouring monasteries. The and 1 thoroughfares in about the Kitai are scarcely re- Gorod if** cognisable by one who has not seen Moscow for A PEASANT COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CHURCH OR MONASTERY. is no same observation The may be made with regard to the appearance of the civic population.

89 ~ ' - ' - under the walls of the Kitai Gorod. whether THE OLD CLOTHES MARKET. in odour as well as in appearance. The assemblage is of a decidedly uninviting character.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. . MOSCOW. and the rawest material of Mussuffices to covy sented in it. of which we give an illustration. is well repre- It view the of sale animated scene and purchase in every possible description of merchandise.

Savage man is seen on a and stones sticks a mammoth taken in huge fresco. Indian and Persian in history of illustrated design. stone arrowheads and tools. existence. it was rebuilt in 1859 in the style of noble Muscovite dwelling-houses of the . Sophia Kief and from those of other Russian churches.' or hideous idols details which will not bear reproduction here. Christian not later than the tenth century. shudder at the ghastly frescoed representations of an interment at Bulgar on the Volga. the frescoes. art. busy throng. so far as it can be denned. or chapel dedicated Iberian Mother of God. Some of its stone walls are alone of undoubted antiquity but. and from its attendance at the weddings of the affluent.. worrying The next room brings us to the end of the Bronze Age. represent After this come monuments at of religion in the Iron Age of Russia. rich and poor. Basil. and two arches we find the Iverskaya Chasovnia. within the Kitai Gorod. ' Ekaterinoslaf. One of the most remarkable of the modern buildings in Moscow stands at the end of the square opposite the Cathedral of St. the it ere he enters the Kremlin. The between to the its adjoining gate is the principal entrance into the Kitai Gorod. in the shape of mammoth tusks. from A room decorated with age down to modern and ornamented in a style of coeval In the first represents each such epoch. horses and dogs are being slaughtered preparatory to the burning of the boat and its contents. at a respectful distance. found in great numbers in the province of of stone in human form. and his wives. earliest arms. in Varvarka Street. whose in ikon. and the miraculous powers is so great that a very large sum is from the donations of worshippers. was brought from in Mount Athos 1648. and typical of Russian ecclesiastical art down to A. implements. and we a pit-fall. frescoes found in catacombs. objects illustrating the Helleno-Scythian period. of being &c. ravaged by fire.90 RUSSIAN PICTURES. here deposited. and at frequent ceremonies of blessing a new Emperor always stops to pray before its popular belief in annually realised house or public edifice. on the outskirts of the surging. A chief lies dead in a boat. with The Babi. three apartments are relics of the Stone and Bronze Ages. in fame and interest the Kremlin and all thereunto belonging. this unique and comprehensive museum will rival objects. and models of interments in the South Russia. honestly or otherwise acquired. this huge edifice of red brick is a the human species in what is now Russia museum is in which the in course by specimens of workmanship. are in two rooms full of early Slavonic When completed.IX 1125. at the various epochs of man's times. and from the visits paid by the ikon to the houses of the sick. mounds that are found scattered over to death with Early Arab geographers give graphic accounts of those sacrificial rites. . with copies of contemporaneous the state Frescoes copied from the walls of St. and sacked by the French. This is the most venerated image Moscow. Another secular building of high interest is the Romanoff House.

and The turret on the affording a charming view of the city from its windows. to sights of the Kremlin and the Kitai Gorod are now are attracted towards the grand go farther a-field. with adorned with rich wood. and a small study. was born on this spot. and a large room called the Chamber of the Cross. consist of a vestibule. and we Temple of the Saviour. bearing the offensive and defensive weapons of the Romanoff coat-of-arms a short sword and a shield. carvings built in of wood. in which priests offered their congratulations on great Church holidays.AfOSCOJf: THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. Above is the THE ROMANOFF HOUSE. a panelled stamped leather. complete the arrangements of this storey. We in diameter) in it Founded commemorate the deliverance of the city from the French. which has also plate many secret recesses for the concealment of treasures. a room for female servants. a is in form of west surmounted by a vane the griffin. kitchen. The principal exhausted. or banqueting hall of the palace. An oratory. the family on great occasions in this apartment. and the household assisted at matins and vespers. was . being on record that Michael. Tcrcm. in which are shown two brass ink-bottles like those used in the in the was exhibited days of Chaucer. 1839. and offices. sixteenth century. a nursery. whose huge gilt dome (ninety-eight feet and attendant belfry-cupolas shine pre-eminently over Moscow. above the cellars. it boyar's apartments. As Granovitaya Palata. the first Tsar of the The present dynasty. in a house of the same kind. and including reception-room the bed-chamber.

spent exclusively God with us. like the military and naval enterprise of our countrymen in more ancient days. it is as dazzling in summer as the sheen ' of the dome and bare-looking the interior of the casket the four cupolas that surmount this otherwise inelegant and But block. of Peter the Great in almost exceptionally. thirteen were meant to resemble the bow and the stern the extremities Structural accretion has destroyed all trace of a contemporaneous flag-ship.RUSSIAN PICTURES. introduced in 1829 from a source twelve miles distant. and within recent years perfected by the appli- Farquharson. the tower.' is the inscription over the on native material and labour. the direction of which was entrusted by Peter I. to a Scotchman named building has been used as a pressure tower or reservoir in connection with a supply of water. the main of British capital. the stone from which Moscow derives one of her most endearing popular appellations. not the only as a but as an conspicuous object. which. in a mixed style. is magnificent and elegant The ' beyond all description. the activity is connected the ancient empire naval he moved by capital of the In 1695. dark. his enthusiasm for matters. and after serving as the location of a naval school. Outside have now Tower precincts we visited. . has played no unimportant part in the cation development of the Russian empire. Being of white sandstone. haul reliefs and other ornaments notwithstanding. while THE SUKHAREF TOWER. highly-polished Labrador' marble. and the surrounding galleries the quarter-deck. created. of such resemblances. Lombardic and Gothic and two hundred and feet high. representing the mast. completed only in 1883. edifice with which. at a cost of two millions sterling. he caused this structure to be built in the form tall of a vessel. the Sukharef claims our attention. brings into relief the gold with which the walls and pillars are abundantly de- corated. supported by thirty-six marble columns. quarried near Moscow. entrance to the principal portico.

and Simonof monasteries delightful views of Moscow and its multitudinous cupolas are obtained their churches and sacristies being also well worthy of inspection. From the Donskoi.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. CHURCH OF ST. NEAR MOSCOW. 1 FOUR CHARACTERISTIC RUSSIAN CUPOLAS. CHURCH OF THE VIRGIN OF KAZAN. but it is almost superfluous to being say that a host of other buildings and institutions of high interest must remain un. the mother of our Lord. for the device was used ages before the expulsion of the Tartars from Russia. CATHEDRAL. AT MOSCOW. MOSCOW. NEAR MOSCOW. The superposition of the cross on a crescent so often seen on Russian cupolas is not emblematical of triumph over Mohammedanism. 1 . There 93 are monasteries in numbers all about Moscow well worthy of if not described mentioned. NICHOLAS. CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY AT UMAILOF. she being represented in ancient Greek pictures with her feet resting on a crescent. I'oKROFSKI VILLAGE. It typifies the connection between Mary. recorded . in our pages. and the cross. Danilofski.

on a glorious northern summer's day. on an island of the lake.' a boat now preserved at in a shed the ' Moscow. however. Moscow ' ! Moscow and ' ! Another favourite trip by carriage or tramway is to the Petrofski Park Palace. on Tsars in the . Standing on this slight elevation of the left bank of the Moskva. vicinity of Moscow. Grandsire of the Kolomenskoe. RUSSIAN PEASANTS NEAR KUNTSEVO. is an ancient domain of the Romanoff family. ancient seat of the St. rebuilt in 1679. It was built between 1775 and 1800. however. and exultingly shouted.Kursk Railway. In the palace. Izmailovo. the finest view of the ancient capital. the is another Petersburg. and was occupied by Napoleon after the Kremlin had become too hot for him. In the seventeenth century the Tsars had a well-stocked menagerie as well as an aviary at this residence. of which. which Napoleon first beheld from their summit. which we reach towards the hour of sunset. and it was here also that he discovered Russian Navy. nothing remains except the church. a village about six miles from the centre of the city.RUSSIAN PICTURES. The well-known Sparrow Hills afford. Peter the Great studied the art of war. we can well realise the feelings of the French invaders when they caught sight of the Kremlin walls and the glistening domes before us.

farmers.1818. Laid waste by the Tartars in 1408. villas. we find Russian peasant proprietors threshing corn with the Biblical flail ' ' ! The instrument is used throughout the rest of Russia. within a few miles of Moscow. Sergius.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. The mansion is of a somewhat later period. or Monastery of the Trinity. same enemies appeared before its walls a few years later. but also that of one of their agricultural processes.000. who was also the father of Peter I. and twelve brethren. quantity of agricultural machinery is sold at the two capitals to the larger landed proprietors. simple.000 Poles.. which are naturally detrimental to the quality and the . glad to find a primitive Russian village still occupied by stalwart specimens of the true Slavonic type of Moscow. One of the most remarkable of the holy places in Russia reach of Moscow by rail. silver. and jewels. and to his extremely rude methods of husbandry. having his kingdom. Few travellers fail to devote is within easy a day to an inspection of the Troitskaya-Sergieva Lavra. w hen Ladislav of on Prince Dimitri Tartars. the monastery was re-established fifteen years later. representing a In of at least owed 500. was rendered all the stronger by the appearance to him (as recorded in the annals of the Russo-Greek Church) of the Virgin Mary and the Apostles Peter and John. except in the southern provinces. when its principal cathedral was erected. One about six 95 of our miles pleasantest drives on a recent occasion was to Kuntsevo. population fealty and quit-rent to St. and self-denying Sergius to canonisation. after his death in 1392. gold. thanked Moscow. a nobleman of Rostof. shows not only the character of the contemporaneous town life dwellings of the inhabitants of the central part of Russia. and German colonists but the serf holds doggedly to his primitive plough and flail. quantity of Russian agricultural produce. 1388. and the claim of its abbot the pious. son-in-law of the boyar Cyril Naryshkin. King saving of Prussia. and is of little interest. but the inscription on a granite pyramid near the conservatory is worth recording : 'On the 4th July. which her for is At so short a distance from modernised. To the blessing he bestowed is ascribed the great victory gained on the Don over the and treasure in Lands. were consequently bestowed on the monastery.D. where the corn of the peasantry is generally threshed by the A large and increasing equally ancient method of the tramp of bullocks.000 male serfs.' viewed Moscow from Kuntsevo. by 30. The 1608 the monastery was besieged. Our illustration. but unsuccessfully. . T . Frederick William III. and such by the middle of the eighteenth century more than 106. and situated in pretty woodland scenery dotted with off. A. It was established in 1342 by Sergius. Thirty minor that vast estates monasteries were later attached to it. engraved from a photograph taken on the spot. Here. the Canterbury of orthodox pilgrims. unimpaired by contact with so rapidly becoming we are and factory labour. The estate came to the Naryshkin family from the Tsar Alexis.

burdened nearly with jewelled ikons. circuit. the interior interesting nature of representation alone of brass. pictorial tapers.96 RUSSIAN PICTURES. in Last Supper solid gold. the the tutelary saint. for the applications of In a glass case inserted in the altar the kisses of the orthodox faithful. is larger. acts of piety. which stands on the of the original edifice raised by The entrance is level with the Sergius. and on coarse enamel and deft wood-carving. monastery. Sergius are exhibited in it. to whom in his youth they had afforded shelter against Streltsi. not over clean. The Cathedral of the Assumption. Dingy. were repaired byPeter the Great. weighing the Terrible. Sergius being the principal subjects represented in pictures and photographs. the silver. and somewhat unsavoury from character. with nine cupolas. use or the life the presence of way-worn pilgrims. as much in connection with atrocious crimes as with prodigal The incorruptible remains of St. typifying the nine celestial hierarchies. certain small parts of the body being left uncovered.000 repair annually to the THE TROITSA MONASTERY. Of the twelve churches which it contains. nearly completed in 1547. the most ancient insurgent are the last is the Cathedral of the Trinity. of the is its rendered attractive only by the costliness and the In the archbishop's stall we find a contents. incidents in the military of The the history monastery. and built in 1585. gift of Ivan shrine of one thousand pounds in pure in whose name recurs so frequently Russian history. and a variety of other articles of ecclesiastical crosses. and we a enter ground. of whom 100. but curious chiefly for its . the These rights of the newly-elected Michael Romanoff. oil. a mile in walls. ' ' screen are seen his pastoral staff and other paraphernalia. Poland disputed and the most venerated site and doings of St. at which monks sell ikons. the figure of Judas being is Close to the ikonostas. portico full of stalls.

painted in 1609. jewelled crosses. usurper of We cannot but admire belfry. or Hermit's Cell of Gethsemane. and other ornaments. contrasted with emeralds and sapphires of great size and beauty. recluses hardly ever leave their subterranean cells. who have elected to breathe the pure air of heaven perhaps only once a year. which edifices important three hundred feet in height. to wipe a streaming brow. dedicated to the Ascension of the Virgin Mary. next to the house in which he lived. in which their thin linen and cotton clothing had not been removed. and in reality Not a hand can be raised in the densely-crowded edifice far from pleasant. an object Its treasures are of paramount of mostly is not among them a resplendent copy of the Gospels.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. earlier date than the seventeenth century. pious or mundane. headed eagle the throne of in wood commemorates is Boris Muscovy. The sight is a strange one on a hot day in August. Streltsi were seeking to wrest him 97 from his was concealed under the altar when the sister Natalia. founded by the late Metropolitan Philaret as a retreat from the cares of his high office. to whom so many was completed in 1/69. and a large twohis escape. Godunof. and we are still more impressed with its austerity when we descend to the neighbouring catacombs. he caused to be inscribed the significant admonition.' not him who comes in here carry out the dirt short distance ' A ii . an renowned He is equally by Plato. Chief sacristy. and over which. Sergius seem to be worth all the treasures in the cathedrals and monastic establishments at Moscow and About a mile put together. the elegant Count Rastrelli. In some catacombs beyond. established in 1783 and learned Metropolitan of Moscow. Let finds he within. after the profuse gorgeousness of the churches we have just viewed. Female worshippers are admitted once a year into the church at Gethsemane. buried here. The interior of the church is remarkable for its simplicity. A of the copy manuscripts. in those less tidy days. Evangelists in it is attributed to the early part Of the other sacred of the thirteenth century. but the extraordinary richness of those at St. frescoes. A detached building contains the curiosity to pilgrims. We are to some extent prepared to see a large collection of imposing ecclesiastical garments. buried at the western entrance. which contains a library of four thousand old books and Sergius Radonejski. seclusion beyond is the Bethany Monastery. in which vows of perpetual are being fulfilled by human beings in the garb of monks. designed by in Russia are due. and emblazoned with a large cross in rubies of fine colour. effectually walled in. The binding is beautifully ornamented with floral and arabesque patterns in enamel work. Peter I. It is nearly edifices we need only notice the church of St. a half from the monastery is the Sfciif. while the ardent worshippers look and feel as if they had emerged from a steam bath. given by the Tsar Michael in 1632.

as flowing through the country of the Scythians and Sarmatians. Kalmucks. down the Volga) made familiar in their childhood as a were Muscovites of tion middle-aged song inciting to deeds of daring. the Rha (great river) or Volga. not because ancient geographers mention.' by century came the Tartars. in 1158. and Bolgars subsequently formed powerful states on it. The Huns. tinder Rurik. and to the exercise of untrammelled liberty but because we desire to see the celebrated fair of Nijni Novgorod. Ptolemy and other great cities on the main water-artery of the WE are bent on descending the Volga. but were gradually subdued and absorbed by the Great-Russian race. OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. vniz po Volge (Down popular Russian robber-song a song with which the present generathe Little Mother. but with little accuracy. established by the Northmen at Kief. task. These (Bashkirs.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. MOSCOW. to Vladimir of the paramount In the thirteenth throne. the bands armed of a Russian commenced observes writer. sixteenth power had been destroyed in the sent fresh masses of nomads China century. IN CHAPTER A VOYAGE DOWN VI. after the foundation of the powerful Russian principalities of Suzdal and Murom ' ' (eleventh century) and the removal. and the Russian empire. we are inspired by the Vniz po Matushki. TIIK VOLGA. Khazars. were in their turn subdued by means similar to those which have brought The the modern Russians to the frontiers of Afghanistan and Persia. and after their Central Asia and ' ' . and Khirghizes) to the banks of the Volga.

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formed. ior been completed by detachments of Cherniayef and Scobelef. are concerned. especially for grain. by an English merchant. administraand to a great extent. it We certainly found in in 1888 the same huge stocks of consequence of a severe flood). or Armenian. of tea. the assimilation that results from modernized intercommuniinevitable process of cation by rail and telegraph is rapidly depriving Nijni Novgorod of its older since mercantile features. rain. ' produced by the ' village industries of Bokharian. have the patience to embark on the great river at Tver. the river than at take Yaroslaf. has. who waived his claim to the treasure. still afford rich materials for the study of the aboriginal races by which they were held. and the Cheremyssi of Finnish or Ugrian origin. of textile goods manufactured chiefly and Vladimir.000 labourers find employment on the artificial waterway which thus connects the Caspian with the Baltic.' But although thoroughly Russianized. of brought from the northernmost parts of the in the provinces of Moscow empire. modern arcades which protect his customers and himself from The formerly itinerant however. means of canals communication was established between the Volga when by and the About 5000 craft and 100. now taken refuge in the Russia. to which higher up This is one of the a branch line runs from the Moscow Trunk Railway. of cotton. like that. and of gaily-painted chests and other articles so extensively iron (most of under water. namely inclined. becomes navigable by small steamers. oppressive . A recent visit confirms an impression long space to a description of it. and now a great centre of manufacturing industry. most important commercial entrepots of the empire. from a small lake near the town of Valdai. on its course of 2320 miles. so far as language.A VOYAGE Suzdal has DOWN THE the VOLGA. brought and skins furs Central Asia. 1652) with the proceeds of gold which a Russian trader had discovered in a cask sold to him as containing paint. to tion. while another sacred edifice in it is adorned with two Tradition says it was built (in leopards. or even at Yaroslaf. its travellers Few it where first position in that respect dating from the middle of the last century. at the time when the celebrated So much has already been written about that great fair is being held. Persian. at Yaroslaf. and desired that it should be employed in the We could. One of the finest specimens of Russian architecture is the Church of John the Baptist. But most travellers are content to make the easy railway journey from Moscow to Nijni (the lower) Novgorod. everything else nationally peculiar in Russia. Rybinsk. particularly the Mordva. the Chuvashi. cosmopolitan gathering that it would serve no useful purpose to devote much Neva. the banks of the Volga. religion. in honour of our own country. the great inland Caspian Sea. if so service of the Almighty or in some benevolent object. the depot in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the English goods imported at Archangel. now in larger and larger quantities from chiefly sea-borne.

Even the multitude of stalwart Tartars. and who are always mentioned in heat. . abundant. be dwindling are in Nor the in craft appear numbers. cheap and inferior.er< VIEWS IN NJINI NOVGOROD descriptions to of the fair. great developbarges.BAZAR : . propelled by the use of and commodious substitute for wood ago. more Turkish than Mongolian in features. they are unloading so quaint engaged and mediaeval-looking as they were only a few years ment of steam transport as fuel. The wares exhibited in those galleries are as a rule German. and we might fancy ourselves at Leipzig.~-:v3^^evi-. ' 3 and trim iron petroleum refuse as a cheap. or at any other continental mart.102 RUSSIAN PICTURES. mercantile transactions be who in- fluenced by the evil one are likewise types that are fast disappearing under . to the before the Beggars exhibiting repulsive sores fear to withhold their donations lest their superstitiously charitable. and blinding dust.

or and black bread ad libitum. see as we descend to the Caspian. and a cigarette in his mouth. travelling dclicatesse towards the source of the supply of caviar that delicious which no one can properly appreciate until he has tasted it almost We make our first real acquaintance with it at fresh from the sturgeon. Shelter and food are abundantly provided for the absolutely indigent. to which the pangs of Nijni Novgorod. while the poor are fed at a nominal charge per meal. its first great tributary out of thirty-seven others. Their clothes. and we keeping orthodox. at a The financial deficit charge of three copecks. from the peasant nightly entertainment for all sorts in a It was a novel spectacle to see a Russian untjik sitting upwards. No capable of disposing of three pounds. with a bottle of beer beside him. or piled on board the floating part of the fair. in a room of large dimensions. the present governor of the province. Under the guidance of an officer of the civil service. but open merry-go-round. specially deputed the obliging governor. soup buck-wheat porridge the staple food of the Russian masses. of Panslavist celebrity. rye bread is supplied gratis to the Near the that skirts the Volga are miserable casuals.A VOYAGE the active DOWN THE VOLGA. ' ' ' at all spirits rare to find a labourer or ale are allowed. is the honorary patron of one of several night refuges. which takes its name from the city and its fair. to show us the holes and corners of the fair. our sorely tried olfactory nerves will soon Among discover the masses of dried or salted fish that have been brought from the rich fisheries on the Volga and Caspian. The average consumption of bread alone is one and a half pound per man. we visited some very curious places of after a long stroll will and conditions of men. how important a part it plays in We the occupations of the population on the lower course of the Volga. supply some of the needed softness for body and head.} and of about one pound of kasha. but tea is available throughout the day. supported by a nights of July and August. and the small amount required as covering during the hot At another of these refuges. but it is not . in which six to seven hundred of the poorer labourers find a resting-place and glad enough are they to take advantage of the wooden ledge and the cast iron cylinder offered to them as a substitute for mattress and pillow. 103 and enlightened administration of General Baranoff. an ample dinner consisting of in with labourers are them supplied (about \\d. on these arrangements is made good out of the revenue yielded by the the masses of goods stacked on the banks of the Volga and the Oka. for the consumption of the fastshall This alone is a trade of colossal proportions. charitable fair. on the strength of old acquaintance. at one of the many restaurants are hunger by all inevitably bring us. Count Ignatief. such as they are. or less than a penny. benevolent merchant named Bagroff. not in the air. Here again.' Siberian Line For the sum of five copecks several soup-kitchens well worthy of a visit. .

their city of Oshel. in 1219. There is no doubt that in this respect we were under deep obligations to the enlightened official who had supreme charge of us. there was not much. however. a tributary of the Volga. the intelligent traveller. were. the deliverers of Moscow. crossed that sea in a ship that bore the red cross of St. the Dmitrofskaya and the walls The Kremlin we Tverskaya. much reduced in height and circumference Although restored in 1620. in 1558. It was for the purpose of arresting the incursions of the godless Bolgars. see towering on the cliffs of the right bank of the Volga were built in 1511 by a Venetian. accompaniment by detectives in plain clothes through the Kunavino quarter was sufficient proof that the tranquil surface exhibited to us was in a certain measure delusive. which they enclose. not take it amiss if we record our gratitude towards our good Mr. George. Nijni to ' ' became conspicuous as the place at which a company of Holstein merchants built the first war vessel ever launched in Russia under a charter for opening a trade with Central Asia. near the mouth of the great Kama. so called from a privilege granted in 1641 a monastery dedicated to St.' Out of the forty odd churches outside the Kremlin. which he named Novgorod the New Town of the Countries. of Rostoff Yaroslavski. Persia and India. and he will. namely. in imitation of our countryman. it is no brawling . Anthony Jenkinson. to whom a monument in the form of a granite obelisk was raised opposite the cathedral in 1826 by 'grateful posterity. if life. who had already. The old walled city of Nijni Novgorod has in itself strong claims on to friend. The neighbouring unsightly Church of the Transfiguration from 1834. still prominently extant about In the same century. by way of the Caspian. we need only indicate the Rojdestvenskaya. the removal to confluence of the ' Oka Low with We it of the ancient Fair of Makarief. although in one of its painful and demoralizing phases. is substantially a structure of 1227. that the Prince of Suzdal took. who incorporated in them two towers which dated from the fourteenth century.104 RUSSIAN PICTURES. who may already be known to some of our readers as a learned archaeologist and comsummate connoisseur in matters of Russian ecclesiastical lore and art.' pass over the common episodes of Tartar invasion and princely internecine strife. seventy miles lower down the great river. distinguishable by its eccentric colouring and dates its existence . Altars on either Tartar-looking belfry on the opposite side of the street.' inhabiting the country now known as the province of Kazan. but our be hoped. Macarius. There was no disorder and national the student of to shock anything. However. They after a great fire. side of the ikonostas are dedicated to the patron saints of Minin and Pojarski. and founded a ' strong settlement at the the Volga. could see the process of we European assimilation at work. the Cathedral of the Arch- angel. and consequently of high interest. and come down to the great turning-point in its history. Andrei Alexandrovitch Titof. and is remarkable only for its octangular.

to Korsun. not far from the floating bridge.A VOYAGE architecture. DOWN THE VOLGA. when it was ravaged or tion by Purgas. Before proceeding on our voyage. and be must therefore the most ancient it holy image in Russia. by the Metropolitan sented to of the it Alexis. according authorities. who probably Holy as pre- the ikon Virgin. or drive to we walk the otkos. or terrace at the extreme end of the city. Count by Gregory Stroganof out of a portion of vast riches acquired by goldmining at Nijni in Siberia. in all attributed. and which existed. overlooking the . A inscription on testifies that it was in painted A. the is most ancient the Annunciation. to in some 1229.D. Prince of the Finnish Mordva to t ribe. 993. erec- Critics trace its 1371. or Khersonese workm a n s h Greek it i p. cases of swarthy representations. 105 peculiar It was built in 1/19. Of the monasteries Novgorod. on the banks of the Oka.

are favoured to the extent of We on board during our stay at Nijni. extinguished some years the cession of the Islands to the Aleutian United States of America. with the cuteness and droll levity of a Yankee. olga from its junction with the Oka. now so There is not one of the abundantly supplied from Baku on the Caspian. criminal and political. so called after His Excellency Nicholas Novoselski.' The engineer.lo6 RUSSIAN PICTURES.' description were appropriately garbed in the American-English of to which this real salt-water tar had traded during the greater part of his life. not to wood or coal fuel. ago by He was a real cosmopolitan. in the matters of punctual speed. and all the blunt outspokenness of a Russian Slav with a shirdkaya natilra. Those of the latter Frisco.' as inscribed autoFew were the languages in which he could graphically in our note-book. bv . the founder of the steamship company. as when we travelled on the Volga some fifteen years before. the other the should be the trimmer. and culinary requirements. and over all was below. A majority of our party had travelled from Australia. but to the refuse of petroleum. Our good fortune has secured to us a commodious berth on board the Novoselski. The steamer was one of the many vessels that have American-typed supplanted the earlier pioneers of the Our cabins were our saloons above them. hundred Volga steamers of all kinds and dimensions American riverwith propellers. and confessed unreservedly that they had never been better taken care of than by the merry commander of the Novoselski. Subsidised for the carriage of mails and exiles.' for his duties ' ' more appropriate name of the consisted solely in setting latter alight. the Caucasus and Mercury Company are in a position to offer superior in relation to other on the advantages steam-ship companies Volga. The absence of smoke and of attendant soot was soon explained by the fact that the steam by which we were not ' propelled owed its origin. and the originator of several of the greatest and most successful enterprises in Russia. or stern wheel iron steam barges and tugs that now uses any other description of fuel. clotted here and there with forests. tolerable accommodation. Volga. and our own personal insignificance in relation to the great works V 7 We of the Creator. expansive mind and habit. one being the five craft stoker. an aboriginal of the coast of Croatia or Dalmatia (evidently the scene of his nativity). see a far-reaching alluvial plain. charge of a couple of men. and of finding a charmingly and eminently intelligent and communicative commander in the person jocose of Sea Captain Felix Alexandrovitch Pietroschiewich. and are impressed by the monotony of the landscape. or wide. the spacious top deck. Led by the attentive captain to the we found in it engine-room. sleeping ' convey either his serious or his merry thoughts. in the service of the Russo-American Company. on which we paced or settled ourselves comfortably whenever the great heat of the sun was tempered by a kindly breeze or moderated by a welcome cloud.

