AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. PREFACE. R. be number of pages is the same. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. The ancient illuminations that head the chapters of this volume have their It will be seen that been copied from M. and from the Arctic uniformly limited. and Finland. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. ST. the country dealt with large or small. the Ocean The to the 'frosty Caucasus. and Pencil Series will remember that their contents is ' volume Indulgence must. PETERSBURG. therefore.N. be claimed for the unavoidably incomplete character of a work that attempts to sketch by the aid of both pen and pencil the lands and peoples embraced in so vast an area as that which stretches from Poland to Kamchatka. for his friendly contribution of a chapter on the Crimea and Caucasus. THE are object of this of the Russian ' volumes of the Pen to represent graphically the salient features Readers of the previous Empire and its inhabitants. the author are also due in a special degree to Captain J. Poland. character was the tenth preserved through century purely Byzantine . Buchan Telfer.' execution of this task has been facilitated by the generous per- mission of Mr. Boutoffsky's Ornement Ritsse. John Murray to draw upon the information contained in the The thanks of Handbook for Travellers in Russia. on which he is a high and well-known authority. and..

J. 1698. Hence. but also. religion. gardens. Russia. or to depict. have not They have been the natural which Russia acquired so late in her had political life. among a nation guided for the most part merely by instinct. which was gradually much influenced by the art of India and Persia. statues. and consequently hurried on from one extreme to another. especially that part situated in Europe. the more remote the manners. while at the end of the eleventh century the Byzantine style began to be mingled in Russia with elements of native genius. they may deserve our particular observation at this juncture By Dr. at a time for a good part the printing press was already an active force. when only the area of the modern Russian Empire presents itself for consideration. the more. The foreign criticism and animadversion to which Russia has been liable since the produced by consequence of the days. him accurate. In short. and policy of the Italy Muscovites are from other nations of Europe. the hope is not forbidden that the book produced in these circumstances may not only please the eye of the reader into whose hands it falls. so far from being a terra incognita. the work may be introduced to its readers somewhat apin the words of an English writer at the end of the propriately seventeenth century 'Tis true.PREFACE. that the Russian bees have ever since been toiling under the guidance of" gifted and ambitious rulers to build up the colossal fabric we view to-day with an amazement which is not unmingled with disquietude. been great Reformer. anything by pen and great position pencil that will not appear to a large class of readers to be more or less a rhhanfft of other travellers' notes and artistic labours. of time. has been the subject of such numerous literary productions that it is well nigh impossible to say. and cities of Russia in both Europe and Asia. Crull. and other niceties as that of variety nevertheless. the more abstruse their history and surprising in the event. ' ' : . had become when ' ' It is therefore as in a glass hive comparatively easy and free from danger. . lands.' 1 I say. Nevertheless. more especially of its racial or religious prejudice. add something peoples. by giving if somewhat scanty. London. and when intercommunication with the rest of Europe. in the eyes and under the keen observation of states that of form been more or less and the solidified and in the advanced long spirit their civilization and government. this relation will not afford the same beautiful of structures. and of the next. to the interest he may already take in the subject. when the wall that had surrounded Muscovia had been considerably breached. Dedication to The Antient and Present State of Muscoiy. Russia received its first strong impulse from Peter the Great. information about the history. by sea and by land.

. Vilna 21 18 Moscow .. in the Imperial Frontispiece Library. Petersburg . MS. St.. 19 Views in Riga .. Petersburg St.. ... 7 IO EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. Views 31 in and around Petersburg at . in the Imperial .. Century... in the Imperial Public Library. .. Petersburg .. IN THE LIBRARY OF CONTENTS AND The LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . An Illumination from a Russian MS. Voronej .. St. Moscow Map of Russia in Europe .. . . 36 The first Fleet built by Peter the Great The English Quay. of the Fourteenth Century. 44 49 51 The Fortress of Schliisselburg 54 . . Public Library. Petersburg Peter the Great St.. in the Public of Alexander I. of the Twelfth Lithuanian Peasant 24 27 Museum.BYZANTINE ORNAMENTATION OF THE TENTH-ELEVENTH CENTURY. Public /<y' in the 5 5 a Manuscript Byzantine Ornamentation of the Tenth-Eleventh Century.. . PETERSBURG. .. from Library of the Synod... .. III. teenth Century. Isaac's 38 41 Plan of St.. St. . The Emperor The Empress of Russia of Russia page 14 15 CHAPTER WESTERN Russian Sledging and Coursing An Illumination from a Russian or Thirteenth .. St.. FROM A MANUSCRIPT THE SYNOD... . MOSCOW... An Illumination Fortress and Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. Petersburg from a MS. Petersburg of the Four- 30 St.. An Illumination from a Manuscript of the Thirteenth or Fourteenth Century. CHAPTER I. Petersburg Preface . St.. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL: The Column St.. II.. Cathedral. ST. RUSSIA. Petersburg page .

THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA... 1553 Archangel . . Modern Tartars of 114 116 . A Nun collecting Money for A South Russian Woman a Convent 127 from a MS. The Kremlin Wall. . . Holy 75 75 75 75 at Izmailot. An old Church at . 69 70 71 The Great Palace. .. Sergius) Monastery 96 CHAPTER A VI. near Cathedral. V. 137 . in tage 57 61 64 CHAPTER Illumination from a Psalter of the Thirteenth Century. of the Fourteenth Century.CONTENTS.... Moscow . Century. at Holmogory. 125 Nogai Tartar An Itinerant Shoemaker... . . . 107 the Volga Astrakhan Boat Dog Sledge with Fish.. . in the Library of the Synod. Moscow The Crown of Monomachus Cathedral of St. Basil.. at Kief. MS. . VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA... near Moscow Moscow . New Jerusalem. Moscow. 77 79 So Si Novgorod The Monument at Novgorod commemorating the Thousandth Anniversary of the Empire The Patriarch Nicon The Church in the Monastery of the New . . Nijni Novgorod Nijni .. .. . Money for .. . Nicholas. Astrakhan .. Moscow . ... RUSSIA... A Novgorod Russian Trader with his Tea Urn . .. 93 93 93 93 94 Church of St. of the Fifteenth Century.... An The Kremlin. or New Jerusalem. 129 133 135 120 121 A Ploughing on the Steppes Peasant Girl of Great Russia . . in the Sacristy of the Monastery of St. .. Landing of Richard Chancellor the White Sea.. CHAPTER An Illumination from a IV. .. . .. ..123 .. Moscow - A Peasant collecting Jerusalem Plan of the Church in the Sepulchre General Patrick Gordon Officers of the Streltbi exact copy of the original Church of the The Streltsi of Streltsi of a later . Lady . Date The Troitsa (St. . . Sergius. . . . The Great Bell : On . . 119 CHAPTER SOUTH An Illumination VII... "7 .. . .. Moscow One of the Porches of the Troitsa Monastery Cathedral of St. New Jerusalem 1613 72 Monastery The Old Clothes Market.. .. in the Library of the Monastery of the Resurrection. .. 73 an 74 The Romanoff House The Sukharef Tower Church of the Nativity ... Pokrofski Village. at Moscow Church of the Virgin of Kazan.......... . . A Ancient Pirate Raid on the Volga Cossack of the Volga 1 A Tartar An "3 ... 1 10 12 Fourteenth Monastery of the Kazan Views in . . An 98 99 105 Moscow ... near Moscow page 56 The Solovetsk Monastery . MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. .102 . A Introduction of Christianity into Russia ..... Sophia at Novgorod the Great . .. Moscow Russian Peasants near Kuntsevo .... Moscow 66 67 the Belfry the Ivan Veliki Tower.. 83 SO 88 89 a Church or . -91 92 ... .. Tartar An Illumination from a MS. ... The Pechersk Monastery The Battle of Poltava . . Library of the .. .. in of the Thirteenth or the Mosque at Kazan ...

Tartar Bride and Bridegroom . of the Fifteenth Abo 214 215 Cathedral Century. 185 186 CHAPTER CENTRAL An Illumination from a MS. 160 161 161 Imeritian Noble wearing the Imeritian Lady . . Turcoman Women A Tekke Village Tekkes Samarkand The Grand Minaret.. near Kertch page 152 Feats of horsemanship by Cossacks of the Caucasus 156 A Mingrelian Peasant 158 A Village in Svanneti 159 Inkermann .. An Illumination from a in IX... . . CHAPTER SIBERIA. Crimea 141 Yalta 144 . . .. . from a MS. Warsaw Kamenets. Khiva 203 I9S 197 198 199 202 iSS 189 191 A Khirghiz Bride of the Khanates Map . FINLAND. Tobolsk ... . Moscow .. .. 145 147 Batoum com149 An An .. . A 171 Siberian Gold of Siberia Mine Saint Sergius. from a MS.. Warsaw. of the Twelfth Century. .. .. Kara'im Jew . with . 218 220 222 223 . .. . (at . Moscow . in the Imperial Public Library. An Illumination from a MS. in the . Entrance to the Tomb of a Scythian King. . Tunguz Girls . .. Petersburg page 140 Mount St. of the Fifteenth Siberian Convict . Tim's 163 ... in Library of the Troitsa Monastery.212 213 the back of the Saxony CHAPTER An Illumination XII.. . .. .... St.170 173 Map . . . Ostiaks Spinning and Nursing . . . . The Church 204 205 208 of the Holy .. MS. of the Tenth or Eleventh Century.. . Vladimir. . 174 ... THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.... the Library of the Monastery 01 . .. . ASIA. The Burning A Siberian Merchant in Winter Travelling Dress 175 of Irkutsk in 1879 Gilyaks in Winter Costume on the Lower Amur . Library of the Troitsa Monastery In the Lazienki Park.. . CHAPTER An Illumination VIII..CONTENTS. . . 151 Georgian Ladies Naphtha Wells at Baku . Kiakhta .. . n the Public Rumiantsoff Museum. The Iron Gate Market Garden) . Moscow Helsingfors . . . . .164 166 . University in the background . Papanaky . . Cross... . .... X.. in Podolia tury. .. The Cathedral of St.150 . . . of the Fifteenth Cen. ... 177 Century. in 179 i^o 182 184 Lake Baikal Winter .. 210 . ... Bakhchisarai .... . . . . Finlanders Finnish Fern Gatherers Viborg Castle . . The Mosque Kokan 192 of Hazret-i-Turkestan CHAPTER XL POLAND.. pleted at Khersonesus A A . . Peter.. recently .. Polish peasants.

.10 15LoncT itudeEast25fr'>mGrecmvicl. MAP OF RUSSIA IN EUROPE. Sr.35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 35 50 Typo KtOiins Co.

and about one quarter of its entire superficies.314. and which fails to is reach the Atlantic only by the interposition of the kingdom of Norway. EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. with a population almost three times Russian of the is now under the that which sceptre. the remainder being more or less permanently settled in Asia. in 1886. an estimated population of one hundred and nine millions. eastern limits are on the Pacific Ocean. was spread over an area of over two million square miles in Europe. IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. ST. already covered with 1 7.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MANUSCRIPT OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY. CHAPTER I. before the latter is carried westward across Central Asia to the confines of . exceeded only by the magnitude of the British empire as large as (9. one seventh part of the land surface of the globe. from Behring Straits down to Its the frontier of the Chinese empire. the Russian empire had. on territories measuring about six and a half million square miles.000 OCCUPYING miles of railway.000 square miles). which forms also its southernmost boundary. PETERSBURG. of which eighty-four per cent. sway On the north the Russian empire has an arctic coast-line that embraces more than one hundred and forty degrees of longitude. The vastness of these combined possessions.

and in their northward Great. important part with regard to the entire race. into territory that later became the dominion of the first centuries after Christ they were cut Novgorod During woods and marshes. the Slavs extended eastward the Dnieper. call To this it Vene? From the the Vistula. the Grand Duchy of Finland is conterminous with Norway and Sweden. while in the eleventh and twelfth centuries Vender. inhabiting the country beyond as the Veneti . the Scandinavian name for the same people the Philanders know Russia only as Venaja. or by deadly Except in Poland. on the Caspian (practically a Russian lake). Cyril and Methodius preached the gospel in their mother tongue. 79) as the the Vistula. few of their The other mass followed the course of and became known as the South Slavonians. on the opposite side of the Baltic. of the Slavs south of the Baltic is Winedas or Weonodas. in the early part of the ninth tribes. the Slavs made a late appearance on the stage of history. and was day their racial brethren. These have played an Servians. Whether from external pressure. by Dr. Turkey. countries with which the empire also comes into close contact. : We and Scandinavia. Croatians. On the west. or from an inherent nomadic tendency. or the Wends. and on the Black Sea. One mass crossed the Vistula. they began soon after their short-lived subjection to the Goths (in the third or fourth century) to spread themselves to the west in two distinct streams. where the to earliest historical records the locate them. the Danube. The dominant population of Russia Proper is Slavonic the Slavs or Slavonians having been a branch of the Aryan or Indu-European race. and the Teutonic tribes ' designated their early eastern neighbours as the Winecid. Bulgarians. the Esthonians. from the events which at that period disturbed the greater part of Europe. off. Settled in a country so remote from the centres of Greek and Roman culture.12 RUSSIAN PICTURES. struggle with the Roman empire. down to the Elbe. inasmuch as they were the link between early Christianized civilisation and their own kindred heathen It was to the Danubian Slavs that. composed of and Slovens.D. and populated the tracts between the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic. Vilhelm Thomsen. 1 use largely the best work on the subject The Relations between Ancient Russia the Origin of the Russian State. while the modern kingdom of Roumania has become a neighbour on the lower course of the Danube. They are referred . of which it holds the northern and eastern shores from the Danube to Batoum. Persia and to by Pliny the elder (A. and Moravia. after which the Baltic and Polish Provinces establish contiguity to the empires of Germany and Austria. and . century. by which the greater part of Europe has been occupied from time immemorial.' Tacitus mentions them Vcnedi. descendants survive. Bohemia. of Copenhagen. who In King Alfred's Orosius the Anglo-Saxon designation survive in Lusatia. in succession to a previous German element exhausted by internecine conflict. severally.

as well as A. warring more and more among themselves as their numbers multiplied or as they approached each other's territorial confines. the greater (a designation that long remained unknown) was peopled the Slavonic tribes Their power was. North of the Slavs of Novgorod were the CJihd or Finnish tribes that spread around the Gulf of Finland and the Lake of Ladoga. and by hordes of Tartar or Turkish origin more or less by nomadic in their habits. the centre of modern Russia Proper. . however. whose capital. of all in the alphabet composed a few the Slav by Cyril and Methodius. Between northern find 969. One of the most important of those tribes was that sketching. thus find that We in the ninth century the extensive country we are dealing with was peopled by a number of ethnologically unrelated heathen tribes. and the Vcs. It is only the latter tribe that . now century of the Christian era a number of rude and yet they tribes around Lake with Ilmen. the a The same is language. the Volga and the Slav territories. but divided into of the Poliant. of the We ancient first hear in Nestor's 2 Chronicle of the Slavs the home. ago. dwelt the Finnish tribes. independent Novgorod as a capital. had reached. appertaining to it. at Beyond part of ' these ' Russia Finnish tribes. together with the Lett and Lithuanian races to the south of them. 2 earliest monkish historian of Russia. crushed. in until centuries nations. or Czech.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.' which by the spread of Christianity was. and nearest their boundaries became tributaries to them. some of them extant on our voyage down the Volga. Nestor asserts that the Slavonian and Finnish Russian To The day anyone acquainted with the modern language has no difficulty in understanding a Bulgarian. written slightly varied form. principal limits of the primitive Slav world. by the Rurik princes. still used in the services of the Russo-Greek Church. patriarchal form of these this circumstances government. and near the sources of the Volga. We shall Those who occupied absorbed lands nearest to the race. completely excluded the Slavs from the Baltic and the waters by the Slavonic the Mcria. Slavs on their eastern side have long been and survive only in name as the Muroma. and having each a In 1 primitive. throughout the part of what is now Russia. the period in question.D. vernacular. without any common political tie. in the basin of the Oka. the ' 13 old 1 Slavonic. The most redoubtable of the latter the Khazars had in the latter half of the seventh century formed on the Volga a State ruled from a city near the site of modern Astrakhan. Servian. history which joins the Volga at Nijni Novgorod. later played so great a part in Russian while the easternmost Slavs were the Viatichi. and who. Gradually. with Smolensk as their chief settlement. the Dvina. He part records that even in the western who remained in their country we are engaged in ninth were not a nation. Kief. the greater part of Southern 'Russia' fell into their hands. and the Dnieper.

in accordance with the law of Their adoption of the Greek Odelsret. but there is no order in it that another Thomsen monkish legend V. A. us. penetrated inland. from Rhos or Rnss the clan to which he belonged.' over points out. Dr. 864.RUSSIAN PICTURES. had become essentially Slavonicized. then for the first time be called a Russian monarchy. and establishing himself. religion must have had some effect in estranging o o o them from their Roman Catholic brethren at home . of the Britons by whom the been only as a conqueror that Roric. however.D. at Novgorod. founded what could Clearly it could have THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA. a Slavonic name. from depredations they had already begun to suffer come ye and rule land is great and bountiful. and by the year 1000 the reigning princes who succeeded to the throne of Kief in priority of descent. The Scandinavian character of the ruling race at Kief was probably not Roric's grandson already bore preserved for more than a few generations. in the mouths places almost the same words Saxons were 'invited' to come over the sea. to send the following message to the Scandigroups of the north combined whose Our navians. ' : . sailing over in his viking ships to the south coast of the Gulf of Finland.

Vaeringjar] signified only the Scandinavian body-guard of the Emperor of Kyzantium. between the Princes of Kief and the country of their ancestors. Varangian thirteenth or fourteenth century to the Germans of the Hanse Towns. even at the close of the eleventh century. That intimate personal relations were maintained. Their son espoused a daughter of Ingo Strenkelson. whom its lucrative trade was absorbed.EXTENT AND ORIGIN OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. ' Novgorod long continued THE EMPRESS OF RUSSIA. is proved by the fact that in about 1070 Vladimir (Monomachus) married Gyda. . by to ' the north. '5 After the period to which we have brought down our observations. 1 Varangar (Old Norse : not Scandinavians in genera!. The term was later adopted by the Slavs in the form of Variag^ to denote Northmen.' or men from 1 keep up its character of a and its Scandinavian element gave way only in the city. the daughter of King Harold. after she had fled with her brothers to the Danish Court. the stream of settlers ceased to pour in from Scandinavia. but it had by that time deposited so strong a contingent that a contemporary writer describes the population of Kief in 1018 as consisting 'chiefly of Danes. King of Sweden.

the stove.' the title of Tsar. the first in Russia. now agreed that the legend of Vladimir Monomachus having received investiture at the hands of the Emperor Constantine and is a mere legend of fabricated in the reign of Ivan IV. we bring this chapter to a our rapid but extensive travels through the empire. sister of the Emperor Basil and Byzantine lore. or executed within recent times in Russia. was essentially Scandinavian or Teutonic in its principles. its laws. Paleologus. still prevalent in Norway. Russian historians are wife of Vladimir. compiled in the reign of Vladimir (tenth century). in lieu of the primitive law of vengeance and retaliation. .' and added to (or Prince) of Novgorod. Moscow. the Terrible (1534-1584) found himself ' the position of being able to take at his coronation. Dr. (1462-1505) who assumed the title of Grand Duke and all Russia. as the representative of the extinct imperial line. or such words than the learned professor has cited. as the Norse Russian for is still. under the name of Wercgcld. begin to the 1 close. Until that catastrophe occurred. It was Ivan III. converted into Vira in Slavonian. with which criminals were punished origin. or whip. is derived from the old Norse or We have indeed found in Norway many more Swedish knut-r a knot. (1505-1534) absorbed the principalities that had remained independent of Moscow.' covered in the Russian language a host of words (principally for household objects in incipient civilized life) that are unmistakably Scandanavian in their Even the word knut. Having thus sketched the development consolidation Russia down age of Peter the Great. Thomsen gives a long list of proper names of Scandinavian root which long survived the Slavonicization of the He has also disRuss. He was well read in Autocrat of all the Russias. through Anne. Thus it introduced. and its internal government. penalties or compensation for manslaughter. The first Russian code of laws. Vladimir. Russia had followed the general European path of civilization and development in its social life. This was the origin of the Russian Udel system. to whom he sent a costly present of sable skins. petch. Vasili III. the first Christian Prince of Kief. his arms the double-headed black eagle. under which the successors of Roric fought amongst themselves for the paramount throne and facilitated by their dissensions the occupation of Russia by the Tartars during two centuries. for hearth or oven. and survived more especially at Novgorod and Pskof (in the form of Republics).1 6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. For instance. and Czar is a corrupt German spelling of the title. pctchka. We have already alluded to the law of Odel.' and in ' 1 ' and desired to be recognised by the Patriarch of Constantinople. after his marriage with Sophia His successor. pcis. Even the Saxon Witenagemotes had been reproduced under the Slavonic name of Veche. and his son Ivan IV. of the imperial Byzantine blood. until the Russian sovereign ' power was concentrated at Moscow.



Kovno. At partition of Poland (1/95). in a fertile and pleasantly accidented its present squalor. by a in it 13S6. in united with the that third kingdom in 1401. dynastically joined require ' to be reminded. OF THE TWELFTH OR THIRTEENTH CENTURY. majority of British and American travellers bound for Petersburg.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. Prettily situated at the confluence of the Vilia with the great Niemen River. Kingdom of Poland. We station of Wierzbolow or Wirballen. separates glimpse of the blue and gold dome of a Russo-Greek church.' Even at Kovno. and finally 1569. that we are in But geographically we are only in a province of the Holy Russia. when we cross the brook Instead ot these we catch a two great empires. but in the beyond. sixty to the Crown of Poland venerable Duchy of Lithuania. and their trim avenues suddenly their neat homesteads. their well- which the demand for our passports. London from and in about fifteen hours more enter the Russian Empire at the frontier LIKE the great St. Muscovite ancient on not we are miles ground. we miss kept roads. which we reach can proceed the same night in about twenty-four hours. IN THE PUBLIC MUSEUM. notwithstanding last stronghold of paganism in c 2 . CHAPTER WESTERN II RUSSIA. inhabited chiefly by Poles and Jews. Dreary as we may have found the of poplars. and scarcely plains of East Prussia. incorporated with Lithuania fell to the share of Russia. our first objective point is Berlin. MOSCOW. is of interest as the district.

Paul at Kovno. the last mementos of the extinct but once paramount authority which had been wielded by pagan high priests over the greater part of the country between the Baltic and the Carpathians. Ten miles beyond it. : Passing junctions of lines that lead severally to the port of Libau.' We may add that out of eight hundred guns. the largest architecture. Strife and warfare. and its encourage a break in the journey. George while the chapel of St. on the Catholic church. the moon-god. amongst hills that rise to not very apparent from the large and handsome attractions not being in other respects sufficient to we must be content to read in ' ' Murray . recrossed the frontier numbering 70. days. we halt of the Lithuanians in happier for refreshment at Vilna. now years after its stands a Roman end of the fourteenth century. a chronicler of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. the capital of the Kingdom of Poland. Peter and St. the Lithuanian grand dukes. in rounded by rays and of Pikol. the ' ' The beauty of its situation is the east.000 men. Roman like Catholic edifice in Lithuania. Dusburg. in Baltic. and forced its inhabitants to accept the religion of Christ. the church of St. having power the form of a beardless youth over death and misfortune. with a white band round his head. was dedicated in the fifteenth century. .20 AUSSSAJV PICTURES. which was burnt sceptre. messengers. the gocl of springs. the Poles. in which the Teutonic knights. to In 1812 the town was devastated and pillaged have existed since 1503. or foundation. and the Russians. and to Warsaw. sources and fertility. the sun-god. south and west.000. and we shall later find a good display of them within the Kremlin at Moscow. later for political objects. are mixed up to a degree that will not admit of any clear account within the limits of these pages. on the Vilia River. Russia was invaded by an army numbering 700. and therefore represented as a grey-headed old man of deathly pallor. the whose ultimate disastrous retreat is commemorated in the French. relates that niches in the sacred oak of ancient Romnove contained effigies . have not permitted the survival of any very ancient remnants of The church of St. in the neighbouring province of Courland. Gertrude is known . the Little Paris and town a Russian now the chief of province of the same name. his whose iron when produced by when Boleslas of Poland invaded Prussia in 1015. resided at a more ancient place of the same name Romnove in East Prussia. on the site of a sacred until the grove within which the pagan worshippers maintained a perpetual fire until Their chief priest. by 'In following inscription on a monument which stands in the market-place The army 1812. secured the implicit obedience of pagan kings and princes. railway station. of Perkun. Only eighty years ago. originally in the name of the true faith. they were driven from their last and holiest shrine. on the River Alle. and one which held out three hundred Niemen. only nine were carried back by the French. with a red face sur- of Petrimpa. could be seen erect some of the sacred oaks of ancient days. Europe.

Sustained as it was by the advice after seceding from the Church of Rome. at the fire antiquity. John. by Anthony. Nicholas. and part of The remains of the kindred in race to the Slavs. ' Count D. Eustace.' at Yilna. Samogitia. crowns The Castle the of hill worship in days of remote which an octagonal red brick foot of which a fire was kept Roman Catholic uninterruptedly burning until the triumph of Christianity. Vilna now of as the province is. their prince in Courland were first faith. of Greek orthodoxy in the present north-west provinces of Russia. tower still Jagellon remains. under Olgord. and the personal visits of the Patriarch of Constantinople. l>y the late Count D. ambassador from the (1517-1526). . notwithstanding of the that the inhabitants not the provinces of Vilna. They assert that even in the reign of King Stephen Bathory (15/5of worship in that city. Tolstoy. 1586) there were already thirty Russo-Greek places their time there and that the most illustrious houses in Lithuania belonged to that confession. to the effect that were more Russian than Roman Catholic churches in Vilna. and of Alessandro Guagmno. Ivan III.WESTERN that this RUSSIA. Tolstoy points with pride to the Lithuania by Russians at a period fact that the Gospel was brought to when Latinism was completely unknown. also was a centre of heathen (1323). 'the Miracle Worker. the testimony is adduced of Baron Emperor Maximilian. the fourteenth century. Italian officer in the military service of Poland (1560). 1874. an in of Germany Herberstein. whose Grand Duke. and killed the martyrs of Lithuanian idolaters.. had married the 1 History of Romanism in Russia. In further corroboration of such a wide and early establishment VILNA. and partly by the inlluence of Muscovy. repose in the church of St. Grodno.

established since 1539 in Poland. and gave their churches. the rites and doctrines of the Greek Church could be preserved. for it.' pillaged their own churches. and that it was impossible to find one among them who could translate the works of St.22 RUSSIAN PICTURES. often Russian noble of the period states that the clergy of that faith passed their time in drinking-houses. Senate soon became composed almost enthusiasm that the Lithuanian disputed. John Chrysostom into Slavonic. exclusively of Calvinists and Lutherans. The famed Teutonic knights had in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries done their best by violence to introduce Romanism into Lithuania . Lithuania was flooded with Jesuits. the authority of the bishops The Reformation The upper classes were ready towards the middle of the sixteenth century. notwithstanding the proclamation of the union of the Latin and Greek Churches by the Council of Florence in 1438. vindicated and exercised the right of filling the episcopal This led to the disorganisation of the Latin clergy and religious sees.' Thirty years of Lithuania were professed en masse. and by the great nobles. the inhabitants not contrary to the Roman Church. at the same time. who thereupon proclaimed the union of the two Churches. as a measure of conciliation. the year 1632 there was not a single ' Having suppressed the Reformation. however. powerful protector 1563. ' in so far as they were . and libraries to the Jesuits. under which. Vast estates were gradually conferred upon the King of Poland. passed over to Romanism. which was a few years later raised a university. the Jesuits attacked with increased activity the Russo-Greek Church established in the outlying Polish provinces. By Dissenter' in the Polish Senate. later. orders. the great noble families having already left the Greek Church and embraced Romanism. drove the ministers of the Reformed Church from the estates which they held. and submitted their Church to the pope. was only when Jerome of Prague visited the country (in the fifteenth The pope then century) that Rome began to achieve some success. and Moscow was absorbed by her own disastrous affairs. The Greek priesthood was. who established. of Even the Prince Nicholas at Radzivill the Black. daughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania. who. in Calvinists. in a very degraded position. been printed in the Polish language. the whose expense the Bible had. The Roman Catholic clergy being unable from venality and disunion to struggle against the Reformation. who re-entered the the Church. Some of their bishops were ' A gained over. at the dawn of the sixteenth century. and by the liberty It was accepted with such of the press. a college at Vilna. printing presses. without the preassumed the right of nominating and confirming bishops but it liminary consent of the Kings of Poland. both as a result of the preaching of John Huss. Constantinople was distant. in to the dignity of them by pale of 1570. appointed by the king being frequently movement found Lithuania in this condition. the Greek Church held its own.

Swedes. the original combatants have disappeared or been rendered powerless.. banks. politically. after a gallant defence.' the total number of sick and wounded abandoned by the King the of Naples having been 20. and in Lithuanians. rises in iron-lattice between after St. connected. and in 1/94 it fell to the It was the centre of the French Russians.WESTERN RUSSIA. recently disasters overtook insurrection of 1831. laid to the account of are in We ' now ' the ' ' ' . and. The memory Episcopal of Napoleon's occupied the is Palace. like the rest of the country through which we have passed. condition ' more than months. together with the tortuous stream Riga. Teutonic knights. mere variety of wild fowl sandy swamps is tenanted by storks. occasionally accelerated about miles. with records of strife and bloodshed. Tartars. In 1708 it was occupied by Charles XII. and Russian princes. and the second the western of protecting are intended to render impossible an inimical occupation of the main lines . the city was plundered and destroyed in the seventeenth century by Swedes. ancient provinces. dimmed by of a the recollection of his ignominious in little flight in disguise from five the Grand Army. for at navigated only by barges light draught which we momentarily see as we move on towards the great railway junction (with Riga on the one hand.000. Poles. and which falls into running sluggish course. when he the residence of the Governor-General. Russians. later. or. when General Mouravieff sternly carried out irom Vilna the measures which averted a threatened dismemberment of the empire. we notice some other After much suffering in wars with stirring events in the history of Vilna. and Cossacks. and Muscovites.' as distinguished from province of Little Great and Russia. snipe. 650 by rapids. have left many traces in the history of Diinaburg. Although. The tide of the battle the struggle for political dominion in these for Christendom. operations in 1812. Petersburg and a Moscow. to the rabble piled like pigs of train. like the Volga and the Dnieper. explanatory of the present predominance of Roman Catholicism. which had been reduced. finally ceded by the Poles to Russia in 1/72. this shallow and dotted with islands that become in spring. when they joined the An imposing hills. leaving in one hospital alone 7. Except towards its mouth. now triumphal entry into Vilna. More Polish 1863 and 1864. and of every other the White Russia. to use modern terminology. however. line of defence frontier of Russia. Teutonic knights. which. and now one of her most important fortresses.500 corpses lead one above the other. 23 After this digression on the ecclesiastical history of Lithuania. over the the Valdai the Baltic bridge next takes the train at a solemn pace Western Dvina. in the province of Vitebsk still. the new interests and combinations that have supervened The works form part render the fortress of Dtinaburg of high importance. and Smolensk and Moscow on the other) at Dtinaburg.

Nicholas. and from Riga to Vitebsk. 955. Pskof. Groups of grey and tumble-down-looking log-huts. tallow. margins of forests of which bears. Witenagemotes. the vechd bell ring out. Detached homesteads are now of less and less frequent occurrence. 1501 the Lithuanians massacred 4000 of the inhabitants of Ostrof. Olga. on the model of our Saxon 1/7 Like Novgorod (the LITHUANIAN PEASANT. wolves. and elk. It is curious to observe that the earliest tions political institu- country were of a popular character. Pskof had its open-air t>ec/ic (Witenagemote). and in 1581 was captured by the famous Stephen it Bathory of Poland. in the province of Pskof. of which Pskof was the first Russian outpost. here that the famed vech bell in the church of the Holy Trinity was taken of the down Three in 1510. of of Moscow will these the Grand be Duchy absorption republics by in our account of We need the Great mention described only Novgorod. Formidable as a place of arms. Nevertheless. The fortress that existed here in the In fourteenth its three of century survives only in towers of grey and red stone. forming villages of melancholy aspect. who partially introduced into Russia the Greek religion. at which the citizens deliberated (on one occasion in their shirts) and exercised their right of electing and These had good cause for alarm when they heard deposing their princes. supposed to have been founded by St. and we learn that the broad cuttings through which we are conveyed are the railway from Warsaw to St. The city and its territories formed earliest of the Hanseatic in the period of the great trade with part League The gradual Germany. who a year later caused to be built the church of St. set up in the great square. which is reached at Ostrof. tell the traveller that he is already in Russia Proper. we are not yet beyond the reach of ancient Lithuanian and Polish depredation. emblematical of the majesty of the law. hundred of the most distinguished Pskovian families were at the . which she had embraced at Constantinople about A. and timber. Great) and Khlynof (now Viatka). Scarcely twenty-five miles beyond is one of the most interesting political centres of primitive Russia. amidst the wailings of the citizens over their lost freedom.RUSSIAN PICTURES.D. are still in possession. foundation of the Russian Empire. hemp. the town is also a centre of considerable trade in flax. of Petersburg. and saw the club (mace). sent by barge or rail to Riga. which is still extant. played an important part in the.

in which Olga raised at Pskof was destroyed by The tomb of of plain oak. when Ivan the Terrible of Moscow. Cathedral It of the built the Kremlin walls. in was in Trinity almost fills the space enclosed by 1682. but on both occasions the invaders were ultimately repelled. he abide St. appeared before the walls of Pskof. springs from their southern face. Such are the latest vicissitudes We well ' The huge style. is that to among his faithful Pskovians. in a chapel to the right of the altar screen.' offered him raw meat. pursued mendicancy in the guise. however. 25 same time removed to the dominions of Muscovy Proper. coffin Among is the a silver shrine with miraculous Its conspicuous of the numerous relics in this the remains of a godly prince who died in properties are assumed to be such that when the more Novgorodians. Struck with Ivan left the city precipitately.U'ESTERX RUSSIA. subjected. and in 1618 by Gustavus Adolphus. Dovmont. and exhorted him not to drink the blood of Christians.' constructed at the close of the thirteenth century. In 1581 Pskof was besieged by the Poles. 957. assumed rather than inherent. who. claimed his relics. even by the year 15/0. and ' his sword. being given to seize the idiot. as a token of submission. built in 1323. St. in the so-called Russo-Byzantine ' ' to an edifice raised in 1368. preceded by severally more especially hallowed by the fact that St. and forms a square on which once stood the castle of the reigning prince. But the ancient spirit of independence had not been entirely quenched. Capering about on a stick. without doing any harm to the terror. Olga built a church upon it succession A. after ravaging Novgorod. according fury by frequent examples in ancient as well as in modern Russia. while he was warning him of his death by lightning if he injured a single citizen. of an idiot. and replaced byian equal number of families of the trading class drawn from towns on the The Novgorodians had met with a similar fate thirty-two years Volga. the the sainted prince thereby fire signifying the original cross 1509. which again had been churches built in 1266 and Its site is. Unfortunately. he addressed the redoubtable monarch as 'Johnny. over could not be a desire whom had previously moved by human force. was used at the consecration of the Close by is the shrine of the sovereigns of Pskof in this cathedral. earlier. 1138.I). he suddenly and miraculously vanished. whose citizens he equally However. a Lithuanian chief elected Prince of Pskof. the city was saved from his suspected of treasonable designs. but to eat of the bread and salt to be On orders presented to him in the cathedral. may gaze Their base on the east and north is washed by the Pskova River. while Dovmont's Wall. old suspended near the tomb. but not before he had caused the horse of Ivan to fall. ruled. a to monk. and on the west by the Velikaya. inhabitants. to which the ancient city has been on its stout Kremlin walls. . . cathedral 1138.