who were merchants or cotton. All had more or less a well-to-do appearance. sufficed to arrest at a stopping-place the further generation of steam. turquoises. from their more lowly in Christian not. Persians. was very soon put on shore. more than usually indigent and untidy in his outward appearance. and the rougher classes of the Russian population were consequently in a minority. or trader. including priests. sleeping. including some of a soldiers TEA URN. Russian silk. and peasants. notwithstanding occasional disembarkations. madder. knpcts. and Tartars formed Bokharians. and subsequently increased to nearly seven hundred. apart slept soldiers. There were few races in Europe or Asia that were not represented among the five hundred passengers embarked in the Novoselski. like companions. The was accompanied by to which urn. divided for that purpose into two parts. themselves. were huddled together on the second deck. They in rows and batches. the closing of which. each passenger more or less snug at night on mattresses and felt rugs. on the ground of not having paid his fare. who. or tea- he the had aid frequent with and comA RUSSIAN TRADER WITH HIS panionship of his prikastclii or clerk. gazing . his samovar. and excepting only a village priest. distinguished by their cleanliness and their stores of pillows and warm coverings. which was spent in eating and drinkand on at the busy activity numerous places of call. recourse. the fair of Nijni was yet scarcely on its decline. We were travelling by one of the best mail steamers. 107 a rag saturated with naphtha and ignited by a lucifer match. The Asiatics and the and made to burn of steam issuing from the lower classes. ing. crack regiment of guards on furlough. There was but little talk among them during the daytime. All sorts and conditions of men and women above the trader stratum of Russian society were assembled in the saloon cabin. The petroleum is furiously over the bottom of the boiler by a jet same nozzle. camps of their own. scattered into spray as it issues from the supply-pipe.A VOYAGE means of DOWN THE VOLGA. the jet of petroleum refuse conveyed under each of the lour boilers and set free by the turn of a cock. on the other hand.

io8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. a town of 5000 inhabitants. with an army of 150. un- climatic barrenness of the that soil conditions under which they have so long struggled. The abnormal number of idiotic and deaf and dumb children is another symptom of the moribund condition of the Cheremyssi. which are not nominally Christian. and often retired. and next day touched at Cheboksary. This is the town of towns of the Chuvash race. and we soon get accustomed to were being towed up shifting monotonous to attract the Volga through after its strings of barges that shallow. and. subdued it. It was the ladies had the night become economical sociability condition of the country. was much attention.000 of them left favourable industries living in out their last the district. the unremunerative character of the simple them. the old women of a village sally out at night unclad. With these fellow-passengers. the they occupy. . At Kazan we find a very different population. on the right bank of the river. The reverse outside the precincts of hotels and restaurants.000 men. dark and the atmosphere that commenced. Every year also the young girls of the northern forested region of the Volga beat. them from drought and destructive insects. slaying to protect . with a for this is the strong admixture of a handsome and vigorous Tartar element ancient capital of a Mongol kingdom which flourished between 1438 and 1552. the bounds of newly-sown fields. There indeed no part of Central Russia where these have been better preserved. and whom they pursue with wild cries as an impersonification oi death. The days. and the unsanitary state of their supplied with chimneys. It is so far the cool. under similar conditions. accelerated as it has also been by the prevalence of goitre and other diseases. Although are to known dwellings. and have contributed greatly towards keeping alive among the population of the middle course of the Volga the customs and superstitions of remote ages. too The scenery. dancing frantically round each hut. we dropped down the Volga at the rate of nineteen miles an hour. was then discussed with a freedom that would astonish those who had been led to believe that in such matters Russia is a country of mutes. the channels. representative of different sections of society. on the outbreak of murrain among cattle. winding. the criticisms state of affairs which he cannot help hearing being generally very strong against the present and the powers that be. is To belabour unmercifully any one who may come in their way during their weird operations. have contributed to this result. this day. they are in reality more than half pagan. and entertained and instructed by the vigorous discussion of political and social questions. until we approached Simbirsk. over which the secret police is supposed to keep close watch. that a foreigner acquainted with the language is often placed in a condition of some embarrassment. and it is equally interesting as the capital of a barren district in which another ancient ' ' Finnish people the Cheremyssi are evidently There are not more than 100. It is Russian. and especially of the Volga provinces. when Ivan the Terrible.

founded in 1804. although Oriental languages were formerly the principal As at most other Russian objects of study at this seat of learning. Although adorned with a diamond crown presented by Catherine II. Petersburg. by and we were astonished to find that the material used for that partial repair. along the high causeway.A VOYAGE the DOWN THE VOLGA. and in it dust. the costliness of its ornamentation is insignificant compared with that of the copy we have seen in the Kazan the Poles Moscow from Cathedral at St. walls The city retains in (of 1568). a Lector of the English students have the of the benefit universities language. The latter is an object of great reverence to the ten thousand Tartars of Kazan. while far away to the right we see the mosques and minarets of the Tartar rattled. to visit the city in a carriage that A stoppage of four hours enabled us had been ordered by telegraph. Similar waste may be observed over a purpose was rich stable manure of within the zone of black earth. The most interesting of the churches Annunciation. The site of their graves. our steamer. parched and grimy. chiefly of surgery and medicine. Chief among the numerous public institutions of Kazan is its University. for the heat the we subsequently were became so intense caviar that down we supported ourselves principally on and . and to the left of the causeway our attention is directed towards a pyramidal monument raised on a small mound over the bones of the Muscovites who fell at the capture of Kazan. so good a provision. where the Russia. and attended by about six hundred students. under the rude and obstinate sweepings belief that the land is not in need of any stimulant or restorative. five miles in is connected with the which the river bank. who thus keep alive the memory of their ancient rulers. It was under city length. planted a cross after he had stormed the the original In the church of a convent close to of the ' the Kremlin walls the is ikon Virgin in of Kazan. It is supposed to have been originally the minaret of the mosque (demolished in 1552) in which the Khans or Tsars of Kazan were buried. spot on which Ivan IV. apples.. especially great part thrown of stables are into ravines. 109 all troops of the Tartar Tsar. We pass the Admiralty suburb. built Its altar within the Kremlin is that of the in marks the city. after the model of the Assumption in Moscow.' to which deliverance of 1613 was attributed. in which Peter the Great built a flotilla for the Volga and the Caspian. we refreshed ourselves melons. is visited on Wednesdays and Fridays for devotional exercises by crowds of pious Tartars. grapes of which voraciously with the delicious fruits we bought a small sack full for a few coppers at the long row of stalls Hurrying back to displayed that until close to we had made the sun went And glad landing-stage. and its some of its ancient appearance only in its Kremlin Sumbeki Tower. in ! we half-smothered suburb. 1562. on the west face of the tower. pears.

but nevertheless its fortress the ultimately arrested victorious march of the A century later the IAKTAR MOSOUE AT KAZAN. the Kama River. water-melons. iron.no RUSSIAN PICTURES. a city of the seventeenth century. whole . perched chief on a of cliff 560 feet 'above the level It the river. washed down by cool cups of Badminton. the Novoselski sped again down the muddy waters of the Volga. a of travellers. joins the Volga. over a course of 1 1 60 miles. to the wonderment of our less experienced sipping fellow-passengers. who preferred The tanks being filled by means of hose with a supply of oozy petroleum and after embarking a fresh refuse. insurgents. At about fifty miles from Kazan. bringing to it a vast number of vessels and rafts laden with salt. and other produce of the interior of Siberia. rebellious of the Cossack Don . manufactured out of Caucasian or Bessarabian wine. itself the contingent recipient of the waters of five hundred and seventy-four affluents. hot tea. suffered in greatly 1670 from the bands a robber of Stenka Razin. and we reach one of the centres of the grain trade at Simbirsk. Numerous on the villages and groups of storehouses river bank tell us thatwe are passing through the great corn-producing districts of South-eastern Russia.

It bears no evidence of being inhabited. for its buildings are mean except in the main thoroughfare. surroundings would be in keeping with such imposing resplendence. much of the trade and intercourse of Russia with Central The memories of Kalmuck and Cossack ravages Asia passes through it. village on the right had who previously. who personated Peter III. under Pugatchef. and being connected by rail with Moscow on the one hand and Orenburg on the other. HI country at this part of the Volga joined another rebellion. while the opposite side of the river is one continuous cornfield or grass meadow.A VOYAGE of the DOWN THE VOLGA. and the Empress had been brought to her in an iron Pugatchef army to its only really pretty part of the Volga right bank rises in cliffs of curious formation. except when a copious shower has converted them into the deepest and blackest of mud. A . and only a few remnants remain of the walls of the fortress by which the inroads of Next in Cossack robbers and nomadic tribes were eventually arrested. This is the magnificent Count Orlof-Davydoff. whose late father devoted to its cultivation and improvement the knowledge he had gained in Scotland. There is nothing of interest in Samara. and had imagined that its in Russian towns. in the seventeenth century have long been extinguished. also a Don Cossack. with thickly-wooded hills beyond. by noble landlords. is the capital of a rich agricultural of the same name. to the trade of Samara in grain and tallow is the supply of celebrity which the adjoining steppes offer to kumyss. through which men and cattle have to trudge until the sun has reasserted the supremacy of dust. has for some time past been recognised in England. Although this did not prove the case. that sparkles like champagne. yet it is a city of great commercial importance. and we can say from personal experience that. whatever may mares' milk. or fermented mares' milk. We had long watched our approach to the shining silver domes of the red brick cathedral and belfry of Samara. Volga between Stavropol and Samara. like so many other Ermak. the conqueror of Siberia. from being a repulsive beverage even to the sound and healthy. like province Simbirsk. with paving Clouds of dust hang over or pervade its broad streets.000. freely after subdue the rebels. be its is alleged far curative properties. (suffocated some ten years previously). the steamer leaves Samara and passes Pretty landscapes open out after bank has been named after the Sulphur Hills. and seriously threatened to wrest Moscow from Catherine II. or bend formed Here begins the . An ordinary map of Europe shows the Samarskaya Luka. which is about the only one that can boast of what is called which. as a student at the University of Edinburgh and as a practical admirer and copyist of all good things that were British. Its efficacy those who are afflicted with diseases of the lungs and kidneys. It required an breathed more cage. by the estate of a population of 65.

where they had taken refuge when being This still denies the apostolical Russian Church. a Cossacks. the of snow. containing the largest deposits of next to those of the Abruzzi in Italy. so called from the fact of their having been permitted to return from Austrian Poland. magnificent in run uninterruptedly from St. the broad Volga is spanned for the first and as yet the only time by a railway bridge. a town situated at the foot of a hilly background. or dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. our next great station.} of limestone that have the appearance hermit cells of Cheremshansk. asphalte Europe. been Volga pirate. to Irghiz River begin stretch the neat and thriving German colonies . until in banks we reach Orenburg. From the mouth of the of a widely different character. It enables trains to design and execution. Within the of the district are the Palestine seceders to the Austrian Confession. Beyond prosperous domains of the Old Believers. We religious are not centre an ethnographical and long in reaching. Near Syzran. one of whose principal settlements is Khvalinsk. at Ekaterinenstad. persecuted by the succession of their bishops as stoutly as it does that of our own Anglican prelates. the principal goal of the migrating peasantry. with patches Petersburg to are the AN ANCIENT PIRATE RAID ON THE VOLGA. (From a contemporaneous pritU. Other villages of piratical origin dot the the Cavern Hills.112 RUSSIAN PICTURES.

entirely aloof socially. DOWN THE VOLGA. while neighbours adhere doggedly to the Lutherans keep themselves A COSSACK OF THE VOLGA. and retain strongly their prejudices against the Russo- Greek and particularly against intermarriage with those who profess it. planted with the agriculture in their primitive That result has object of improving the condition of so far not been attained beyond the boundaries of the colonies. 300.. at least In the provinces of Samara and Saratof these colonists number religion. whose Russian modes of husbandry.000.A VOYAGE by Catherine Russia. . II.

There was evidence it the and promise of still greater improvement. Russian and foreign. a town which was founded and fortified . and to this long list of disasters must a neighbouring bluff 560 feet high be added the ravages of the plague in 1807. Kalmuck Tartars. with an extensive trade in grain. In 1700. in the as but was The until 1671. tobacco. (1708). cases has a and in some cliff of name its own. couple of hours after leaving Saratof stopping-place is at Kamyshin. and highly other its many public and private buildings. It was a subsequently ravaged robber bands of Stenka Razin then held century it thriving place on several occasions it so far back by 1635. its history is one of bloodshed. 1830 and 1848. notoriety is prominent Razin Another connected with robber deeds. and eighteenth and Nekrasof The redoubtable Pugatchef bombarded it from the Falcon Hill. is passed on the but the most important a bank. whose gallery of pictures. bluffs The on the are large left colony. Like all the other towns on the middle and the suppression of piracy. fine tallow. Each sionally intersected by ravines. and murdered all those who rebellion against the shaved in compliance . Saratof is now a prosperous emporium of trade produce. lighting They have reason to be proud of the Museum of Art with which the city has been endowed by Professor Bogoliubof. 1668 instigated by the Don Cossacks. miles. lower courses of the Volga. render city most European-looking on the Volga. Built on hills. and it may be hoped that the citizens will not much longer delay the of their streets with gas. A TARTAR LADY OF THE VOLGA.000 it inhabitants. and the excepadvantage of waterworks con- structed with the aid of British capital. broad and paved tional streets. and visitations of cholera in was pillaged by the rebel Cossacks of Bulavin . with a breadth of nearly three right bank and are occamostly perpendicular. linseed. mostly of the Stenka period. a celebrated painter. the citizens rose in reforms of Peter the Great. From Saratof the Volga takes a direct southerly course for a considerable distance. it contains. in wheat. German in by Colonel Thomas Baillie.114 RUSSIAN PICTURES. frowning undulating ground within an Saratof is a handsome and amphitheatre important of bare of and city 112. one of the numerous British officers Its fortifications proved very useful in then serving the Tsar of Moscow. agricultural Surviving Its all these misfortunes.

A amount of timber to Kalatch on the Don. having proved in practice to be inconsistent both with real liberty and with founded in modern of In addition to agriculture. caused it to be repopulated. At Sarepta. raised in Elton Lake.' is well worth The oil stored on the river bank in the long rows of iron cisterns seeing. two great and tanneries. carries large quantities of salted and dried fish (a species of corigonus) from the Caspian. where the goods are shipped the for Rostof. and delivered at Tsaritsyn into naphtha-cars. great number of Jews. stone-built. yet its former prosperity is to a great extent maintained by its steam mills. Although the railway that only with now formerly the capital of the Volga runs between the Volga and the Cossacks. in the petroleum or kerosine trade of Tsaritsyn. and a considerable. Sarepta mustard is used all over Russia. our next stopping-place but one. DOWN THE VOLGA. short railway. 13. and our passengers rush on shore to obtain a supply of the healing and invigorating cordial. of which the most important is the preparation of mustard. among other large and thriving villages trading in wheat and in salt. immediate vicinity. prosperous colony of Hernhuter (Bruderunita) in t 1770 on communistic principles. and gives our well-known Colman but little chance of competition. growing commercial from the presence of a apparent whatever Jew-baiters may say to the the great and contrary. I 2 . looks as if railway and steam communication had roused it too early from the slumber of a Russian provincial town. Not less important is Nobel's Town. Don (the Russian rivers of which the waters are not naturally or artificially connected) has diminished the importance of the place. strong balsam is also made here out of industries.A VOYAGE with his orders. the little town of Dubofka. the south of Russia owes much of its material development. and hanged all its inhabitants in 1774. so called after the enterprising Swede who started the industry. at the head of the Sea of Azof.000. and the new large storehouses on the river bank. potteries. and or Moravian Brethren. after which Catherine II. This to further whom. the colonists pursue a variety progress. We can now only mention. Ragged children and in fine sand. that is attest importance of the place.000 inhabitants. which squalid pigs roam about in most of its dirty unpaved streets. Tsaritsyn (the of 36. This is a neat. we find ourselves suddenly a bright patch of German civilization. and the fine shops it is only and ware- houses in the central square. Almost buried flies about in clouds like the indigenous Tartar Sari-chin. belonging to the Nobel and other companies is brought from Baku on the Caspian in iron vessels. connecting the Volga with the Don. ' ' A mustard seed. which were subsequently abandoned. 115 Pugatchef took the town. and justly acquired the title of the Naphtha King. which can be seen travelling in vast numbers over the rail net-work of European ' Russia. with a population mosquitoes. yellow sand).

which many travellers are induced to in order to witness the religious rites of that once mighty Tartar race. mentioned remains their chief temple. Volga in such force as to be able to threaten Russian towns so distant as Penza and Tambof. the Central Asiatics. after parting with the range of hills that had so long accompanied its right bank. in the twelfth century. founded by the Kipchak Tartars. ruled supreme over almost of Central whole the Asia. and forming the province of Astrakhan. Tsitrakhan. The Volga now makes a sudden bend to the east. flows through a vast uniform steppe. 1655. although be found dotted over with Kalmuck encampments or kibitkas. between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries. of the kingdom of Astrakhan. comparatively lively. in alliance with the the wild Bashkirs. conquered in 1554. and Cossack settlements. which Ivan the Terrible There is not It is now half Asiatic. but it extent of about seventy-five per cent. subject to Russia since but who. in which the it when explored will principal fishing. saltworks. the capital. Subduing the of Nogai Tartars. half cosmopolitan. A little further down on the same side we come upon a short line of railway abutting on the Boskunchak Lake and The right bank is on the border of the Kirghiz steppe. At the place we have visit. on account of their . the Tartars. the Persians. and the Armenians who are most en evidence to the European eye. To our left the country appears unpopulated.000 is the Kalmucks. the later capital of the Tartar kingdom. to the . declining gently towards the Caspian. held lower course of the MODERN TARTARS OF THE VOLGA. known in their later invasions Golden Horde.' of Muscovy as the Beyond is ' In four and a half days from Nijni Novgorod we end our voyage at Astrakhan. in which such concentrated. and perhaps in the world. out of a population of 70. and. The Russians predominate a medley numerically. is occupation chief is Kalmytski Bazaar settlement the the Mongolian Kalmucks. for we pass villages (locally called Vatagas). they at one time.RUSSIAN PICTURES. another town of races is in Russia.

not only made secure the possession of Astrakhan. and after the capture of Derbent and the acquisition also from Persia of Baku and the provinces of Gilian. of the Caucasus and Mercury Company If we land at the pier Astrakhan. who in 1665 checked depredations the trade which frequent by their by permission of the Tsar Alexis the Duchy SrrSS" AN ASTRAKHAN BOAT. and six years later Caspian. and Astrabad. in we find ourselves within the precincts of the ' Admiralty and . 117 The forest of masts which bursts respectively peculiar dress and features. Peter the Great reached Astrakhan with a large force. Mazanderan. on our view as we approach the vast harbour between the main stream and the Bolda branch of the intricate Volga delta will be found on closer inspection to pencil. of Holstein established with the countries on the opposite side of the The last local rebellion occurred in 1706. belong to a variety of quaint craft well worthy of the artist's The history of the city has already been foreshadowed in our reference to Cossack rebels and marauders.A VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. but gave to Russia the sovereignty over the Caspian Sea.

annual catch of these three descriptions of sturgeon is respectively 300. the boats. sacristy has one of the richest collections in Russia of vestments A Persian mosque stands in the principal street. which is intersected by the Varvazzi is originally in liable. shore and cleaned on the spot. in the salting and drying of the fish. name for this delicacy is caviale. as well as models of ships. 100. important a source of wealth. At least forty thousand men and women find such employment at the Volga fishing stations. for they are then harpooned in The larger fish are drawn on shallow places through openings in the ice. and to a weight .' RUSSIAN PICTURES. in a Baku. but transferred as a naval station in 1867 to small Here.000. and no fewer than In twenty-five thousand men are engaged in the five thousand and odd vessels and boats that pursue the same industry on the Caspian.n8 Port. winter. spinal marrow of the sturgeon. partly on in of the delta which are too shallow for lines those branches ground navigation. whence they to store-houses. The thirty gear used is of the strongest pounds for will in weight. and the time is evidently approaching when be adopted by the Government for the preservation of so It is for the sturgeon. the boat in and house built for the great Reformer. owing to the silting of the estuaries of the Volga. to be soaked for about twelve hours in brine. and a fine fish-glue is obtained are despatched barrels thousand which of The roe yields caviar. at with in are carried hauled up to high landing-stages. while those of more convenient size are dealt present very difficult for any fish to with closely set hooks. produced by a process of drying from the inner part of the from its bladders.000. and mitres. again. Their extirpation has been proceeding at a many years past. of 800 and even rapid rate measures run up to 1600 pounds. Canal. and in the preparation of caviar. deepened by a Greek of that name in 1817. thirty We may observe in passing that the Russian yearly from Astrakhan alone. generally unbaited. At Astrakhan the most valuable product of the Volga is the sturgeon (Acipenser stnrio and The average Acipcnser huso] and the smaller sevriuga (Acipenser stellatus]. caviar being a corruption of the Italian of the only an attempt to reproduce the sound word word . founded by Peter I. although averaging nineteen feet in length. which. completed in 1710. channels of the Volga delta are practically barred. as a precaution against the inundations to which the city autumn. are kept the yacht which he sailed. but excavated 1 744. escape the ground-lines with which the many small Nor have the fish any repose even in winter.500.000. is ikra. They are mostly taken partly in nets. or in and then stored Isinglass is an ice-cellar. and spring. The in the city is the Cathedral of the Assumption. a collection of old arms and specimens The most striking edifice of the tools used during his reign in shipbuilding. thousands of labourers flock to Astrakhan to take part in its rich fisheries. and 1.

the sentries being also in due proportion rewarded for their vigilant services. Fishing in the delta of the Volga is also pursued on a large scale by Spying. in DOG SLEDGE WITH FISH. so far as the rest of Europe is concerned. a of quality. a semicircle.. they form pelicans. after which. the hand off. Petersburg. birds these clever that of the fishermen the disgorge the fish Volga among make a fair division them down on the sand. perfection beyond St. sieves that retain the in which the roe is conis membrane passed through tained. out and divided into two qualities. and can seldom be found in in the daily menu of the labouring classes ' ' .A VOYAGE haviar. the best being converted either into pressed or grainy caviar. the quantity of dry salt until it can be taken out by . and gradually enclosing it in a shallow bight. it ripe. . is reserved for the tables of the affluent. laying of the total catch.e. with the aid of sentinels. they have pouched. 119 by which the Turks and Tartars knew it ages before its appearance After the fish has been cut open. drained is and put under a when its superfluous moisture has been made of the bark of the lime tree (bast) packed bags The commoner sort of caviar replaces bread strong press. semi-transparent greyish colour. in strong brine until it in balls. the roe is taken in Southern Europe. DOWN THE VOLGA. and. but the grainy on the Volga no taste and with of fish or salt. swoop down in It is a tradition thousands to gorge themselves on their artfully-earned prey. a school of small fish. rest is and packed left in tins or barrels with is a small i. while the inferior is merely salted and packed in ' ' The higher sort small barrels for consumption by the less wealthy classes. ASTRAKHAN.

the first town of any importance in Southern is Kursk. We are now almost in the heart of the Chernozem. and the Tartars. son of Vladimir COMING Russia Monomachus. or black soil country. after Little Russia (the more southerly districts watered by the Dnieper) submitted to the Tsar Alexis. the centre of a rich agricultural district connected by rail. . and in 1095 it was held by Isiaslaf. from the north. and on the southAuthentic records attest the existence of east with Tsaritsyn on the Volga. Kursk became one of the principal places on that line of defence against Its disasters and sufferings as a military the Crimean Tartars and the Poles. three hundred and thirty-five miles from Moscow in an almost direct line. the railway passing through the cities of Tula (the Russian Birmingham) and Orel. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY IN THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE RESURRECTION. with Riga on the Baltic. from whom it passed alternately to the Princes of Chernigof In the thirteenth century it was razed to the ground by and of Pereyaslavl. on the west. outpost ceased only towards the end of the seventeenth century. Kursk in 1032.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. MOSCOW. In 1586 the southern frontiers of Muscovy were fortified. CHAPTER VII. SOUTH RUSSIA. OR NEW JERUSALEM.

later. power. There is. This word is not Slavonic. Herodotus. or. Little Russia was another arbitrary name anciently a to of what has been also known as the Ukraine. not much to see within it. for even the churches are mostly not older than the second half of the eighteenth century. a man free to do been used by the Tartar hordes to designate the From the princes of the House of Rurik southerly districts passed into the possession of Lithuania. Its semi-nomadic population obtained in early days the designation of Cossacks. these into Russia a free man. a term now used only to denote the Southern Russians as distinguished . and almost smothered in the verdure of numerous gardens.SOUTH so called from the rich black RUSSIA. on an elevation. No great part given fixed geographical limits can be assigned to either of these designations. although it long denoted in anything he chose. and. It is a great relief to the eye to see at last a handsomely-built city like Kursk. The more southerly part of the province of Kursk is in the Ukraine. Strabo. marches became safe and populated. or flat and woodless condition. they were absorbed by the dominant Little Russia is. or ancient border country. however. PLOUGHING ON THE STEPPES. and other ancient geographers only in their present steppe. and for as the borders or especially to the Ukraine of the Poles or the Muscovites . it had lower class of their horsemen. relatively to the surrounding flatness. those of Poland. perched. rather. but Turkish and . in fact. 121 loam of which its surface is composed to a These vast plains were known to depth of two and three yards and more. and ultimately incorporated into provinces.

of vermin and cockroaches but wattled. with wild beasts which had to be destroyed or guarded against. of the larger landed proprietors. and later with internal enemies. as he of the con- temptuously called by his more vigorous northern brother. enriched by the cultivation of large and fertile estates. finer-featured. man than the Veliko-Ros. and even the race. Vitebsk) Malo-Ros (Little Russian) is physically a better.122 RUSSIAN PICTURES. to sport (principally coursing). and whitewashed cottages. like those of all Slavs. or Ho/iol. is a cross between the Polish and the Russian. The upper classes of South Russia. or Great Russian. with thick forests which had to be cleared. Cossack forefathers. Poles and rebels. selves in neat and picturesque costumes. with swamps women of Little Russia fertile which had to be drained. full of deep feeling. generally. entirely spent in card-playing. however. and and make the most of those qualities by adorning thembeauty grace. and The women have both less rude and primitive in his domestic surroundings. Their lives are altogether more happy. and not without a vein of romance are. though a less muscular. full. but courageous men engaged in a life-and-death struggle with nomadic The greater hordes. gardens. thatched. the fused with the White Russians of the north-west (Mohilef and The and with the Slovaks of the other side of the Carpathians. The language of thought of these two branches of the Little Russian. He is taller. although their songs. refinement of the ease of their lives in a is attributable to the comparative a with climate more country. exhibit a similar superiority over the bulk of their compeers in Great Russia. Their houses are not like those of other parts of Russia log huts. is the mode Slav of life. who were not freebooters like the old Cossacks of the Volga. Little Ethnographically. also. and to a great extent to card-playing. There the Great and the White Russians had to contend with a soil much less productive. resembling strongly those of the Roumanian and Transylvanian peasantry. There a strongly-marked difference cast in outward appearance. although nearer akin to the Muscovite than to Russians become the Polish tongue. genial than that of the more northerly parts of the empire. The men sing of the daring exploits of their plaintive and in the minor key. gradually . with interruptions There are . and same an equal proof the as insouciance to the material future. the every-day Except. in the case life of the Southern Russian There is a strong bears a strong resemblance to that of the Irish squireen. surrounded by and kept internally in order and cleanliness. and favoured in their social development by long contact with the ancient Western civilisation of Poland. tinge pensity to reckless hospitality. there are well-appointed country seats in the South of Russia in which the long summer days are only for meals. and with frost and snow that left scarcely four months in the year for labour in the field. Indeed. from is principally the Great Russians of the more the central part of the empire. social jollification.

while Kursk and Kharkof owe much of their riches and . parched. indeed. ' ' . and ever since the Emancipation of the Serfs and the accompanying extinction of the power and authority of the proprietary classes.' Kief is the resort of the more ' towns. progress to the immigration of landed proprietors from the northerly and eastern districts of the Black Soil Zone. cracked. 123 and vehicles of every description to which but they can be harnessed taking a drive through endless cornfields natural roads or tracks.SOUTH horses in RUSSIA. A PEASANT GIRL OF 'GREAT RUSSIA. to the advantage solely of the principal provincial Europe.' Proper. has no great attractions in any part of Russia plenty in the stable. and of certain capitals and watering-places in Western Thus. and along a of black mud. and dusty one day. Country life. on journeys to estates or towns often fifty to one hundred miles distant. and vehicular locomotion is therefore resorted to only as a matter of necessity. offers but few attractions to the surface presenting the next ladies. absenteeism has been largely on the increase.

towns. It with ' ' of the Russian people to Christianity nine centuries ago. Partly from motives of policy. To the question In what late Dean Stanley's Lectures on tlic which we shall ' . swept away the grand monuments of sieges Christian antiquity which the city once possessed. Scandinavo-Slavic character of the great city was lost during the occupation of the provinces of which it was the capital. from here quote a few passages. an account of the great event which made it glorious and memorable to all ages. the conversion Muscovy regained Kief. and so his marriage with the to its sister of the Emperor of Byzantium. Regent of Kief. prosperity and importance that in the nth no fewer than four hundred churches stood within its walls. Traces of them are to be found only in the much-restored Cathedral of St. when by a treaty with Poland the Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnieper. strongly and favourably by Northway Novgorod the Great to Byzantium. and to become the founder of the Russo-Greek Church.' Mother of Russian planted men on their from the seat of the paramount throne of the Variag (Var&gr) principalities. which they reached by descending the Dnieper and crossing the Black Sea in 200 About A. as we have previously mentioned. Olga. Nestor. had embraced but it was left to her Christianity at Constantinople about the year 955 .124 RUSSIAN PICTURES. commotions. gives a very circumstantial account of the conversion of Vladimir in A. Its close intercourse with Constantinople. the Canterbury of the Russian empire. Sophia. in and 1240. Podolia. Mussulmen from the Bolgar kingdom on the Volga.. and a very interesting epitome of it exists in the History of the Eastern Chnrcli. to induce him to abandon pagan worship. after the conversion of Vladimir to Christianity. But interrupting here for awhile our description of the city. who lived between 1050 and 1116. Conflagrations. first by the Lithuanians (from 1320). 988. In the year 986 envoys from the different religious bodies of the then known world came to Vladimir. 1500. grandson Vladimir to establish the Christian religion in his dominions. at The first to arrive were Kief.D. 882 it became. viz. south-western ' princely landlords of the affected by Polish culture. From century that time also Kief has continued to be the Jerusalem. viking ships. 1496. who urged him to believe in their religion and to honour Mahomet. together was only at the second partition of Poland (1/93) that all the districts which now constitute the South-western Provinces of Volhynia. In Kief we see the districts. and Kief (of which Kief is the seat of administration) passed finally under the Russian sceptre. intestine and Tartar wars. and in the ruined stonework of the gilt gate which Boleslas the Brave in the nth century opened with a sword (now in the cathedral at Cracow) that was contributed much The original long after used at the coronation of the Kings of Poland. we proceed to give.D. and then by the Poles until 1667. as concisely as the subject will permit.

who made the heaven and was the true the stars and the INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY INTO RUSSIA.' They came from the Pope to tell him that of the world.' Some Jews. abstinence from pork and wine. and above all. under a general feeling of desponhaving at that epoch. the requirements of their and their dissidence from Christians and Mahometans. Drinking is the great delight of Russians. 'we cannot live without it. moon. who explained their belief.' he said. whilst thy gods are of wood. that we should suffer the same ? ' .' Next came the representatives of Western Christendom. and every living creature. The rude prince would not.' On learning that the law of the Latin Church commanded fasting.' with the objection ' : did they receive it from the Pope. : accept the prohibitions. 125 does your religion consist ? they replied that they believed in God. Vladimir told them to go home. their religion earth. He derided the religion and .SOUTH ' RUSSIA. and eating and drinking only in honour of God. ' ' A ' Philosopher from Greece ' came last. were also dismissed law. however.' said Vladimir. in a summary manner. They had been led to confess that they had been fathers ' Our did not believe in your religion. the prohibition of drinking. nor What. which was then ' fearfully ' expecting the end dency. says the late Dean Stanley. you wish to teach others you whom God has rejected and dispersed ? Do you wish. and also in what the Prophet taught circumcision. one ' : We fear God. dispersed for their sins throughout the world. and after death life in a harem. perhaps. the Papal See become the prey of ruffians and profligates.

! sent wise men 'to examine the faith of each and the manner of their worship. at 2 Khersonesus. The prince painted are those who on are the woe to the impelled to exclaim. and of his immediate conversion to Christianity. 147. 988 in the Church of the Holy Mother of God. Sophia. both of not ' . was baptised A. Under the stern orders and Christianity. envoys. practice of the the Mahometans. gorgeous with gold and mosaics. 987 that the Mahometans prayed with their heads while of the German and covered. now replaced by a splendid cathedral in commemoration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to This was effected wholesale. which surpassed all others in the grandeur of its form of worship.D. subjecting to a similar fate the Byzantine capital 1 Lectures on the Eastern Chttrc/i. For this purpose he scene ' . . they hastened back to Kief. find in this objection such combine the beautiful and fully satisfied at Constantinople. deacons issuing from the sanctuary with torches in their hands and with white linen wings on their shoulders. then all State. Vladimir did not long hesitate to act on the recommendations of his But he first besieged the rich city of Khersonesus in the Crimea. and even their idols were coarsely hewn out of wood or stone. the sister This sacrifice was made. and that their stench was insupportable Roman Churches they represented that although they were better than the Mussulman mosques.126 RUSSIAN PICTURES. 300. They were struck but what most by the multitude of lights and the chanting of the hymns filled them with astonishment was the appearance of the deacons and sub.' It is curious to ' ' . and at whose presence the people fell on their knees and cried.' These reported in A. at that celebrated the of for its ceremonial both of Church and period splendour It was in the Church of St. Kyrie eleison ! They were told by the wily Byzantines that these were angels who had come down from heaven to mingle in the service and wanting no further proof of the trueness of the Greek religion. and Vladimir of the Emperor Basil Porphyrogenitus. founded by Heraclean Greeks. There is no record of any adornment in the rude temples of the Pagan Northmen and Slavs. condemned world the celebration of Mass by the Roman Church Churches triumphed which was of with unleavened bread the had been in the point on which the two greatest torn asunder and explained why the the Jews to 'Germans and Greeks' believed over the ' Him whom by had crucified. Happy right sinners who are on the left But he would not consent to be baptized until he had been more fully instructed about each religion. a marriage between himself and Anne. p. and then made as a condition. ' early evidence of an innate human yearning to the impressive with religious worship. He on was other the envoys of exhibiting Vladimir a tablet the Last Judgment.D. that the Russian emissaries witnessed a service which had This yearning appears to have been purposely been rendered more than ordinarily magnificent. they had no ornaments nor beauty. 2 See p.

point out the prominent fact in this conversion.' It would lead us too far to describe. Another important distinction is that. some plunged in. Eucharist. however faintly. principally by Nicon. whilst the priests procured from Constantinople read the prayers. connection with autocracy. of course. Perun. or ' Equal an Apostle. but there was no in Russia corresponding apostle except Vladimir. indulgences. and cast into the river. or command Both the late Dean of Westminster and the late Count D. by of the lesser princes of the Rurik line. Catherine and more recent sovereigns. women.SOUTH RUSSIA.' that it must have been ' From this centre the Christian the example. the development of the RussoGreek Church through the four periods into which its history is divided. it It does not. rejects holds the necessity purgatory. influence. whilst admitting the doctrine of transubstantiation. all the men. Suffice it to was that it consolidated between the say beginning of the fourteenth century and the middle gradual of the seventeenth. swam. predestination. Romanism in Russia (the eminent Minister of the Interior. and It remains essentially Eastern. and dispensations of complete submersion of the body at baptism. . recognise the and in respect of matters of faith and spiritual supremacy of the Pope denies that it the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son. on the secular or . Gaul. during the reigns of Peter I. recently deceased). namely that. We may well agree with Nestor a sight wonderfully curious and beautiful to see. Tolstoi. and Germany were Chris- tianized respectively tine. scourged by twelve horsemen. in close .. England. except in the case of danger to life and under other urgent circumstances and affirms. it was without the agency of missionaries. the author of religion spread gradually over Russia. almost effected exceptionally in Europe. whose doings we sketched on our way to Moscow. was dragged over the hills at a horse's tail. 127 threats of the prince. and children at Kief were bathed some sat on the banks. doctrine. on whom the Russian Church has conferred the same tine the title as that of Constanto Great : Isapostolos. others in the waters of the Dnieper .. From the Roman Catholic Church differs strongly on many points. an AugusBoniface. the huge wooden idol. that the holy bread must be leavened. subjected to changes in matters of liturgy. in regard to the . and a by a Martin. II. and reformed to a certain extent A NUN COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CONVENT.

and which accounts. it is difficult to see what practical harmony and conceded. uneducated masses with which they are socially blended militates against their worldly Their position in the social scale is well exemplified in the regeneration. who parishioners in their happened took in to ' know little was mistaken for an excessive politeness. are unreconcileable with those some of of the the principal points of another great stumbling-block against official Churches continues to be the denial by the Russian Synod of the apostolical succession of the But even if these points were Anglican bishops. following anecdote. but a man of orthodox learning. ' ' white clergy. so much modified the Russian ancient has.128 RUSSIAN PICTURES. marriage priest. the Not very many years ago a young Englishman was house or mansion of one of the greatest and most To his surprise. in some degree. As doctrine regards the Anglican Church. who declared that his kindness to the priest was much more than she had expected even from his known amiability The services of the Church are conducted in the old Slavonic. cannot compress even a superficial reference to the services of the Roman Russo-Greek Church into fewer sentences than those used by Mr. or associated with his staying at country ' ! love of vodki . however. although a second marriage is forbidden also retains the Gregorian Calendar. the lady of the house highly-educated noblemen in Russia. and after much genuine hesitation on the part of the lady. which is still used with some modifications. language. This was an advantage which Pagans converted by the Latin Church were not permitted to possess.' his to do own tilling and compelled harvesting. and observations was so great that ' the interest he Time propagation of Christianity in Russia without the aid of missionaries. is to a widowed The Russian Church obligatory. and clad in a handsome cassock of mauve silk. well informed also on lay matters relating to his own country. that the Church Slavonic is now practically almost as different as Latin is to the vernacular of We Catholic countries the purest in ethnological descent. and communion between these two have to pass before the Russian clergy attain a high level of culture. During the greater part of the Mass the " royal doors (in the altar screen) The ceremonial . for the the father's it ! Russian. she divulged that she would like to ask the village priest to dinner And yet he was no ordinary rural pope. into which the Scriptures were translated after Cyril and Methodius had introduced the semi-Greek alphabet. said to him one day she had a great favour to ask. and the symbolical which it the represents meanings by dogmas of religion are everywhere made the subjects of " minute observance. scrupulously clean. co-operation could be established between the Churches for any useful purpose. took a seat beside him. The Englishman. for which he was profusely thanked by the hostess. Their almost entire material dependence on the rude. Many generations will Russo-Greek faith. in his oft-quoted work : ' Maskell of the Greek Church is excessively complex.

' the modern four lines style with five lines in not the Gregorian. in on the tenor or bass Next to a coronation at Moscow. 129 most part without. incensing holy pictures answered in deep tones by the deacons without. now from .' on which each member of the crowded congregation falls on his knees. far above the barbarous that are to be heard in Greek and other churches of the East at the present moment.SOUTH are RUSSIA. and is the . through glimpse is gained of To a stranger. in the deep bass tones of the men mingling with tive the ol is plain- trebles younger indescribIt voices which able is in its harmony. no is instrumental music of any voices Bass permitted. modern. effect is bewildering. the closed again suddenly. There is a sweetness and attractiveness in the unaccompanied chanting of the choir. .' The cords religious music dis- of Russia ' has a peculiar charm of its own. . From time time a voices. amongst the crowd. the treble clef. unlike any other lies yet underneath original the tinge of Orientalism. accompaniment. barbaric music. the deacons remain to for the time. the wailing tones of all No kind. tones now used Church long been written as in in the Russian are comparatively They have clef. unable to follow and in ignorance of the meaning. Now the doors fly open. . in turn the voice of the officiating priest is raised within. Then they are the thick the celebrant rolling clouds of incense. of extraordinary It is depth and power are the most desired. Now from one corner comes a chant of many closed . now and again entering for a short or pope popes pass throughout the church. crossing himself and responding ' officiating priest K . and a fleeting another a single one intones. the most gorgeous ceremony of the Russian Church is that of Easter Eve. that the in said A SOUTH RUSSIAN WOMAN. when as the clock strikes twelve the announces that Christ is risen.

as a rule of 'Yea. chandeliers. by which which rolls furthest his and he can also win the competing eggs own well-directed egg may touch while rolling. as a matter of fact. lustres. the people rush back to their homes. steep elevations of the right after a course of more than 1000 miles Sea Black the into falls which rivers in Russia). Picturesquely perched on bank of the Dnieper. with the result that this dried mushrooms. Those with the testing of the relative strength of eggs. time to return to Kief. verily Easter He has risen. in the beautiful simultaneously every city. or Town on the Cliff. then give to each other three kisses.RUSSIAN PICTURES. James's Gazette. Another favourite on the smooth floor. and therefore win the wager It is curious that the which may be the damaged egg or a small coin. 1889. congregation adding wax taper which each worshipper.' and. sotto voce. and groats mixed with hempseed oil. both consecrated and a kind of conical cake made of curds. more or less strictly. prince or pauper. days.' or Easter less curious No is it to know that a competitive tapping of dyed eggs at Easter-tide prevails also in some parts of Sweden and Norway. and the Podol. is bound to carry in his Friends. beer and vodka continue ' ' to flow throughout the country for sudden break from subsistence on several fish. do so for some time after Easter Sunday. \Yine. beforehand. irrespective of sex. the ancient Borysthenes. and hard-boiled eggs dyed mostly red. ' day. As soon as the service is over. The latter is the commercial quarter. to inordinate indulgence in on the public health after Easter is over. on Pace-egg of very similar games with eggs 1 has recently been reported from Northumberland. and so are the games played with those such as rolling them down a hollowed-out piece of wood raised at one end ecrgs The victory is to the owner of the egg a stand about twelve inches high. the site of the famed monastery of that name. with Christ is risen. and is regularly laid out with broad streets worthy of the handsome houses 1 St. It is now. Easter-tide game is existence Monday.' The choir . while the tables of the higher and middle classes groan also with viands and refreshments of a more solid kind. . the city is divided into (being therefore one of the greatest the Old Town. to break the fast which a majority Bread of them have kept. or hymn has not been in Russia its merriest peals. continue to the paschal salutation. for the previous forty days. and no one who village rings out can realize the impressive effect of the ringing of so many bells. bursts out the Church bell in The churches are on the largest and sweetest in tone of any in the world. and huge this great occasion bathed in light from of illumination from the no small amount the candelabra. will be found even in the lowliest cottage. however. the Pechersk. tells heavily The exchange of dyed or painted eggs at the time of paschal salutation is a general custom throughout Russia. meat and drink. ' exchanged with each friend or acquaintance. . until the salutation has been hand. April 27. town. the hardest point crack the weaker shells.

K 2 . is considered to be an exact reproduction of The Its the original. for the Uniat Faith or Church exists no longer. the most ancient basilica in Russia of the Byzantine style. the Sophia. destroyed two centuries later by seventeenth in the and restored between century. divided from the upper by wide bands of ornamentation in similar work. 1 ignominiously dragged by Vladimir.I>. 131 which line them. St. in the twelfth century and again in it for was reconstructed extant. All these were discovered in 1843 under the whitewash which had been applied to them while the cathedral was (1590-1633) in the possession of the Uniats (Catholics. and shaded with fine old trees. nominally Here also is the great Cathedral of 1695. Sophia at Constantinople has been much altered by repairs and additions. built A. the founder of the cathedral. have been preserved on the altar walls and in places on the wall-supports and the arches. is Another remarkable a superbly executed representation of the Lord's Supper. and they have survived the results of those labours. is erected on the site of a sacred edifice bearing the same name. 1390. in the place of Perun's temple.SOUTH RUSSIA. stands in a chapel dedicated to St. Vladimir. and the ancient structure has in reality been preserved only where we also find internally some in the centre of the existing mass. 989 by Greek artists and artisans.' The tomb of Yaroslaf. Some of their beautiful mosaics remnants of the work of Byzantine artists. and thoroughly restored in 1826. whose priests are depicted on the pillars that support the dome. on the stall. founded in A. although consecrated only in 1842. Above the Metropolitan's stall are figures in mosaic of Byzantine prelates of the third and fourth centuries. 1 The Lithuanian Perkiin. the above Equally interesting Metropolitan's hemispherical vaulting are the Greek frescoes on the wall-supports and partly in the upper galleries. The Uniat Faith is spreading among the Slavs of A us tro. containing the principal official and other residences. Basil. which in early ages contained chapels. and in a lower tier. mosaic floor in front of the principal altar belonged to the original church.Hungary and the Balkan peninsula. its adherents having been re-united to the Russo-Greek Church by official 2 conversion and 'administrative measures. This edifice is only erected a Christian church dedicated to St. to wean the Ruthenian or South Catholicism Roman made by attempt Russo-Greek Russian peasantry from the Church. Church of St. who. Tartars. Tithes Church. is between the Pechersk the latter was quarter and the Old Town. 1017. This. with the relics of a Metropolitan who was decapitated by the Tartars in 1497. is among the principal treasures of St. ritus Greed]. which. wearing the These effigies bear witness to the Catholic tonsure and with shaven chins. convex surface of the figure in mosaic is that of the Virgin Mary.U. repaired 1385 a reduced copy of the Its original form and renovated once more in 1850. enclosed within earthen ramparts anciently the site of the Pagan Pantheon from which Perun (or Jupiter) was . The best part of the city. Sophia.

for his grace addressed a letter of congratulation. Early in spring. For a view of the Podol quarter we must repair to the terrace of the Church of St. . Andrew. Andrew. Greek Church that took place at Kief in July. It is easy among such surroundings and such memories to realise the of the spectacle great gathering of the prelates and priests of the Russoand of the Eastern Churches in close communication with it. the ruins Ill of St. ' of the Pechersk quarter of the city. Vladimir. Approached from the east. Pecherskaya Monastery. or the first in rank in and the most Lavra. the first shall hereafter shine cross seen in Russia.' To the right we now see the gilt domes of the Bratski Monastery. and at once arrest attention from We en mention passant that the huge arsenal which the fortress shelters supplies all the troops in South Russia with arms. ancient in origin (1055). 1888.132 RUSSIAN PICTURES. with seven gilt cupolas. Anthony and St. The monastery is entered by a gate ornamented with frescoes of St. with only the head. and an Orthodox Ecclesiastical Academy. Its principal cathedral. and one for which the city is well worth visiting. when the Dnieper huge assumes in front of Kief the dimensions of a vast lake. in which also regret was expressed that. of These are now deposited under a block of grey marble within the latter the new church. flanked by the cells of the brotherhood. and God shall cause forth the grace of God many churches to rise within it.' We have left to the last our mention of the most interesting sight in This is the Kief. sympathy. and standing on the spot on which St. owing to an assembly in London of the Universal Episcopate of the Anglican Church. is reached by a fine avenue of trees. on the occasion of the celebration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to Even the Archbishop of Canterbury was present in the spirit. the Apostle of Greece and of Scythia. in 1 744. enclosed within the immense fortress that crowns ' . Theodosius. planted. Christianity. it had been found impossible to send a bishop to Kief to represent the Church of England. the view from St. Russia. the first two abbots. and is intended to serve as a basis of operations. brought into strong gilt relief by the massive fortress walls and bastions. have a strikingly picturesque almost every part of Kief. Andrew's terrace is more than ordinarily striking. in the South of Russia. the and coloured and of domes the spires monastery. while its barracks are capable of accomKief is the most important strategical point modating thirty thousand men. The belfry alongside is more than three hundred the hill . which was while on the left are the shining cupolas of the formerly a Jesuit College for Ascension Convent Women. and goodwill to the Metropolitan of Kief. built in the elegant proportions of the style of Louis XV. according to an ancient legend. predicting that on hills about there shall be a great city. with a handsome cathedral built by Mazeppa for the use of the Uniats. were found the tomb. effect.

which the cathedral claims to hold in a side chapel. Theodosius. the style of architecture is neither elegant high nor imposing. in river-bank. 133 internally. Vladimir. Anthony and St. in the shape of ikons. The richly-decorated ceiling is scarcely seen . although the veritable tomb which contained vessels. and the ancient stalls of the monks perpetuate its somewhat Roman Catholic appearance. sacristies have been described that we must pass over the many already light even by the of the innumerable tapers which are treasures of the Pechersk Monastery. and pectoral crosses of great value and religious interest. church THE PECHERSK MONASTERY AT KIEF. of its The monastery owes excavated part celebrity and of its revenues to the neighbouring catacombs of St. and who are So certainly not fewer than two hundred thousand in number each year. and . kept constantly burning by pilgrims who come from every part of the empire. the limestone of the high They extend a considerable distance in passages blackened by the torches of visitors. An object of special veneration is the true head of St. it is undoubtedly in the Tithes Church of which the principal we have spoken.SOUTH feet RUSSIA. however. chasubles.

they are not held in equal we find here also the remains of ten monks selves ' veneration. its founder. with palls of cloth and silk their mummified hands are so placed pilgrims. Theodosius. by girder bridge constructed by a Russian engineer. Kharkof became the capital of the Ukraine. 6755 feet in length. Nevertheless. In proximity to it is the splendid Mr. until they died. lies in the first catacomb. and in that posture body Other ancient catacombs have recently been discovered under the city Numerous itself. but their origin and history have not yet been ascertained. through the small windows from which we turn away with a shudder. largely produced in this part of Russia from beetroot and bounty-fed. between these primitive works of man and the achievements of the skill and labour of the nineteenth century. and of its connection by rail with the shores of the Baltic and those of the In 1/65. with South Russia. as they believed. down even to the Caucasus. the annalist. typified in the two grand bridges by which the Dnieper is spanned close to Kief! The Nicholas Suspension Bridge. Englishman. brandy. The catacombs of St. Anthony. are largely sold at the five fairs held each year at Kharkof. and as they contain only forty-six bodies (the others have seventy-three) of departed saints of a secondary order. and the Christian character of also remains. the interments is evidenced by the pectoral crosses that have come to light. when Poland finally seat of trade population of 160. Sugar. open coffins. principal to the east in of Kief. died from his neck for some months . which has also reason to be proud of its university with upwards of six hundred students.000. is exhibited who. human remains and coffins have been found in them. are on a smaller scale. Nestor. is considered to be It was built between 1848 and 1855 a noble monument of engineering art. in fulfilment of a vow of continence.I 34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Charles an Vignolles. in ' martyr being buried almost up to his still who had immured themOne order. after having been a Cossack outpost town since 1647. on either side of which lie worked in gold and silver for the intercession of the sin. at the extreme end of the gallery. for as to be able to receive the devotional In kisses of the who individually apply distinct saint most renowned removing some one cell are the remains of eleven 'martyrs/ who besetting and one and the same time immured themselves in it. Kharkof. saints in . and at voluntarily took food. of Northern and Central Russia are spread products throughout the provinces to the east and south. to gain the kingdom of heaven. and We are shown St. is the being a centre from which the a and manufactures ' . to the south of those of St. Black and Azof Seas. over which the railway What a contrast passes. Anthony.' and corn. his small chapel and the cell in which he passed the last fifteen years of his life without breathing the fresh air. wool and hides from the central provinces.

of stone which we have seen in the Historical Museum at Moscow. a bronze statue which represents . principally in wool. and cattle. almost with concealed Dnieper. also a place of extensive trade. 135 ceded the province to Muscovy. which have yielded coins establishing the fact of an early intercourse both with Rome and Arabia. particularly of the Khazars. King Stanislaus Augustus Poland and a brilliant suite. by Peter the Great in 1 709. descending of barge accompanied by Joseph II. and a vast number of tumuli. On that occasion she laid the first stone of a cathedral which was not destined to be completed on the imposing scale she had projected. Poltava. raised it to the dignity of a town bearing her own name. consecrated only in 1835. of Austria. The centre of the field so disastrous to the THE KAI'I I. this was the camping-ground of nomadic tribes.. Anciently. is familiar to us in connection with the defeat of Charles XII.K or POLTAVA. and later the high road of -the Tartar invaders of Russia. Swedes is marked by a mound which covers the remains of their slain.SOUTH RUSSIA. whether from the Crimea or the shores of the In the province of Kharkof are found those remarkable idols Caspian. and which has been reduced to one-sixth in the edifice that was The town consists of only one row of buildings. At Ekaterinoslaf we are again on the great Dnieper. It was only a the river from Kief in a stately village when Catherine II. in gardens and the Catherine's running for nearly three miles parallel Palace. horses. Two monuments commemorate the victory.

tion of Admiral Samuel Greig. and to be buried in a hole under. with the aid of some equally gallant countrymen. according to his last wish. over his grave is a block of marble surmounted by a sun-dial. We now follow the route taken by Catherine II. in her clad Roman armour and crowned. Alios Salvos Fecit. the Emperor Paul. son of the admiral of Scotch parentage who. he caught a cold. over forty miles of steppe. huddled together the bazaar. marked by a tombstone of white Church of the Assumption is a simple obelisk.' died and was buried in a village about four miles north of the month of November. Nicolaef is the handsomest as this Russia. brings those who do not proceed by steamer to the great naval station and commercial port of Nicolaef. somewhat relieved in its monotony by numerous ancient tumuli. temporarily neglected by the naval claim to that proud position after the fall town in New in 1769.the floor of the crypt. or Ingul with the Bug. the ' inscription 1790. Catherine 'Dedicated to the Saviour of the human race by Catherine II. Nicolaef re-asserted its It owes much of its present affluence to the sound administraof Sevastopol. Ouisquis Amici.' is : Johannes Howard.136 RUSSIAN PICTURES. with a sun-dial on one face and a portrait-medallion on the An inscription on it in Russian and Latin tells us that Howard other. Ad Sepulchrum Stas. but her son. Nicholas. on which are abiding-place. painted blue and red. is its Jewish population. to Kherson. drive 1 settlement. in the 65th year of his age the ' recorded his principal achievements. in the year 1790. and es. Within a high circular wall near The great English Vixit propter Alios. on which typhus fever supervened. striking feature of which. in 1787. and in 789 it received its present appellation in commemoration of the capture of Otchakof from the Turks on the feastDestined from the first by Potemkin to be the harbour day of St. and the garden of her magnificent Prince Potemkin. at the delta of the Dnieper. the founder of the town. he set out from Kherson on philanthropist In Kherson. Prince Potemkin. number of she caused to be inscribed in Slavonic over the Cathedral of St. constitute the sights of Ekaterinoslaf. from which they were again disinterred in 1874. A fortified of a Russian fleet in the Black authorities. Being lightly The monument clad. horseback to visit a lady at some distance on the banks of the Dnieper. and restored to a more fitting marble. ordered the remains to : be exhumed. was buried in this cathedral in 1791. part of the country was called after its conquest Chesme . and the Ekaterinoslaf Prospect is dotted with their stands and their moneychests. the more favourite.' By her directions. Next to Odessa. at the junction of the It was the site until 1775 of a Cossack setch. won for the Russians the naval battle of Sea. 1 789. and descend In commemoration of her visit. however. died on the 2oth January. considerable in a special quarter between the river and ' ' A them pursue the favourite Jewish occupation of money -changing.