D. although But this is a question of development perhaps somewhat too conservative. linseed. flax. vites. no doubt. One here A down Russian couple the of thousand ships of all annually. branch off again into the to the highest importance ancient activity of Lithuanian Teutonic knights. and being locally called reproduced in miniature in is the Dockc (which equivalent to the present Danish and Norwegian word dock in which suggests that we have here the origin of the The chairman of the Guild sat under in our own country. built by Bishop Albert in A. and must ever remain so. well be proud of the city of Riga. on ancient. Esthonia and Courland.26 RUSSIAN whose service to the to this city sainted Nicholas Salos. although half of its trade is with Great Britain. neat and solid.' Every institution is.000. railway enables us to reach from Pskof the Baltic Provinces of Russia. with a a quarter millions. rather than on new lines. and other native bring products of the Although not the least Russian. Poles. ' The empire may Livonia. in a land of farms and mansions. reaching again. at ancient municipal rights and privileges were guaranteed by the terms of that Commercially. as the second port in Russia. more or less mediaeval-German in aspect. with crenelated towers. and we monastery of Pskof Pechersk. the capital of Russia religion. stand prisoners Dockmann administered the affairs of the corporation the Docke. consisting of the Provinces of Livonia. marked out by tall poplars. and with a sea-board of population of more than two and Russian commerce. as advocated by ardent Russificators. ' ' ' ' . its population nations is only 1 70. have already seen in at discharge or Dunaburg the barges load that Dvina the grain. and as and other laws. in archways. one of the over will be found stone of the Holy Virgin. Riga. and all which. Russian in the country of good highways the since frontier. and of towns great and small. There is the massive castle. 1721 the official and judicial use of the German language. and we interior. Swedes. performed and a small in discomfiture of foes attach to chapel in opposite in the bazaar is in memory of citizens who fell many ancient and interesting monuments an point insurrection out more especially the fortified 1650. the Idiot. 1200. but fortunately for the inhabitants. in together with Esthonia.' we have already recorded. dating from the The effigy days when the Teutonic knights were paramount (1494-1515). was finally ceded by Sweden to The exercise of the Protestant the Peace of Nystad. Traditions several of miracles other churches. the sights at Riga are interesting. still Germanic. it There are also may re- nowned for its catacombs and for the sieges has sustained. the neighbourhood. including. and Musco- A We have space to say only that the civilisation and culture of those We are provinces is still undeniably German. the hall of the Great Guild. ranks capitulation. the trial of offenders against municipal for a doll).

WESTERN The Hall of the RUSSIA. the fourth equerry. all but the eyes and the nose. or groom. who was originally the VIEWS IN RIGA. Grand Master of the Livonian Order of 1/72) In the left Knighthood. it is asserted. lies 1271. their patron. many ancient relics of the in Moors' heads distinguish the pews of the Blackheads the order. which. Marie Josephine of Savoy. City South-west of Riga Mitau. wig. with the exof Duke ception of the coffin of Duke John Ernest Biron. ruffles. which. was built early in the thirteenth century. in order that patriotic Russians might have the opportunity of reviling their enemy. This city. the of Courland (incapital with Russia in corporated was founded in 1/95). so called from the device of a Moor's Saint Maurice.) of France. Most the coffins were closed and secured by iron hoops about forty years ago. and he actually requests visitors not to spit at the mummified body and thereby injure the well-preserved velvet clothing. The palace is also interesting from its occupation in 1 798 by Louis The (later XVIII. Grand Master and first (151 7-1587). they adopted as their honour of head. and contains among treasures of silver. The remains are perfect. books. the unworthy favourite of the Empress Anne of Russia. when in also its castle (rebuilt was erected by Conrad von Medem. Cathedral of St. heraldic distinction. and paintings. on the Aa River. and renovated in the sixteenth A letter from Luther to the Senate of Riga and a very ancient century. an ardent patriot broke with his clenched fist. grandson of an The German Duke of Courland. built in the thirteenth. beginning with Gothard Kettler. . &c. in ' ' Bible are the of proudest the possessions Library. and his Queen. to ordered by a were cicerone explains that remains the Prince Dolgorouki to be left exposed. of this historical wing edifice is the of the ancient mausoleum Dukes of the last Courland. Blackheads. Mary.

we founded town of Dorpat. the is a strikingly picturesque foundation archives collection of the town Hall. and enclosing and many houses of the ancient nobility. with its splendid waterfall and its prosperous manufacturing industry. twenty-three miles long at its to the it some distance on Reval. Rathhaus. in Ritterhaus. their eccentric host having suddenly made an alliance with Buonaparte. The environs are as pretty and as interesting as the town itself. by represented by a few ruins of the cathedral. who attended the French monarch on the scaffold. in a chapel of the palace. the Due d'Angouleme. connection old ' by rail with St. the finest in It was a Esthonia. on being liberated from the Temple. but we can only draw attention to the ruins of Padis Cloister. travellers caught sight on this journey of the arrive at the picturesque in but the railway now skirts navigable Peipus Lake. partly on foot. Working back by the same railway in the direction of St. or of Town the churches. on the top of a rock. at a distance of about twenty-seven miles from Reval. which is supposed to have been founded in 1030 by a Grand Duke of Novgorod. for Memel. dating from the a 1219. chapel attached to the Gothic. daughter of the unfortunate Louis XVI. Its Gothic features were destroyed Gustavus 1632 by Adolphus. perched object.28 RUSSIAN PICTURES. officiated. In old posting days. in mid-winter. and of great commercial importance since its . . a in fire and are 1598. and of Narva. The Guildhall of the Blackheads contains the One of the oldest is now ' ' Knights plate of is the Sword (a Livonian the order). Petersburg and the interior of the empire.. Its Danish castle. capital of Esthonia. the Baltic Brighton. Petersburg. when the royal exiles were compelled Emperor abruptly to leave. at which the Abbe de Firmont. This chapter must now be brought to a close with a mere mention of Hapsal. The hospitality thus offered by the Paul ceased in 1/92. came here to marry her cousin. great Several subsequent conflagrations modernised the town.' the cathedral. the seat of a university. one of the way prettiest places on the Baltic. Petersburg. famed monastery even in the early part of the fourteenth century. of silver interesting from many and a large English names of donors engraved upon one of the cups. while we speed on to St.



ST. it whose huge and heavy mass has Standing on the gallery under the dome of St. in succession to many previous floods. the rapid. ST.ILLUMINATION FROM A RUSSIAN MS. IN THE BIBLIOTHEQUE 1MPERIALE. long predicted. In danger to which the city has since been mainly exposed is inundation. the waters of the Neva rose thirteen feet four inches above their ordinary average level.' The crust itself in 'window' through which he is now secure enough. it is well resolute Tsar laid the foundations of his first buildings. weighted with the stones and rubble. CENTURY. Petersburg a still greater catastrophe of the same . as the site of the look into Europe. desired to ' 1/03. CHAPTER THE MODERN CAPITAL in : III. visibly sunk into the marshy subsoil. but treacherous. not to accept the possibility. 1824. of the Neva. RISING their surface Lake Ladoga. submerging the greater part of the capital. for it was well pegged down with the superimposed piles of wood on which the Besides. PETERSBURG. with which for many years he comThe chief pelled all carts and vessels coming to the new city to be laden. of St. Isaac's. Petersburg rests on a crust of soil which almost floats on the water-logged marshes selected the modern by Peter the Great. bear almost clear and on The main stream capital of the Russian empire. waters after flowing a distance of forty-two miles. is difficult being some day overwhelmed by kind. PETERSBOURG. OF THE I4TH. but the city of St. is confined within solid granite quays.

renowned in the more Portraits of soldiers of Russia. which. is the largest. apirs nous le dtlugc we have only to deal with the city as is. not only from but also from of the colossal character of its origin. of such great interest. that scarcely any capital in Europe is more described by pen and depicted by pencil. the great Palace. in the reign of the great Catherine. and oppresses the visitor with a feeling of insignificance. The the best edifices are imposing from immensity. set in so vast a frame. Field Marshals Hall. and to express a fervent hope that the dreaded combination of the : it now elements its never occur. in should endeavour to see which he died on the camp bed. . in purchased from an Armenian by Count Orlof.. composed mostly only nearly one million. and the impression of hugeness and desolation imparted to the traveller by the will vast open their spaces of which and wide rather streets. of all the known diamonds . an English artist of celebrity at St. as him to presented by the Pitt diamond of France is the most beautiful. it contains objects parison every other country in Europe. However. than are from beauty are of their architecture. on which stands the Winter which had consumed the interior 455 feet in length by 350 in breadth. his which bears name as by George Dawe. still covered with his military cloak. There is one small. may be considered as emblematical of the magnitude of the empire and of the power by which it is governed and held together. cover the walls of a large gallery and those of the In the Alexander Hall is a portrait of Alexander I. It is certainly a remarkable city. modern annals of Russia. of the 1839. plain room which the visitor adorn the Round Hall. The best starting-point for a tour of inspection is partly restored worthy of being square. down to Alexander II. after a fire building erected in 1762 and completed in 1769. obtaining permission to inspect this palace enough to obtain a view of the crown jewels. is a desert in comwith Nevertheless.. many buildings. and artistic treasures of so great and exceptional with its a value. Unlike the huge spaces of which we have spoken this immense in converted into a neat park. and more especially with pictures of victories by sea and by land since the days of Peter the Great. His writing-table remains undisturbed. The huge so-called Orlof diamond in upper room. The stucco.. the city itself in summer looks deserted. the study and bed-chamber of Nicholas I. Petersburg while equally good full-sized likenesses of succeeding emperors. Travellers are who succeed sometimes fortunate securely kept in an the imperial sceptre. and his imperial mistress Catherine II. from being In this respect only is it typical of Russia. in the hall Russian who is depicted being attended by the Genius and statesmen.RUSSIAN PICTURES. replete with works of art. and on it lies the last military report which the emperor received. they of materials brick and With a population population of more than one hundred millions. The noble halls and other apartments are edifice.

the royal tomb. the art of the Greek colonies which were founded on the northern coast of the Black Sea nearly six hundred years B. remnants of the libraries of D'Alembert. Its value is about . and by a library of ten thousand volumes on archaeology. 1831.C. from the period of the highest civilisation of Greece to the time of the Mr. may principally in the precious metals. principally west of Kul-Oba about four miles In that year. of classical. originally the Pavilion. of original drawings. practically revealed by M. Museum. building was Greek The ground occupied by galleries of antique sculpture.000. in the most perfect specimens. Connected with the palace. and The Crimean (Greco-Scythian) objects that most of them are much later. Attracted Nomadic and Royal Scythians. are naturally of the in pointed out the spots where important discoveries were made. The Kertch collection is alone worth a visit to St. was discovered by soldiers who were quarrying stone for fortifica- mouldered remains of a Bosporian king. Scythian. and in their artistic productions mingled The their mythology. now least stands in the Hermitage colour as 1 it was at two thousand years ago. and Siberian antiquities. for it reveals. with his gold-hilted sword and other arms and the in which wood king lay. Diderot. built in 1/65. It contained the treasures beside him. and 1850. The style. from the Crimea and and others from Siberia and Central Russia. They date adjacent districts. is The emperor's crown mounted by a cross formed of five beautiful versation with philosophers. Alfred Maskell is of opinion that few of the various pieces of goldsmiths' work go back to a period earlier than the third century before Christ. and surdiamonds fixed on a very large uncut spinel ruby. legends and types with those of the barbarians. 33 adorned with noble jewels. Paul Dubrux. and Voltaire. who. is the famed Hermitage. Kertch. men reconstructed floor is between 1840 and of letters. essentially Milesian.100. PETERSBURG.THE MODERN CAPITAL: in ST. with king. as brilliant in when the Greek artist 1884. existence was their first tumuli. a mitre-shaped diadem). spent her leisure moments in conEurope. Petersburg. tions. without pretension to archaeological knowledge. first Mongol invasion of the Russian plains in the thirteenth century. in the artists. now in the Imperial Public Library. D . by commerce and by the wealth of the described by Strabo and Herodotus. be divided into two classes objects : ' Hidden in a great number of highest artistic value. together with those of his favourite wife or queen (bearing on her head. See his Russian Art and Art Objects in Russia (South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks). in is this and unrivalled of collection process apparent unique objects of ' ' ' ' antique It art. the Greeks from Miletus engrafted their ancient civilisation on them. and of some of The sarcophagus of carved and painted yewtheir clothes and trappings. buried in his richest robes and adorned with his most precious ornaments. in which Catherine II. but entered by a noble vestibule from Bolshaya Millionaya Street. like the his attendants and horses.

estimated to have weighed it paintings golden of pounds. discoveries of authorities. or basklik. after the discovery of its rich contents. The costumes thus a photograph. of tumulus near the town Nicopol. who in one groups his having discovered leg bandaged. in in the tomb bears another his tooth drawn. and warriors with bows and arrows. are reproduced in one of a the same tomb. of lotah-shaped. which is in the most perfect style of Greek art. We M. and also in electrum of dental metal obtained. scene is These represent episodes in the life of a chief. Polish and Bohemian but of high military standards. when not found in a natural state. Thiers was so much struck by its beauty Hermitage. On the ground floor of the Hermitage are galleries of sculpture and of Here also is to be seen the beautiful and matchless Etruscan ceramic art. and purchased by the Museum and in a newly-arranged annexe of the with the Campana and other objects.C. Kul-Oba tomb was found a very remarkable vase of electrum. a large number of the thin as well as much gold plates with which the royal dresses were covered. somewhat incongruous. . after many a similar character. and under cover of night carried away. Russian Government king of vases found at Cuma?. with of victories ornamented mounted on chariots. But other of which only fifteen pounds were recovered by the sufficient was rescued to render the Kul-Oba even now. presumed on the vase refer to incidents in the been preserved. finest halls of the cannot be of later date than the fourth century B.34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and is twenty-eight The work. Unfortunately. and subsequently melted down. and importance that he declared its possession was almost sufficient to It was found (1863) in a form a casns belli with the Russian empire. As it the is skull evidence that the incidents so skilfully repousse life of the king in whose tomb it has handed down the five small to us. excepting the hood. inches high. and nomadic occupation of lassoing breaking in wild horses on the wondrous which stands enshrined in the centre of one of the silver-gilt Nicopol vase. which form the collections of armour are Hermitage . by the alloying of gold find the same people represented in the with one-fifth part of silver. and dressed very much Russian peasant of the present day. adulterated by a large admixture of Oriental trophies and works of art. Mediaeval and Renaissance sections of the Hermitage. figures of Greek men and women. which has been introduced into Russia from the Caucasus within modern times. and on a band surrounding the centre are four groups like the Scythians with long hair and beards. the tumulus was not sufficiently a crowd of people rushed into it and guarded. as it were in in statuettes found affliction. and twenty hundred one other treasure. on the Dnieper. and other curios. conspicuous among the treasures Kertch collection of the Hermitage so called from the Museum at Kertch in which Bosporian antiquities were amassed before the Crimean the In the It is War.

but of the now the mainly of the three the Marquis de Crozat. while Walpole its most valuable painlings to the same opportunity. although nominally the picture galleries of the Hermitage. Sir Thomas Laud. ment the 1779 at Museo for . and Spain. and that of schools. lapis-lazuli. were once the pride of Houghton larger Italian school pictures of the attract attention the Hermitage Hall. the Louvre Madrid owes no fewer than 44 of collection. the and the choicest of the equally numerous paintings by Rubens (in same room and in Room xiv. by Luini.800 paintings. from a national point of view. the collection of Spanish pictures is the best and most varied out of Spain. Archbishop these. The Spanish and Flemish collections are considered to be Spain by 115. invidious the task.. which cover almost every available inch of the walls.35. and jasper that stand on the highly-polished inlaid floors of the principal rooms. the most valuable. of which a little more than one half are of the Flemish.' The so largely and after worthily represented in through the Historical immediately the passing Greek art. Josephine (Malmaison collection). In the Flemish collection we see much more to interest us. vases. and several other specimens of the great painter. the British nation lost the chance of possessing the In addition to the great number of pictures sold to the Russian Governacquired from it nineteen of the best pictures now in that gallery. the number of Murillos alone being twenty. the wife and daughter of Oliver The best of Cromwell. of Charles I. Sir Thomas Wharton. and Empress The gallery contains about 1. the Ladies Elizabeth and Philadelphia Wharton. Philip. Here we are Gallery. Struck with admiration at the noble tables. tazzas. PETERSBURG. and fill the numerous stands and screens provided for the display of so great an abundance of paintings by the older masters of the principal schools in Europe. Henrietta Maria. 35 whole day might easily be spent in studying this department of the Hermitage alone. ST.000. The best of the six paintings by Velasquez are the portraits of Philip IV.THE MODERN CAPITAL: interest. the many * finest By permitting the dispersion museum of pictures in the in of the world. porphyry. Indeed. Inigo Jones. the Descent from the Cross. Dutch. by Sebastian del Piombo. Chaloner. The collections pictures purchased by Peter the bulk consists Great were chiefly Dutch and celebrated Flemish works. d'Olivares. from the sixteenth to the However early part of the eighteenth century. we defer for a moment our proposed systematic inspection of the in A pictures. Sebastian. Queen Lord Wharton. the Earl of Danby. The stately grandeur of the apartments into which we are now ushered makes us feel at once that we are in an imperial palace. in the in which frescoes represent the progress of presence of all older Italian masters. brevity compels us to name only the St. and German The art of Italy is represented by about 350 specimens. Lord Walpole. of those of his minister. ). for it contains portraits by Van Dyck. and candelabra of malachite. D 2 .

and treasures the Prodigal Son by Salvator Rosa. from the same brush. are magnificent specimens of every period of the art and subject of that great master. Rembrandt's Mother. a chef-d'oeuvre of but the lover afford to cannot of escape pictures attention. A magnificent Canaletto But represents the reception at Venice of the ambassador of Louis XV. pictures by one of the Guido Reni. is unfortunately unfinished two replicas in The but Cupicl unloosing the Girdle of Venus (known in here charms the eye. as the galleries possess many of the finest specimens of all the noted masters. formerly Walpole collection. his He especially observe the masterly portraits of old Thomas ' Parr. . there is. show his earliest dated and his is latest style. J His Danae of art execution allow one to will .' a highly-finished cabinet picture on a stand by itself. in short. an Englishman cannot fail to the recognise compliment PETRU RUSSORUM PETER THE GREAT. The Continence of Scipio. The great Dutch and Flemish schools of painting may here be studied of the to advantage. scarcely a picture in this room that is not admirable. In the far-famed Rembrandt Gallery. an allegory of Russia vanquishing the difficulties of its youthful state.RUSSIAN PICTURES. paid to the British school almost entirely neglected on the rest of the Conti- nentby given the compartment to it in the Gallery. Sir Rembrandt Joshua Reynolds's Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpent. Two portraits. of Lieven van and the Copenal. England) French school has enriched the noble classical gallery with . for example. 1634 respectively and 1666. was painted for the Empress Catherine II. After glancing at the productions of Franz Hals and Ferdinand Bol.

clad in the it dress which he wore at the for coronation of Catherine side face. I. who may be said Its most important work 1759. for it was executed Having exhausted the manifold objects of interest in the Winter Palace and the renowned Hermitage. by a pupil of Clouet. of from Hermitage.. the forms part of life Great's Gallery is entered Here the Winter Palace. at Fotheringay. the collar under which Catherine the I. The former has depicted Peter the Great questioning his son. a Merchant of picture of huge size . Pompeii. who. is a startling academical but the most interesting examples are the two historical pictures by Ugriumoff The Capture of Kazan. other pictures by French artists adorn the Second Hermitage Palace. who embroidered his were taken from furnished with features after purpose. painted. that The casts on either of his wax mould and moustaches. but the death . The to is Russian painter of any note founded the Russian school in considered to be The Last Day of earliest have Serpent. Novgorod. so different from the conventional Byzantine style of ecclesiastical painting which gives extensive employment to the native iconograph. Aivazofski. we cannot do better than mount the dome of hair at sittings . The Creation of the World. must be the exact image of him. Choice specimens of Russian painting and sculpture fill the two rooms through which we make our exit. Poltava . The stuffed Danish hound in one of the glass cases still wears subjects. see the small gilt chariot in which of the Russian empire. iron staff which his gigantic strength enabled him to a slender stick. by Bruni. like Vereschagin. The Brazen is represented as a captive in chains at Stockholm. mathematical and other instruments. carry with ease . on the of seized point being by his gaolers for having killed a Swedish soldier who Ivanoff's Christ Appearing to spoke disrespectfully of Peter the Great. PETERSBURG. and Bruni's Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane. the heavy . and the latter Igolkin. and presses crowded with valuable The chief interest centres in the relics of of every description. tools. has a world-wide reputation. with a notch marking his height at about his books. and Peter the in two of his most extra- The Deluge. which is not open to the general public. was In in name of his canine favourite. Vernet. was Lossenko. although it we find objects illustrative of the and activity Peter the Great. who Mary Magdalene. and with a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. by Brtilow. it is Numerous supposed. 37 Moine. and the Election of Michael Romanoff and those by Matveyeff and Shebuef. which he gave the artist. Le Watteau. turning seven feet of the teeth he had extracted from the jaws of suffering a collection and lathes. are typical of the Russian realistic treatment of Scriptural subjects.THE MODERN CAPITAL: landscapes ST. by Poussin. charming pictures by Claude Lorraine. is seen ordinary efforts. Greuze. he sometimes drove the horse now stuffed which he rode at the battle of nicknacks the founder We . the the habit of placing petitions in centre of the gallery is a wax effigy of the great Tsar.

forest on a of piles the total cost of construction .200. It was erected between 1819 and 1858.RUSSIAN PICTURES. Catherine II.000. This gives us also the for a bird's-eye view of the city. while and decoration (not including the subsequent Its form is that of cost of propping it up) exceeded three millions sterling a Greek cross. ST. alone cost . ISAAC'S CATHEDRAL. ST. laid twenty-one feet long. and its three chief portals of gigantic bronze work are approached from the level of the vast square on which it stands by broad flights of steps composed of entire pieces of polished granite from Finland. of the modern cathedrals most remarkable of one of the opportunity visiting in Russia. on the site of a wooden St. TETERSDURG. Isaac's church built in i/io. but commenced in the reign of replaced in 1801 by an edifice which had been Its foundations (364 feet by 315).