British shipping is chiefly . is the most considerable. 1. as at Nicolaef. greatly promoted by the railway. has been connects this important harbour of with Kharkof and other rich agricultural centres.SOUTH from the RUSSIA. which now mostly in grain. about five millions sterling. The annual value of its exports of corn. Taganrog. Of the six ports on the neighbouring Sea Azof. I. where A NOGAI TARTAR. wool. and.37 Turks and Tartars. Its large trade. &c. owing to the shallowness of roadstead. although steamers have at a considerable distance from it. tallow. Alexander to anchor the is died in 1825..

immunities were later granted to the city. was founded in 1804. received in Various privileges and 1 795 its present modernized name of Odessa. Much of the produce shipped here comes from Rostof on the Don. when confirmed. A short distance above this great mart is Novocherkask. Catherine II. employed in the trade. Khazars and Tartars. the capital of the Country ' of the Cossacks.138 RUSSIAK PICTURES. the La Hadji-Bey and the whole of the Turkish provinces of Otchakof were annexed to the Russian empire. open-air or Odessa on the Black Sea of is the Odessns AN ITINERANT SHOEMAKER. Huns. when renegades from Muscovy and vag- rants of every description formed themselves into Cossack or robber communities.' Emperor in 1887. The present population Don dates from the sixteenth century. in virtue of the Treaty of Jassy. Sarmatians.' anciently the abode of Scythians. whom they powerfully assisted The town subsequent wars. and one in which many industries (especially the manipulation of tobacco grown in the Caucasus and the Crimea) are pursued. peopled mostly by Greeks and Albanians.) to construct a town and harbour. Hadji-Bey of the Turks. the chief centre of inland trade in the south-east provinces of Russia. an d is adorned with in a bronze monument or chief) to the Platof. famous Hetman leader (Ataman of the Cossacks between 1/70 and 1816. It is usual to bestow on the Russian heir-apparent the Cossacks. which. Until the reign of Peter the Great the powerful and independent Cossacks were not much interfered with. Ginestra of the and the Genoese. title of ' Ataman ' of the Don the The last investiture with Cossack baton 1 took place also the reigning circle. It was not until 1791 that the fortress of the Greeks. but it owes its present prosperity . but from 1718 they were gradually brought under subjection to the Tsar. Bolgars. at a assemblage. and in 1637 took the Turkish fortress of Azof. employed the Neapolitan De Ribas and the Frenchman De Volante (both in her military sen-ice. all the ancient rights and privileges of the warlike Cossacks of the Don. They attacked the Tartars and Turks.

devoid of any vegetation beyond a few shrubs and sickly acacias. however. a French emigrf. least fifteen Their crews 1875 by reacling-room. Greek and Jewish sharpness that prevails at Odessa has not on the whole been favourable to the employment of foreign The Greek element has. to the disabilities under which the made for the be should allowance Jews have so long struggled in Russia. affairs. carried on with great vigour and enlightenment the works of construction and improvement thanks Under such advantages contemplated by his foreign predecessors. in the following . Odessa has now an atmosphere pure and bright. 139 to the talents and energy of the Duke Emanuel de Richelieu. the Duke of Edinburgh. being carefully filtered. and ample means of quenching thirst thanks to the expenditure of over a million pounds sterling by the British still holders are Odessa Waterworks Company. power city. only a secondary influence in the capital. is hundred steamers. trees and gardens of great beauty. as they did in days long gone by in England and in other countries to which they resorted. a chartered a notice certain in body in the sea-bathing put up by years ago. whose suffering sharewailing over the unprofitable (to them) investment of so much is hard cash. ' : The notice was words No clogs or Jews are allowed to bathe here.' It is much to be desired that a more sober and correct view in regard and that clue Israelite community at Odessa should supervene. also a Frenchman.SOUTH chiefly RUSSIA. H. Limited. who became its first governor in 1803. rendered secure by a breakwater initiated or designed by Sir Charles Hartley. Nor is the ' ' establishment of which it contrived to dispossess the municipality. baiting likely to disappear under the This culminated. not many that community are periodically subject. we are not surprised to find that Odessa has developed into a handsome city of South European aspect. established in patronage of H. Eleven years later. city residence at Odessa as Governor-General of New Russia.R. after The water administration of local the although it prevails in the great export trade of In of the Jews so considerable as it once was. in a great measure to the privileges of a free port. the population It is now 240. and with an export trade now valued at ten Its splendid millions sterling. thirty miles distant. with no small advantage to the states in which they were permitted to become free citizens and loyal subjects. to which the members of it is fact. enjoyed by the Prince Woronzoff. who in 1823 took up his between 1817 and 1857. and dependent for its supply of water upon rain-tanks and a few brackish springs. harbour. through thirty-inch pipes. The combination of Russian. Formerly enveloped in clouds of fine dust. and under the annually visited by at under the British flag. of which one-half are have the advantage of an institute and Consul-General Stanley. when he was succeeded by Count Langeron. brought from the Dnieper. of Odessa had grown from nine to twenty-five thousand.000.

journey over the Crimea and the Caucasus the subject The Crimea has a special interest for Englishmen of this generation. customs and religion. although all it many diversities human are brought into near contact. ST. CHAPTER THE CRIMEA AND is VIII. for Russia's network of railways. In those days the Crimea was a somewhat distant land whereas we may now pack up our traps and set foot at Sevastopol on the sixth day after leaving Charing Cross. largely teeming with corn.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. except where the Tauric range. and government. from the of its extension over so an almost boundless of the expanse of race level and yet. subject to similar rule may be said. CAUCASUS. as we shall discover in our observing their of this chapter. even though studiously strategic. to a cir- THERE homogeneity cumstance territory . Like that part of the Russian continent with which r connected by the narrow isthmus of Perecop. speaking their own tongue and own been engaged with a great European power. it is . OF THE TENTH OR ELEVENTH CENTURY IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. PETERSBURG. no portion of the of surface of the globe more adapted mankind than the Russian empire. energetically proceeded w ith throughout the empire. consisting of about nine thousand square miles. is one vast steppe. while many of its incidents must be fresh in the memory of the middle-aged. from its having been the battle-field of the last war in which England has many continue to live. is being . still do apart. extending over a distance of forty-five miles. the Crimean peninsula.

. PETER.=" 3>C -~ - J MOUNT ST. CRIMEA.

.

Starting from Balaclava. juniper. which begins in April and continues to Excellent carriages and good saddle-horses facilitate excursions . and cornfields with green hedges. the as the Countess de la Mothe. Woronzoff possession of life. an altitude of three thousand to four thousand feet. Alupka. Countess Guacher. At Yalta we are in the most fashionable watering-place in the South of Russia. and the fir and beech which attain a very large size. and violet. concerned The residences of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. this valley the road leads over a spur Gate. poplar. in the affair of the diamond necklace of Marie Antoinette. oak.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. at the first west pass extreme of the the range. the road is brinks. the seat of the late Prince Woronzoff. Baidar the towards the Baidar one of the grandest that it is possible to a offered combination of mountain. at Livadia. and beautiful region in close proximity to the sea. the indigenous trees comprising the Tauric pine. sights by In front rise the bold cliff. at which point there suddenly bursts on the view From and there from fissures in the rocks strike forth again the and or the beech. during the bathing-season. The first genuine Tartar village is Kikeneis. and the banks are seen covered with the of the valley.. sturdy pines and junipers looking like tufts of verdure as they overhang the perilous scape. conceive. and Mishor. crocus . to the inhabitants on the declivities that slope to the sea a of the and prolific Riviera. in the reign of Alexander I. its comfortable hotels and luxurious clubs attracting the wealthy from for the all parts November. and sweet-pea. elm. lorded over the Ai Petri precipitous heights by majestic (St. who was publicly whipped for being stances. lilies geranium and orchids. while here constructed through a wealth of vegetation. where two Wellingtonife gigantece planted in 1869 by the Prince and Princess of Wales are shown. shaping the most fantastic of sea-boards. which afforded so we many good through valley. none attractive in their architecture. a place to which three ladies repaired. the peonia. Here the Tartar villages lie embosomed in the midst of truly lovely scenery. under different circumladies. brooks. yew. where the irregular declivities pine juniper project into the sea. embedded in the midst of sumptuous cultivation and as we proceed. even some of the luxuries things. but all surrounded by perfectly fascinating scenery. and of the Emperor. One of those purpose of converting the Tartars to Christianity. The cypress and magnolia are beautiful in their development. we from time to time pass masses of gigantic blocks of granite thrown up at various periods by the convulsions of Nature. are seen from the road. with vegetation varied suggestive 143 and rising to ensures climate beyond by the description. was better known. veronica. Peter). ash. copses. reminding one much of an English land- ot (carriage) road. and beyond is Gaspra. Lower down. are within a few miles of each other. with luscious pastures. to our beleaguering troops. maple.

144

RUSSIAN PICTURES.

up the smiling valleys, horsemen being enabled to visit the interior of the Yalta is peninsula by crossing the passes above Derekyuy or Uchan-su. the westernmost point of the wine-growing district, which includes Massandra, Partenite, where is a church of the eighth century, Gurzuf. and Alushta at the eastern end of the range, from which village the carriage-road turns sharp away from the coast, and leads direct to Simpheropol, the capital. The Russians are very proud of the wines grown on these shores, but connoisseurs prefer the wines of France and Germany. The yield, including the produce

YALTA.

of

Sudak on another
and

million gallons,

part of the coast, consists of Bordeaux,

amounts annually to about three Burgundies, Hocks, Madeira, and

some sweet wines
times have nations fought for, and disputed, the narrow classic as the scene of the strip of territory possession wanderings of Ulysses because of the golden harvests to be gathered from over the hills, and of its own even temperature. History asserts that the
the
earliest

From

of

this

THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
Cimmerians were the first inhabitants of whom so little is known they were succeeded by the Tauri replaced, seven centuries before the
; ;

145

that
birth

of

Christ,

by

Grecian
centuries,

colonists,

who

supplied their

barren

mother-country,
'

from what had become known as the granary of Greece.' Then came the Huns, who were succeeded by the Goths, the earliest Christian settlers, and they held possession until the proud Republic of Genoa sent forth her galleys laden with men and arms to seize, if
during several
possible,

upon so
forming

fair

a

land.

In

1265

the

Italians

occupied

Theodosia,

then
the

known
coast,

as Caffa,

and

settlements, appointing

subsequently every other point of vantage along consuls or governors, establishing

r*M .,.,jji &
'

>

'

V
**4T'

INKERMANN.

an extensive and powerful hierarchy, and at the same time constructing those Sudak, Theodosia, and Balaclava, of which splendid defences at excite the of every passing traveller. to admiration remain enough to the south coast for the benefit of sea-bathing Visitors who throng travel by rail to Simpheropol, the chief town, and thence continue their
journey either
alluded
fine
to,

by way of Sevastopol, or take the but the more favoured route to Alushta
;

is

carriage-road already via Odessa, where

bi-weekly steamers convey passengers to Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia, and Kertch, continuing the voyage to the ports of the Caucasus. It was near Eupatoria that the British and French forces landed, on
I4th September,
1854, not to evacuate the peninsula until July,

1856, during
L

146

RUSSIAN PICTURES.

which period were fought the decisive battles on the Alma and Chernaya, at Balaclava and on the heights of Inkermann, and the fortress of Sevastopol was evacuated after a lengthened siege and bombardment. The country between Eupatoria and Sevastopol has been compared by travellers to that around the Dead Sea, owing to its sterile and uninviting aspect, but the Saki mud baths in those parts attract numerous patients suffering from rheumatism and diseases of the skin. The Bay of Sevastopol, four miles in length and nearly one mile at its widest part, is one of the securest harbours in the world, having an almost uniform depth of ten fathoms. The handsome town which stood on the of hill and the extended to the water's edge, was completely destroyed slope during the war, and has only of late years commenced to recover from its calamities, for it has again been decreed a naval, military, and commercial port and station, while the railway gives an immense impetus to export trade. The hotels are good, and guides are obtainable for visiting the sites of the several camps, batteries, and battle-fields, which, in a few years, will be inaccessible to the traveller, by reason of those localities becoming
enclosed within
the

proposed

new

lines

of

defence.

As

the warriors

fell

during the siege, they were laid within small enclosures inside the divisions and batteries of attack and defence in which they were serving, so that

when

evacuated by the contending parties it was seen to be dotted with numberless cemeteries, of which one hundred and twenty-six were inside the British lines. The Russians and French early availed themselves of facilities afforded for removing their dead to grounds

the land was

and raising to their memory mausoleums which remain objects of veneration, even to the destructive Tartar herdsmen, who persisted, year after year, in inflicting every kind of damage upon the memorials of our own dead until at length the reproaches of travellers of all nations and creeds stirred to action a small body of Englishmen,
specially set apart for the purpose,
;

with supported by the Prince of Wales monuments have been removed from the
;

the

result

that

all

our soundest

cemetery, called Cathcart's, after Inkermann the walls of the old
;

scattered enclosures to the largest the gallant officer of that name who fell at

are levelled, and the graves covered with two to three feet of earth, so that in a few years the very sites

enclosures

will

be forgotten.
'

Who

After a length of time the lab'ring swains, turn the turf of those unhappy plains,

Shall rusty piles from the ploughed furrows take. * * * * * *

Amazed at antique titles on the stones And mighty relics of gigantic bones.'

by

Quite near to Sevastopol stood the ancient city, Khersonesus, founded Grecian colonists seven centuries before Christ, and of whom it is

THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
recorded
that

147

they

preserved

their independence,

and owed

their prosperity

state of civilisation during the space of one thousand years to the free institutions they enjoyed, and to competence for self-government. This

and high

became city to enjoy its
ditions

a

own

Russian Prince
of
his

empire, continuing, however, until taken municipal institutions, by siege by the Vladimir, who restored it to the empire as one of the conreceiving
the

dependency

of the

Eastern

Emperor's

sister

embraced
to

be seen

Christianity and built the church, the in the crypt of the cathedral lately

Vladimir marriage. foundations of which are
in

completed.

Strabo

men-

THE CATHEDRAL OF

ST.

VLADIMIR, RECENTLY COMPLETED AT KHERSONESUS.

tions

Khersonesus as

being a flourishing city

in

his

features of its neighbourhood exquisite detail the is the student able to verify with extraordinary minuteness so that coasts, most exact of geographers, and fix the graphic delineation of that

day, and describes in and of the adjoining

with

tolerable

accuracy

upon the

sites

so delightfully illustrated by honest

Herodotus.
In the Eight miles from Khersonesus, says Strabo, is Symvolon-limen. is mentioned as but it the of we it as the know Odyssey port Lsestrigons,
Balaclava,

now

so

familiar

to

English

ears

!

A

beautifully

secure
L 2

lancl-

the last capital of the thirty of the largest towns inhabited entirely by Tartars. and at all times willing to welcome the belated or worn-out traveller. In their cottages the women's apartments are on an upper story. but nearly every vestige The inhabitants. nevertheless the females do not retain their good looks in adult whilst the practice line. upon which are spread reclining mattresses and bolsters in satin or velvet. affluent are These Tartars are very indolent. the cooking department and guest-chamber apart on the being ground floor. because the larger the display. and coverlets richly embroidered in gold. the latter freely decorated with an abundance of towels embroidered in gold. and the females are not in the habit of holding monogamists. Some of the Genoese defences of the British fourteenth century remain. or nobles. are Greeks. George.and toe-nails. and never think of learning a trade they work in their gardens and orchards from the end of May to the third week in August. The road from haddock. although intercourse with others. . they are. war are shown by the monks with unaffected satisfaction. the cleanly more In the supposed to be the circumstances of the inmates.. should occasion arise. etc.148 RUSSIAN PICTURES. houses of the mnrzas. but equally removed from the fanaticism of Mahometanism. . and of England too. for the the during remembrance of that lady Sevastopol is Khans. obelisk in the tenth century. since it was the only port oi debarkation for all our materiel of war. the plain which was the scene of the famous cavalry charge under Lord Cardigan. bream. stricter is Sunnites than their co-religionists on the south coast. and the of the sole safe haven for our shipping. and for the rest of the year they remain idle. their staining certainly not to and advantage. the delight of the ancients. For instance. of the Genoese. they do not wear the yashmak. and well furnished with mattresses and pillows of every hue. now marked by an and a branch road to the right leads to the Monastery of St. and one respectfully preserved. as everywhere else on the occupation has disappeared. Their children are fair to look upon age. or silk. that lies ensconced amidst luxuriant gardens founded and vineyards reaching to the sea. is of dyeing and uniting their eyebrows with a straight dark their finger. during which period it is agreed among them that no festivities shall take place. and occasionally their teeth. nor do they hesitate to receive aliens in their houses. miles from Bakhchisarai. or veil. mackerel. the floors are covered with expensive Turkey carpets. and a species of pilchard. entirely from those of the men. here engaged in the pursuit of fishing and salting their gains for import the sea at this part abounding in turbot. are They hospitable. Sevastopol to Balaclava almost skirts. as a rule. . shores of the Black Sea. its inviting situation presenting a very . locked harbour. different aspect to the sterile surroundings north of the cliff by which it is The apartments that were occupied by Florence Nightingale sheltered. silver. on the left.

THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.

149

be married, he goes about for three days with a handkerchief over his head, so placed as to conceal his face, for he is a man ami the bride during that same period remains with shame
a Tartar
is

When

engaged
' ;

to

'

screened off
body. mother's
to

On

in a darkened room, quite ready to sob if spoken to by anythe wedding-day, the bride, closely veiled, takes her place at her side in a carriage, a pile of gaily-coloured handkerchiefs being on
is

the seats in front, one of which

given by the mother as a wedding favour
;

any

friend

who may approach

it moves left arm, along, in which that in other the relatives carriages following silently, turn out a the is the bride. Should the procession pass through people village, and stretch a rope across the road, as is the custom in the Vosges, and

the kerchief round his

to offer his congratulations and joins the procession as

that friend ties

slowly and

but there is no spirit in the procompel the bride to pay her footing And when the not one merry shout ceedings, no fun, no cheering, no bride finally alights at the door of her future home, she is seized by a crowd of women who are in waiting, and dragged or even carried into the house and de.'/.mi. ^j :.\l rA v \ j liverecl to the 'happy man,' after which
'
; !
'

'

'*'--'

:

l

-'.

exciting, but

still

immediately had assembled. Bakhchisarai
work, useful
it

noiseless scene, the guests disperse as silently as they
is

famed

for

its

leather-

and ornamental,
the
entire
to

with

which
for

supplies Tartar continues
in

peninsula,

the^

his tastes,

be very remaining perfectly indifferent
conservative
A TARTAR BRIDE AND BRIDEGROOM.

every description of improvement intro duced from without, whether in manuto

factures

or
to

in

continue
trappings, centuries.
his native
at

see

etc.,

and so we agriculture the same kind of shoes or slippers, belts, cushions, horseas have been in use amongst this people during many
;

The Tartar does not despise even cutlery, now also manufactured at

the old flint-lock gun, and prefers Bakhchisarai, but formerly made

as

Karasu-bazar, a place which, in its prosperity, used to turn out as many 400,000 sword blades annually, chiefly for use in the Khan's army, but also for export to the Caucasus. The great attractions of Bakhchisarai are the places of interest within
Jews' fortress,' on the easy distance, such, for instance, as Chufut-Kaleh, summit of a rock, said to have been a stronghold since 460 B.C., and the cradle of the Karaim, a sect of Israelites opposed to the Talmudist Jews, by whom they are looked upon as heretics. The Karaim reject all tradition and Rabbinical writings, adhering solely to the Old Testament, whence
'

RUSSIAN PICTURES.
their

of
in

Karaim, or readers readers of Holy Writ the plural designation, Kara, a reader. They esteem the high moral teaching of Jesus Christ,

no part, accusing more they took but they look for of having shed innocent blood especially the Pharisees the coming of the Messiah from the house of David, and for the rebuilding The Karaim are energetic and industrious, and hold the of the Temple.

whose

crucifixion,

they

assert,

;

where they number about 5000. Their largest part of trade in the Crimea, as much as thou wouldest, desire that do canst not 'If thou is precept
:

thou mayest do as much

as

thou art able to perform.'

The Karaim

elate

BAKHCHISARAI.

the foundation of their sect from the period of the Maccabees, in the second of the century B.C., when traditional lore was introduced to the prejudice books of Moses but, according to the Rabbinists, who form the larger
;

section

of Jews, their reputed founder was one Anan-ben-David (Hannassy), Anan of the race of Betzur, in the eighth century of the Christian era. the since ever has been which a at erected great Jerusalem, synagogue Such centre of the Karaim, who acknowledge his successors as their head.
of

the
;

Karaim
those
in

as

are

scattered

about

the
in

south

of

Russia
in

speak

the
their

Tartar

Turkey hold

intercourse

Greek, and

Egypt

THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
language
is

151

It is computed that there are from 50,000 to 60,000 Karaim in various parts of the globe. At the foot of the is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, a Jews' fortress

the Arabic.

'

'

cemetery of great antiquity, in which every Karai'm would wish to be buried, and wherein is pointed out, with pride, the grave of Isaac Sangaris (A.D. The countless tomb-stones 767), who converted the Khazars to Judaism.
are very varied in form, some being in the shape of a sarcophagus, others like coffins or kysts, but the more remarkable are finished off with head

and foot

excavations

itself is pierced with a number of Katch-kalen, Cherkess-kerman, etc., provided, with reclining places, corn-pits, water-tanks, chimneys and other conveniences formed out of the solid rock originally, in all probability, together with similar the The more numerous localities, many dwellings of the wild Tauri. of these cave habitations are at Tepe-kerman, but the more remarkable are

stones.

High

up,

the

rock
at

like

others

;

near the summit of Mangup, where one chamber measures twenty-one feet by seventeen feet. The citadel of Mangup was
the

residence

principal defence of the Goths of their prince, within its

;

and of the
limits

there

still remains standing a wall, believed to be of the fifteenth century. Near Bakhchisarai are two pillars of calcareous rock of striking appearance, a liisns natures. The

Tartars
fled

say

that

her village, her daughter pursued her to bring her back, when suddenly the would-be apostate was turned to stone for wishing to desert the true faith,
;

was once a woman who desiring to become a Christian
there

that

whereupon the daughter, herself became petrified
!

amazed

at

the

sight,

A KARAJ'M JEW.

Travelling in the Crimea, as in all steppe country, is dreary work, for the beds of the larger water-courses they cannot be called rivers are almost arid, not presenting even the appearance of those
in

summer and autumn

verdant meandering lines exhibited by the prolific orchards on the banks of such smaller streams as the Alma and Belbek, orchards from which Russia
annually supplied with a large variety of most excellent apples and pears In these streams are taken trout, something like ,200,000. roach, and dace, and salmon are speared at their estuaries, cray-fish being
is

to the value of

also abundant, but chiefly in pools and ponds. bustard, attains a large size and is in great

The

bird of the
is

steppe, the

profoundly of his mortal him rifle and who has to stalk with bullet man, shy enemy, unless he prefers milder sport such as quails, pigeons, snipe, and partridges, all plentiful enough in season, as are many kinds of waterfowl on the coast, especially to the north-east and north-west.
;

demand, but he

152

RUSSIAN PICTURES.

When
was a

the

capital,

wretched village Stary-Krim, in the east of the peninsula, called Solghat, that could count 100,000 men on a war

at Ak-mesjid, now Simpheropol, the chief town footing, the viceroy resided has become the neutral ground of Russian, It and seat of government

Greek, Israelite, Armenian, and Tartar traders, and of gipsies, who meet here periodically over and over again, but as if they had never met before, deporting themselves with perfect indifference towards each other, scarcely exchanging a nod of recognition as they jostle one another in the crowded bent market-place or bazars, and avoiding all mutual intercourse, but each on the hardest possible bargain with his neighbour. Occasionally, a
driving

German
is

colonist

makes
in

straightforward

his appearance, his dealings, not

more reserved than the

rest,

but

he

boisterous, setting value upon time, and if not respected he is at least

town, the chief and central mart, roads converge from every part of the peninsula, its caravans of double-humped camels, where the railway has not yet been
feared.
this

To

introduced, being in constant communication with the south coast and

Kertch, the city and fortress at the extreme eastern point of the Crimea, where we must now hasten as being our port of embarkation for the Caucasus, of which there is so much

having regard to its extent and the interest ever excited by that
to say,

fascinating land. Kertch, as
ENTRANCE TO THE TOMB OK A SCYTHIAN KING, NEAR
KERTCH.

elsewhere

in

the

peninsula, has a remarkable history,

like something time the from twenty-four centuries, when it first received a name that of Panticapceum to the clay when a handful of the allied forces effected a landing in 1855, to occupy and to hold! A unique feature in its neighbourhood are the countless barrows that extend in every direction dismal-looking hillocks, the silent and imperishable monuments

extending

over

wealthy people, who, after they laid their dead, These tumuli or barrows vary in size, and thus piled the earth over them. hundred feet in one of the some when, largest, measuring one years ago, direction height and one hundred and fifty feet in diameter, was explored by of the Russian Government, it was discovered to be the tomb of a Scythian us by scrupulous left to king, verifying in every particular the account Herodotus, who relates that when a king died, his wife and attendants were
of

an ancient, great,

and

whose labours. perhaps by Venetian colonists in the fifteenth century.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and recovered out of this very sepulchre. will queen. was not to keep it. upon the supplication of that monarch that he might be defended against his enemies. the complete subjugation far from it. that they might be laid in his tomb. recognized by the golden wreaths that had adorned their brows. his weapons. and the vessels of gold. together with himself. happy and of vegetation O habitations in various stages of decay. however. of horses and It has been already noted on golden vessels. confirmed the annexation of his dominions to Russia The To possess Georgia. and oppression was of Circassians to seek expatriation to Turkey. to wit. year after year. conciliated Conciliation. nation's will. where tracts of once cultivated now present the distressing sight of tangled growths homes. St. that were bronze. when he discovers. in search of treasure. the same stubborn resistance. at some early period. after extensive and toilsome cuttings. Interspersed human German . The result denuded condition of Circassia. But besides the tombs of kings. that visitors their trappings. though outwardly restored. was out of the and so the question. carefully preserved. electrum. excavations are conducted during two or three months every year by a member of the Archaeological Commission of St. 153 strangled and his horses killed. the superb Kertch gallery at the Hermitage. however. page 33. that the tombs have been rirled. the brave mountaineers offering. and a profusion of exquisite golden ornaments and trinkets. the country into which is we perceptible in the are first about to pass after crossing lands. as is known. a name that vies in its antiquity Panticapaeum. protection afforded by the Emperor Alexander I. and bid farewell to the Crimea. etc. of attendants. ceded as it had been against the 1799. unless the seventy nations spoken of by in ' ' Strabo as holding the fastnesses in the o great mountain chain were either or subdued. with the Straits of Kertch. silver. Circassia oppression which drove no less than 250. J O and are here there with the some natives that remain. to the King of Georgia. that not until the year he was able to announce to the 1863 did the 'the commander-in-chief feel that Emperor But the country was not pacified Caucasus. find therein. it was soon discovered. warriors. rendering abortive many a campaign. Petersburg. who. the remains of the king and to attention to the number shore of opening of tumuli tumuli around Kertch. those of victors. disputing each acre of ground with so much <_ tenacity. of which we now take leave.000 of four tribes of . many of which are pronounced to be the most perfect specimens in These of the high condition of art Greece in those early times. fourfold they appear Large as is the on the opposite with the lasting necropolis of Phanagoria. directed their Petersburg. are sometimes attended with the most unsatisfactory results. and priestesses have been brought to light.' resorted to chiefly in the more accessible and densely-populated territory. process of subjection was shortly commenced.

tongue has never been forgotten by them. treatment of animals. subsequently known as the Catherine mistrusted their power and influence. sheep-skin hat finished slung off at its summit with a piece of coloured cloth completes the costume. their cattle now ? They are steady and not . o 20. a name signifies. . the back and a tall across is man possesses. our Lord having said that He and His are not of this world and they dissent from the Orthodox Church. consists of a single-breasted but reaching almost to the ankles. of ' the Kouban gift. and they are now free to go whithersoever they will but how are these poor people to give up their homes. territory.' etc. Catherine's from having been founded by the sovereign of that name and bestowed. tightened only belt from which are suspended dagger. The number of Cossacks in Transcaucasia being very limited. the vernacular whose and to the customs of their forefathers. and tempted them to the The first service of some Kuban with o grants of land and other l privileges. maintained at half a million.154 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Russia. sectarians originally deported hither by Alexander I. and frequently pistol. Little of the is that still Russians. or Dukhobortsy. their land. who refuse to recognise any kind of temporal authority. removed from them the ban of exile. settlements. true to the orthodox faith Caucasian mountaineers.000 of those new warrior settlers consisted in barring all egress from of stations that extended first fortified line the mountains. on the Zaporogian. of the Caucasus. with whom they are not to be confounded. and specially district remarkable is for their kind The which chief town literally. by means of a ' ' where they united with the descendants of the Grebenski The predominant Cossacks. The dress so universally worn by the male sex.' Ekaterinodar. garment.. and sword. since God's command to Moses was in these words ' ' . chiefly as an escort to the closely at the with a a . ' on the principle that all men are equal and a monarchy unnecessary. Grebenski continuing to preserve their identity with the natives of Great and although the whole of this imposing force. the type amongst the Zaporogians to Vladikavkaz. who style themselves the Real Spiritual Christians. and a few Molokane. having on either breast a row of ten A rifle. ' : make to thyself images. good agriculturists. 'Wrestlers with the Spirit' as the name implies. The late Alexander II. each of a size to hold a cartridge. by which they mean Thou shalt images. long since Cossacks remain has adopted the dress of the even from boyhood. in in all parts like a frock-coat. whence their origin .' as ' distinguished from all others. because the true Church consists of an assemblage of such as are chosen by God to walk in the Light and Life without the use of any distinguishing signs or symbols. for a few are stationed in each principal town. in 1792. which every or twelve sockets.' From the Molokane (milk-drinkers) sprang the Uukhobortsy. together with the adjacent Black Sea Cossacks. waist. whom they indiscriminately call Worldly. trustworthy.

.

FEATS OF HORSEMANSHIP BY COSSACKS OF THE CAUCASUS. .

hospitable to strangers. . who have enjoyed from time immemorial. of being an the reputation. who constructed many churches that would have been notable specimens of Byzantine architecture. continued to be the seat of the Catholicos of Abkhasia until the twelfth century. keep up a rapid fire. the horse's fullest speed. and useful breeders of cattle. indolent and lawless race. incurably cottages their they in dot neighbours whom the given to indolence. early youth in those singular exercises and break-neck evolutions for which the Cossacks of the Caucasus have become so famous. an and trained in like manner from irregular force. every such edifice being occupied and One church.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. where we again tread classic ground. then Pityus. In a Mingrelian too. equally dashing horsemen. hyaena. Practically. his destination having Abkhases are at present heathens. Being the mother church in the Caucasus. To the south of the Circassians. at Pitzunda on converted by the latter into a military post. and plenty of smaller game. and extending some way inland irom the sea. is the principality of Mingrelia. a noble race. reached escaped the general destruction. he will to enter into proceed eastwards. they will stand on the saddle and fire all round at an or throw the body completely over to the right. Should the traveller elect range. the first amongst the Circassians blood of the they are the friendly relations with Russia to ' ' . now addicted to thieving when the opportunity is afforded them. and wolf. amongst many others. are the Abkhases. their duties . or turn clean round. has been thoroughly restored of late years. remarkable as being the place to John Chrysostom was banished at the instance of the Empress Eudoxia although the exile never strangers. inasmuch as our wanderings have brought us to the /Ea of Circe and the Argonauts. and in pursuit. but north of the great meet with the Kabardines. with the imaginary enemy fire as if at an enemy left heel resting on their steed's hind quarter. anciently given to piracy. which the coast. box. Setting their horses at full gallop. thoroughly domesticated. is to throw their hat and rirle to the ground. wheel. and pick them up whilst going at the province. The we have just quitted. and sitting astride facing the horse's tail. and is a striking object to passing vessels. for they are determinedly inimical to Their mountains abound in forests of magnificent walnut and where the enthusiastic sportsman will find the bear. landscape like we are as struck at the the aspect afforded by the numerous whitewashed Mingrelians. are making of wine from their . the Earther south. and occupying about one hundred miles of the coast in the Black Sea. Pitzuncla. Caucasus. except well-wooded hills. A favourite feat. had the Abkhases not destroyed them in their struggles against the Russians. governor of 157 are performed by Chapars. with seldom a roof to cover him other than the vault of heaven but the ordinary traveller is likely to encounter difficulties and delays that he would prefer to avoid. Christianity was here introduced by Justinian.

vineyards otherwise abundant . in drunkenness the clay ending Christianity and Svanneti by the sovereigns of Georgia as early as the tenth century. minister. the earth is thus gorgeously arrayed.' the ordination of a priesthood in 1859. although a formal submission in 1833. their orchards. and grand beyond description 4 ' . the Svanni have been to keep to the observances of the Russian Church. hill-side and grass plot are literally covered in every forest with all that is most lovely and grove. when a couple other at about to be hips their garments funerals are attached each the by the who . outside communication between the beginning of September and the end of May. and bank. They fifty occupy some forty or the Ingur. whose farther complete it they made valley of ten miles subjugation dates back no may be said than 1876. in con- sequence of the passes being blocked with The scenery in this valley. is of great beauty and wildrecent traveller. if they may be to so designated. utters a sentence two. light is Since required not obstructed. and wife or at at several villages in the valley are churches of comparatively recent date . meadow. indeed wherever the pure air of heaven and its divine . rather than preserving the property and contenting himself with a smaller income. the mourners abandon themselves to feasting in first upheld was and brawls. For or instance.I 5 8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. is the wealthiest of the dispossessed rulers : the foresight of his predecessor and his own European training having taught him the clanger of disposing of land and squandering the proceeds. They may certainly be included amongst the handsomest people in Transcaucasia. but in most their communities married. and if we ascended a journey easily accomplished on horseback. A MINGRELIAN PEASANT. continue is to officiate after ancient custom. every imaginable flower is seen in its wild state. say from to near its water-shed Sougdicli. own priests. Between Mingrelia and Abkhasia courses the Ingur. and all undergrowth even. in miles of the upper at no part exceedingare cut off from all and width. amid the ness. we should find ourselves amongst the well-known military station a very wild and singular people. and they thenceforth become man and burials. strange rites. the Svanni.' writes a snow. prolific through they are content to live on the produce of the interposition of a beneficent Providence rather than to any agricultural diligence on their part. with their The Dadian. most profuse vegetation. after the disposal of the body with over the grave. well-defined features and usually raven black hair. or prince.

they fix the skulls of animals about the fences and walls of their habitations for the purpose of warding off evil influences. and yet they will cross as a caution to trespassers. but are ever ready to a tall staff surmounted by a do commit depredations upon not They steal from strangers. been careless and doubtlessly prudent in rarely undertaking to attack the Svanni in their isolated strongholds. fully sixty feet in height. The price of a life is estimated hundred roubles. whose language is a very distinct dialect of the Georgian. the services being conducted mechanically by Russian or Georgian priests in a tongue quite unknown to the people. with which each cottage is provided. that the price of blood shall be in of the murderer has to forfeited. filling the churches with the horns as offerings. The Svanni fast on clo Wednesdays and Saturdays. but '59 they remain empty. the erect A VILLAGE IN SVANNETI. but there being no be made up in cattle or land. each other. money A very notable feature in their villages are the towers of defence. Murder is rife. equal to the amount ~o to ^80. preferring rather to leave this strange . and keep Lent without knowing why they so . life inviolable law. crime being met by the one paid or the at six circulation. used as a place of refuge in The Russians have days of feud by a member or even an entire family.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.

its annexation since that has tended in no small degree. and other of the highest peaks . the great range. another principality. and yielding with . the hills and their declivities being overspread handsome returns. corn. and the destruction of female infant life.i6o RUSSIAN PICTURES. a contingency that is certain as the result of frequent deaths through personal animosities. the birth of a female child being usually deemed a reproach to its parents. we find it bounded on the Rion. with barley. and oak the box. the ancient Phasis. a is situated from Guria. Ozurgheti. Contrary to earlier experience. to Russia in 1878. population to its own gradual extinction. intersected somewhat pestiferous but important and good roads through valleys highly cultivated with maize. which flows through the country whence was The Rion divides introduced into Europe the Phasian bird our pheasant. consideration for the property of others there is much yet to south by the River Mingrelia. recent travellers speak in more favourable terms of the but as Svanni. where Returning to Mingrelia military station and commercial port. regards their be desired. Batoum. The upper years by the members valley reason of of its the Ingur has been the brought to notice of late of our having Alpine Club become have starting-point effected the ascent in from of which Elbruz. exported in large quantities. towards the development of the resources of this beautiful country. of their feelings towards strangers. and of their hospitality Koshtan-tau.

stiffened. to great rate Khytaea. Passengers from Odessa and the Crimea landing at Batoum find the train in readiness to convey them to Tirlis. Imeritia. but interest. was the residence of the rulers who lie interred at the ancient monastery and episcopal church. which lies over the front part of the head. or velvet. through a land of much the historically and pictorially. the train travelling slowly enough. affect European assuming the bonnet or hat. On highlands of the old kingdom of Armenia. the capital of the whole of Transcaucasia. and is sometimes ornamented with gems. less frivolous. ancient at AN IMERITIAN NOBI. fifteen reached in about hours. and Kakhety. like Mingrelia and Guria. cleverly arranged. a glory. a city advantage. attractively situated. in loose folds. 161 the chief town. If so inclined. do not disdain to wear the papanaky. The natives pride themselves not a on the distinctness of their nationality. and is fastened with The headstrinofs under the chin. where he may tarry for a while may exchange. a small lozenge-shaped piece of leather. falling from it Archaeologists would delight in an inspection of what remains of the .THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. to the left is Imeritia. chiefly in Georgia. about six miles distant. M . dress generally in use amongst females of the upper classes. the traveller in the distance. and worn round the brow like a coronet it is embroidered with gold or silk thread. the main for which will take him to Kutais. beautifully situated little on the banks of the Rion. right. are the a Rion station. the chief town of the old kingdom of Imeritia. the residence of great It is the . a thin white veil. branch at line. here beauty. AN IMERITIAN LAI>V.E. not forgetful that at one period or other their dominion extended over neighbouring territories. antiquity. the men. WEARING THE of ^Etes any PAPANAKY. may be de- scribed as consisting of a narrow black velvet band. Although many of the well-to-do noted for their fashions in women. silk. Chemokmedy. of the past.

1 many The groups are ornamented with cornices. is obtainable. R. limits Beyond this pass the train stops at Gori. openings for light. and is believed to have been the burial-place of the great Queen Thamara. a restoration of the eleventh century. of a glorious while are separated by streets and lanes. viz. three thousand and and enterprise. and yet the whole has been entirely hewn Tradition is replete with incidents in the and shaped out of the solid rock. the chief seat of Government and one residence of the Governor- thousand souls. the traveller crosses the Kur over the Woronzoff Bridge.N. the romancers of Georgia. watered by the Kur and its tributaries. which having a population of about hundred of perfectly barren at once brings him to the principal street. beams and pillars. Between Kutais and TiHis is the Pass of Suram. where are situated the best From the square three hotels and restaurants. smaller dwellings and and partitions. the European. museum. tions. six miles away. native bazaars. the by which time he will have 1 The Crimea and Transcaucasia. public library. Having driven through the suburbs on his way from the railway terminus. mouldings. gymnasium. where he passes of the . is hills. would be almost uninhabitable. but which a mixture the Armenian and Byzantine. By Captain Telfer. the eleventh as cathedral. but faithful historiographers hitherto refrained from endorsing any of the tales that have been handed down by General. it were well to halt at this station for accommodation fairly good the purpose of visiting the unique rock-cut town. at an altitude of twenty-seven feet. and the National Theatre. Here is a town there can be no other designation for it conif such a term sisting of public edifices may be employed of large habitaeach being for others. reached Palace Street and Erivan Square. on the banks of which it is built. in succession the public gardens. have history of these remarkable excavations. presumably for the great. and the market-place and Russian view of the city and an interesting sight is obtained from the eminence : . main thoroughfares lead to as many separate quarters. unquestionably for water-courses. some eight miles off. Uplytz-tzykhe. Governor-General. law-courts. and the first is ever constructed of the style now accepted Georgian. . after which date it became the sepulchre of the sovereigns of Imeritia. interesting edifice is the Episcopal Church of Genath at Ghelaty. Titiis. carrying away An old and equallywith them every movable decoration of value. palace main guard-house. situated at the Since plain. The Turks destroyed it in 1691. as is the entire railway. having doorways. an edifice of in century. and but for unpleasantly situated between ranges the River Kur. over which are laid the lines of rail by gradients of one in twenty-two feet over a distance of about eight miles a triumph of engineering skill due. conveniently divided. etc. to British capital . the where the wealthy live in well-built nouses of elegant construction An extensive bazaar.if>2 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and grooves have been cut.

whence rise the confused sounds of human cries and the din from the iron. however. armourers. goat. in the fourth relic with which the nation was converted to Christianity century nothing less than a cross of vine stems bound with the hair of M 2 .THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and encloses that most precious Georgia. brass. As is the custom elsewhere in the East. of an evening. those of one trade congregate together. rarely allowing themselves to be depressed by the troubles of life. the wine of the country being kept in or sheep-skins laid on their back. They love wine and music. of furriers. an allowance. apart from other trades. and copper-workers. and so are passed a succession of silversmiths in their stalls. called the Lezghinka. 163 crowned by the old fortress which immediately overlooks the Asiatic quarter and bazaars. The Georgians are merry folk. buffalo. and presenting the disagreeable appearance of carcases swollen after lengthened immersion in water. greatly exceeded when. and ever seek to drive away dull care by indulging in their favourite Kakhety two bottles being the usual allowance to a man's dinner. or eating and wine-shops. friends meet together to join in the national dance. The Cathedral of Zion was formerly the church of the Patriarch of It dates from the fifth century.

and are the representatives of one of the most ancient monarchies of the world -. over during 1092 the twelve earliest centuries that elapsed from their election. but for the present the line is constructed as far as Akstafa only. for not a vestige remains.. and died shortly afterwards amid the execrations of his late subjects. George XIII.164 RUSSIAN PICTURES. a day railway will convey passengers and goods the entire Some distance from Georgia into Armenia. patron saint. whence travellers on their way south have to content themselves with the post-road which goes over the Delijan Pass. who first has long been suppressed. The' palace of the kings has entirely disappeared. - preached the truth replaced by a Russian ! The patriarchate in all Exarch. first 587 and allowance be made power in for will interregnums it be found that their reign extended years. the St. for having ignominiously betrayed them. Nina.. and is the Georgian Church may be considered ^-. Many of his descendants are in the service of Russia. 7124 feet . ~_. GEORGIAN LADIES.for Bagrations to if the rose . so that identical with that of respects Russia. signed his renunciation of the crown the 1 in favour of Emperor Paul in 800.

above the Armenia. Greeks. but orders granted to officials or others on duty always take precedence. that mask the dwellings within like the defences of a fortress. and the post-station nearest to the Persian frontier. An and frequently cause immeasurable inconvenience to the ordinary traveller. Kars was finally ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. relics ! Another priceless brought hither by the Apostle Thaddeus in the year 34 is carried about which relic is the hand of St. principal arsenal in Transcaucasia was gallantly defended in 1855 by Sir Fenwick Williams and a few British officers.' in 1829. At fairly Erivan. so is Armenia essentially the land of legend and tradition. the former being the largest and most powerful fortress and the the latter. long a Turkish fortress town. in a silver-gilt case. Other still more important towns in Armenia. but the place is dull enough. such as Tartars from the steppes. who eagerly escort strangers to see it. since his tomb is reverently shown by the inhabitants. almost symmetrical in its outlines. their Ararat.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. excellent carriages are obtainable at Erivan. the cradle of the Gregorian Church. Kurds. whence a two hours' drive over a good road brings the visitor to the Monastery of Etchmiadzin. and so called the only-begotten Son of God here descended and appeared to because The convent. As in most Russian towns.by the southern slopes into the plains of order for post-horses may be obtained at any post-town. and Turkish dealers in search of good horses. Gregory. whether in the Persian quarter. special sea. surnamed the Enlightener.' the founder. 165 descending. ' ' edifice standing within high battlemented walls presenting the appearance of in its treasury one of the most extraordinary of sacred encloses a fortress. the traveller will find good accommodation. and rising to an altitude of 16. and probably also his last. the first abode of Noah after he came forth from the ark. a beautiful Gregory. . even though enlivened . is Nahitchevan.916 feet above the sea. until the garrison was starved into surrender by General Mouravieff. or in the broad streets and unpaved quarter laid out by the Russians since their occupation of the province by a boulevard and gardens fair to look upon. 12. Lesser Ararat. the largest city in Russian Armenia. defying Cossacks and custom officers alike. fly across Within a short distance of Erivan. looking almost dwarfed by the side of its ' ' mighty neighbour. the identical spear-head with which our Lord's side was pierced. are Alexandropol and Kars. for which must be held in great part responsible the magnificent mountain that exhibits itself suddenly at a dip in the road Well may the Armenians glory in long before the plains are in sight. available by carriage-road. . peerless among the mighty works of the Creator. upon which they will the frontier.840 feet. As Georgia is the land of wine and song. The population is Armenian and Persian. where crooked lanes are lined with high walls. for Persia ruled here during a but at the bazaars one considerable period until vanquished by Russia meets with other nationalities.

and from being of greystone masonry. where the . streets. on the line between Tiflis and the MSS. where neither Viewed from NAPHTHA WELLS AT BAKU. Baku presents a distinctly picturesque appearance. with its sombre numerous minarets. to journey pick ourselves up after having retraced our steps by rail to dismal-looking Baku a town of recent approached through a desert of sand and stones. and the palace of the princes of bygone days old towering above the piled the one above base. The some early printing-press issue in various parts of the globe. the wealth of Baku. where we must now from the creation. purpose of healing the sick and performing other miracles. worth inspecting.. at the west end of Baku compose the Black Town. plains. vegetable nor animal life can possibly find an existence. citadel. being Gospels and devotional works. town.166 RUSSIAN PICTURES. or for conveyance across the Caspian to Central Asia. constructed of massive blocks of naphtha. and in it for the is also employed the consecration of the patriarchs. of where the the houses look as it they were the other and lining the shore new or Russian quarter being at the Modern Baku contains the pretty little bay. some handsome residences and well-paved the principal being the busy quay. the sea. is embarked for transport to the interior Russia by the Volga. so called from its begrimed condition. all religious books for the use of Gregorian congregations library contains and from the A Caspian. Numerous refineries. Tartar city brought into prominence of late years through the introduction of railways is Elizavetpol.

the last stronghold of the brave Shamyl. continued to be guarded by fire-worshippers from Yezd in Persia. whom the strength of Russia was unequal to subdue during the space of thirty Do the Russians say that they are numerous as the grains of sand ? years. as Lesghians are Mahometans. agriculture. where still stands the wall constructed by King Heraclius as a defence against the frequent attacks of which thin the mountaineers of Daghestan. this neighbourhood been considered holy by fire-worshippers. the richest vineyards being in the Valley of It is with the wine of Alazan. The Chentchen are a wild.' said the great Tartar chief when addressing the numerous tribes who placed themselves The mountaineers posted themunder his leadership to repel the invader. the Armenian is careless about . red and white. Kakhety. are second to none in bravery. Nominally. ungovernable tribe. because of the many naphtha springs that were constantly burning. which. Kakhety. who never fail in their hostility is towards others. some even perpetually indeed. plain from time to time. Stretching and even from the shores of the Caspian. they call themselves distinction to the Tartars who occupy the declivities and plains. they were hustled away some ten years . watered by the river of that name. After a predatory fight. three afforded . is and acid. because of his prosperity. for they cannot forget that they were employed by Shamyl to assist him in subduing them. selves on the heights. a suburb of Baku. The Lesghians. who is no favourite among the different populations.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. the vine is successfully cultivated in the Georgian district of Kakhety. the foremost and most enterprising trader encountered everywhere being the Armenian. are good tacticians. that the Georgian makes merry. who invaded the and carried off females and the young of both these marauders are called. The two principal towns in this wine country are Telav in Upper. sexes. whilst in truth their religion consists of a love of independence and an unconquerable aversion to Russia. hidden by trees. which he owes entirely to his own industry and thrift and from being strictly a trader. when the opportunity them. until. giving it the preference over the wine of Mingrelia. Georgians are rarely met with outside the confines of their country proper. with the connivance of the Government. In Daghestan is Gunib. and cool under fire. the fires at Surakan. ago by the increasing number of speculators engaged in a trade which has now completely driven out of the market all American produce. and Sygnak in Lower. the . more especially the Lesghians. grateful even in the days of Strabo. shot down their enemies in scores as they advanced in column up the narrow defiles. and even from India. ' Then are we the waves that will carry away that sand. in Georgia. as far as the slopes of the great range. 167 Since a remote period has ever enveloped in clouds of the densest smoke. from the province of Baku. occupy the mountainous region known as Interior Taiil in and Eastern Daghestan mountaineers. is the work of its own people. and.

1

68

RUSSIAN PICTURES.

years ago only, with their hated neighbours, the Chentchen resorted to an that of amputating the hands of their wounded ancient and cruel custom Other tribes and them to the doors of their dwellings. enemies, nailing and Kysty, the Ingush are scattered to the west of the Chentchen
agriculturists

and
is

breeders

of

cattle,

whose

religion,

like

that

of

the

Chentchen, not a little

a

singular mixture

Mahometanism, the

of Christianity and Paganism, tinged with talismans they wear about their persons

being inscribed with passages from the
ing

we

Adjointhe Ingush and Kysty, and near the Kabardines, whose acquaintance made in Circassia, are the Ossets, a numerous tribe to the west of the

Koran

in

Arabic or Persian.

River Terek and in the valley of the Ardon, whose origin and history, long a subject of debate amongst ethnologists, has finally resulted in an almost general admission that the Ossets or Osses are descended from and inhabit the same parts as were anciently peopled by the Alains or Alans, mentioned for the first time by Josephus. The Ossets occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Terek, in the hilly parts where they adjoin the Hefsurs, Ph'tchavy, and Tushines,
all

rude tribes of puzzling religious tendencies, and exceedingly superstitious. The Hefsurs are a proud and supercilious race, inimical to Russia, as are

the

and Tushines, so that they rarely quit their impregnable homes in the most inaccessible sites on the mountains, and live much the same life they led a hundred years ago. The great thoroughfare between Transcaucasia and Russia is from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, the terminus of the Moscow-Rostof railway, by way
Ph'tchavy
of the Dariel road, a stupendous engineering success completed in the reign This road winds over a pass 7977 feet above the sea, and is of Nicholas.

and clear for traffic in winter by the Ossets, whose country it which service they are exempt from all taxes. The traverses, post stations are the best in the Caucasus, and the distance, 126 miles, is The first usually accomplished in something less than twenty-four hours. station at which horses are changed after leaving Tiflis is Mz'hett, the site of the most ancient city in Georgia, its first capital, and residence of its
kept
in repair in return for

Pharnawaz, 302-237 B.C. The cathedral, restored in the seventeenth century, in which many monarchs and patriarchs are interred, is worth
first

king,

For ages was here inspecting as a perfect example of Georgian architecture. preserved the seamless garment of our Lord, the handiwork of the blessed
'

but unhappily when the Persians overran Georgia, the precious relic Virgin was sent for safe custody to Moscow, where it has remained ever since. From another station on this road is obtained a near and beautiful view
'

;

of Kazbek, ascended, twenty years ago, to its very summit, 16,546 feet, by several members of our Alpine Club, notwithstanding local traditions which
assert that the

peak of Kazbek, being a holy
attempts
to

place,
is

is

inhabited by a

spirit,

and that the

man who

reach

it

seized

by an unseen power

THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.
arrested by a storm, and compelled to retrace his steps. of the station the road, keeping the right bank Mr. Douglas D. through the celebrated Dariel Pass, of which

169

or

Beyond
Terek,
Freshfield,

the
1

Kazbek

leads

a

practical
cliffs

must
the

Nature.

The bold and broken forms of the gigantic mountaineer, says arrest the attention of even the most indifferent observer of The mere fact of the existence of a carriage road is some detraction
' :

from

impressiveness
that
it

of

a

mountain
to

unanimously

had nothing
will

fear

yet we agreed gorge from a comparison with the finest
;

.

.

.

.

defiles of the Alps.'

completed the journey from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, he will have arrived at the depot and point of transit for all goods brought by rail from Russia, and there transferred, for conveyance to the Transcaucasian provinces, to clumsy, unwieldy carts or vans drawn by those in charge of the caravans never being in a hurry, horses or oxen as to when they start, or when they arrive at their indifferent completely destination, and rejoicing in a lengthened stay at Mlety station, after having accomplished the most toilsome part of the distance the ascent and descent Vladikavkaz was founded in 1785 on the site of an Osset of the pass.
the
traveller

When

have

;

and became the headquarters and chief military depot of the Russians during their lengthened struggle for supremacy with the stoutit is now the chief town and seat of government for the hearted hillmen The population province of Kuban, and still an important military station.
village,
;

of Circassians, Armenians, and Russians, and a few Ossets at The chief industries are the bazaars, for the natives made off long ago. the manufacture of silver and gold lace, arms, burkas, the Caucasian's allThe hotels are fairly good, but there weathers cloak, silver ornaments, etc.
is

made up

being nothing at Vladikavkaz itself sufficiently inviting to encourage a longer stay than is absolutely necessary, the following choice of routes lays before He may post through Eastern Caucasus and embark at the stranger.
or take the Petrovsk for Astrakhan and the tedious voyage up the Volga route to en Moscow or travel rail to Novorossisk by railway to Rostof
; ;

on the

Black Sea,

and

there

Ekaterinodar, post thence to
1

embark Tanian and
;

or,

following that line as cross the straits to Kertch.
and Bashan.

far

as

Travels in the Central Caucasus

AN ILLUMINATION OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY

IN

THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY

OF SAINT SERGIUS, MOSCOW.