Translated. the several texts are : north. although the ascribed.' adoration. south. copper. is not solid. palace This is the main thoroughfare St. in which vessels are no longer built. if the monastery of Prospect. they support on each of the four sides of the edifice a frieze with a text in letters of bronze. and is pillars the only work of art within the church that the is not Russian. The view from dome is extensive and First of all. with cupolas resembling being three hundred and thirty-six feet. in miniature the central dome. O Lord. but holds that an Ikon painted. the purposely-subdued light brings into relief the glittering sumptuousness of the ikonostas. Women It is supported by eight Corinthian are not admitted into this inmost shrine. was made in Germany. in miles Nevski three the length. contain bells fifteen to twenty-nine tons in weight. costliness of material and beauty of execution. Alexander Nevski be taken as its terminus. we observe that from the so-called Admiralty. The to three and yield none in principal bronze portals are the largest in the world. on a flat surface is not a violation of the Second Commandment. surmounted by a ship under full The one nearest the great streets radiate like the ribs of a fan. and impress imagination churches. but applied on The stained window representing copper tubes fitted over cast-iron cylinders.' The cupola. which adorn the walls and pillars of the temple. 39 twelve polished granite monoliths that support the four are feet in height and seven feet in diameter peristyles sixty weighing one hundred and twenty-eight tons each.' trust let me never be ashamed . and crowned with massive Corinthian . do and west. not been worked by human material hands. three is of the capital. east. some extent the city. instructive. mostly in mosaic work. ' O Lord ' ' ' . St. the Ascension. or screen. To the King feet of in Kings. these are to which miraculous powers are in not worshipped.THE MODERN CAPITAL: The one hundred and ST. Lavish use of malachite and lapis-lazuli has been made in the adorn- ment of the Screen. Mine I House put my be called an House of Prayer. the entire height of the cathedral to the top of the golden cross that surmounts the elegant lantern Four belfries. and of the Sanctuary beyond the Royal Doors. and with its two nearly parallel arteries governs the direction It is intersected by three canals that drain to of most of the other streets. at the back of the high altar. sail. PETERSBURG. or which have its belief ' in images. remarkable for its tall gilded spire. Russian Strictly speaking. and of the ikons. which. or produced in mosaic work. and enable barges of light draught to distribute their . is not effect easily The Russo-Greek Church distinguishable from actual rejects as idolatrous any carved or moulded representation of sacred or saintly subjects for purposes of worship. the of the visitor. ' The king shall : shall rejoice in Thy strength. covered with thickly-gilt is sixty-six diameter and two hundred and ninety-six feet high. The As in all interior of Isaac's to is well calculated to inspire feelings of solemnity and veneration. like the lapis-lazuli. of malachite. capitals of bronze. ' In Thee.

so far as commercial is concerned. Samuel Bentham.' under the impression that they were engaged in a pronunciamento in favour site of the ' .40 RUSSIAN PICTURES. are now loading grain. relieved only by the numberless sledges in which the inhabitants of either side of the ice-bound river are being silently but rapidly conveyed to and fro on terra finna. Petersburg. and a general inventor in In one of his manifold capacities he had charge of the the Russian service. and connected with the the Bolshaya by the handsome Nicholas Bridge and the floating bridge that leads from the Winter Palace to the colossal Exchange. the third of the canals before us. This was the raw produce. flat-bottomed barges that have to be broken up for firewood come from after the innermost parts of the empire. Turning in the opposite direction. A machine which he devised. which has no through railway connection with the other In summer communication with the opposite parts of the Russian empire. In winter the scene. practically. and flax. either as an agent of the British Government for building ships of war at Archangel. of stone and iron. principally fuel. a lieutenant-colonel. in order to put an end to the pile-driving ' habitual skulking of the labourers. in mid-stream. an architect. like the Nevski. thanks to the Cronstadt Canal. Sweden. the commercial quarter of the city.. when the deluded soldiery shouted Constitutia.' greatly accelerated the progress of the work. establishes communication with the Viborg side. to which we shall refer later. and abuts on the Fortress. which is freight. Off it are anchored. or Finland. the largest island formed by the numerous branches of the Neva. In front of the Cathedral is the Park. or as a naval commander. from the rough. we face the Vasili Ostrof. so called from its being the starting-point for a journey to the adjoining Grand Duchy of Finland. Sir construction of the new Fontanka Canal. hemp. is one of comparative desolation. Light steamers also ply on these canals. The Vasili Ostrof is. the big steamers which. the first being. full of handsome buildings and shops. has supplied an enjoyable shade to a once cobble-paved square that extended from the huge Senate and Synod houses on the left to the Winter Palace and the Etat Major buildings on the right. discharging their duties as carriers of long granite quays are lined by other steamers that ply to Cronstadt. Of course we are speaking of the short summer months of the North. a brother of Jeremy Bentham. The activity revolution in 1825. within the last ten or fifteen years. recognisable the two in front of it. which. was actively employed in Russia during a part of the reign of Catherine II. The first and second streets that run across the main thoroughfare are (Great) and Malaya (Little) Morskaya (Naval) streets. The last bridge. massive Columns Rostrata: Beyond is another by which stands the British floating bridge that starts from the square on Embassy. side of the river is further maintained by the innumerable small steamers that have replaced the quaint-sterned ferry-boats which were formerly so prominently mainland depicted in illustrations of St.


We approximation to general to those in search of European dress peculiarities. see many mujiks clad in sheepskins.' Prominently standing out from its environment of trees and shrubs is the well-known equestrian I. and descendant especially the summer head-dress. erected 1 . deprived him of the right of succeeding Alexander and placed the throne of All the Russias in the hands of his brother Nicholas. the architect of the Cathedral from which we are looking down on those wonderful works. the summer dress It of the peasant. relegated of Moscow wore rural it districts. urban centres. well acquainted with the sound of Ptrm. or No more striking as far as the knees. exactly the same sound is used in the island and we take the fact as a corroborahorses Skye in tion of far in stopping the Scandinavian . and. by Falconet. essentially Asiatic or Indian. the second by Montferrand. . although only ten seeing those Moscow who in generally. although few have its sufficient systematic their first patience arrival. years ago the drojki drivers satisfaction of those who revelled in The Isvostchiks. vehicles.. continues to predominate. by which their eager course is at once arrested. is national evident. may perhaps origin of to advanced linen shirts in this century covering trousers has come over the aspect of the country than the outward appearance change In most of the of its cities and towns. the first remarkable monuments were designed and executed by Frenchmen of Peter the Great. 'the Divine figure of the North. by his own consent. statue The 782. strange to say. whose morganatic marriage to a Polish lady had. Their dress is almost a mediaeval survival. and that of their inhabitants. in contrast with drivers we find ethnographical on which we gaze with the interest we would bestow on a Hindu or a Chinaman in London. the rural districts. although disappointing Nevertheless. which is clearly a modernised of the 'beef-eater's' hat brought to Russia by the adventurous Englishmen who discovered hat in the for sea-board the of Muscovy in the sixteenth ' ' century. attract us in by their their while peculiarity. although a clear bargain as to the charge for a in order to avoid ultimate disagreement. Stranger still. with all details on In make themselves acquainted summer the drojkies. the of Grand Duke Constantine. are a very decent set course is necessary of men. as in of Scandinavia. except to to some extent the class who make it their special business ' convey only ' are bent on pleasure. by the great Catherine in grand monolith of polished granite that commemorates the glory and the Both of these virtues of Alexander I. The horses are active.42 RUSSIAN PICTURES. The Nevski travellers Prospect is the next point to of attraction. if not too isolated or distant from are too early Russian civilisation. under perfect control. wiry animals. The indigenous head-covering to same season is still almost the counterpart of the but it is now which Paddy is wont to carry his dhudeen . and in other types winter the European sledges. also. stands in front of the Winter Palace. to the its primitive national aspect. regardless of expense.

There are cathedral. were frequently picked up at the stalls. but the better vigilance of and renders more difficult its nefarious operations. and applied the campaign of the zealous offering of the 1812. Built between 1801 and 1811. and those in which are sold or gold. precious stones of high ST. or a bit of porcelain unchipped and bearing a genuine mark of note. where the guests are generally served by Tartar Mahomedan waiters in European evening dress. . asked are not those of the days before trading collectors had discovered this distant mine of wealth. and therefore a good opportunity presents itself of viewing national types of bazaar. Strings of pearls. However. as a revival. A although architecturally grand. Petersburg for any considerable number of years will be impressed by the It used to development that has taken place in the local bric-a-brac trade. two hundred and thirty-eight feet in length by one hundred and eighty-two in breadth. for. is soon reached on the right-hand side of the Nevski.THE MODERN CAPITAL: c. restaurants. it is of silver. the ikotiostas is light and brilliant. and showed the native dealers that a European market was available for their goods. be an intense pleasure to ransack the shanties we found full of incongruous odds and ends. and so decidedly Oriental in origin claims our attention after visiting the Kazan Cathedral. but the prices Torjok. Peter's at Rome. or bazaar so common to all Russian towns. the market is a exhibiting the produce of robberies. the Stchukin and the Apraxin. which have not yet followed the example of similar establishments at St. with its colonnade in imitation of St. retook from the French it ' Don the to its present use. extends but. 43 be seen. but of great utility on long journeys. Cossacks. The Kazan Cathedral. the police circumscribes recipient of such articles. Crowds of purchasers fill the lanes and alleys by which those markets are intersected. and adds to its conventional clinginess. and pretty sashes and ties deftly woven at Bric-a-brac hunters revel in the Apraxin Dvor. during church plate they had looted. in four rows like the balustrade in front. at some of the or traktirs. it has internally the form of a cross. to this day. There are also two other markets. which were not quite unsuspected of In fact. The Gostinnoi Dvor. and to secure from among the mass of rubbish a valuable or pleasing picture. cushions. thirty-five feet from the four pillars that support the cupola high. . foreigners visit the excellent fur shops Russia-leather slippers embroidered in silver In the main every grade. Those who have not visited St. at Moscow. this arrangement somewhat crowds the interior. Petersburg. in the street that turns off from the Nevski from the upper corner of the Gostinnoi Dvor. diately many costly votive objects and military trophies in this and the Emperor never fails to offer up his prayers here immehis departure on from the capital and his return after a residence at some other imperial seat. hard.' who. PETERSBURG. colonnade of granite monoliths.

I. about thirty-four thousand. 3. The The Alexander Column. The German Reformed Church. The Admiralty. with a the first VIEWS IN AND AROUND ST.RUSSIAN PICTURES. the that of the MSS. in addition to nearly eighty . 7. 5. Winter Palace. The Palace of Peterhof. 2. 8. 6. it. and statue to Catherine II. in front of with its riches. Kazan Cathedral. is immediately beyond the Gostinnoi Dvor building we notice the Imperial Public Library. Statue of Peter the Great. The Church in the Hay Market. PETERSBURG. Resuming our walk up the Nevski. Few libraries in Europe can compete number of printed volumes being over a million. 4.

THE MODER^ CAPITAL: 7 ST. the volume of English royal letters from Henry VII. on Mount Sinai. 45 thousand engravings and maps. the famous Codex Sinaiticns. Astafief. being of especial interest to ourselves. collection twenty-five them being of earlier date in all thousand volumes is than the ninth century. consist of letters during the early part of the great Revolution. a monk at Kief. and sold by improvised auction in the Slavonic . to Charles I. from Gutenberg to the year exemplified but more to mankind than all the other treasures 1521. Petersburg. and the correspondence of various sovereigns. a complete copy of the Greek in the fourth century. The nucleus of this prodigious collection in a so new was the library of the Counts Zaluski. the most valuable of these being the books and MSS. In this connection we may mention that. is the complete series of the Bible printed in all the known languages and dialects of the inhabited parts of the British missionaries and British major part of this grand and lasting monument religious societies have raised to the glory of God and the His Holy Word. since the beginning of the reign Emperor Nicholas. secret State documents. is equally The unique noticeable. in 1859. black with bears parchment age. N. fetch. Petersburg as well as at Odessa. important almost globe. 1889. Mr. it was written about seventy years after the introducfor anything they would Russia. containing the Evangelistarium. thus speaks of the influence of the Bible in Russia What has the Bible as the Word of 1 ' : God been to among them call ? our Russian people during the thousand years of its existence Has it not been " a light shining in a dark place ? " We its to mind the bright opening period of our 1 national life which had St. proof of ninth or Chronicle of Nestor. The A brought down to A. date of 1056 tion of Christianity into is The Ostromir MS. and character. on its tenth is department. purchased by a Polish gentleman in France The MSS. Hebrew and Karaite MSS. There are also thirty the that relate to the Russian. and transferred its contents to St. languages. and that it of the maintains an agency at St. Greek codex of the four Evangelists. Finnish. bears the that is. and other languages spoken by the subjects of the Tsar. They were taken from the Paris archives by an infuriated mob. in his History of the Bible in Russia. PETERSBURG.. the British and Foreign Bible Society has been engaged in the distribution of the Holy Scriptures in Russian. Catherine. from kings of France to their ambassadors. except history or geography of the empire. Lastly. ..D. of the Library put together. the chief glory of this Convent of of of ancient St. in Early European printing (Incunabula) about eleven thousand volumes. Bible written older Greek century. Further acquisitions were subsequently made in Poland. 1116. Petersburg. and discovered by Tischendorf in the still A having been written in the MS. which capital comparatively had already become the property of the Polish State when Suvoroff captured Warsaw in 1 794.

who Moscow. 1865 . A." in These Biblical labours activity in did not remain without influences people because of their high mass of the the quickening spiritual books of Holy society. 3 or Ivan Theodoroff. and in A. owing to the want of popular schools.D. once when men like Maxim the Greek.D. 4 or the learned brothers Lichud. writers. the second in 885. nought. ignorantly but honestly believing them to be truth. imprisoned 1525 . inviied to Russia from Italy. the Slavonic Bible. and called into existence the Russian price. with revised and emended text. who was deeply acquainted with and who highly valued the Holy Scriptures. supported in every way Biblical labours. 4 the Royal Printing Press. the patriarch Nikon (A. though slowly and with interruptions. and at last. 1236 A. not come to and from sophistical glosses. 1652). daughter the Empress Elizabeth. endured cruel persecution at the hands of the obstinate upholders of old errors. caused by the Mongols. He but the work begun by him as the daily need of the people did Others continued it. and because of the little spread of education. long period of darkness when the Word of a rarity in the country. . printed at Moscow with some emendations. But a beginning had been made. appeared the Ostrojskaya Bible. went on. in consequence of the desolation age of Christianity. sprang from the people and knew their needs. 3 He came Of to Russia in 1518.The first died 869 at Rome. died 1556. who established a complete system of secondary and elementary schools. with his healthy purifying himself fell. at last appeared " the so-called Elizabethan Bible. tenth century was bound up with the circulation of this Bible and the formation of schools to teach the people 2 to read it. and with unconquerable energy he from the errors understood the living significance of the laid the foundation for of copyists Word its of God.D. 1751. Both these obstacles were removed during the reign of Alexander I. but to the Scripture remained inaccessible. accused the printers of heresy.D. The revision of the Slavonic text meanwhile went on in due course. 1710-11 cherished the thought of translating the Bible from the Ecclesiastical Slavonic into the Russian language of the day. for the sake of making it more readily accessible. but in 1564 Ivan was driven out. and the Press burnt. established at through the intrigues of the 5 MSS. who had grown accustomed As one who to them. the first printer. us of 1 those first so remind the 2 And then following this. the long. in the year 1663. in consequence of the opposition of the adherents of the old style. 5 who endeavoured to carry the light of life into the thick darkness of ignorance God was and superstition which surrounded them. restoration.46 KUSSIAN in under the influence of earnest instruction glorious eleventh and twelfth centuries which birth the Word of God. and what could not be completed during the his in lifetime of Peter was finished by Thanks to her energetic persistence. Peter the Great. and the revision of the Slavonic text. it spirit.. 1 Cyril anil Methodius formed the Slavonic alphabet in order to translate the Scriptures into that language in The acceptance of Christianity by the Russians in the 855-7. . at first but few in number. endeavoured to revise the text by aid of the Greek MSS.

of which probably 700. the glad tidings of salvation by faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ enter the sinful and of the Holy Spirit bring to it penitent heart. On the Elizabeth. and by the blessing and aid pardon and cleansing and peace. time it a commencement in the us.D.000. by Count Rastrelli. made At language. will be seen the Anitchkoff Palace. has A. and evidence has not been lacking to show that in Russia. Past the Moscow Railway Station. Nevski begins to flag. as elsewhere. Scriptures or parts of them were translated into fourteen new languages 1. battle fought on its site defeated built the in 1241. marble. which had for its object the circulation of the books of Holy Scripture as generally as possible. Russian Bible. to The spread Religious Tract Society has also largely helped throughout Russia the knowledge of the Gospel. is Swedes and of massive St. and on the other side of it the former Beloselski-Beloserski Palace. now the property of the Grand Duke Sergius. In its first ten years the receipts amounted to 3. the residence of their It was built in 1744. Russia. During its existence 290 auxiliary committees were established in all parts of . and full of pictures and costly objects of art. 1876.938 roubles. school this system has received a wide extension amongst circulation present time the and alongside of the among the people of the Holy Scriptures of every one. Italian The principal silver church. and we come to the rough stone paving. 47 Bible Society. internally with In a sumptuous shrine Persian pearls. the capital degenerates into Its rural suburbs are reached at the Monastery an ordinary Russian town.000 copies were printed in twenty-six languages and dialects.421.000 to 800. agate. Petersburg. selling them at low prices and distributing and at the same gratuitously into the Russian Bible the translating them . over which carriages and drojkies have to rattle when off the wooden blocks laid down for them from the Palace Bridge to the Anitchkoff Palace and along the whole length of Bolshaya Morskaya Street.000 copies were distributed in Slavonic and Russian. recent efforts Much ' has been ' done by the circulation of tracts and other Christian literature.' the reach own at a price native language. the great architect celebrated are the two close to the equestrian groups by palace bridge Baron Klodt. for the Empress Majesties when at St. inferior in precedence only to the Lavra It was founded of the Trinity at Moscow and the Lavra at Kief. being a of St. 1 weighing twenty-nine hundredweight lie the remains of Alexander. Siberian and Teutonic knights in decorated 1/90. the activity Now of the Lavra. one of the most important in Russia. Alexander Nevski. of those days.THE MODERN CAPITAL: 1 ST. at which the Nevski practically terminates in a huge and slovenly-looking square. brought from the Cathedral at Vladimir by Peter the Great. Founded 1812 ended 1826. or seat of a Metropolitan. The . On the opposite side of the square to which the front of the Public Library is turned. by Peter who in Duke a great the Great in honour of a canonized Grand Alexander. especially in their within made equal progress since the publication of the by the permission of the Holy Synod. PETERSBURG. used in the Russian empire.

1 crypt are buried Natalia.. Great are paid by the upper and richer classes for permission to sums Large repose in the adjoining cemetery. Alexander's crown and the bed on which Peter I.48 RUSSIAN PICTURES. who died of small-pox when only fourteen. St. and glance at a few of the other places The Cathedral most worth seeing of St. pontifical robes of gold brocade. and also for giving notice of the rising of the Neva to inhabitants of cellars. of which an Italian architect. are suspended on the two opposite the Altar. The monastery contains also a seminary. Perugino. where he was buried. Among the six other churches within the walls of the Lavra is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. to the raised edges of the copper plates with his fingers. a Russian initjik (peasant) climbed to the top. died are among the most interesting objects shown in the Sacristy. hanging gradually on A rope. of superintendence the earliest notable occupant was Alexis. who died in a sudden and mysterious manner in one of its dungeons after his ' Its guns are used for saluting purposes examination on a charge of treason. founded in 702. Peter and is Petersburg and its neighbourhood. Suvoroff. but the present grim stone work was executed in 1706 under the It is used as a State prison. sister of Peter I. at Moscow. Peter. on imperial fete days.. after having been three times damaged tale of singular daring is connected with the repair of the by lio-htning. the summit being 302 feet above the level of The foundations of the fortress were laid by Peter the Great the ground. founder of pillars Petersburg and of Catherine II. the eldest son of Peter I. in which sons of the White Clergy (as distinguished from the Monks) are prepared for the priesthood. and a great number of other valuables. Excepting Peter II. although blood spurted out from under his finger-nails as he ascended. With the aid only of a nail and a angel and cross on the spire in 1830. Rumiantsof. in Latin his mother having been a member of that ancient noble family. and to the population of the lower parts of the Consecrated in 1733 on the site of a church coeval with the fortress. inscribed ' . an episcopal staff Portraits of the turned by Peter. city. In its From their race came Peter the proud device.. behind which is a remarkable picture of the St. It is for instruction of a selected for the vocation higher order of tutors and to to the more in professors now time to leave the in Nevski. the cathedral was restored in 1757. his son. Rubens. who died young. which has also a large collection of mitres set in jewels. Petersburg. the ' : ' ' and a theological college promising scholars theological schools. Paul within the fortress on the right beautiful gilt bank of the Neva conspicuous by its spire terminating in an angel bearing a cross. all the members of the imperial family have . Some of the Ikons are good copies after Annunciation by Raphael Mengs and Guido. the Kensal Green of St. St. and several other ministers of the brilliant On the mausoleum of the Naryshkins is epoch of Catherine the Great. in 1/03.

ST.' river in 1668. PETERSBURG. Catherine II. the white stands in front of the ikonostas. whose martyred son and successor. more than ten feet high.. are also a small wooden church. It he erected between replaces a church which 1703 and E . the work of four Russian carvers between superbly carved and richly gilt and The ivory candelabrum. Alexander II. It a boat constructed by Dutch in carefully preserved a brick Quitting for the river-bank. was found by Peter the Great when yet a and it was by sailing it lad. the Emancipator of the Serfs. with which traditions of Peter the Great strongly associated. lies to the right of the Altar Screen. on the Moskva near the cathedral. near Lake Ladoga THE FIRST FLEET BUILT BY PETER THE GREAT AT VORONEJ. which is of wood. we~pass. the opposite aisle that of the Emperor Nicholas. almost at the foot of the floating Trinity Bridge. at the country residence of his grandfather. under the direction of a Dutch shipbuilder that he acquired the nautical of the tastes which resulted in the construction of a fleet and the extension the fortress by its eastern gate and making Russian dominions. in its autograph of his found to later within Almighty God in gratitude for the benefit recorded he had derived from ball An 1724. and in sepulture. cathedral. was the turned centre by Peter I. that 1722 1726. 49 Petersburg been interred under the floor of this marble tombs above marking the places of their Close to the south door is the tomb of Peter the Great. reposes alongside of him.THE MODERN CAPITAL: since the foundation of St. dedication the use of the mineral waters of Olonets. is carpenters. building The 'Grandfather of the Russian Navy.

and of .50 RUSSIAN PICTURES. whom he had asked who were the men in wigs and gowns bustling about Westminster Hall I have Lawyers but two in all my dominions. The capacious and valuable premises enjoy the boon of ex-territoriality. at Poltava! Among the other of relics of civilisation at forcibly sovereign path is a boat which he built. once almost exclulike the street in the rear of it. then typical of practical manner. their combined size being about 55 feet by 20 feet in breadth. in which he also dined. A short walk which he built in 703. is the outcome of the to work of reconstruction carried out in in St. and in which habit of singing as a chorister.10. is a chapel of the Queen's Ambassador.' Within this church are several objects which belonged to the Great Reformer or were made by him. The church owed in to the 'Great Russia The 1/53. at a cost of .000. origin. his cicerone in London. has been converted into a chapel.5. which has outwardly the appearance of only a private mansion. which at last became obnoxious to the tax-payers. attracted chiefly by an Ikon of the Saviour. Those who take an interest in the life of Peter the Great should visit the three or four galleys of his period preserved in the Galley Haven. commemoration of the foundation of the St. and of reading the Gospels on the anniversary of the battle of Poltava. Parliament Russia Company a contribution Anglican establishments in Russia.000. and I believe I shall hang one of them the moment I get home. and an extensive circulating library for the benefit of .4. notwithstanding the addition of stained windows. between ' princes its a race nearly as extinct as that of the mammoth. A boys' school. the palace which he superintended the building of his new capital it contains only two rooms and a kitchen. ' 1815 by Ouarenghi.' present edifice. generally crowded with worshippers. Peter's cruelty and self-indulgence were strangely blended with his innate 1710 in he was in statesmanship and the devotional feeling he so frequently displayed in a Next to his prejudice against beards. which accompanied Peter in his battles and conservative Muscovy. like our other ' Petersburg are due. by British merchant sively occupied. and from brings us to his cottage. unfortunately rendered very bare and cheerless-looking. They are kept in the gallery that runs round the cottage. effected the discomfiture of Charles XII. He said to Lord Carmarthen. an architect ' whom many of the finest edifices having made a grant of .' in the estuary of the Neva. and on other great feast days. ' : ! ' ' 1 . on the ground that the chapel. The bedroom on the left.000 towards that purpose. Company. and the wooden bench on which he sat his door. defrayed from :the funds accumulated by the so-called British Factory. and injurious to our trade. Petersburg. it the who hurled Russia into Western and the outer building by which the cottage and its interesting contents are preserved from decay. The Anglican Church stands on the English Quay. and the In 1873 the interior was renovated. was his hatred of lawyers.' in the form of a compulsory tax on British shipping.

bursts suddenly into beauty. the warm hospitality and the healthy sport of All the Russias. Petersburg is out of town the migration to suburban palaces. and the darkness THE ENGLISH QUAY. two thousand are also British subjects who reside Petersburg the and its vicinity. become acquainted with the sensation of falling out of a high and the song of the nightingale. ST. and for the spiritual render made by our countrymen colony. PETERSBURG. even though we have enjoyed of a winter season at the capital on the Neva and in the Yusupof Gardens. shot bears. Nothing can be imagined as more enjoyable than a Northern summer. and rewards us amply for the frost and snow and life. and the return tide sets in towards the end of September. and in fact led a life of jollity without even getting an ear or a cheek frozen . villas and cottages commences in the early part of our June. on the premises. light. elk. Nature. at St. In complete arrangements and moral welfare of the British summer all St. more . the young birch all We hail with delight the warm sunshine.THE MODERN CAPITAL: the ST. and wolves with local sportsmen. We may have skated trees. through which the we have of fragrance passed. PETERSBURG. and yet E 2 . to festive establishments on the outskirts of the city. converted for the purpose into an Arctic arcadia. window by going clown montagncs russes a refined and toboganing driven in pleasant company in sledges drawn superior at wild kind of speed by three thoroughbred horses abreast. or less dormant for nearly eight months.

from which moored off Cronstadt. slop to terminates on the shore of the gulf. palace. plainly seen from : of water-engineering here offered to our bare mention of some of the buildings in the Peter I. to which in we before sunset. of banks are the on the of the Little Derevnia. the stamp of the French school being veryIn the study of Peter the Great hangs his apparent on every canvas. and even its original yellow colour. was built under the directions of Peter I. . reaching the 'Point' of Yelagin Island time sun go down in golden glory. is almost as The River Yacht road on Derby day. elevation of sixty feet. and gives a considerable amount of life to In the the branch of the Neva on which its large establishment stands. pleasure Zoological But we must now leave St.52 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the red rays of the setting which partly runs Point. The interior is replete with interest. and especially to who have known many winters. little inferior The Samson. There is an imperial chateau on this island. The more accessible villas are on drive a little the islands of the Neva. as well as in pictures representing chiefly the naval victories of Orlof and other Russian In one of the apartments is a generals during the reign of Catherine II. its general character. collection of 863 portraits of beautiful young girls painted by Count Rotari for the Empress during a journey which he made for that purpose through No two are alike either in position or the fifty provinces of Russia.. .' spires sun. for it abounds in beautiful tapestry. in the centre of the grounds. and its walls are Beneath the palace is the celebrated garden. and many other marvels we can only make grounds fleet Marly. portrait in mosaic. Neva. . To the right the banks of the Little Neva are dotted with picturesque chalets standing out to see the ' ' from a background of measurable distance the with the to last ' sombre lofty gilt pines . is a to those of Versailles. laid out in terraces and walks. articles of vertu. tazzas of porcelain. describe the view. and although many additions and alterations have been subsequently made. unfortunately. those the Elysian season will prove to be that of summer. expression but it is more than doubtful whether they are true to Nature or the ethnology of Russia. magnificent jet d'eait eighty feet high. malachite. are still perpetuated. and make excursions by rail or and we begin with steamer to some more distant summer residences an Its which Gulf of Finland from overlooks the Peterhof. adorned with fountains and other ornamental water-works. and on the left and domes of the we see within At this glowing hour the road witching capital crowded with vehicles as the Epsom Club is on Krestofski Island. with charming grounds and a delightful view. and the Marly Pond. wainscoted with some of his carvings. while evening will be found in Gardens behind the the fortress. was wont to contemplate his infant its terrace. Novaya ex-village and Arcadia a of Livadia more sober resort Gardens. Petersburg. through Peter's Park. and from it runs a boat canal that We cannot. and marble.

53 to which he caused to be stocked with carp and chub. and Alexandria. shallow channel to St. which since 1885 enables see. taken altogether. ' Suffer little children to trip come unto Me. and feet a uniform centre of twenty-two depth dredging. in accordance with his directions Monplaisir. Petersburg in a swift troika. the sea-approach left to of the natural and partly twenty feet Petersburg. in 1/03.THE MODERN CAPITAL: ST. and fronting the estuary of the Neva. both as a place of busy trade and as a fortress defending in an impregnable manner. built in a with 1781. Victoria . and we can terminate our drive and take But we halt here awhile. is that Cronstadt will before long cease to be the Europe. when he dispossessed Swedes but. and more especially the church that stands at the back of the grounds. night-cap and slippers are exhibited in it the Hermitage. seventeen and a half miles running along the followed by the steamer. With its open roof. severally. the canal is one of the most remarkable works of its kind in Its result. or carriage with three horses abreast. another ancient by steamer direct to Cronstadt. in the at lower garden.' must be either by rail via Oranienbaum. or Our next an object. needless to say. of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. dispense with the presence of servants at intimate feasts the Pavilions on the Tsaritzyn and Olga Islands the English Palace. of many notable families are full of tokens that the dead have not been Over one of the tombs are likenesses from life of forgotten by the living. so well known to our readers already. By constant is maintained in it. We proceed to the capital. whose bed. From squadron By taking from Peterhof the good macadamised road to St. who receives them. still summoned by a bell be fed with rye flour. a mother bringing her children to the Saviour. . . vespers singing The sepulchral vaults (on Saturdays) is particularly fine and impressive. when of fine pictures. PETERSBURG. steamers drawing commercial outport of St. The fortifications we have come the Petersburg. the properties. of Her Majesty Oueen floor. and become a purely military harbour. full the Emperor and and with Empress several reside in privacy it. great ship canal. saying to the more prosaic railway carriage at Sergi. with a contrivance in one of its rooms by which dishes and plates are made to descend from and ascend to the dinner-table through grooves in the summer-house in the Dutch also built in the . reign of Peter. Sergius. for its celebrated monkish whose at choristers. moreover. to visit the monastery of St. elegance and comfort which few other Russian churches possess. in order to . the long. dressing-room. it has an air of It is. founded in 1/34. none of his wooden . and its stalls of oak. amongst many others. a . however. so far as modern science can possibly effect such imperial residence. where Peterhof. cottages in Nicholas around roof of one of them the Emperor watched with a telescope the movements of the Anglo-French the front of Cronstadt. portrait. we have the opportunity of seeing Michaelofski and Strelna. to see were begun by Peter I. style.

A very good statue of Peter the Great whose genius created . I. splendid steam factory. In the vicinity of the the chief station in the Baltic for the Russian fleet. consist of several parallel lines connected by encircles many naval which and earthworks. The southern of stones. Petersburg. through a his Charles Napier failed take advantage of passage on the northern side of the island discovered by a couple of That channel is now effectively guarded by a substantial dam smaller ships. when. from canal west to east. The dry docks are capable of admitting some of the larger vessels of war. of batteries recent date. and brought down to Cronstadt to be fitted. is a military harbour. 1 r walls remain. on which seven strong batteries have been raised. These are mostly built at St. Nicholas since Sir The formidable-looking stone forts elate from the reign of They have undergone considerable alteration and improvement of the the clays Crimean to War. not inferior to Keyham in its mechanical appliances. defences are the strongest. and are formed by three lines of forts running channel THE FORTRESS OF SCHLUSSELBURG. In the town the storehouses and workshops is bordered with granite. and by a tall iron railing begun in 1721.A USSL4 A PIC TURKS. for reasons the still unknown. The the land defences.

imprisoned prison. laid out and well wooded. the consort of Peter. and the now son of Empress father. were covered with gold leaf at a cost of more than a million of ducats but. . the favourite since it respects to that of Peterhof. after is much full contention.. on the ground that she was not in the habit of selling her old clothes. Originally the structural ornamentations. which issues here from the Ladoga lake. passed of to some time in in the fourteenth century into the hands. near the governor's residence and the of what we have so the back of Summer Garden planted by Peter. is a busy place of trade. built in 1744. who had confined himself to building a small cottage. architecture. knights and of the Swedes. so ST. is also a Petersburgians. in the roccoco style of was restored and embellished by her. into is divided the Old and the New Garden. a hot-house. He was killed in an attempt made for his rescue by an officer of the guard. The present aspect of this beautiful spot is.THE MODERN CAPITAL. Pavlofsk. is often the object of a day's excursion by steamer. either outside or commodious Vauxhall attached to the railway station. all the statues and the capitals of columns.000 for the fragments of gold leaf. The town of Schliisselburg. on the left bank of the river. both beautifully ference. Tsarskoe of its Selo. and rush away from the within the the same time the for ' summer encampment resort of those who are air. by the Regent Biron). the Lithuanian I. ' alone gilt. it Like the of the dominions of formed anciently part Novgorod the for Great. originally by Catherine I. mainly due to the care bestowed on it by marine rival. originally at of Dunaburg. and later at a lonely spot on the White Sea. formerly the Swedish fortress of Noteborg. forming rapids easily navigable. rest of Ingria. the gilding the contractors in the restoring palace offered having worn off. eighteen miles in circumprivate villas and as an imperial park. being at the mouth of the famous canal that forms part of a fluviatile system that connects the Baltic with the distant Caspian. Nihilists has since been used as a State 1756. engaged . at 55 much the far seen stands on a square middle harbour. and a variety of other attractive buildings. It who finally delivered it Peter 1/02. pavilions. (together with his and conspirators. In whom he had been Elizabeth. is second in some has not the fountains and the cascades But it is much larger in extent both as a town of The latter. PETERSBURG.' The dome and the cupolas of the Palace Chapel are now Catherine II. Ivan VI. at of the Neva. and a zoological garden on part of the ground now covered with palaces. and alternately. however. spent the remainder of his life on this insular Bastille.. imperial residence. which the munificent Empress declined to accept.. the source Schliisselburg.' of the able to capital a mouthful of fresh and to enjoy the music of the excellent orchestra that plays every afternoon.66. three miles at distant. The Old Palace. .