CHAPTER
SIBERIA.

IX.

WE
in fact,

have, within the compass of a very few pages, to sketch the leading features of Asiatic Siberia, which, having an area of nearly five million English square miles, is almost three million square miles larger than It comprises, the whole of European Russia, including Poland and Finland.

one thirteenth part of the globe. On the other hand, the population, sparsely scattered over eight provinces, is scarcely that of London, for it amounts to little more than four millions, giving less than one inhabitant per
square
coast

For thousands of mile, against forty-one in European Russia. miles Siberia has a northern seaboard on the Arctic Ocean, and an eastern
line

on

the

Pacific

and

the

twenty-five
it

degrees Europe, and on the south its limits come into contact with the empire of China and with the dominions of Russia in Central Asia. A gloomy desert of frozen tundras, or mossy boglands, on the north,

of latitude.

On

Sea of Okhotsk that embraces nearly the west, the Ural Mountains separate

from

the rest of this vast country is in some parts green and fertile as the prairies and pampas of America, in others mountainous, with alpine lakes, glaciers, and snow-clad peaks. The principal rivers are the Ob, the Enisei, and the Lena, which, after being fed by numerous tributaries, discharge their mighty waters into the Arctic Ocean, on points of the seaboard practically inaccessible

SIBERIA.

'73

shipping for the steady and reliable prosecution of trade. Railways will soon be constructed to bring the rich produce of the great Siberian rivers to a westerly harbour on the Polar Ocean, more free from ice than the fjords,
to

On the south, Siberia has a convenient waterbays, in the Kara Sea. way into the Gulf of Tartary, namely, the great Amur river, with its tributary, the Usuri, which
or

was

diplomatically acquired from China in 1859 and 1860. So far, Asiatic Siberia
is

tapped

by

only

one

that from Perm, on the European side of
railway,

the

Ural

Mountains,

to

Ekaterinburg and Tiumen, it will not be long before the Ural chain is
but

pierced

at

a

more
by
the

southerly point Great Siberian
Line,
in

Trunk

1888

which was opened as far as Ufa,
of

the
for

point

departure

Omsk, Tomsk, Kras-

and Irkutsk. and the Russian coast on the Pacific are
noyarsk,

Pekin

the
the
tion

objective

railways or under

in

points of construc-

contemthe

plation.

Known

to

gene-

rality of our readers only as a land of penal or

political

from early impressions conveyed by
exile,

OSTIAKS SPINNING AND NURSING.

Elizabeth,
travellers

or the Exiles of Siberia, and

more recently from the reports of
to the Russian convict system, be said to be a land flowing with
'

who have devoted
in the

their

attention

Siberia, except

extreme north,

may

milk and honey,' requiring only the energy of man and the resources of civilization to raise it to a condition of great affluence. The sparseness of its population is an obstacle which greater facilities of communication are rapidly removing.

A

strong tide of immigration has set

in

from Central and Southern Russia,

RUSSIAN PICTURES.
even towards the distant basins of the Amur and the Usuri, where the Russian peasant finds himself in contact, not with bears, but with tigers. The natives whom the Russians have displaced as masters of Siberia are no longer to be dreaded, and their numbers are dwindling rather than
Ethnographically, the aboriginal races are grouped as the Arctic, roaming on the frozen lands of the Arctic Circle, from the mouth of the Lena
increasing.
to

Behring's

Straits,

and
to

extending
the

from

thence

Kamchatka
of
the

peninsula,

with settlements also at the

mouth
on
the

Amur and
;

the island of Sakhalin

Ural-Altaic,

composed

of Samoyedes and of Ostiaks, and other Finnish tribes,

who

reign

supreme

in

the

north-western part of Siberia, principally between the Ural

Mountains and the Enisei, from the shores of the
Polar

Sea

down

to

the

Enisei, from which, however, they are cut off by strong Slav

sources of the

settlements

in

the districts

of

E nisei sk and Kras-

noyarsk; the Titrkish, which
supplies fishing and hunting Yakuts to a large tract of

country intersected by the Lena, and nomadic Khirghizes,
to

Nogais and Bashkirs,
steppes
;

the

west of the
the

Irtysh

and

represented by Buriats
TUNGUZ
GIRLS.

Mongol, and

Kalmucks, who, starting as a narrow ethnological wedge from the Arctic shore east

of

tribes of the

extend southwards until they meet the Tunguz and Lamut MancJiu race, dominant from the head of the Sea of Okhotsk to the Russian outpost at Vladivostok, on the Gulf of Tartary. The origin of Russian dominion in this part of Asia is worth tracing. In the most remote times, the Slavs, and mainly the Novgorodians, had
the
Enisei,

and traders from Novgorod the descended the tributary streams of the Ob river in search of furs. Ural territory. after Ermak was soon and the the Irtysh. demoralized also by the danger of their position in the face of inimical native tribes. and Tiumen. and capital present city of Tobolsk. and established their power at Sibir (the name which the Russians gave to Isker). The Buriats on the Angara. the Koriaks. and in mountain passes. of which site of the the principal mart was at Isker. A SIBERIAN MERCHANT IN WINTER TRAVELLING DRESS. long but the construction of fortified Cossack posts at the confluence of resisted rivers. was known to ancient Arab merchants and missionaries. Kanda. . ganoff derived great riches from its Siberian trade. Early in the sixof teenth century the Muscovite Tsars. and on a second expetraders dition. A Cossack robber band under Ermak followed in the footsteps of the and trappers. Cossacks. in 1581. were forced to later abandon a conquest which was virtually effected Muscovite The Tsars thus became masters of the Transby troops. Tobolsk. or Siberia. '75 commercial intercourse with the tribes settled on Ural Mountains. at portages. a little above the a Tartar of the was Isker kingdom. but with the loss over half Cossacks crossed drowned in who the had Ural. eventually reduced them to . on the Irtysh. which had exploited long been of the Stroby agents which family. and other aborigines. having annexed the wide dominions the Asiatic slopes of the Great are known to have Novgorod.' of the that to lands within of the ' the basin ' Ob. in suc- ceeded of capturing of the Isker.SIBERIA. style to began Lords themselves ' of the territories of the ( )1> and is the say.

have spoken. for the offence of ringing out an alarm while the emissaries of Prince the usurper. began to supply Siberia with a new class of exiles noblemen and ex-favourites. to at 1851. and condemned. Isker. the first bell of the town of Uglitch. and portage connecting that river with De Castries During the Crimean War the left bank of the two extremities of the Bay. in Russian Government. were Ivan the Terrible. Some of their descendants are 1 banks of the Lena. and nine points dealt with. . factories at spite of that treaty. preponderate century. submission. and Cossacks. 'trading the mouth of the Amur. numerically The Russian but later trappers. The plains of Mongolia. from which Russian dominion was consolidated and extended. Amur was gained. or ears. by skilful diplomacy and the Chinese Government made a formal cession. like a human criminal. Boris Godunof. Tobolsk became the central seat of government. near Tobolsk. distant confines of his empire. which was formally banished in 1591 to Pelym. and ultimately. representing the Slav traders. or Sibir. to which we are indebted for much information in a concise form. son of exiled to doing to death the young Among of the earliest in State criminals Siberia were the citizens the town which that the end of the seventeenth century. The sovereigns who more immediately succeeded Peter I. by successive established a semi-Asiatic form hands of those on ineffaceable injury race. political. by first only from the sevenboth criminal and political. Russia. Towards macious Little Russians Streltsi whom the most Peter the Great had spared. In 1689. the militarily occupied. in the Gulf of Tartary. of the territory through which the Celestial empire is now dangerously vulnerable. Dimitri. Poles. were exiled in batches to Siberia. But a desire to entire possess an outlet ' in the in Pacific for the huge continent of Siberia led the establish. having been swept away by a flood. are now in the Mongols and Tartars inflicted such well-nigh suffering.176 RUSSIAN PICTURES. arrested her in a development invasions. victims of Court intrigue. on Chinese territory. a century and a half previously. Strange to say. perished settled in villages along the 1 Russian revised Edition ol Rechis. or perpetrators of fraud and crime against the State. under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. whom and the of government at Moscow. of teenth whom we exiles. in the thirteenth century. as in the law having thus been the remainder was we have already said. in 1860. to lose its tongue and ears. the Tsar was compelled to order the evacuation of the settlements formed by Cossacks on the Amur. Many of them. and by the small remnant of the tragedy took place. in isolated forts. from which had issued. the hordes that devastated common to the rest of Europe. were succeeded. in Russians and Siberia. contuof the Ukraine. and sent to guard. branded or maimed in tongue. on the sufferer in this respect was the tocsin Volga. nose. just annexed to Muscovy. of which the population was later increased by Dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. .

while his the leanest his coat. where. ' who are only one fugitive skin. Nevertheless many is. Catherine II. when it more especially to 1 ' the crowding of political offenders and criminals.' SIBERIAN CONVICT.' that the cuckoo 2 The Howard Association has recently proclaims the advent of spring. to sent join their countrymen performed the same dreary journey after the of 1863. even if pardoned. the messenger of glad tidings was generally unable to find them. with by tearing out their nosUntil 1864 they were branded a hot iron on the forehead . and the tender mercies of the beyond left to Tunguzes and reported to prefer the chase of an escaped convict to that of a wild goat. or chained in It took gangs to long iron poles. other parts of Siberia. tied. and the considerable contingent of Polish exiles suppression of the insurrection 1500 as settlers certain circumscribed dis- Like the ordinary criminals of every grade who have been poured into Siberia for the last century exiles and had. and about within tricts. vols.SIBERIA. still escape obedience to the call of ' General Kokushka.ind tundras of Siberia. a half. deported to the same wilds large bodies of Poles. xxxvi and xxxvii. Russian edition of Reclus. Of these. and on both cheeks but at present runaways are simply placed the pale of the law. 177 miserably in the forests . has in three shirt. in days happily gone by. drawn attention to the dreadful sufferings still endured by exiles in Siberia. with the coat The long worn by peasants. ' See Dr. were last I. who had served under the in In the reign of Alexander banners of Napoleon. p. it was. which has Buriats. 972 were sent as convicts. to make or five thousand on foot. . 685. and where. Siberia. about 900 Poles. kaftan? and some kind of sheepskin entirely. where no friendly hand could help them. Kennan's articles in The Century. them two years to reach places of banishment in the Trans Baikal as well in as province. the four political until recent journeys miles of days. the custom to guard against the escape of convicts trils.

is now a very hard one. innocent wives and children of the former. will. of banks and a to free. except in its polar region. a Russian Howard would undoubtedly find field watching over and improving the system in its details..' No can accuse a of . and to their a unable to acquit prisoner clearly culpable. the penalty of death is now inflicted only in cases of political and other crimes requiring special measures of repression. when the benefit of of Russian juries. Russia but. and are able to find occupation and recreation of one The intellectual level of the Siberians is markedly higher kind or another. Tomsk and the university recently and Russian no doubt. ' In this respect it appears necessary that a exceed twenty years' hard labour. of intentional deportation mitigate the although of present government or the superior cruelty or negligence in the matter of very great deal has already been done to the felons still sufferings condemned and banished a large revolutionists.' which save him from the full the habitual rigour of the law. die.. of the inmates are conlargest of which ' stantly officials ill . in ocean steamers which embark their miserable and dangerous freight at Odessa. Polish established at that level. has not done more harm than good to the moral condition of the people. themselves to a great extent the descendants of exiles. Corporal punishment having been abolished in 1863. however. the from the eyes of philanthropic governors. and perhaps luxurious life at Tomsk or lenity Tobolsk. Russia.' in one of the more than twenty-five per cent. even. we may interest our readers by mentioning in 1863 met. doom of labour in the mines of Nerchinsk should have a considerable amount of may. present punishment by exile might be made more impressive and more effectively of activity in centres remote deterrent of crime. and to numerous other happy. plunderers felons. do much both to sustain and to raise . They are by the local inhabitants. honest and more than ten per critic cent.' and the punishment for the most atrocious murder or series of murders does not by jury. here salutary terror to prospective criminals. thanks ' proneness. As regards the generality of political exiles. who lead Siberia is a pleasant land to convicted other public institutions. island of Sakhalien. in filthy prisons. at In some respects.i 78 RUSSIAN PICTURES. bring forward a typical case of comparative that a Polish felicity in exile. to whose steppes he banished gentleman Without pretending to . criminals to the that the worst are now observe deported We on the Gulf of Tartary. and it has trial great amount of crime thus escapes punishment in become a serious question to Russian statesmen whether A suddenly introduced in 1865. than that of the population of European Russia. after they have once reached the places of their banishment. to give him extenuating circumstances. it cannot in truth be said that their lot in Siberia. owing to the continuous cordially received influx of educated exiles. among the Bashkirs.

Although within across railway to Ufa is have to reach the the confines of Europe. visit some of the principal Until the great country on the River Nijni the Ural. its low wooden houses. We Siberian carried must now towns. we we have been sketching via Perm.SIBERIA. an Irish taught him the English exile liberated settled at . down the eastern side of the Ural Mountains. At their foot lies much are Nijni Taghil. irregularly disposed. 179 was relegated. Not far from the principal works. from which malachite is raised. a voyage of four days from Novgorod by steamer. St. It is an important centre of we Here metallurgic industry. army Recalled after a couple of years. The great specimens of the many iron works of Neviansk are some thirty stocked with N 2 . the aspect of a Siberian city is given to Perm by A SIBERIAN GOLD MINK. Petersburg. take rail to Ekaterinburg. and to retire after a very few years with a considerable fortune. of which there eleven. started by a Stroganoff in the sixteenth century. we find a minerals found in museum well Siberia. Kama. and with whom he followed in the sport deserter from the British language. and at Aziatskaya station begins our descent into Asia. in proximity with the famous Demidoff copper mines. who the of hawking. resuming work in his original profession of an advocate and the knowledge he had acquired from his Irish friend enabled him to undertake English business. the Crimea.

.

it must suffice to take note of the fact of their existence. distant East. and seven times as large as Great Britain and Ireland. and is a handsome districts.' and in a:s great importance as the centre of rich the seat of the State 'administration of the it which are cut and polished garnets. there is a mine of gold quartz at Berezof which most travellers are induced to inspect. opals. after a somewhat monotonous voyage between low and flat banks inhabited by Ostiaks and other aborigines. for while Ob. aqua marine. Sophia is the most handsome. This is the most important commercial centre in Western Siberia.. such smelting ore. as we also do of the presence. beryl. on the Tura River. Exiles are distributed from this point over Eastern Siberia. through its great affluent the also the goal of caravans from China and other parts of the Irtysh. Of the twenty churches that stand out from among the modest wooden houses of Tobolsk. at Tiumen. but as they are more than a hundred miles away. from Tiumen in a day and a half to Tobolsk. bristling with domes and spires. Our railv/ay journey ends. of elk. The upper town Tobolsk occupy a commanding position on a hill with a and from which we gain an extensive view of the Irtysh. Irtysh. the oldest and most populated in Siberia. We are told of the emerald mines that belong to the State. the capital province of the same name. thirty-two (^4. wolves. and the the exiled bell of Uglitch. and the British and Foreign Bible Society have consequently selected it as the most suitable place for a thorough and systematic dissemination of the it has water is communication with the it Word of a of God among Steamers run the political prisoners. a town founded in 1586 on the site of an ancient Tartar city. precipitous not far from the city by the Tobol. 181 miles beyond. we find ourselves at Tomsk. named by Peter the Great after Catherine in of gold production in the tons I. by descending first the and then ascending the Ob in a steamer. city. was yielded by Siberia. was founded 1723. of and . . Although the Ostiaks in these regions still live in tents.600.extensive mining mines. alexandrite (crimson by day and green by night). and a number of other stones more or less rare and precious. jasper. and bears in the forests that have not yet disappeared under the great demand for wood fuel used in possesses The Crown a factory in local gems and stones.SIBERIA. lapis lazuli. In eight days more. Close to it is a belfry in which hangs fortress of front. the Cathedral of St. already referred to. in large numbers. 1884. Ekaterinburg. In addition to iron and copper works.000). like that of many an exile. and at our feet spreads out the joined lower town. and to several gold washings in the neighbourhood of the city. jacinths. or more than a quarter of the total gold world (estimated at about 144 tons). and in their immediate in neighbourhood In are the first gold washings to which we come Siberia. There is also a laboratory in which the gold raised in Siberia is smelted into ingots. topaz.

Siberia. and is it can also look forward to the benefits it of the in it great railway which destined sooner or later to pass through Pacific coast. takes a fortnight neighbouring Enisei . of subjugation and annexation until the towns of Eniseisk and Krasnoyarsk were founded importance for the will same purpose on the Enisei River. like their congeners on the Built in 1604. the direction. both of to reach China and the At present Irkutsk with province) as well made and kept post horses.182 RUSSIAN PICTURES. via Irkutsk. retained their Enisei. Its prosperity and revive now that it has become the seat of a university for . and have not.-A TOBOLSK. they are more or less Russianized. along roads (in the as any in England. Tomsk remained a centre ancient dress.

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the largest fresh water lakes in the world. Rapid recovery is. At Verkhneudinsk. and candle works are being continued industry and trade. and the transit trade in tea. which rises not a population of 36. soap. held sacred by the followers of Shamanism. which are by the ocean seal.000 English square miles. Holy Sea. and before a great of Eastern Siberia. rises picturesquely in the middle of the A rushing waters. also tenanted waters. in large after the establishment enjoys is likely to attain a considerable development of railway communication. which mountains is surrounded and occasionally attain a height of 7000 by is crossed At the station from which it feet. also This sheet of water. The road winds along the wooded part of the Angara hills crowned and covered to the valley. however. being made under the impetus of Its leather. from Kiakhta which it on a scale. great mass steep decline and forming rapids nearly of rock. and other trees. called the A beautiful view is soon obtained of Lake Baikal. cedars. THE BURNING OF IRKUTSK IN 1879. is the junction of the roads . more rugged part of the valley. is one of It is 1364 feet above the ocean.000. the seat of the administration picturesque Angara River. on the opposite side. fire 1879 was the finest town in Siberia. lies on the It has far off in Lake Baikal. 185 Irkutsk. by a steamer the depth close Fine fish in great variety abound in its in shore is a thousand fathoms. the Angara will be found rolling down a four miles in length. and presents magnificent views of After passing a foot of their slopes with pines. and occupying an area of 14. 400 miles long by 20 to 50 in breadth.SIBERIA. Travellers bound to Kiakhta can reach it from Irkutsk in four days by post and steamer. &c.. and never passed by them without an act of devotion.

YAKS IN WINTER COSTUME ON THE LOWER AMI'K. and three of their children. Stallybrass. is left . bank of the Selenga are still extant some of the outbuildings of the house in which they lived. beyond. of the labours of the devoted themselves English missionaries who. On the (. Mrs. Sixty miles further on. lead that and at severally to Pekin and to Vladivostok on the Pacific a small and miles we modern 110 reach the scene town.1 86 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and in an enclosed cemetery we find the graves of Mrs. Yule. to the conversion of the Mongolian Buriats. at the end of a heavy and sandy road that runs along a parched and undulating tract of land covered here and there with a little grass. Selenginsk. . II. between 1817 and 1840.

the advantage of cheaper carriage by sea. since its free in population. south. 1728. under existing arrangements with China. which enjoys. seen to greater advantage in it than on his native dreary plains.' women Notwithstanding the competition of sea- borne tea. a town inhabited palisade of Maimachen. and thereby becomes As a matter of fact. a A Lamasery is among the principal sights of this place. making rapid strides numbers and Sibir one of the most valuable jewels prosperity. and Chinese by three thousand male Celestials. separates entered through a gate the in Russian the The latter empires. resulting in a spirit of freedom and a broadness of view. and mounted on wooden discs instead of walk along a macadamized road brings us to the Russian frontier town of Kiakhta. Petersburg. on the other hand.SIBERIA. where. in from becoming rooted to the being rigidly excluded (from beyond the order to prevent the subjects of His Chinese Majesty soil. From want of space we cannot return to Verkhneudinsk. a great trade still exists in that article. and an incessant interchange of thought of a high intellectual order. Neutral ground. imported via Odessa and St. gravitation of its development is towards the genial long road to the Pacific by in itself. 220 is yards wide. even Russian It was founded as a fort about officials are not allowed to sleep. and which forms the bulk of the tea consumed in European Russia. in strong contrast with the comparatively low level of general culture in the European parts of Russia Proper. nor as mingling with in exclusively the land the honest banished. for there has been a great mingling of blood in this new country. the growth of the northern provinces of China. . where a better exclusively quality is produced than in the south. of the is ' ' exile. where In its we have a so-called carts square to alight in a dirty inn infested with vermin. we stop to gaze at the corn and hay market Mongolian wheels. bidding fair to render The Russian is already in the richly-stuclcled Crown of All the Russias. 187 Troitskosavsk. the leaf brought to Kiakhta is long been exploded. The theory that tea carried overland is superior to that which aroma. notwithstanding that its cathedral is Buriat endowed with gold and jewelled church properties. has strength by sea. drawn by oxen. and follow the travels deteriorated in or way of the grand country of the Amur a vast and one also of high importance to Russia from a strategical kingdom Our readers must be content with the sketch we have point of view. A and so is still richly miserable-looking place. already for the the icy north. which can no longer be considered as the land of made of Siberia. ' great wall of Kalgan).

between the Oxus Jaxartes. has been more and more prominently brought to the notice of the British public in connection with SINCE and the country is now so well that none of our readers and physical political aspects will expect or require to derive any additional light from our sketchy pages. CHAPTER X. but Central Asia has converted portion the this final large. beginning at the southern limits of Siberia. terminating on the the third : . and bounded on the south by the governor-generalship the stretching from Turkestan. within which are comprised the lands great division east at the Tianshan and the. indicating the territories beyond the Caspian. the days of the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny the question of Central Asia. The time has arrived when we should set aside the vague geographical designation of Central Asia. : of the earth's surface into the Transcaspian region.FROM A MS. To our immediate forefathers the greater part of the country thus consolidation bounded was known as of Russian dominion in Independent Tartary. and historically three distinctive and politically important. abutting on the east on the empire of China. within its steppes of Siberia. the Khirghiz steppe country. a terra then almost incognita. bounded on the south by the dominions of Persia and Afghanistan. OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY IN THE PUBLIC RUMIANTSOFF MUSEUM. and merging on the north into the Russian advances focus in in the direction of India. MOSCOW. includof ing the Aral Sea. provinces south-eastern shores of the Caspian to Merv and the Afghan frontier. CENTRAL ASIA.

A KHIRGHIZ BRIDE. .

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while their total population is little more than five millions. Samarkand. and planted the roots of Mahometanism so deeply that to this day the most orthodox champions of Islam are to be found in the mosques of Khiva. and Bokhara. which gradually merges into the Kopet Dagh range of mounThe tains. 1 1 For this digest. centuries. separating Northern Persia from the Turcoman deserts and oases. and Chinese. which survived for to the Bactrian several Jaxartes. crossed in . Geddie's excellent work on The Russian Empire. laid waste Maracanda (Samarkand). the limits of Turkestan are marked by the Hindu Kush. we are to a great extent indebted to Mr.C. . On the south. J. They were succeeded by Arabs of the Khalifate.CENTRAL ASIA. ruled afterwards Parthians. 191 Mountains and the Pamir. proselytized with and sword. the fire overwhelmed the Bactrian empire. at the foot of the great tablelands of Thibet and Chinese Tartary. and founded the On their way to the Indus. Our first glimpse into the interior of the Great. region is afforded by the famous the year 329 B. and for much other information tersely conveyed. the Scythians in turn by the Persians. advanced kingdom. he passed Persians across the Oxus. this expedition the Hindu of Alexander when hunted the fugitive then. early in the eighth century. who. combined area of these three satrapies is over a million and a half English square miles. on inflated skins or trusses of hay Kush. as the natives do even now.

had no title to the name as the seat selected and Turks burst in from the the until north-east. or the lame). massacred and slew. wars. the Twice called the province of Ferghana. behind the mountain screen of Persia. issue in by Tamerlane (Timur-Leng. but the Mongol hordes of Chinghiz Khan. Seljuk The of their power Khorassan. the subjects of laid waste Bokhara and Samarkand. established to the onset of the Uzbegs.RUSSIAN PICTURES. Mogul empires. peopled princiof Turkestan. in 1219. and was assassinated Turcoman deserts in humanity' who overthrew the Persian and reared the height of his fame. and fleeing ultimately through Afghanistan of the Great the and founded 'Empire India. as the ruling power in the country. of the successors of Timur in Bokhara and in Kokan. which thus became Turkestan. the ruler of famous Baber. Khiva. but he Ferghana. the but of great 'scourges in was Nadir Shah. from which they entered upon a deadly struggle with the nomads who held the steppes The Shahs who ruled over Kharesm (Khiva) established themor deserts. selves at Samarkand known took the as and Shah. . conquered Delhi (1525). in 1747. overthrew the rule and now again. his the half of the fourteenth century.' of struggles for ascendency the last between the the Khanates of of Bokhara. to withstand unable was himself at Samarkand. pally by races of Iranian origin. who made Samarkand steppes capital. and Kokan. latter the terror of the world. The subsequent national history of Turkestan is largely made up Another flood of invasion from the northern Mogul. and chased the remnants of his Long and cruel army through the Afghan passes and across the Indus. waged between the direct descendants of Chinghiz and their neighbours and kinsmen the chiefs of the Golden Horde were brought to an they defeated whom KOKAN. countries traversed by the Oxus and the Jaxartes. then.

also with the character of a mission. and all further fear of a barbaric invasion of the rest of Europe was removed.. Holland. as the most convenient route to Bokhara. and several unsuccessful attempts were made. on which he planted a thousand families of Don forty thousand attacked prosecution of his plans required the conquest of the Caucasus. established the road now traversed by a military railway. In 1694. great request. treasure in . down.. Cossacks. army of men. at the mouth Baku and Derbent. the Terrible. So inquiring at Moscow the early as 1520. entered into relations began lay with the neighbouring states of Western Europe and with the Sultan of In the reign of Ivan IV. two adventurous Russians from Astrakhan reached Balkh and Cabul. Khiva. Balkh. In 1695. Astrakhan. a annexed the Tartar with the Khanates of Central Asia. the sea the approaches to those countries being then jealously guarded by the Spaniards and Portuguese.. and the Italians were occupied idea of reaching India and China by an overland route. had been was broken surrounded. with the of the Terek. and to establish commercial relations with the Central embassy to Asiatics. on the Volga. after defeating the Turcomans who opposed his passage. and took This enabled him to advance provinces in which those towns were situated. In 1558 Anthony Jenkinson equipped a small war vessel on the Caspian.CENTRAL ASIA. in 1537. the powerful and ambitious prince who then to the foundations of the Russian empire. when the Tartar yoke was began to visit it. A similar object brought Marco Venetian. and brought back the first direct intelligence of the wealth of India. with the English. a Genoese. and two missions to Bokhara. from and the other maritime nations brought home which the Dutch. whose silks had come into The mission of 1675 was instructed to report on the Oxus. into the possibility of trading to India by way of the Caspian and Oxus. we find Paul Centurione. He reached Bokhara with his merchandise. With an a military line of frontier to the west of Tsaritsyn. the Chinese Wall. George. a large caravan. in 1722. to the court of Ivan IV. gold. Russian trade and travel Central Asia. to When in Persia. Peter I.' by which Turkey. Muscovy sent her first Pekin. Between 1669 and 1672. which he crossed flying the flag of St. 193 The gravitation of Muscovy towards the Russian Drang Nach Osten) began after thrown off. those acquired by conquests brought Muscovy into commercial communication Foscarini. was despatched gave the first strong impulse to It was his master-mind that first pointed out to his countrymen. on the roads to India. Persia. his frontier to the Terek. and India. therefore. Meanwhile. a scheme which though begun in his day was not completed until 1864. heard the Great had much of the Peter land of India. the Dutch. and Siberia. During the reign of Alexis. who had The geographical position kingdoms of Kazan. The o . abundance and in he. Portuguese. Bokhara. and foreigners Muscovy long finally ' countries of the Far East (the 1480. he appeared suddenly. Ivan III.