NEAR MOSCOW. a Russian Naval Station. long coast line. OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY IN THE SACRISTY OF THE MONASTERY OF ST. the stations. connected At present there is but one town with the rest of the empire by rail. woodless. SERGIUS. OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. into which the region discharges its abundant waters. is broken by the gulf and the straits that give access to the White Sea. and guaranteed. while Norway. This is the Murman (Norman) coast. after a dispute that had lasted for five finally its total population is centuries. CHAPTER THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES ' IV. it but. by Great Britain and France in 1855. a few private whaling and fishing and it. sloping down to the Arctic Ocean. The province of Archalone has an area larger than that of Great Britain and France ' THE The Governments angel combined. only (800 inhabitants) upon town in question.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. was almost in summer. slopes rising from a background of bluish-purple hills. as the seat of the gunboat soon arose out of its ashes. of Archangel and Vologda form together an immense sparsely-inhabited plateau. civil has now resumed though comparatively pleasant aspect in an amphitheatre of green. active Kola. together with the integrity of Sweden. . scarcely that of the city of Manchester. and . to which attention is being more and more directed with reference to the possibility of establishing in one of its commodious and never-freezing bays. which commences at the Jacob River on the borders of settled in 1826. destroyed in 1854 of a its administration by an wide English district.

LANDING OF RICHARD CHANCELLOR AT HOLMOGORY. Petersburg. IN THE WHITE (Reproduced by Permission front the illustrated ' SEA.} .' Si. 1553- Niva.


original home of this Ural-Altaic race. of ninety tons. by mere accident in 1553. and delighting in the ringing of church bells when they have the opportunity. The design was conceived by ' ' Sebastian Cabot. and ascertained from some fishermen that he had reached Russia or Muscovie. by means that remain unknown. bay near Sviaty Nos.' for the purpose of finding a northern sea passage to China and India. not far from the Korelian mouth of the Dvina. namely. who. appointed in the Bona Esperanza. There had been no maritime intercourse between Western Europe and Muscovy. the coast is still more dreary and uninviting. in Chancellor. It is here we begin to find. and to the foot of the Altai Mountains. that they were Englishmen sent unto these coasts from the most certain excellent King Edward VI. here somewhat tempered in its frigid severity by the Gulf Stream. the Samoyedes. men who subsist principally on raw flesh. They hunt and fish over the vast hyperborean region that extends from the White Sea to some distance beyond the great Enisei River of Siberia. still more or less secretly worship their primitive idols of stone and wood. where he and The Bona- August. were frozen to coast. and severe Confidentia. venture alone escaped. has literally the same signification as Esquimaux. or Samoyedes. but in decliningnumbers. until the sixteenth century. was Willoughby. 1553. storm in the North Sea separated the three vessels. and on the other by the White Sea. right away to the spur of the Ural Mountains. which determines the frontier of Siberia and the limits of European Russia in the North. the coast of the White Sea was reached by an adventurous expedition fitted out in London. Bonaventure. on the Lapland sixty-five in number. Sir Hugh tons.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. which were the The Russian name of Samoyedes.. Chancellor cast anchor in the bay of St. is known as Russian has Lapland. Nicholas. on the opposite side of the Murman coast. all these lands from Novgorod the Great.' by which they are known to the civilized world. been explored except constituting almost one by the Lopars (Lapps) huge mossy bog and the Saamy. of one hundred and twenty and of commander. Eastward of Cape Kanin. Sir Hugh Willoughby with his own vessel and the Bona Confidentia ultimately reaching with Cornelius Durforth the Bona A much his difficulty a companions. self-eaters.' Explaining. a native in of Bristol. when. the under him one hundred were placed Richard and sixty tons. having from him in commandment the 241)1 ' ' On else but his amide and things to deliver to their King. while wearing orthodox crosses round their necks. frozen during more than half the year. at a village called Nenocksa. The peninsula thus 59 bordered on the one side by the Arctic Ocean. by the chartered Mystery Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands. politically. little The interior. and seeking nothing . death. which had inherited. although of Venetian parentage.

A charter then granted by the Tsar enabled the Company to trade throughout his dominions without paying any taxes. on the contrary. 1 1 From Factor^ an agent.' A new Company was thereupon formed in London by special charter. they retorted that. permission to repair to Moscow in the ambassadorial character which he had assumed.' and requesting that one of His Majesty's Council should be sent to treat with the Tsar. gave the three Englishmen ' a cordial and distinguished reception. Kostroma. Yaroslaf. . whereby your country merchants maie with all kind of wares and wheare they will make their market in our dominions.60 K^SS/AW PICTURES. Kazan and Astrakhan. and depots at Novgorod the Great. not far from Archangel). obtained Ivan the Terrible. hemp and tallow of Muscovy from Flemish and Lithuanian traders by way of the Hanseatic towns. whereby they doubted not but that commoditie and profit would grow to the subjects of both kingdoms. they It is were fast being ruined by the execution of so many of their debtorsindeed true that the life of the early English settlers in Russia was not an They had to contend with civil commotions. and obtained firm hold of all the most important centres of commercial With a head agency at Moscow. It is not surprising that under such advantages the Company prospered. Instead of getting the furs. and sent them back from Moscow in March 1554. English merchants were now in direct and privileged communication with the country which supplied those valuable a later treaty with Queen Elizabeth secured to them the commodities exclusive right to carry on the new trade in English ships. and tniffique with his people. then Tsar and in the zenith of his glory as the capturer of Kazan and the Suzerain of Siberia. and sold their goods at a to native complaint. pestilence and easy one.' great was Chancellor kindly and hospitably received by the equally astonished natives. according hundred per cent. with a letter to King Edward assuring him that his shippes and vessels may come as often as they please. Pskof. then on the throne of England. a Factory at Holmogory (fortyRussia. and even permission to seize and despoil of his goods the subject of any other Power who might attempt to reach India. they carried everything before them. The important right of coinage was also bestowed upon them. Nicholas soon became an important place of commerce. Persia or China by way of Russia. amounted to two and three profit which. seven miles above the mouth of the Dvina. wax. on the strength of an open Royal Letter with which each of the three vessels had been provided. after he had friendship. The engraving on page 57 represents him and his two principal companions merchants named Burton and Edwards being received in state by the Governor and other high authorities of the province. and in 1555 Chancellor returned to Moscow with a reply from Philip and Mary. ' . ' ' Holmogory is evidently derived from the Norwegian Holnigaard. When Ivan the Terrible complained of these proceedings to the English Ambassador in 1569. and the Bay of St.

not only restrained the impatience of the He desired to marry Queen but also filled him with high hope. refuge in the country of the other in case disturbances in their own realm The matrimonial part of these proposals should compel them to do so. Tsar. daughter of the Earl of Huntingdon. been effected had not a special Muscovite ambassador reported unfavourably of her age (thirty) and of her personal appearance. in to enter desired into a treaty to of mutual defence against common skilled He the Queen allow ' navigators and persons warlike ratified shipbuilding to come to Russia. a straight nose. negotiations. one of her maids This would probably have of honour. but Elizabeth negotiation. Elizabeth.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN famine.' suggested the Tsar should marry Lady Mary Hastings. and their agency house in 1571.. and long fingers. Above all. Skilful RUSSIA.' was politely rejected. her chief defects being In the midst of this delicate 'red hair. it was to be by oath between her and himself that either sovereign might take stores to ARCIIANlIKI. the boyars informed the merchants of the Company that ' their . and artillery and other be sent from England. 61 when fifteen English Moscow was destroyed by the Tartars in men and women perished in the flames. and meanwhile enemies. however. who was not averse to the alliance.

aided mainly by Commander. by withstanding ' . destroyed the Turkish at Chesme. Englishmen was derive immense proceeded advantage from the opening of her seaboard to the commerce of all the maritime nations of Europe. and some British volunteers. a legion. Greig. in fact. the credit for them. with about three thousand men. foremost organisers "and commanders. captains. renewal of their ancient privileges was never obtained. Their names are. British officers were the first and In the reign of Catherine the Great. long jealous of the English renewed. Many of them were Peter the Great's ablest coadjutors in the extension and the reform of the empire he left to his successors.' is spoken of in Kirkton's History of tlie C/nirc/i of Scotland as a man whose rude and fierce natural disposition had been much confirmed by his breeding and service in Muscovia. Orloff got although beginning. especially the Dutch. R. who. in Europe. Next.' and other nations.' Generals (created Baron Strathallan in 1685) were credited Muscovite instrument with with the introduction of the thummikins. Even in the reign of Alexander I.' the English were relegated to Archangel and. A volume might be well filled with the exploits and services of our countrymen in Russia. who had great difficulty in Although the important in its trade thus established by thenceforth altered character. Their exclusive privileges were therefore not English Tsar was dead. and William Drummond of Cromlix. and saw There were popular murmurs against the nothing but tyranny and slavery. English admirals. . where he had command of a small army.' Muscovian rigour of Dalzell's military administration in Scotland. so in that of the navy of Russia. Cronstadt was fleet Elphinstone. by Scottish formed were regiments and English officers. Russia to obtaining the Tsar's in permission his to return to Scotland ' in whose nickname ' own country became Old Tom Dalzell. 'lent' to Russia in 1/69. and lieutenants were engaged in creating her fleet.. and he was railed against as ' a Muscovian beast ' who used to roast men.KL'SSIA\ PICTURES. notat made the Earl of Carlisle the a efforts Restoration. of Muscovy. had passed into the service of the Tsar after the defeat and imprisonment of Charles I. monopoly. The most famous of those officers were Thomas Dalzell (or Dalziel) of Binns. As in the case of the army. so far as eminent services are concerned. Her first regular in the reign of Peter the Great's father. the English spirit of enterprise in had not benefited Muscovy this direction alone. were in the succeeding reign permitted to participate in the commerce of the country.. now the third. Lieutenants Dugdale and McKenzie. Captain Roxburgh. Meanwhile. and for a considerable time after. 1665. They won the earlier naval battles of Russia.N. with Captain |ohn and who. who profited in no smaller degree by similar aid. so far as numbers are Dalzell and Drummond concerned. subsequently Admiral.' a which Covenanters were made to suffer. in condemnation of the people who had put their Charles to death.

There are plenty of other domes and spires. erected at the beginning of the present but no century. Flemings. practically a 63 colony of British naval it officers and artificers in the service of countrymen taught good and enduring results. and on which he made the century. by the blending of races. undergoing the same regenerative process. visited for The cathedral may be the . excepting in ecclesiastical of Peter the Great was able in his great work of is to British skill. In further support of this view. and a relative of the Earl of Mar. . learning. Peter the Great's first school of mathematics was under the direction of Farquharson. is meant to be conveyed by this assertion any Panslavist who may be inclined to take umbrage at it will do well to study the influence of Jews. who accessible port of his new capital. while the founder of the Russian Medico-Chirurgical Academy at St. and habits of industry and.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. being not older than the last purpose of seeing the large wooden cross preserved in it as the handiwork of Peter the Great after he had escaped from a storm on the White Sea. but none of the Russian churches are of any antiquity. Archangel. longer used. from the oldest extant the Archiepiscopal Palace. are undeniably liable to become effete. Petersburg was also a Scotchman. when strictly kept within narrow bounds of nationality and consanguinity. and Germans on the more modern development of the equally vast empire of Great Britain. a friend to the cause of the Pretender. capital that much of the present No greatness of the Russian empire is due. built in 1/84. and the visits in summer of some fifty British steamers to the port on the island of Solombola now alone attest out- common wardly the former importance of Archangel as a place of British trade. the starting-point of the modernisation of Muscovy. bears at present little evidence of the importance it acquired in the sixteenth century. at Moscow. gilt or coloured. the older that having been destroyed by one of the many fires ravaged Archangel during the last century. civil and and regeneration. The decline its of trade the to city dates removed British the more is merchants houses building still established reign of Peter the Great. learning. we may instance the United States of America by the immigraastounding tion of multitudes with acquired skill. The houses of the early English merchants which stood in the Cathedral Square met with the of timber fate. disparagement to native genius. whose foundations were laid by a conglomera- effectually political even the strong hand grasp while he was engaged not it proof that. tion of races. His chief physician was Erskine. Nor was the art of war alone that our James Wylie. a Scotchman. to their immense advantage. enterprise. The colonies of Great Britain have long been individually results attained in the . We might add name upon name which to in matters. Huguenots. in no smaller degree. which. so undoubtedly abundant. in which One of the themselves in great numbers. An Anglican church. the Russians with such Sir Russia.

however. and in to wealth and from the began grow power year About a century later the 1442. It is. of planks and skins. the brotherhood refused circumference. however Archangel is the revered water-gate to one of the holiest places in Russia the famed monastery of Solovetsk. The visitor is first shown the chapel erected over the spot on which liturgy sent nine years.' the native point of view. under Zosimus. following inscription in Dutch: In Western eyes. or sent into exile.. to which some ten thousand pilgrims are annually conveyed in a steamer commanded and manned by monks. and further on we come to an obelisk commemorating the harmless attack made on the monastery by the British \YhiteSea squadron in 1855. by the Patriarch Nicon. and intervals thousand feet round and by square towers. secure themselves Deeming in 1667 to receive the revised I THE SOLOVETSK MOXASTHRY. It was founded in 1429 by St. after a long siege. nearly three supported twenty to thirty feet high and twenty feet in their stronghold. Hepworth Dixon said in his Free 1694. ' From the city is a magazine of oats and tar. Sabbatheus. and many of thi monks were put to the sword. and between 1590 and 1594 the monks enclosed them within in a wall of granite at boulders. by his son Alexis. as the late Mr. the Cathedral of the Trans- . ' Dat cruys makcn Captcm Piter van a C/it. churches were rebuilt in stone. thick. the Peter the Great. one of its first abbots. Built of wood in 1438 and rebuilt of stone in 1558. On the sides of the gateway are models of the two small vessels in which they crossed from Archangel. A large number were executed later. and broke into a rebellion that lasted It fell at last by treachery. when the holy fathers walked in procession round the walls while the shells were flying over their heads. landed in 1702. accompanied six churches of this fortified monastery that will chiefly interest him.64 RUSSIAN PICTURES.' Russia. the remainder being kept in awe and submission by three hundred Streltsi.

its gold. linen gave the gold reliquary adorned with pearls In contrast with those gorgeous vestments is the plain also who chasuble of Zosimus. part of the relics of St. have yet although grandeur to the Imatra Sweden. the sword of the Prince alliance with a butcher of Nijni Novgorod. fishermen and seamen in the White Sea. and . Onuphrius the Great. local repute. In the vicinity are two chapels (1753) containing the tombs of Germanicus and of other reverend fathers of The Cathedral of the Assumption was consecrated in 1557. grayling. lies about half-way between Onega Bay and Lake Ladoga . Metropolitan of Moscow.THE NORTHERNMOST PROVINCES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA. Outside the wall is the eighteenth century. did good same cause. Among the objects of highest value are the sacerdotal vestments. 65 figuration contains the ponderous silver gilt shrines of Saints Sabbatheus and Zosimus. There trophies forgotten in this the armour of the comrades of of a monk. on rich its western shore in is copper. one hundred and fifty miles long and chapter. churches enclosed by the walls were founded severally in 1596 and 1687. At its southern end the White Sea forms the Bay of Onega. throughout the province of Olonets but few scientific fishermen have as yet taken advantage of its wealth in trout. The remaining two and the Church of Nicholas Thaumaturgus in 1590. patriots who expelled the Poles from Pojarski.' who the head of which stands Kern. Solovetsk was used as a political prison so recently as the reign of Nicholas. with a belfry 125 feet in The artistic treasures of the monastery. equal in Petrozavodsk Falls lers in the \Vaterfall of Finland. Only a few Russian travelit has been immortalized in one of in the best is also poems of Derjavin. Nor are military is museum of otherwise sacred objects. . silver. and precious stones contributed by Tsars and nobles. ornamented with pearls of unusual size presented to the monastery in 1550 . and an imposing ikonostas. and restored or renovated in the church dedicated (1667) to height. Kivatch. reject It is also a place of political exile. a settlement of the been very active as since and who have the innovations of Nicon. and a large collection of ancient Russian and other weapons. who. There abundance of bear and other shooting in this neighbourhood. and char. is iron Petrozavodsk. buried in this monastery. at Old Believers. and of military banners bearing the emblem of the cross. are carefully preserved in a special Sacristy. put up in 1697. ' as is indeed the whole of the region we have so imperfectly described in this fifty The Lake of Onega. the capital of the province of Olonets. by Ivan the Terrible. Philip. About forty-two miles north-west of and mica. service in the in who was one of the most active Moscow in 1613. and precious stones. once Civil Governor of Petrozavodsk. miles broad. as and seen Trolhatten it.

Kief became the seat of the grand ducal throne of the Scandinavian (subse- ON the quently called Varangian) conquerors. and . the cradle of the Russian empire. families I'cche of the merchant own together with their Bell. before they took their viking ships down the Dnieper to Kief. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE SYNOD. MOSCOW. The city once covered an area forty miles in circumference. a central mart of great importance and prosperity. the founder of Muscovite dominion.. annexed their possessions to the Grand Duchy class of Moscow his . in order to destroy effectually their fifty spirit of independence. and. It is here that the Northmen under Roric established themselves A. For a considerable period the Novgorodians were able to boast that no one could in 'contend against God and the Great Novgorod. THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.' but at last 14/8. removed to 8000 boyars or nobles. and capital. soon rendered the Lord Great Novgorod. way to Moscow a special excursion should be made by rail to Novgorod the Great. however.D. impelling them to internecine warfare for its possession.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A PSALTER OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. until from 1136 they assumed the right of electing or dismissing their prince at a vccJic or witenagemote. r CHAPTER Moscow : V. Trade with the Hanseatic towns. the citizens of Novgorod gradually acquired political power and independence. 862. When. and water ' communication with the North and South of Russia.' as the republic became styled. Ivan III.



expired record of deceased Archbishops and Metropolitans of Novgorod is brought down to iSiS from A. The ruin of the city grand completed in 1570. The most modern of the saints in . who had contemplated a transfer of their allegiance to the Prince of Lithuania. The Sophia St. and the roof of the cathedral. of John. In curious fresco the galleries above are representations of . is by eight massive quadrangular pillars. which is reproduced also at Kief. More ancient still. Later additions from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries and complete restorations. or seat of the Metropolitan. are those of Peter and (a Byzantine copy of the eleventh century) and St. their son Vladimir 1052).MOSCOH': THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. Sophia. most ancient of these are relics (d. 1223. and Nikita. which is of century) been preserved in the apse. who but died the 1653. supply the usual form of a Greek cupola supported cross. from St. princely and . and traces painting canonized princes and ecclesiastics of the same kind of (twelfth have above the thronos. which. daughter of Amongst the most venerated King Olaf of Norway. Anne I. old was The glory of the city survives only in its constructed in 1050 by Byzantine artisans after Cathedral the of St. facing the altar. SOPHIA AT NOVGOROD THE GREAT. silver. Archbishop of Novgorod.D. and precious stones. and probably of the same age as the cathedral. in countless treasures gold. The belfry tower dates from 1439. founder of of Mstislaf Cathedral. Thousands of its inhabitants. dates from 1050). have not deprived it of the distinguishing features of one of the oldest churches in Russia. Sophia at Constantinople.D. Only two of the inscriptions over the 86. were thrown into the River Volkhof. when even its monasteries and churches were sacked by Ivan the Terrible. with two similar pillars at the altar. Archbishop of Novgorod (d. is the Byzantine mosaic work behind the altar. consort of Yaroslaf the the A. original ikons The ikonostas dates The most ancient in it CATHEDRAL OF ST. with its figured Internally cornice is a remnant of the work of the seventeenth the century. and (d.clerical. 1108). 1180). Paul (brought from Khersonesus by St. 1030. those of St. of Brave 1 1 (d. 1341. Vladimir). oak. in 1820 and 1837. Enshrined in silver or bronze are the remains of numerous saints. model of the famous St. of Kief.

a Magdeburg production of the twelfth century. Close the cathedral renovated by Peter the Great the splendid bronze monument erected 1862 to commemorate the thousandth anniversary of the existence of Russia.7 RUSSIAN PICTURES. century. after the are several other churches within of the walls of the Kremlin. or as the Grand Duchy of Moscow. is alone sufficient attestation of the German and Roman Slavonic Catholic character of the work. archiepiscopal A. palace built in and the government stone A. or the fifteenth of like Novgorod the tall One tower the city them by. still so called. which St.D. numerous tombs of Novgorodian princes are now legible. with tongs and a pair of scales in his hands. the head of a man in German dress. that their Byzantine origin has long been disproved.D. the Governor which were 1104. Sv ' ' AN OLD CHURCH AT NOVGOROD. resided subjugation 1302. They overlaid with bronze plates. offices are within same place of wooden is erected Rebuilt in in in 1490 by an 1 Italian architect. independent or confederated. is quite equal to that of the door of Zenone at Verona. They are dated and 1218. although the notwithstanding are of wood fecit over The legend Rigvin me explanations were probably added later. they were 700. to in of by Ivan the walls The walls. bearing fifty-four inscriptions in Latin and Slavonic. in the form of principalities. has in existed since close which III. by which those principalities were absorbed whether and ultimately welded at St. The life-size . Petersburg into an empire. respectively 1178 At the western or principal entrance to the cathedral are the exceptionally fine and interesting Korsnn (Khersonesus) doors. There Acropolis.

MOKATING THE THOUSANDTH^ANNIVERSARY OF THE EMPIRE.. figures on the history. ifr^Tlriii^tor ffl if-. h rni~ ' .MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. It was founded in 1657 by the Patriarch Nicon. . '- "^ '^\ VS .. we must confine ourselves to a short mention of the famous situated New Jerusalem not far railway from Moscow. about fourteen miles from a station . monument are emblematical of these several periods of Russian But our object is to reach Moscow.. jtt THE MONUMENT A'l NuVUuKuI) Ll'MMI. and much as we should wish to say something of the other ancient towns that lie between the two capitals. who caused the neighbouring accidents of country to be named after various sacred sites monastery. .

attiring himself in the habit of a monk. he A council alleged. Although the of the church was in these circumstances somewhat original plan departed from. in 1658. and. to resume his seat on the patriarchal throne. . and replaced the primate his retreat at the even in the high Moscow on an THE PATRIARCH NICOX. of whom he fearlessly sermonised the patriarchal cathedral. an artificial Kedron. when orders for its restoration were given by the Empress Elizabeth. although unwillingly. The monastery of the New Jerusalem was thus left uncompleted. ass. dral on one of the great festivals of the Church but Nicon was far from being daunted. laid down his crozier. analogy Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. tion. having been ordered. and began. with the gift of the Holy Ghost to work cures. a village close by was dignified In with Nazareth. the principal tent-like cupola collapsed. for example. ceremony of riding through led by the Tsar him- For to typify Christ's entry into Jerusalem. and. six years Nicon was a recluse at but in 1664 his worldly ambition reasserted itself. and it was not finished and consecrated until some years later. in civil as well as ecclesiastical matters. in a dream. while a small chapel built on a mound was called Eleon. a Metropolitan was temporarily invested with the patriarchate. In 1/23. yet internally it remains more like the edifice in which the Crusaders worshipped at Jerusalem than is that church itself since its destruction by fire. In spite of Nicon's protest that he was still a Patriarch. Nicon a model of the more the render to order procured complete. to banish him to a monastery in the province of Novgorod. devoting to the attacked he had previously with which clergy for their intemperance and He also endeavoured to restore the Russian Church to other irregularities. As a mark dissatisfac- the Tsar absented himself from the cathe..RUSSIAN PICTURES. to erect an all it his wealth and all the energy exactly similar structure. a river to represent the title equal in dignity in to that of the Tsar. and remained in that condition until 1749. withdrew to New Jerusalem. New and the Tsar was induced. in brook was made was converted into the Jordan. relying on the speedy repentance of the sovereign. and in public documents assumed a Palestine . arrayed once more in his pontifical robes. . of the Eastern patriarchs convoked at Moscow disposed of his pretensions. and in the pictorial representations of in matters Byzantine purity His arrogance became so great that he exercised jurisdiction sacred subjects. of ritual. self. and he Jerusalem made his appearance suddenly in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Moscow. he publicly threw off his pontifical sakkos and mitre. his former friend.

he wore on his breast. . and in its 73 renovation in 1812. further complicated by the aspect addition of of chapels by. with a brass cross. as penance. London. down to our own day. close to the corre)ur illustrations sponding spot in the actual church of the Holy Sepulchre where lie the Over his tomb hangs the iron plate remains of Godfrey of Bouillon. at the foot of the Golgotha.' ( show the present outward form and the internal Nicon is buried in the of this highly remarkable structure. that. has the an ordinary successive Russian cathedral. suspended from 1 Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. late We cannot : describe ' it more graphically than it the words of the Dean Stanley still Externally. beyond Jerusalem.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and of the same form dimensions as the church at the actual precisely as the arrangements of that church are. arrangements Chapel of Melchizedek. or in honour of. 1869. the various members of the But internally it is so imperial family in after times. which. a traveller who has seen the original can THE CHURCH IN THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. intricate built probably any other in the world. find his way without 1 difficulty through every corridor and stair and corner of the copy.

the original supply of which has been maintained by the continuous admixture of analogous ingredients. This is the Descent from the Cross. his portrait. the original wooden model of the church of the Holy Sepulchre. We once struck by the busy 1 more or irregular streets. is anointed with ointment supposed to be identical with that used PLAN OF THE CHURCH IN THE NEW JERUSALEM AN EXACT COPY SEPULCHRE. a four-storied tower from which Nicon watched the building of the church. which is preceded on Good Friday by a ceremony that is not performed anywhere else in Russia. Pilgrims come in vast numbers to the monastery. and many other interesting objects. is lowered by means of long strips of linen from the Golgotha Chapel. his neck by a heavy iron chain.74 PICTURES. Much interest also attaches to the skiit.' and ecclesiastical life. embroidered on a cloth. Large numbers of them were decapitated by the orders and under the superintendence of Peter. Endearing epithets applied to the city by the Russian people. or hermitage. In the sacristy are kept his hat. to assist at the Easter Eve service of the Russo-Greek Church. . In 1698 General Patrick Gordon defeated the rebellious Streltsi in the vicinity of the monastery. and finally freed Peter the Great from those illdisciplined and even mutinous bands.' truly 1 are in the are political centre the of that less Russian. and after being laid on a bier in front of the altar screen. and in which he wrote his Chronicle of the Church of Jerusalem. which is in an upper gallery. and sheepskin coat. The body of our Saviour. OF THE ORIGINAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY by Mary Magdalene. ' Moscow all the is white-walled. shoes. On we ' reaching at Our holy mother Moscow.

tage by even the luxury of cities of . We are received by to which we are bound. are well-appointed car- riages and swift proliotkis (a miniature victoria) which rattle us over the long cobble-paved streets that lie between the Nicholas Railway Station and the Slavianski Bazaar or Hotel. porters in national dress.ATOSCOll': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. and inviting passers-by to enter and view his goods. THE STRELTSI OF 1613. cloth-clad here in their aboriginal from condition looking the one driving long teams of roughwaggons or sleighs. high boots of polished leather. STRELTSI OF A LATER DATE. which to cover a cloth coats shirt pretend long of dazzling red silk. GENERAL 1'ATRICK GORDON. seen only at the neck. laden with every . and a small round hat gaily adorned with peacocks' feathers. together In their stead driver. will served shirts waiters in white Restaurant. The old drojki has a sort of knife-board on four wheels its tattered and grimy with disappeared. the value of which he still totals up on a Tartar abacus. tall It is Russia. and trousers. larger a of The Slavianski Bazar. and the Hermidepreciated paper rouble. we cannot omit a passing reference to the comfort OFFICERS OF THE STRELTSI. the other standing at variety of raw produce his shop door. (trader) : The are kitpcts thoroughfares and squares of sheep-skinned innjik (peasant) and the wily. Petersburg. as in 75 crowded in in summer so as well winter with vehicles and pedestrians. not our object to describe hotels and the details of travelling in Nevertheless. in these days Russia. and the ill-filled that respect different St. and the accommodation now obtainable in all the and also to its relative cheapness. that is to say.

when a and 1547. 1536 of was to ashes. notwithstanding great and the assault of the Crimean Tartars in 1572. when the ancient city be the capital in 1771) was fired by the orders of (which Count Rostopchin. who.000 of its the reduced considerable part city of these continued to fires in inhabitants perished in the flames or by the sword. and 100. a century later it was burnt down by the Tartars under Baati. who was the progenitor of the Kief had in 1158 lost its subsequently mighty race of Muscovite princes. and by the plague. when the Tartars left no building standing that was not constructed of brick or stone. or fortress. and pre-eminence amongst the city of Vladimir. By the early part of the fifteenth century. took possession of the Kremlin on the i4th of population we come had ceased to solemn entry next day. Alexander Nevski. has already been mentioned in the French occupation disastrous of of some the incidents the refer to can only his September. They were replaced in masonry A. and the number grow. after the sack of the city in 1382. and we left Moscow.000 men. the grand- A son of Chingiz Khan. its governor. Their advanced guard. city. with a horde of three hundred thousand men. favourable comparison with bear any other corresponding establishments in Western Europe. It was he who built her first wooden walls. On the September. 1812. plunder with which it second chapter. with many fine churches the younger son of . and gave to the space they enclosed the Tartar name of krcmlin. sketch of the history of Moscow must precede any description of its Chronicles record its existence as early as 1147. of the and Grande of the small remnant Armte. which to in 1771 greatly reduced the the great tragedy of 1812. in order to clear it of the invading legions under Napoleon.76 RUSSIAN PICTURES. towards the end of the the seat of a principality (or Grand Duchy) under Daniel. which latter encountered a rival in Riazan and it was only towards the middle of the fourteenth century that the Grand Duchy of Moscow became paramount. consisting of Polish and Prussian lancers. . About principal buildings. when the Poles took possession of the city. and Napoleon made the moment chosen for setting the . Moscow had regained the and monasteries position of a flourishing capital. 1 9th with S5Q pieces of cannon. and strengthened by a moat in 1394. led by Prince Murat. This was city on fire. and for three days the flames raged with terrific fierceness. the Russian was succeeded by principalities. under Ivan I. the remnant of the host of nearly half a What became of this million with which he had crossed the Niemen. Napoleon withdrew to the Petrofski but returned to the Kremlin on the 2oth of the outskirts on the Palace. after failing in an attempt to negotiate October he left Moscow with an army consisting of 120. thirteenth century its ashes.I>. a peace. Passing over other disasters by fire in 1611. Rising from 7 . 1367. Moscow became. devastated on that occasion the southern and central parts of what we now call Russia.

Encircling these adjoins it. is part of the population having been located in the Earthen City beyond. the centre. in 77 our description of the churches and other buildings connected with its history. and. Black or taxable is the White City. . together with the wallecl Kitai Gorod (Chinese Town). Spread over a circumference of twenty-five miles. which the heart of the city and its chief attraction. a its THE KREMLIN.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. MtjSCUW. Moscow has now The Kremlin stands exactly in population of three-quarters of a million. anciently exempt from taxation.

whether walking or driving. A much venerated ikon of the Redeemer arch over the of the placed gate. and which was brought from Smolensk in has 1647. five times as heavy as the celebrated bell of Erfurt. flows the river which standing its humble origin in one of the morasses of the neighbouring province of Smolensk. we ascend by some four hundred and fifty steps to the highest of the five stories of which it is composed. and not even the it without conforming to the old custom. given to it the character of a Porta Sacra. who executed rigorously enforced. also made use of the gate as a point at which dissenters from the Orthodox emperor can pass through if they wished to preserve their beards. rebuilt in 1367. two years after Gordon's victory over them. however. the numerous cicerone who infest the basement. Our attention is next directed to the bells. or Ivan. and tell of the existence of nearly four hundred churches. and the season that of summer. monasteries and convents. but which have been much restored and extended since they left the hands of the Italian architects by whom they were designed. trace the main We and ancient circumvallations. once of the head. 1812. more or less embedded in trees. The tower over it was constructed in 1626 by an English clockmaker in a style (Gothic) discordant with the Italian battlements. and is. If the day be clear. and which has since been converted into boulevards. weighs sixty-four tons. a out of the metal of ancient but in weakened in bell. called so from the wall of earth which formerly surrounded it. Peter the Great. thus named after approach the renowned tower its architect Under the guidance of one of (in 1590) John. were replaced between 1485 and 1492 by the high and stout battlemented walls and towers we now see. our eyes Church were made to pay toll it with are dazzled by the glitter of the gilded or star-bespangled spires and domes that surround us on every side. the principal of which is the Redeemer Gate. and four times heavier than that of It was re-cast after the partial destruction of the tower in Rouen. for which the tower is as famous as for its great height. The King of Cast Bells.7S RUSSIAN PICTURES. and are pierced by five gates. its 1733 huge and other which the treasures the of ladies Moscow jewels composition by streets . and proceed to enjoy one of the* most striking and unique views in Europe. therefore. bared heads. we Passing through or belfry of Ivan the Great. named the Assumption. They are 7280 feet in circumference. Close under the southern front of the Kremlin walls. The Kremlin fortifications. which is three hundred and twenty-five feet to the top of the cross on its gilt cupola. stands on a granite pedestal at the foot of the tower. notwithtiles. chapels. Viliers. The largest of these. on the east face of the Kremlin. uncovering the Streltsi in front of it. with their quaint towers of glazed green has given its name to the great city. when Napoleon and his marshals surveyed the city from it. and the eye ranges over a vast expanse of coloured house-tops.

side in by the it falling of upon heavy some rafters. Alexis and it the Empress Anne appear upon in on the are t i relief figures. 79 had the thrown liquid into metal with tent. and the Evangelists. nearly two hundred tons.MOSCOU': THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. maximum two thickness The Tsar feet. its is height twenty-six feet its four inches. and scroll below o n representas of the Saviour. of the the broken piece. all surrounded cherubim. and which weig tons. a pious inTsar the lost i Kolokol of its out 737. alone eleven minus h s The weight bell. . circumference - sixty seven feet eleven and its inches. the Vir- gin Mary. by Another monster of which the Muscovites ON THE BELFRY : THE IVAN VELIKI TOWER. the large piece (seven that feet high) now rests against the pedestal.