Great Horde all the tribes who held the submitted. 1888. by dominion over the north. sorely pressed by the Bokharians. . or military. of vengeance to his successors. and returned to Orenburg with the loss of one third of the troops . Although thus confronted by an irresistible Khanates long and ignorantly disdained the power of Russia force. By Dr. A large force was sent in 1839. A solid basis was now acquired for further progress in Asia in the in the south. scientific. had. M. in 1714. Parallel with these operations in the Caucasus was an advance made The Kirghiz Kaisaks obtained the protection of eastwards from Siberia. From Siberia. encouraged the Central Asiatics to believe in their impregnability. by careful study of the Khanates and the Not a year passed. the first Kokandian stronghold A flotilla also was Jaxartes. and in 1732 the middle Kirghiz horde recognised the sovereignty of Russia. from 1718 to 1850. the Russians began to descend systematically in the year 1845. Lieut. Annenkof. O. Gen. in 1718. By the year 1827. and agreed to admit Russian traders to Khiva. Heyfelder Hanover.194 RUSSIAN PICTURES. without agents approaches to them. Three years later another fort was planted on the Irghiz River. submitted to Peter the Great. Prince Bekovitch Cherkaski and his army were massacred. . the 1 but in 700 and 1 703 the Khivans. being despatched by Russia. Frightened at last by the evident intention of the Russians to renew their attempt to reach Khiva. and these found it necessary to carry out his behests slowly and deliberately. the original base of operations against Central Asia. established on the Sea of Aral. when the fort of Uralsk (Irghiz) was established in the Kirghiz steppe. . against Khiva but it was unable to overcome the hardships of crossing the steppes in winter. was taken after a severe combat. by fortified places in the province of Orenburg and in the Ural Mountains. A military expedition sent by Peter for the purpose of establishing the ascendency of Russia terminated in a disaster that confluence of the ' when ' ' : . diplomatic. Russia against their enemies the Kalmucks. supplicated his aid against the robber Turcomans. by the possession of Siberia Caucasus in the centre. after the interchange of some missions since 1629. and by 1853 Ak-meched (Fort Perofski). and forts established at the ' ' ' ' the Or and the Ural and at Orenburg. and had also. the Khivans entered into negotiations for peace. or perished miserably in Peter the Great left a legacy the desert between the Aral and the Caspian. under General Perofski. . which is in reality only a lagoon two the year on the 1 Transkaspien und seine Eisenbalm nach Aden des Erbauers. from disease and exhaustion. liberated a great number of Russians whom they had kidnapped and held in bondage as slaves. and expeditions. Kirghiz country between Siberia and the present possessions of Russia in Central Asia were brought within the sphere of Russian administration. Small war next built on the Sea of vessels were Aral.

On the west coast the white walls of a few old cities. to Persia. which still holds the port of Resht. in 1864. such as Derbent and Baku (the emporium of petroleum). the capital of a Russian 'TurkeGeneral consolidated the conquests made in 1864 province.CENTRAL hundred and 1858 all ASIA. overhang the blue waters. and Shahrisiabs in 1870. Even it. Except where at long intervals a Russian fort has been built. It Persian trading companies have no right to now bears on its frequently boisterous waters sail merchant vessels on (ninety-eight feet below TURCOMAN WOMEN. and the sea itself a Russian lake. by forty-five miles in breadth.' Cherniayeff and 1865 by beating the Bokharians at Idjar. near which disembogues the Gurghen. the level of the Euxine) a multitude of Russian steamers and sailing craft. these dismal shores only by wandering bands of Kirghizes and Turcomans. 195 sixty-five miles in the Kirghizes between and operations in became comparatively easy. Bokhara. the bays and inlets on the But their dimensions are necessarily small eastern side being mostly shallow. .' now O 2 . a year Russia. anciently defended by a wall against the inroads of nomads. and Tashkent became. and Kokan The Kokandians lost their fortress of Chemkend length stan later. Samarkand was taken in 1868. In Orenburg and the Jaxartes submitted to the directions of Khiva. At about the same time the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Persian frontier at the Atrek became Russian. and fringed with barren sand dunes and salt marshes. Its southern shores are visited belong and eastward of Arabian writers Astrabad. it the city of river whom in the Middle Ages called the ' Gog and Magog.

and Bokhara. for the route established by rail from Uzun-Ada. and their highest summits crowned with eternal snow. The old caravan route from Orenburg to Tashkent. over 1500 miles long. to the ancient capital of Tamerlane (about nine hundred miles) can be reached in nine and a half days from St. including a passage of three days across the Caspian from As soon as Baku obtains direct railway communication with Astrakhan. where those who have obtained permission to travel on this military line railway from his fortified position at Mihailofsk. were Russian. the eastern coast of the Caspian began to be utilized as a basis of operations against the marauding Tekkes and the Khivans. Transcaspian Railway greatest feats of modern and reflects on its constructor. the boring of artesian wells and the establishment of other waterworks. from sleepers to rails and rolling-stock. St. and the absence of wood or other fuel. almost tropical heat. the journey will be easily performed within a week. Samarkand. The Times correspondent year. These necessitated the planting of shrubs on embankments. with their sides clothed with forests.' Shy at first. At the back of the rich slopes represented in effigy at the Guildhall. All the materials.196 RUSSIAN PICTURES. by occupied only in 1880. Travelling at the rate of twenty-five to thirty-five miles an hour. the present starting-point on the eastern shore of the Caspian. The greater part of the rails were manufactured and supplied by English . At Geok-Tepe. the next slaughter. at the ' This ' is ' stop for refreshment at a European station in buffet. unpopulated wastes. We have no space for a description of the enormous difficulties that were surmounted by the active and zealous general. and completed in 1888 at Samarkand. Built in 1 880-81. want of water. such as shifting sands. 1 but one. the first of Russians in the Tekke forts seized the but permanently 1877. the train brings us across the Ust-urt Desert to Kizyl Arvat. General engineering. when it became one of the bases of operations which resulted in the total discomfiture of the Turcomans. Petersburg. has now been almost entirely abandoned. fortress which Scobelef captured from the we are Tekkes it in in proximity to the iSSi with great in Askhabad. Some reverses and the necessity of them General Scobelef to recommend the construction of a impelled avenging the From head of Krasnovodsk of one the Bay. Petersburg. Tekke-Turkomans and Persians flocked to the earth-works until close upon eighteen thousand of them obtained employment. London. the importation of labourers from Smolensk and Kief in aid of two Transcaspian Railway Battalions. imperishable credit Annenkof. and the extension of Russian dominion to Sarakhs and Merv. was occupied is mills near the the same 1888 says that decidedly the best built Sea of Azof.' and the introduction of petroleum refuse from Baku for purposes of fuel and light. of Ghilan and Mazanderan are the lofty ranges of the Elbruz. its extension from the original terminus at Kizyl Arvat was commenced in 1885. year 1868. when Krasnovodsk was taken and fortified.

etc. the sacred city of the Shiite Persians frontier of The their saint Mahmud Riza. supposed to have been built by Alexander A TEKKE VILLAGE. the memory of Scobelef. the total Turcoman population is at least 700. the line crosses the river of that flows past Sarakhs. Scobie. Salors. According to the Merv of Tekkes warlike and the recent the most statistics. and we the burial-place of distant from Meshed.000 souls. energetic oasis River. the Great. a future station on the way to Herat. intersected by the Murghab the Russians built new the the old of town. and Pearl of the World. lull of shops. but differ in their characteristics the Persians. Afghans and Kurds. The semi-nomadic and once predatory Turcomans are. A monument perpetuates and a fine public garden. a the railway. crumbling on the left bank of the Murghab. of Turkish race. implies. a Scotch schoolmaster. The oasis of Merv. consists of several parallel streets and neat-looking houses of brick. '97 There are some very good streets. ruins remain by city.000. as well as from their neighbours from the Bokharians and the . whose ancestor in Russia was Mr.' Eighty miles beyond we are at Merv. rendered fertile by irrigation. While as Taken together with other tribes. has an area of only 2400 square miles. The Queen ' once a vast and glorious city.. such the Saryks.CENTRAL place on all ASIA. Khorassan has for some time been on our soon reach a point which is scarcely more than eighty miles right. and surrounded by a brick wall. profusion of wild grapes. name which Before reaching the station of Tedjen. as their name number about 105.

falls into the Sea of Aral after a course of fifteen . from which hangs a sword. Considering also the excellence of their and women. Devoting themselves to the chase and to robber raids. they have so far left agriculture to their slaves thirst. hunger. hats to preserve their heads from the sun in summer and the cold in winter. only two hundred miles from Herat. although there been a considerable intermingling of blood amongst them all. has horses. and France. they are capable of supplying the best irregular cavalry in the world. and weaving. and Mongols. and to endure fatigue. from the matchlock Their women are to the modern breech-loading rifle. generally of the TEKKES. Merv is which. attired in Turkey-red trousers and a shirt. and produce carpets of such high quality in taste and texture that they are largely The men wear high sheep-skin exported to Russia. latter are The clever in and a wadded khdlat or robe. spinning. the Oxus of the Greeks and the Jihun of the Arabs. From early youth the Turcoman is accustomed to long journeys on horseback over the desert. and Herat about three hundred and fifty miles from our outpost at Candahar.198 RUSSIAN PICTURES. knitting. ornaments are in common use horses alone sharing with the women the . Persia. the Amu-Daria. distinction of being thus adorned. They a fired from stand are also provided with other weapons. like the Jaxartes. and not unfrequently in a jacket Gold and silver In cold weather a khalat is worn. beautifully embroidered. The great Karakoum Here we reach desert is left on the borders of Bokhara at Chardjui. finest metal.

approached by a small door in the right-hand wall of this chamber. and . attached to it is a minaret two hundred feet high. Nearly four hundred mosques and over one hundred medresseh. and pierced by eleven gates. in the new province of Turkestan and four stations beyond this we arrive at Samar. ' the head of Islam. the lower dungeons have been filled up and closed for ever and it is to be hoped that ere long the Khan will be compelled to raze these barbarous dungeons to the ground. were executed in 1842. as not more room.' as : Mecca ' is its heart. or colleges. a church. humanity has undeniably gained much from the establishment of Russian but it is to be hoped that the Tsar's mission of authority in the Khanates civilization will be carried out no less fully and rigorously than the establishment of his military power. the steam mill. we are again on territory not ostensibly but de facto annexed by Russia. in front of the palace. Whatever may be the political and commercial aspects of the question. At one side of the artificial hill that supports the citadel. The unsanitary condition of Bokhara is well worthy of the attention of Russian administrators. two Englishmen. and theatre. . the condemned by hurling ancient of Mir and another Arab. with a ceiling that nearly touched the heads of the visitors. one hundred and eighty-five miles from Bokhara. kand. and approached by tortuous alleys and dirty thoroughfares. again. was a still deeper one the hole into which our countrymen were let down. hundred miles. more than a thouplanted on a conical elevation within the Ark.CENTRAL ASIA. stands the prison in which It is a low Stoddart and Conolly. Sur- rounded by a wall of sun-baked mud. but practically neither can have any other will than that of Russia. Constantinople. the Times correspondent described the in which he saw twenty-five half-naked. The and blue carried Sentences of death were formerly arranged in curious designs. under Russian pressure. to be devoured by insects and vermin. mud-built dwelling-houses ensconced in sand years old. is that of Baliand. which is from the quantity of native products floated down the river for land carriage at this point. Below this well. The Khan's palace. with adjoins railway station. 199 A Russian town. or citadel. than twenty feet long by ten feet broad.C. built by Tamerlane. or Its dome is one hundred feet in height. with fine columns mosque. stand out from among low-lying. In a well. also mosque built by Tamerlane. two great names Alexander of Macedon. At Sary-Bulak. and square. Bokhara is nominally independent. is principal mosque. faced with glazed white gardens. one of great commercial importance. The town of Bokhara is sixty miles further to the north-east.' Its history is it associated with B. namely. Happily. who conquered 325. dirty prisoners. out . Close by is the from its summit. he saw twenty more men huddled together with hardly room to move. a Turkish bath at a of with mud on side like the dome one top building tiles. is in the Reghistan. Writing in 1888. Like the Khanate of Khiva. it still contains some interesting buildings. .

learning The city preserves some remains of its ancient magnificence. Living King. the arabesques. Its chief architectural glory is the immense mosque of Shah-Zindeh. the and the finely by the title of ' marble and tiled staircases. date 1868 which has passed is signified . the interior walls overlaid with arches and ceilings covered with pendent alabaster work. who lavishly expended the pillage of the rich countries to the south and west in rearing and beautifying its palaces. resting-place of a martyred is in fact a collection of prophet. and power of the Eastern world.200 RUSSIAN PICTURES. faced forming mosaic patterns and tints.' but the lofty portals and domes. The buildings are much out of repair with blue and white porcelain tiles. carved wooden pillars that support them. or Tomb of Timur. and It was under his care that Samarkand became the centre of the colleges. Tamerlane the Great. but it has suffered sadly from being a type of is that of Gur the destroyer's . now outside its This attenuated precincts. the belief in mosques surrounding the whose re-appearance at a SAMARKAND. mosques. The most interesting ruin Amir. make it worthy of the palmy era of Samarkand.

' Chimkent. and in great part composed subjects. over four hundred years old. Within its walls are the crumbling remains.' Uzbegs of the Turanian tribes that were wont to descend upon ' the lands watered by the Jaxartes and the Oxus since the days of Chinghiz Khan. ASIA. There are two large squares bright and an with orthodox church in the centre of each. the Russians omitted to satisfy the religious requirements of Among the of them. almost the only one of any antiquity is that of Khoja Akhrar. captured by Cherniayef in 1865. and gipsies. Surrounded by gardens. the officiating Imam on that occasion making an address descriptive of the benefits conferred by the Russian Government. and otherwise be interested European He the native population. and is equally buried in verdure and intersected by streams It was taken in 1864. an excellent visitor pavement. now prettily laid-out garden that adjoins the residence. is prettily situated on a branch of the Chirchik River. flowers. and even the great block of greenish-black stone which marks the On a hill in the cenotaph of the conqueror has been broken in twain. ' ' have no debts. opened great ceremony in the presence of the GovernorGeneral. severely large citadel now half ruined. population suffered of the hands A at the Cossacks. lies eighty miles to the north of the capital of Turkestan. the pride of the somewhat rivalled by the city is its park of a thousand apricot trees. stretches out on the north can hire a real Muscovite drojki. still surmounted by a high minaret. The well laid-out Russian town. when the and irrigation works. tea.CENTRAL hand. centre of the bazaar we see the ruins of the Ulug Beg Observatory the first erected in Asia. This was restored by the Russian Government in and with 1888. Jews. We however. is The city. of the college or home of the astronomers attached by that ruler to his capital. the Green Town. the administrative centre of A the Province of Turkestan. about two hundred miles distant from Samarkand. consists of Iranian who Tajiks (Sarts). and its quaint and bizarre native quarter is separated by a ravine from the new Russian town. and only a question of time. The bazaars are also full of Persians. Tashkent has long been considered a place of exile or temporary retirement by the Russians who repaired to it. Nor have new Mahometan Governor-General. occupying an area as wide as that of Paris. numbering about 30. Why you going to Tashkent ? all With these attractions. remember a young officer of the Imperial Guards being asked: 'Are also To which the significant reply was. Hindoos. avail himself of the benefits of in the Here the will get cup of fragrant civilization. occupied Sogdiania before it became the land of the and of Turks. prolongation of the line to Tashkent. a with side of a boulevard and citadel. which.000. and stating that never had the native population of Turkestan enjoyed so tranquil and prosperous an existence as now. should I ? I . in which the finest building is the residence of the with turf and their numerous mosques of Tashkend.

vi'. one hundred and the Syr Daria. and testifies to the ancient strategical importance of the At Turkestan. as therefore. ' r > . i" i^:v". it gave in the days of Tamerlane. like the Oxus. rises in we approach the Celestial several streams in So much of its Mountains. above towers place. the old post road that we travel hence to Orenburg starting-point for Central Asia. is high veneration. or Jaxartes.- . and but little available for navigation. Mf' . along a which was called Jassy who in 1397 began the construction of a huge of in honour Hazret-Yusufi. Ji.. and falls. It is. 5 ? it. THE GRAND MINARET. . which five miles to the north-east. a Mahometan saint held to this day in mosque It an interesting and curious group of buildings.202 RUSSIAN PICTURES. -. Hazret-i-Turkestan.. its name to a province . KHIVA. j v .> . it. All we have space to say of the ancient town of Turkestan is that. into the Sea of Aral. for and waters are deflected that its middle lower courses upper irrigation are sluggish and shallow.

or on the tablelands of Persia and Afghanistan. These are almost the only buildings of brick at Khiva. Afghans.' in ' Khiva Russian is not legitimately within a the scope of our sketches capital of the empire. and travellers (Kostenko and MacGahan) have described it stagnant water as containing more cemeteries than Its mosques and medresseh gardens. Under the influence of Russia. but only a relatively small THE MOSQUE OF HAZRET-I-TURKESTAN. found a A Russian military expedition in 1873 put an end for ever to ready sale. kidnapped by the Turcomans on the shores of the Caspian. Its fame is that of a which slave mart market in Asia at the chief slave chiefly Persians. sur- rounded by a low earthen wall. like hara. 203 The glazed bricks and incised evidently unfinished by its Persian architect. but requires passing notice as the of a large. is now constrained to be on his best behaviour. and Russians. and gave liberty to 37.000 slaves. that traffic. homes. . the patron saint of the Khivites. and within easy striking distance from the Russian military station on the opposite side of the river. in front of that mosque. are in the citadel.CENTRAL ASIA. prisoners has brother of Bok- The city is little more than a collection of hovels of baked mud. within which dwell the Khan and his principal officers. of its outer walls have from the Russian cannonade suffered inscriptions directed have in 1864 against the citadel in which it stands. occupying an oasis bordered by the left bank of the lower course of the Oxus. They were attacked by disease or massacred by the Turcomans on their march in small detachments across their number reached original the desert. the torturing his of quite recently been forbidden by the Khan. and earthquakes many places fissured this seventh wonder of the world. . who. semi-independent Khanate. and the only mosque with any pretensions to architectural beauty is that which holds the tomb of Our illustration shows the minaret Polvan. flanked here and there by pools of foul.

that Polish Szainocha. and became.Vistula Provinces. five per cent. but the consti- ten in number. have an aggregate area of 49. Czechs Contact (Bohemians). and other aliens. asserting that the descended on the Polish coast of the Baltic. Bulgarians.. The Poles (the Polacks of Shakespeare) are a branch of the Slav race. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TRUITSA MONASTERY. XI. The provinces in tutional THE Czar still bears the title of King of Poland. and other odd kindred remnants. of Poles. their language differing but little from that of the Russians. Germans.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS.157 English square a population of eight millions.' ever since the absolute incorporation with the Russian empire in 1868. the remainder being Jews (in the proportion of thirteen per cent. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. with Scandinavian invasion a reliable authority of the present century. kingdom created at the great settlement of political accounts in 1815 has been officially styled 'The Cis. composed to the extent of sixtyand miles. permitted the Poles to work out their own development on lines so widely question. Northmen begins. Russians. Servians. as in history . the complete been a matter of two great Slav branches has long by their Russian brethren. . like that of Russia. apart from those pursued amalgamation of these practical impossibility. MOSCOW. CHAPTER POLAND. and escape from Tartar subjugation. and co-operation with Western civilization. and settled chiefly in towns). Lithuanians.

1 ft S^^s^aWi^ .

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842) was Piastus. which. his sister's son. On the death. already limited by and the crown became elective. ancestors of noble houses. but soon expelled by the patriots. Jesuits. After Pomerania. The was still further diminished. the Great.. introduced in the next . who with those of Poland. the power of the king. to 1320. the throne of Poland. in Casimir Cracow. of Lithuania. . Augustus. reign. in virtue of their to under the name of Ladislas) subjects to Christianity. that of Stephen Bathori. the last of the that of two chambers. the first Grand Duke of Poland (about A. and by the limitation of the power holders. or freeadscripti glebce. A. Boleslas I. reunited at Polish Justinian (1334-1370). Moscow had been occupied in 1610 by the Poles in the name of Ladislas. who had saved Vienna for the Austrians.. of the Polish Ukraine to solicit Russian protection was the inferior position Roman to which their Greek religion had been reduced in relation to The Russians and Poles had been at war with each other for Catholicism. by the bestowal of benefits on the peasantry. and to convert his Duke offered to unite his extensive and adjacent dominions the nobles. who were of the nobles. subject to alterations made at Diets.D. While occupied in besieging the Huguenots at Rochelle. Jagellons. of Sigismund II. in accordance with the principle that long obtained were of Poland territories the component neighbouring Russian principalities. absconded from Cracow in order to become Henry III. in 1572. whom she loved.. where the Polish kings were ever after crowned. who He conquered Dantzig and gave a solid foundation to the Polish State. under a he was Pacta Conventa. Moravia. and White Russia. Christianity in the being partitioned. After compelling his daughter to marry. who founded a dynasty that was superseded only in 1385 by the Lithuanian was introduced by the fourth of the Piasts.POLAND. was retained as part of the Coronation Oath so long as there were Polish kings to be consecrated. 207 On the other hand. brought and one of the reasons that led the Cossacks strong intolerance with them. it is on record that Russia. could not keep Kief and Little Russia for the Poles. the Brave. but Jagellon. gained for himself the title of Rex Rusticorum. two centuries. of the Swedish Wasa family. as far as the Dnieper. Jagellons. elected Jagellon (baptised Magna Charta. under Minin and Pojarski. Henry of Valois but he quickly was elected to the throne. elected to the Muscovite throne by the Russian boyars. and it was a sovereign of the same House. not William of Austria.D. the by Vladislaf (Ladislas) the Short. which thus became own pagan dynastically united (1386) with that of Lithuania. in succession to Sigismund II. Silesia. On to his death. and at a time when Poland enjoyed more religious liberty than any other country in Europe. -was called its the throne but in order the ensure in all continued possession compelled re-instate nobles their privileges. of France. a peasant. son of Sigismund III. Louis. He was the last sovereign of the Piast period. . who established his capital. King to of Hungary. Sobieski. 964.

Cossacks. obnoxious to the dissidents and other of Lutherans. In addition to the kingdom proper. rights Roman Catholic Church played a great part. succeeded Sobieski. especially as it had provided for the emancipation of the The struggle made by Thaddeus Kosciuszko ended in the adscript! glcba. Poland occupied a territory much more extensive than that of France. during which he was superseded by Stanislas I. in which sovereign.. KAMENETS. resulted in the intervention of ' the reign of the question of in the Prussia and Russia. Turkey. The second followed in 1793. under which even Warsaw was absorbed by Russia.208 RUSSIAN PICTURES. which had taken alarm at a liberal constitution voted by the Polish Diet in 1791. under an arrangement between the same countries. Such was the outcome of disorders and revolutions in the wars with Muscovy. the ashes of the Prague suburb. IN PODOI. and . Calvinists. and Sweden.IA. and entry of Suvoroff into Warsaw over dismemberment (1795) of ancient Poland. and in 1772 the first partition of Poland was consummated. Elector of Saxony. as well as with and of Tartars and Frederick Augustus II. with an interval of five years. Augustus III. and reigned until 1733. it included the province of Posen and part of West Prussia. Cracow. Dissension and anarchy became next still more general ' the Civil war. in the third Previous to these several partitions. State.

the survivor of the Aurochs (Bos primigcnius). the bear. and forest. province of Grodno. when also the constitution of 1815 was withdrawn. at the partitions remained incorporated with the Russian empire. spirit destinies of the Russian the old of national States. heath. or buffalo. and the lynx. The finest in . and in 1815. Bessarabia. and now form the last retreat in Europe of the Bison Europoeus. These successive partitions gave the most extensive portion of Polish territory to Russia. Notwithstanding the wide measures of Home Rule introduced by Alexander II. Silesia. present province of Kief. Moldavia. and to within a . when Galicia (with Cracow) was restored to Austria. and part of the In 17/2 Dantzig was a seaport of Poland. from Moscow. Kaminets. Although much worried by the wolf. the provinces of Volhynia and Podolia. and Livonia were embraced within the Polish possessions. Outside Warsaw and its immediate vicinity there is little in Russian Poland to interest the tourist. and the Polish language proscribed in the public offices. appeared to offer to the Poles the prospect of no inconsiderable influence over the independence began to manifest itself. revived a Polish state out of the provinces that had been seized by Prussia and Austria. Dense forests stretch down from the Russian. stronghold against Turkey north its frontier extended almost to the walls of Riga. anciently Polish. with wide expanses of sand. The country is generally level and monotonous. This was first constituted into a Grand Duchy under the King of Saxony. and the most commercial short distance Prussia. It is produced on the larger estates of two hundred to fifteen hundred acres. and in 1862. with the result we have indicated at the head of this chapter. Galicia. the most populous to Austria. the bison are strictly preserved from the hunter. an insurrection broke out at Warsaw. Polish provinces that had fallen to the share of Catherine II. belonging to more than eight thousand proprietors. and it is only towards the north and east that the ground may be said to be heavily timbered. the national army abolished. which has so long been ruthlessly slaughtered in the United empire. and are therefore not likely to disappear like the Bos Americanns.. Warsaw became The old again a kingdom under a constitution granted by Alexander I. In still earlier times. into the administration of the kingdom. Interspersed among these barren or soil wooded tracts are areas containing some of the Europe. supplying from time imcorn-bearing memorial vast quantities of superior grain for shipment from ports in the Baltic. but were not fully to subjected to a Russian administration until after the great Polish insurrection of 1830. not without encouragement from Napoleon III. in its while to the west and border Podolia. and which. in combination with many liberal and pregnant reforms in Russia Proper. and Posen to Prussia. Napoleon I. which is supposed to have been the original stock of our horned cattle.POLAND. 209 Lithuania.

large and occur than in more and while some are rich and small.000 farms seldom exceeding forty acresto nothing towards exportation. Warszawa. frequently industrial. replaced Cracow as the residence of the Polish kings . contribute who next hold more than 240. which we take on our way by rail to or from St. and. their mode of agriculture being almost as rude as that of the Russian peasantry. Towns. Russia. the seat of the appanaged Dukes of Masovia. Petersburg or Moscow.210 RUSSIAN PICTURES. THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS. WARSAW. Founded in the twelfth century. Consequently we confine ourselves to Warsaw. and their habits of life but little superior. WITH UNIVERSITY IN THE BACKGROUND. during the Piast period. especially in the matter of drink. peasantry. others we may say the great majority are poor and squalid. visit affording no accommodation that would render possible the of even the least fastidious traveller.

and the old royal apartments are occupied by the Governor-General. when to fortified. wide squares. with its outlying fortifications. but a considerable distance from the town. The square in front of the castle was the scene of the last Polish 'demonstrations. on which city. strongly old German in aspect. the country seat of the consort of John Sobieski . and the pretty.' in 1861. We drive 1830 to get rid of their hence in less than an p 2 . gay. in Near Novi Sviat (New World) Elys&'s. and spacious gardens. are numerous and so are the monasteries and convents (twenty-two). place of entertainment much frequented by the inhabitants of and Bielany. bordered by fine lime-trees we find the Avenues. to Stanislas Augustus Poniatovski. (eighty- The five). It 211 has now is garrison of 31. by and enlarged and restored by several of the Polish kings. is the recovered from inhabitants the assault Prague suburb. here shallow. and restored on the last occasion by King John Sobieski. built the Dukes of Masovia. and divided as Poland itself. formerly a castle of the Kings of Poland. or Champs private residences. Across the broad sandy bed of the stream. built in in is 1832-35. when it was twice stained with blood. churches and chapels. and its walls are with portraits of numerous beautiful women.' and which is on its way from the Carpathians to the Baltic. mostly Roman Catholic. at the expense of the city. a pretty spot on the Vistula commanding a fine view. The hung ceilings of this chateau were painted by Bacciarelli. which. in which the Poles attempted in the Grand Duke Constantine. viceroy. the Beyond great Sapieha and Sierakovski Barracks towers the Alexander Citadel. we reach the fine park of Lazienki. were in out indiscriminately put every direction from the sword. this . or castle. not including the Russian officers and men. Opposite vantage. as a penalty for the insurrection In the same direction. In the Stare Miasto. from Sigismund III. is ' picturesquely disposed along the brow of the cliff and on the plains above. A still more ancient sacred edifice is the Church of Our Lady in the Nove Miasto. On page 205 we give an illustration of the prettiest portion of the grounds. also Mariemont. The left bank of the Vistula. ever-changing. Kaskada. or New Town but it certainly retains no traces of deep antiquity. a population of about 445. and now the residence of the Emperor when he visits Warsaw. on the election of Sigismund III. Street. its has sixteen never thousand A vast panorama and spreads melancholy dirty point of is the Zamek.500 capital of Poland. and animated stately lines of streets. stands the cathedral. or Old Town. formerly by Suvoroff in 1 794. in which the troops are exercised. and the military hospital at Uiazdov. Crossing a large square. a country seat of much elegance built by King Stanislas front of elegant Augustus. built in the thirteenth century. and therefore as the (1586). Warsaw its with chiefly built.POLAND. is high. Its pictures and objects of art are now at St.000. 1830. Petersburg and Moscow. a Warsaw. Contiguous to the Lazienki Park are the extensive gardens of the Belvedere Palace.

who died in it. The apartments . of his beautiful consort are of great elegance. portraits. the Polish founder of modern astronomy. In the gallery Seneca pictures although we are is of we notice an admirable Rubens the Death portrait of Bacon. sought this To suit of armour presented by the Pope to Sobieski in memory of his great \ ' *#* POLISH PEASANTS. of which the most interesting is the magnificent in retreat he and here arms. This is hour to one of the most interesting places near Warsaw. On the same For want of more strongly attracted by an original known in England. and other curiosities. now repose after driving the Turks from the walls of Vienna. of Villanov. objects of art.212 RUSSIAN PICTURES. victory. again we must plead guilty of omitting of . which but little to describe space. built the Castle by John Sobieski. historical is full of of Countess the property Potocka. brought back the trophies of his mighty deeds The chateau. monuments. many palatial among which is one to Copernicus. and several noticeable residences.

to whom Belgium owes Evangelical Cemetery. is cemeteries. . the public so buildings. and buried John THE IRON GATE MARKET (AT THE BACK OF THE SAXONY GARDEN). theatres. gardens.POLAND. one Cockerell. ground 213 we pass in over of handsome which. much of her industrial prosperity.

MOSCOW. formed by the recession of the sea. from the Swedish frontier on the Tornea River. long coast-line on the Gulf of Bothnia. possesses physical charms which. wegians. of the and who are almost as much driven to emigration as the Norpopulation. Land of a Thousand Lakes. and a good part of its sea-margin on the Gulf of Finland. sustenance . occur but inland. THE millions. Fertile plains. and a population slightly in excess of two or about it sixteen inhabitants to the square mile. for the sea gives them lucrative occupation. In both these respects Norway very closely. In 1809 Sweden ceded to Russia her rights over Finland. Along the coasts. a peculiarity from which has been derived the poetical designation of the country. and after a separate negotiation between the Finnish Diet and Alexander I. but not equally wide. in the North of It has a superficial area of Europe. the poor stony patches of soil afford but a scanty occasionally. who form about eighty-five per cent. present a succession of fiords and rocky headlands similar to those of Norway. the Estates swore allegiance to the Emperor as the Grand Duke of Finland. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TROITSA MONASTERY. 144. the people are more thriving. CHAPTER FINLAND. or resembles The The hilly interior is intersected by a vast number of lakes and grand. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.' as Finland is poetically called by her loving sons. to the peasantry. are second only to those of Norway. streams.. deep.255 English square miles. ' XII.FROM A MS.

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with a sucking-pig to squeak by twisting his as a lure. established is also who Commander-in-Chief General. excepting only its foreign relations. and grayling fishing. that There read out under is cannot scarcely a the Bible. composed of four Estates (nobles. and placed mother under the Russian War Department. clergy. they have a Diet their jealously guarded Charter of Rights. gives employment to more than twelve thousand men. so different from all other European tongues. nominated by the Crown. upon forest and attempts to seize his prey. He is represented at Helsingfors by a Governorincluding the right of veto. Timber. and enjoy not life which comparatively few tourists have witnessed. burgesses. who do not or in man woman that admit to the Communion any person who is unable to read or write. and dairy produce much more are exports. carried the well-ordered country An excellent system of education is zealously superintendence of the Lutheran clergy. but enterprising and also excellent sport. trout. contribution independent tariff a distinct coinage. are : Among the most important privileges thus enjoyed a separate budget. which renders the Finnish marc. A committee composed of a Secretary of State and four other members acts at St. In regard to religion and education. when a Parliament of two Chambers was established in The maintenance of the Lutheran religion with all the Extensive powers are reserved to the sovereign. as in Sweden until 1866. Office. to is the the exploration of the less frequented parts of with a handbook only scenery and intelligent traveller armed or a dictionary can easily make his way. tar. the Finlanders have reason to be proud of the results of the legacy bequeathed to them by their old Scandinavian the principal masters. administers the affairs of the Grand Duchy. in the shape of salmon. were assured to previous rights the Philanders in a solemn manifesto. of the national army. char. and an independent of the fluctuations of the Russian rouble liberal than that of Russia. which. a great stumbling-block But the Finnish interior. which continues to this day to be In virtue of it. These are already highly developed. sledge. and therefore best calculated to sustain a sound system of finance and to promote trade and navigation. and peasantry). and made the wolf darts out from the dark which tail. together privileges. The accommodation outside of the towns is of a somewhat rougher . In winter he can shoot as many wolves as he chooses to pursue on a The pig is kept in a bag. in recent years under a system of general military conscription. The Finnish language. 2 17 and the integrity of their conand stitution.FINLAND. and they are carried chiefly by the national which merchant navy. Petersburg as a kind of delegation of the Senate at Helsingfors. country. The latter are dealt with by the by the Imperial Foreign Finlanders . bearing no imperial charge or . or franc. lard that is attached to a long rope at the back of the sledge. deceitfully represented by the wisp of straw smeared with.

on landing. cross over from the Swedish capital to Abo. imparted by the wide. roughly-paved streets. or river. This is reigning over the place. including 1640). its interior renovated without detriment houses at considerable distances . a valuable library. description than in Norway. by the prevalence of low wooden fire which houses. enjoyed. after the charming landscape we have ABO CATHEDRAL. In fifteen Stockholm. to the quay where our passports and luggage are examined. and by the deserted appearance of the thoroughfares. we have a pretty view of via Gothenburg and hours we the city. It is disappointing. As we steam up the small and shallow Aura joki. yet its rude and heavy Gothic exterior has been preserved. in smooth and sheltered water except for about two and a half hours.218 RUSSIAN PICTURES. public buildings taught the citizens the necessity of rebuilding their public edifices and private raged the for two days in 1827. Although the Cathedral of St. and the willingness to brave slight discomforts. with this fascinating country. Henry was completely gutted on that occasion. but with a well-assorted stock of absolute necessaries (including insect powder and mosquito netting). and such of its university (established as had been spared from many previous conflagrations. in from each other. personal acquaintance can soon be made. to find an air of desolation A and destroyed two-thirds of the city. while the steamer passes through the moderate waves of the open part of the Gulf of Bothnia.

. . . Uleaborg lies at the mouth of a great and rapid river which flows out of Lake Ulea. A large and now occupied by government officers. . in which Bishop since surrounded wooden house. The scenery. number of charming excursions can be made from Abo. a native of Abo. and black-haired Philanders (all others being very light) Brahestad. but whose name betrays a Russian origin. excepting the Residence. or in one of the tar-laclened craft that have so fragile an appearance. . one of the most progressive towns in Finland. chiefly with Great Britain. . a lies peasant before she wore the Swedish diadem. built Gustavus the cathedral. and there is in reality no danger of death by drowning on such an excursion. designed by V. and is one of the principal ports in Finland. within instituted 1300. founded in 1558.. add to the interest of the cathedral. such as Bjorneborg. at the mouth of the Kumo and not far from which is a River. The stained windows.FINLAND. or Vasa. the creation of Count Per Brahe in 1649. The sun may be seen at midnight from Mount Aavasaksa. from the interior in peculiar boats made of thin planks. its walls after their consecration by Bishop Magnus in A. a large block buildings of the city are unimportant. is very fine. which bend as if they were made of pasteboard. and descend the river in a hired boat. 219 to The first episcopal chair of Finland was previous architectural features. with a good deal of shipbuilding and a considerable amount of The tar is brought down trade. A fishing abounds in most of the rivers that of affords the several to Tornea water opportunity inspecting snug trip by little ports. some sixty miles distant. an old royal domain now dotted with villas. Svertschkoff. embellished by a stained window allegorical of her love for Sweden and Finland.D. University by (Adolphus) opposite Ekman. especially at the largest and midway rapids of Pyhakoski. an Englishman. fore- most among which is the trip to the pretty island of Runsala. a (transferred after 1827 to Helsingfors). and possessing a and lastly Uleaborg. near the Myllyranta Ironworks on Lake Ulea. first preached Christianity in Finland in the two neighbouring parishes of which the Finnish national costume is still though exceptionally worn Nikolaistad. when the girl city itself was removed up the to its foundations a short distance river. . to a place called Vaala. and salmon fall into the Gulf of Bothnia. 1857 by Kristinestad. for the IV. an active-looking town of the gulf and the islands on it of tarred roofs. Henry. of her misfortunes and in The secular Finlander. The present site from its pagan consort of Eric XIV. the present terminus considerable amount of shipping of the railway from St. in tar and deals. Petersburg. the border of ancient Osterbothnia a stone wall. with a Russo-Greek church commanding a splendid view Gamla Karleby. when shooting the numerous rapids of the Those who are in search of excitement cannot do better than drive Ulea. and the frescoes in the chancel by which is one of the chapels.

. In winter. and skins of the animals their whole support while in summer. at the junction of two lakes which supply an immense water power to cotton. in which a goodly number of Englishmen are will employed as foremen. from which of the night Eve and Day) swarms of travellers arrive to see the midnight sun.22C RUSSIAN PICTURES. Tornea. with their swift reindeer and sledges. on the . and was once distinguished by the appellation of Little Stockholm. however calm and sheltered. the most northerly town in Finland. the Manchester of Finland. As a contrast to this coast trip the railway may be taken to Tammerfors.' from its brisk trade. no doubt deflect from the present yachting route to the North Cape the many would-be travellers who dread the sea. they derive 23rd-24th of June (St. and paper mills. and who yet would like to gaze at a phenomenon which not only fascinates the eye by its strange grandeur and by the weird effect of light it produces. is separated from the Swedish town of Haparanda by a dried-up branch of the Tornea River. but also impresses the mind most deeply and with more awe than any other cosmic marvel among the great and glorious works of the Omnipotent Creator. leaving only the most energetic to post fifty miles to Mount Aavasaksa. when daylight ' lasts only three hours. hams. John's to sell the tongues. flax. from which the sun is visible at midnight for fourteen days. with the Swedish capital. it is visited by Laplanders. until 1809. and many other industrial establishments. The extension of the railway from Uleaborg to Tornea F1NLANDEKS. or cabin accommodation ever so roomy and convenient. although it does not remain entirely above the horizon for more than seventy-two hours. As almost everywhere else in this country of wood.

are very handand no finer view of Helsingfors and its pretty environs can be obtained . and par- ticularly the view from the bridge that spans the Helsingfors has been the capital of the Grand Tammerfors Rapicls. with a central hall. one of the largest in Finland. which can easily accommodate three thousand worshippers. which form a separate collection. over and above the 50. seat of a university political connection of the city. and the since 1827. and The University Library contains attended by nearly a thousand students. Facing this church. situated in the midst of enchanting their character. hardy. with a large seminary for teachers. On the south side of the same square we find the Alexander University. can be reached cart. preaches congregation to the curious acoustic properties of the edifice. and the Russian form of a Greek cross The two distinguishes it from the usual architecture of Lutheran churches. and well taken care of as the Norwegian animal. Duchy since 1819. railway brings us to the southern extremity of Paijanne Lake. not as Sharp the pitches in the hill next the driving in Finland may be called furious. road are descended at full gallop. is the Church of St. The most prominent object in some than porticoes of Corinthian columns. but little inferior to the Norwegian carriole. charming little town. constructed in 1832. The speed at which the by Finlanders travel is curiously out of keeping with the general dilatoriness of intelligent it one of their favourite proverbs. and a far-seen landmark from seaward. and in which stands the throne of the Grand Duke. being eighty miles long by about eighteen at its widest part.000 books in Russian and Polish. with the pews radiating from it. the views obtained on this journey are lovely. Norway. is the Senate House. Steamers run hence to a pretty place a and to called Heinola. exemplified as is in ' . Its style is that of the Renaissance. raised (1830-52) in Senate Square. from the top of the splendid dome. whose life-sized portrait hangs in each of the rooms occupied by the several administrative divisions of the Senate. his back the from the with towards but. Just before reaching it. in a two-wheeled in trotting capacities of its horses. about 150. Nicholas. owing altar.000 volumes. and a good part of The small horses are as quiet. and rock.' Norwegians are also taught the same maxim.FINLAND. and owes much of its prosperity to the Finland with Russia. In summer the Imatra hotel. although perhaps not as small boys who drive them. and from which Kuopio. used on great occasions. 221 water. on a mass of granite fifty-nine feet high. the seat of a bishopric and Station At Lahtis the a district renowned for the by road But. ascended at a round trot. Resuming our railway journey. Jyvaskila. our attention is called to a modern castellated villa lying in a pretty park to the left of the line. Hurry only when catching fleas. we soon come to the picturesque old town of Tavastehus. an echo repeats the discourse. . reached by flights of steps. There is but little to see in this town beyond a church in which the altar is placed The clergyman in the centre of the edifice.

noise it produces. not only from St. golden light. is scenery. Europe and America. Viborg can be reached either by returning to the railway at Villman- . but from Falls. crowded of with tourists. giving a difference of sixty-one feet between the top and the end of the rapids. The rush and roar of the It waters are very grand and imposing. who come to see the Imatra formed by the Vuoksi rushing through a narrow chasm between two steep granite rocks. the mist having risen. who no heed of the deafening taking Sunrise is the best time to see the Imatra-Koski. but with a gradual slope over about half a mile. this awe-inspiring work of Nature is seen through a for hours the seething water. when. all parts or rapids. Petersburg. grinds into small fragments the empty watch barrels that are thrown into it for at the last edification of visitors. The fall is not perpendicular.222 RUSSIAN PICTURES.

shipped from the domain of Baron Nicolai. Trangsund Bay.FINLAND. appropriately terminate the labour of attempting to describe. the principal features of the great Russian empire. by pen and pencil. CENTRAL CIRCULATE CHILDREN'S ROOM . s now a town of seventeen thousand strand. where by taking the pretty canal route from Lauritsala. in in its port in Mon is miniature. both in Europe and in Asia. Its show place where the scenery of Finland timber. with a considerable trade is artificially represented Here we may being full of fine statuary and monuments. stands an old castle. 223 Viborg. the home park VIBORG CASTLE. Repos. or i- inhabitants. built in 1293. within a narrow compass.

108 the. 20 Rostof. Kouban district. 65 Olga. 166 Baltic provinces. Alupka. description of. 138. 97 Solghat. 115 Novgorod the Great. 154 . the. the. . province of. 77 . description. 152 Solombola Island. 148 Bakii. LIMITED. 151 in. . in Samarkand. 152 Akstafa. 52 Krestofski Island. 199 Boskunchak Lake. . 104 churches and monasteries. of. 21 Little Russia. . 157 Kakhety. in Kuntsevo. 44 47 Monastery of Alexander the Fortress. on Cathedral of Basil. 85 tron. 169 Novoselski. 55 Ivan the Terrible before Pskof. 157 people of. 124. 197 Turkestan. 56 Archangel. monuments of Peter Tsitrakhan. 122 Gunib. isthmus of. description of. 140 Perm. 23 White Sea. AT EKATERINO- Old Believers at Kern. 104 Nijni Taghil. . 104 Kremlin. 169 Tammerfors. 146 Chancellor. . 132 Kirghiz Steppes. 37 St. 165 Narva. . conquest of. description Elbruz. 129 Mishor. 138 Crimea. 78 Bells of. no ODESSA. Vologda. Church. 19 YALTA. martyrdom . 152 Stavropol. the. 154. . Pechersk Monastery. 32 Hermitage. 138 tombs in. 25 Isinglass. the trines of. 165 Archangel. 169 Ai Pctri. 49 . 59 Saratuf. 112 Ekaterinodar. Monastery of. Tchentchen. Andrew. 56 of.. 160 Great Russia. 115 Tsarskoe Se'lo. 146 Siberia. the. 143 Mz'hett. Stary-Krim. the. history. expedition Wierzbolow. 148 Tavastehus. St. tomb of. 200 Samarskaya Lake. description of. 139 . 114 JACOB RIVER. 152 Purtenite. halls of. 112 Kiakhta. 143 Ak-mesjid. 26 Rion. 160 EHzavetpoI. . description of. 115 Dukhobortsy. 153 Gori. 135 Pskof. 165 Askhabad. the. 32 Orlof of. 63 Ardon River. the town. . 25 sieges of. 201 Tartars of the Crimea. 160 Rornnove. 65 Pharnawaz. 28 Rybinsk. king of Georgia. the. . re- 80 . 181 Tomsk. 166 LADOGA LAKE. description of. . 47 Grandfather of the Russian Navy. 76 Kremlin. 167 Gurzuf. the. 168 Tver. 146 202 Chimkent. in Crimea. climate of. in Samoyedes. 221 Tchapars. Library. capture of. description of. . 84. 169 Delijan Pass. 115 Erivan. 196 Georgia. gold mines. Nevski Prospect. 27 Abkhases. 154. 94 Moravian Brethren at Sarepta. 108 Sygnak. 116-118 Azof. 152 Kharkof. 103 Sturgeon CATHERINE II. 90 . 53 Sevastopol. in Lithuania. convicts. 131 . 118 Ivan vi. 181 Torne. . . description of. 154 Bokhara. Mangup. 161 Ingur River. 154 Dunaburg. Russian pictures. the. 167 Alexandropol. 76 77 Chinese Town. of. 219 Verkhneudinsk. St. 187 ^ Bethany Monastery. the. . 115 Sary-Balak. 167 Tashkent. 160 its Tarn an. galia. the. Belfry of Ivan. 51 Yelagin Island. 154. 55 and . 81 the Terem.i. Valley of. 101 Vasa. 145 Eustace of Vilna. 56 Music. the. religious history of. Don. 153 Caviar.. 143 Alushta. Waterfall of. story of. 55 Sergi. the. 136 IDIOTCY. description of. 70 buildings of. 168 Tiflis. 1 20 135 Lesghians. 115 Miirmon Coast. . 158 SLAF. 95 ikon. . markets of. 82 . 64 Sougdidi. 179 Derekyuy. 50. Herat. . Pass of. Dubofka. 98 . 72 Niemen River. 121 . 116 Brahestad. Grebensky. 53 River. 161 Kovno. description of. . 222 Helsingfors. church architecture. 36 . 138 BAIDAR VALLEY. 168 NAHITCHEVAN. . 197 Telav. 33 . . WARSAW. Allied. 181 Ekatcrinenstad. 131 . 144 VALDAI. 146 Irghiz River. 60 Izmailovo. 24 Kremlin of. 118 the. 1 20 Swanny. dress of people. 95 Kuopio. 222 Kursk. the. 108. description of. 59 Kars. Geok-Tepc. 219 Ural Mountains. 25 Pugatchef. 219 the. the Tithes Church. 85 Red robes. fisheries of. of the Saviour. Cape. 59 Cheboksary. 198 Anthony. 35 . 222 of. 94 . 34 Kulikova. no Skiit. 143 Baikal. the. 108 history of. 101 .. 43 bazaars. 144 Amu-Daria. people of 122 MAIMACHEN. 169 Ekaterinoslaf. Khersonesus doors at. province of. Cathedral of the the AlabasAnnunciation. 157 Mil HI. 203 Khvalinsk. 174 . 185 manufacture of. 161 . 116 Kama River. 162 Gouria. the. . Orenburg. the. Kamyshin. 22 Riga. Bay of. people of. 101 UKRAINE. 70 Kremlin at. 222 Panticapa5um. 154 LONDON: WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. 147 Syr Daria. the. conversion of. province . . 23 Vladimir. 60 Russo-Greek Church. 181 Tobolsk. 157 Poland. the Black Prince. 144 Dimitri. 165 Alle River. 91 . 42 38 streets Transcaspian Railway. 53 Orel. Peter the . 28 Paijanne Lake. 179 Simbirsk. 20 GAMLA KARLEBY. 95 Tsaritsyn. 167 Kalmucks. 154 Monastery of the Trinity. 90 beggars in. 196 Kola. 103 . the. . 59 Utchan-su. 219 Gautier. Pityus. the. description of. 32 Orlof-Davydoff. . . 168 31. 120 Chersonesus. 101 209 to. 168 . history French in. 21 FINLAND. at Kherson. the. nego- Ararat. description White Russia. English factory at. the. ruins Circassia. 116 Tula. martyrdom Jyvaskila. 147 Batoum. 121 . 31 New Jerusalem Monastery. nt Pytzounda. 42 drojki 42. 144 HAPSAL. 116 Kalmytski Bazaar. Museum . description of. Isaac's. Karaim. . the. 60 Howard. 80 Granovitaya Palace. expedition of. description of. voyage on. 48 Nevski. in Russia. 160 tiations with Elizabeth. Ossets. description of. . 45 Bjorneborg. fishing. description of. Turcomans. the. 106 of. 106 . Bay of. 88. defeat of. AA RIVER. Cheremshansk. 88 . 168 Kazan. 20-23 . 56 Kolomenskoe. 149 Jews. 164 Demidoff mines. 135. 112 Irkutsk. description of. 143. . . 168 Phasis. description of. John. Vasili Ostrof. 22 Jews' fortress. 59 Sarepta. Russia. 24 bell of. 136 Nicon. 165 Ermak. Kayan Cathedral. use of. 50 31 Petersburg. 74. . 59 Samara. Rd. 168 Basil. provements 88 . 24 TAGANROG. 153 Cossacks. 144 Merv. the. So Dorpat. 40 drivers. 204 Poltava. Lake. . 219 Black Sea Cossacks. of. 169 Molokane". 174 political history of. 158 Ingush. 221 . sacred at. in Stenka Razin. White City. 70 Novocherkask. 144. 221 Taoul mountaineers. the. of. and Alexander. the. 112 . Valley of. Count. 151 Terek River. Russia Company. Inkerman. 162 . Kour River. 197 Michaelofski. 167 Schlusselburg.INDEX. 65 Kizyl Arvat. 203 Orlof diamond. 19 Vilna. . 168 Armenia. 78 . 137 m Chernozem. 124 Vladikavkaz. 149 Kasbek. Sophia. STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 136 Caucasus. 168 Heinola. the. 223 Vilia River. 21 welcomes Chancellor. 169 Kul-Oba tomb. rebellion of. 82 . of. 218 Agriculture in Holmogory. 164 Alazan. the. 86. description of. 101 ST. 95 Moscow. 176. no Neva River. 154. description 130 : Cathedral of St. Great's Gallery. 160 Ph'tchavy. 53 167 Darial Pass. 120 Kikeneis. the. 198 Cathedral of the Assump84 tion. defeats Tartars. the. 28 Perecop. 134 Kherson. 129 Ekaterinburg. conquest of. 63 Solovetsk. 167 Sympheropol. 59. 56 Jehoshaphat. 132 . 118 Cemeteries. Jews 74 Oka Stretna. conversion of. history of. 31 diamond. 37 . 112 Cheremyssi. 157 PADIS CLOISTER. NICHOLAS. the. description of. 200 Schamyl. 157 Abo. 112 Kief. grave of. 19 Wirballen. 179 Peter the Great founds Petersburg. &c. 185 Viborg. 196 Astrakhan. 161 . 50 Anglican Church. Rion River. death of. 116 Kivatch. 149 21 John of Vilna. history of. 71 Nicolaef. 162 Tiumen. 94 Koshtan-tau. 136 Khiva. 169 Volga. 60 94. Nenocksa. 59 ZAPOROGUE. in Russia. 179 Nobel's Town. 167 Lithuania. Prince. the. Sophia at. dangerous situation Winter Palace. 52 gardens of. imin. 90 Romanoff House. 52 Peterhof. 86 German colonies. Petrofski Park and Palace. description of. 196 Troitsk osavsk. 151 Jesuits. description of. 158 Sourakan. doc128 Sukharef Tower. the. 43 Imperial Public Anitchkoff Palace. 143 Kysty. 40 . Church of Abridges. the. Tatars defeat Kumyss. 188-192 Tushines. 20 Temple Hills. 151 187 Elton Lake. 27 MIety. 92 Sparrow services of. -222 KABARDINES.. 53 Mingrelia. Vitebsk. 49 character of. 185 Bakhchisarai. 114 Kanin. 52 Petrofsk. 222 Imeritia. the. 19 Kristinestad. CENTRAL CfRCULATI CHlLUHEN'S ROOM . 19 Nijni Novgorod. martyrdom of. Monastery of. 134 St. 187 Troitsa Monastery. Cathedral of St. Chuvash. 169 Petrozavodsk. 144 Pavlofsk. galley slaves. 108 Kertch Collection. the Patriarch.Karthen City. 140 Cronstadt. 26 Balaclava. 165 Karaim. 143 Yaroslav. 168 Ostrof. manufacture of. description of. 97 Bible. description of. 33 Kertch. in Massandra. 167 Souram. 28 DAGHESTAN. the. 84 Cathedral of Archangel Michael. description of. the. 28 Hefsurs. . Lahtis. 167 Tedjen. 127 . rebellion Streltsi. the. 167 Tepe-kerman. 157 RADZIVILL. 170 natives of. 219 66. bridges. 55 Peipus Lake. 23 Dvina. . Russian charity for. Rembrandt Gallery. 23 EASTER IN RUSSIA. 33 pictures . 202 Syzran. 85 Square. 214 French invasion of Russia. 80 of. Kertch collection. 39. 220 at. province of. UleSborg. 138 Novorossisk. 162 Koutais. 65 Onega. 152 Symvolon-limen. 65 Oranienbaum. 87 Imatra. Etchmiadzin. Black Sea. 55 at. 86 . 124 Olonets. 25 Pskova River. 69. Great Palace. 165 Eupatoria.

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