Palace. the Moscow princes and tsars built their habitations. imposing in aspect. Incongruous as is its exodd from the various mixture of periods and forms of architecture which it exhibits. hundred feet. It measures two George. On of the by sixty-eight feet. A THE GREAT BELL. and later The Great of brick. originally of wood. burned down had a f t e r Napoleon terior. and success in the field. is seen defeating the Tartars at Kulikova. from the earliest times. the entire front of which is decorated with cannon taken during the retreat are of the French. is unfortunately not ancient in It stands on the spot upon which. These suffered destruction at the hands of Tartars and Poles. and were not unin frequently destroyed the many accidental con- flagrations to Kremlin jected. a palace built by Cathe- rine II. halls the gallery at the top of the noble staircase that leads to those apartDimitri. the great beauty and grandeur of the state apartments within render the Bolshoi Dvorets a residence fully befitting the mighty Autocrat of All the Russias. guards the corner of the arsenal. cast in 1586. which was founded by Catherine in is bestowed only for distinguished acts of . The first of the series of magnificent in is dedicated feet to the military order of St. while its the shining white walls are inscribed in letters of gold the names individuals of all ranks and of the regiments decorated with the bravery or 1769. on the banks of the Don. weighing forty tons. left it. II. proud is the Tsar Pushka of the Kremlin. a cannon of enormous It size. than fifty-eight height is no less order. has which the been sub- The present which the French edifice replaced. Prince of Moscow. in 1380. great episode is in Russian trated history illus- on an immense canvas ments.8o RUSSIAN PICTURES. age or in style. in 1849.

to this in character the Tsaritsas of Moscow received the boyars. a large square building. with its fronts cut G . however.Af OS CO IV: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. and foreign ambassadors on great occasions. it is supposed to have been an audience chamber of the but it is on record that in a chamber similar patriarchs and metropolitans . 81 must. and a host of At the private apartments. the early part is the Zolotaya Palata. interesting parts palace. and which are taken to represent the seven councils. leave the modern and magnificent for the antique and of the aside the Winter Garden. the clergy. setting perforce the Picture Gallery. into which open rooms allotted to maids of honour of the We more imperial court. From the THE GREAT PALACE. MOSCOW. end of a gallery. seven recesses and seats along the walls. but restored in the style of the in seventeenth century the reigns of Paul I. elating probably from of the fifteenth century. the chapels. In the Granovitaya Palata. or Gold Hall. and Nicholas I.

the superior clergy. diamonds. a Tartar Khan. crowns. The most ancient of the thrones is that of the last Christian Emperor of Con1472 by Sophia Palaeologus on her stantinople. in token of the ancient descent of their Peter I. resting on a broad border of dark and surmounted by a plain cross terminating in large pearls at each A topaz. vast power.. German and Russian. originally twelfth-century work. and who in 1689 resigned his share of the government to into facets. turquoises. the dome of the cap on gold stems. fill the first two rooms. an aperture is seen through which Sophia. and which we cannot avoid observing from the palace yard. A good specimen of Moscow four rubies. and Alexis. who had been charged by the Streltsi with the control of State affairs. (1682). who was both mentally and physically incapable of governing. is the double of throne vermeil in made for the curious. Ancient armour and weapons. Attached to the palace is the ancient (restored) building called the Terem. The Round Room is full of thrones. The ornaments and the and elevated to the dignity of a vassal Tsar. the middle of the sixteenth century is seen in the Crown of Kazan. however. sable. whom he converted to Christianity. and elegant gold arabesques of a work of . while upon the cap itself are four emeralds. Most Terrible. bestowed by Ivan the Terrible. we find chamber built by Italian architects for the Tsar of Moscow in 1491. Here on the richly gilt throne of silver the monarch sits in his coronation robes. brought to Moscow in Its ivory is beautifully carved with representations marriage with Ivan III. is the depository of a vast number of historical objects and of treasures hereditary in the reigning house. Germany coronation of Ivan and Peter as the joint successors of Theodore III. a true restoration of an audience then only seventeen years of age. severally. the nobles. the entire decorations are Oriental. The Treasury. which forms the right wing of the palace. Among the crowns we single out the jewelled cap of Vladimir Monomachus. prompted Ivan. of the labours of Orpheus and the legend of Thrace. to Ivan the Boris Godunof. The Earl of Carlisle was received in it in 1664. after he had conquered the Tartar kingdom of Kazan. It is in fine gold filagree work. Its two lower stories were built in the early part of the sixteenth century. upon Simeon.82 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Its high arches rest on a central pillar. rubies. a sapphire and a ruby all of large size spring from extremity. and other regalia. Three thrones of studded with Persian workmanship. around which is stacked the imperial plate when an emperor is crowned. on lifting the drapery at the back. and the two upper ones were added in 1636. and dines with the sovereigns and princes. and twenty-five pearls of Ormuz. and pearls. and yet it was in the Tercm that the first Romanoff sovereigns gave audience to foreign ambassadors. and the diplomatic personages who have taken part in the great ceremony. belonged. which all the Emperors of Russia have assumed at their coronation. The rooms are all very small. their sister.

rubies. besides a great number of emeralds and pearls. made A no diamond cross fewer to from immense uncut ruby on diamonds adorn the body of emeralds ficence. part of the regalia of the Russian sovereigns up to the time of Peter I. Among the old state carriages preserved in a room below is a coach which Queen Elizabeth sent. ' We very early phase of the great Eastern Question. symbolical figures of Bythe eagle. Next Peter it the tiara-shaped crown. It is studded with fifty-eight diamonds.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. for its large jewels to I. summit. in the of most style Greek of at- The to plaques coloured enamel. and with only a few objects of the fourteenth and fifteenth separate case are some Stuart specimens of English work. together with eight horses. and we must preface our description of the more notable cathedrals with a few observations on the origin of the architectural features of those edifices. The They are escape notice. Some of the orbs of great St.. to the Tsar Boris Godunof. a The furthest room is museum of gold and THE CROWN OK MONOMACHUS. G 2 . but Emperors the III. presented to the Tsar of Moscow by the sovereigns. the one reputed to have been sent especially Basilius and Constantine. mostly of the seventeenth century. In a good Queen join. but in which thus see in this relic the record of a Bess refused to centuries. decidedly or the Persian character. in magniVladimir by reality made for Ivan eighty-nine two baniu. than nine hundred the in addition numerous rubies and are to in fixed on pliant stems.' Moscow abounds in churches. cannot the fifteenth century. A. and cap. the : the griffin. and the rises top is surmounted by an enormous cap of maintenance. generally classed as Russo-Byzantine. 988. and divided by the four principal zantium lion. adorn is it. silversmiths' work. Many topaz. or collars. Its panels are ornamented with allegorical allusions to a crusade the Tsar had proposed to make against the Turks. beautiful art. a strip silk. tached of brocaded the the are represent episodes in life of David. and the unicorn. both of Byzantine workmanship.D.

which at the same time lent itself more easily to the its construction stone. according to Russian chronicles. its grandeur. They are supported internally by pillars covered with frescoes on a gold ground. national is size. especially officiating. As a matter in the material or the in all no churches of the early Christian age survive in Russia It is even doubtful integrity of their original forms. the older at subsequently that we examine closely Proper still extant. when the original edifice of 1333 was rebuilt by a Milanese architect. features of the latter style surviving only Byzantine. with a later combination of the Polish. and brightness being features previously unknown in Its five domes. Their Russian disciples varied again that style according to their own taste. since its sovereigns continue to be 1479 on new foundations by an Italian architect named Fioraventi. and created a special type of ecclesiastical architecture in a mingled Italian and Persian style. and that the Italian architects called in by Ivan III. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael. separated from the Assumption by a small paved square. who. of fact. similar to that of the Grim representations of martyrs moderate the glitter that would walls. of wood. the the outlines of The Uspenski Kremlin crowned in it Sober. gained the prefix of Aristotle 'on account of his cunning. Nevertheless. whether type in be built Central Russia. we shall ecclesiastical architecture reproduced in of Russia or arrive the conclusion when stone predominate over constructions in timber (in the fifteenth century). including the central cupola. under the influence of Georgian as well as Persian forms. height. ordinary interest. Among the many tombs in observed. Byzantine influence was already very feeble. the silver shrine of Philip. otherwise have given more light to the interior. For this offence he was dragged from the altar at which he was in the cathedral is and ultimately put to death. or Cathedral of the Assumption. Indeed. The after 1812. If of tent or cone-shaped pinnacles. the . when the French used it as a storehouse. Moscow included. succumbed to the Oriental taste of brick buildings began to the Russians. ancient churches of a Byzantine An abundance of timber caused them to purity ever existed. adapted their work in accordance with it. Nevertheless. in their architectural details they are Italian rather than in characteristic their apses. Metropolitan of Moscow an of more than 1566-1569. it rather than a cathedral. It has been restored several times. essentially Italian. in the centre of the the most venerated pile in Russia. a careful study of the Russian churches style of construction.' a wonderful It was considered was built in structure.84 RUSSIAN PICTURES. as Dean Stanley correctly dimensions what in the West would be called a chapel architecture. built between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries will show that non-existent in Byzantium. were covered with copper-gilt plates only in 1684. for it is that of a object prelate who had the courage to rebuke Ivan the Terrible publicly for his atrocities. dates from 1509.

part of the Synodal Buildings within the Kremlin. with whom the male line of the Romanoffs became extinct in 1/30. the most interesting of the latter being a long-necked vase. emeralds. the necessary quantity of oil and white wine. or all the many cinquecento panagias. it is in and called the mother-of-pearl. or dalmatic. ami cannot stay to point out studded with precious stones of great value. The 'great mitre. under the mistaken could save his erring soul. already quoted. to Peter the Great. against each sepulture. ' ' few drops only are annually used in the preparation of the sacred oil with which orthodox children are anointed at their baptism. His tomb is covered with a black pall. belief that it having been who also covered the nine domes with of gold.' out of four that belonged to Nicon. The only emperor buried in it is Peter II. interior is 85 extremely interesting. portable pyxes. one is that of the Metropolitan Dionysius 1322 an expiatory gift of with rubies. No fewer than forty-seven princes of those families repose in the tombs that literally Frescoes on the walls. balsams. is diadem-shaped. Close by is the Cathedral of the Annunciation. in being The most then hallowed by a drop or two of venerable of the robes that hang the sakkos. In the old residence overlaid Alabastron.. A essential and spices are added to great variety of gums. is numerous glass cases in . and purhave been a portion of the ointment used by Mary Magdalene. 1 1 They are well described in Mr. the entire compound the contents of the Alabastron. having been perfectly restored to its ancient appearance of a mausoleum of the Rurik and Romanoff dynasties from Ivan I. in Ivan the Terrible after the murder of his son. to denote that he died a monk. is a large and curious collection of ecclesiastical vestments. and thoroughly renovated in 1867. the Patriarchs. of the Metropolitan Peter. record their altar lies Ivan the Terrible. assisted by his higher clergy. and other precious ornaments of fine workmanship which the sacristy of the Patriarchs offers to We our view. the most ancient belonged to the Patriarch Job (1595). the monastic vow nil the cathedral. and diamonds (1583). names and features. rebuilt in 1489. . and causes it to be distributed among the bishops oils of the several dioceses. notwithstanding O the canons of the Church. Next the his numerous offences against administered to him on his death-bed. prepares a new supply of the mir every two or three years at the season of Lent. Many of the ikons within it were acquired at the sacking of Novgorod the Great by Ivan IV. Maskell's Russian Art. emperors consecrated at their coronation.. made but the richest another room. manship. covered Of the seven mitres. and Russian The Metropolitan of Moscow. restored after a fire in 1547. ornaments and vessels. cloisonne gold. Notwithstanding its Persian form and distinctly Russian workheld to be the original receptacle of the chrism obtained from with Constantinople porting to A on the introduction of Christianity into Russia.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.

Basil the Beatified. MOSCOW. BASIL. where we 1 CATHEDRAL OF ST. Much churches stand side treasure of a similar kind is preserved in the sacristies of the that within the side by at Chudof Monastery and the Ascension Convent. We are now the great Red (or beautiful) Square.86 Xl/SS/JV PICTURES. Our of ' it Theophile Gautier It is description given of the edifice by without doubt the most original monument in the justifies the . the Redeemer Gate. are at once struck by the eccentric appearance of the Cathedral of illustration : St. by which we issue from in the Kremlin.

chapels were added to it. it in its strict accordance with ancient 1812. not Thibetan pagoda. and belongs to no known One would imagine it to be a gigantic madresore. connected by a in a chapels Basil.D.' who acquired also the epithet of Big-cap. 1668. by an Italian whose eyes were certainly not put out. this curio disappeared in 1812. and the innate compassionate feelings of the people are . an edifice formed of clouds It might be taken for a fantastically coloured by the sun. In another renovated in in 1784. in order that he Seven years later. as legends assert. and danger of the French occupation of Moscow. one is tempted to a whimsical will-o'-the-wisp. Napoleon. when it became known by its present name. the great cupolas of Basil the in fire that devastated the Kitai Gorod destroyed all Beatified. found in present form. Fortunately for later visitors not of iconoclastic temperament. or In looking at this impossible church. of Astrakhan. the tutelary saint. a prophet and miracle-worker. 87 nothing that one has ever seen. after conquering Kazan. Mosque' to be destroyed. Ivan the Idiot. but was not completed until the end of the sixteenth century. in the form of heavy iron chains is famed for the relics and the Another penitential weights chapel penance. the 1737 great conflagration and all the vessels and domes with its the church. testant reader must bear in mind that idiocy is a form of mendicancy very common in Russia. it recalls . 1555. side should not produce another structure of equal merit. his orders. It was commemoration of the additional acquisition architect whose name remains unknown. with the treasure he had ' wooden church dedicated rebuilt in to in the stone A. Again. In one of the lower from the heavy iron head-piece on which he was wont to carry buckets of The Prowater as an exercise of charity. such as it is after subsequent alterations. were not carried out. and again thoroughly and treasures within it.- THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. Intercession of the Holy Virgin. stable. or vanish into nothingness. which the movement of the air will presently cause to change in form. ask if it is Hindoo. and ordered 'that drawings.' of cast iron of ' ' labyrinth of passages. each separate places different in colour and surmounting many of worship. a thing which has neither colossus. and the edifice. reposes emblems his venerated of costly shrine little in harmony with the equally and crosses which he wore for austerity. chapels eighteen destroyed Restored seven years later. a crystallised style. idiotic taken from the Tartars. although the edifice suffered to the extent of being robbed and in the confusion used as a design. Chinese. It has as now eleven domes. a for Christ's sake'). built on this site (anciently a cemetery in which was buried Basil.' Ivan the Terrible.MOSCOW'. prototype nor similitude. and in 1626 a fire which broke out in the dome of one of its chapels spread over the whole of Moscow. a stalactite grotto turned upside down world . It was pillaged and defiled by the Poles early in the seventeenth century.

88 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Dvor (Great Bazaar) on Apropos of markets. as well as from the planting of trees in squares and boulevards. however. recent years from a style of from the imits provement of pal streets. in the porches of its churches and chapels. the butcher and the boyar who drove the Poles out of Moscow in 1612. much moved by Another common. we must not fail to mention the al fresco mart . is no same observation The may be made with regard to the appearance of the civic population. longer correct. accounts given by previous travellers as to the great number of mendicant men and women. The and 1 thoroughfares in about the Kitai are scarcely re- Gorod if** cognisable by one who has not seen Moscow for A PEASANT COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CHURCH OR MONASTERY. appeal to charity fire. which is certainly betterdressed and more European-looking than even fifteen years ago. Moslike cow has gained much in more imposing building. in which ladies improvements can do their shopping without discomfort either in the heat of summer or the excessive cold of winter. monks and nuns to be seen in the streets of the city. worthy (1818) in memory of Minin and Pojarski. Also. and the old Gostinnoi A some length of time. feature these is the A the Red Square will be replaced by a building more and of of the the in monument front of erected site. most othercities and towns in Russia. princi- which are now better kept and lighted. couple of years more. it. it. perhaps more painful. and at the neighbouring monasteries. in striking erection of arcades or passages. be admitted by any recent visitor to Moscow that the must. consists in the exhibition of sores resulting from accidents by and It it is not unusual even to see beggars going about barefooted in winter.

89 ~ ' - ' - under the walls of the Kitai Gorod. is well repre- It view the of sale animated scene and purchase in every possible description of merchandise. of which we give an illustration. in odour as well as in appearance.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. The assemblage is of a decidedly uninviting character. . whether THE OLD CLOTHES MARKET. and the rawest material of Mussuffices to covy sented in it. MOSCOW.

busy throng.IX 1125. so far as it can be denned. the it ere he enters the Kremlin. this unique and comprehensive museum will rival objects. on the outskirts of the surging. in Varvarka Street. frescoes found in catacombs. and we a pit-fall. The between to the its adjoining gate is the principal entrance into the Kitai Gorod.90 RUSSIAN PICTURES. or chapel dedicated Iberian Mother of God. worrying The next room brings us to the end of the Bronze Age. with The Babi. here deposited. found in great numbers in the province of of stone in human form. this huge edifice of red brick is a the human species in what is now Russia museum is in which the in course by specimens of workmanship. Indian and Persian in history of illustrated design. of being &c. Another secular building of high interest is the Romanoff House. shudder at the ghastly frescoed representations of an interment at Bulgar on the Volga. One of the most remarkable of the modern buildings in Moscow stands at the end of the square opposite the Cathedral of St. and two arches we find the Iverskaya Chasovnia. in fame and interest the Kremlin and all thereunto belonging. rich and poor. and at frequent ceremonies of blessing a new Emperor always stops to pray before its popular belief in annually realised house or public edifice. Some of its stone walls are alone of undoubted antiquity but.. and typical of Russian ecclesiastical art down to A. Basil. at a respectful distance. at the various epochs of man's times. ravaged by fire. represent After this come monuments at of religion in the Iron Age of Russia. and his wives. honestly or otherwise acquired. and from the visits paid by the ikon to the houses of the sick. . and the miraculous powers is so great that a very large sum is from the donations of worshippers. with copies of contemporaneous the state Frescoes copied from the walls of St. in the shape of mammoth tusks. the frescoes. horses and dogs are being slaughtered preparatory to the burning of the boat and its contents. objects illustrating the Helleno-Scythian period. mounds that are found scattered over to death with Early Arab geographers give graphic accounts of those sacrificial rites. Christian not later than the tenth century. Sophia Kief and from those of other Russian churches. and from its attendance at the weddings of the affluent. and models of interments in the South Russia. and sacked by the French. within the Kitai Gorod. A chief lies dead in a boat. This is the most venerated image Moscow. implements. whose in ikon. was brought from in Mount Athos 1648. earliest arms. it was rebuilt in 1859 in the style of noble Muscovite dwelling-houses of the . are in two rooms full of early Slavonic When completed. art.' or hideous idols details which will not bear reproduction here. Savage man is seen on a and stones sticks a mammoth taken in huge fresco. existence. ' Ekaterinoslaf. stone arrowheads and tools. from A room decorated with age down to modern and ornamented in a style of coeval In the first represents each such epoch. three apartments are relics of the Stone and Bronze Ages.

above the cellars. and The turret on the affording a charming view of the city from its windows. complete the arrangements of this storey. a panelled stamped leather. to sights of the Kremlin and the Kitai Gorod are now are attracted towards the grand go farther a-field. was . a is in form of west surmounted by a vane the griffin. consist of a vestibule. it boyar's apartments. carvings built in of wood. or banqueting hall of the palace. in which are shown two brass ink-bottles like those used in the in the was exhibited days of Chaucer. being on record that Michael. and a small study. As Granovitaya Palata. and we Temple of the Saviour. a nursery.AfOSCOJf: THE AXCIEXT CAPITAL. 1839. the first Tsar of the The present dynasty. and a large room called the Chamber of the Cross. bearing the offensive and defensive weapons of the Romanoff coat-of-arms a short sword and a shield. We in diameter) in it Founded commemorate the deliverance of the city from the French. with adorned with rich wood. whose huge gilt dome (ninety-eight feet and attendant belfry-cupolas shine pre-eminently over Moscow. Tcrcm. was born on this spot. the family on great occasions in this apartment. and including reception-room the bed-chamber. a room for female servants. The principal exhausted. kitchen. sixteenth century. and offices. Above is the THE ROMANOFF HOUSE. in a house of the same kind. and the household assisted at matins and vespers. in which priests offered their congratulations on great Church holidays. which has also plate many secret recesses for the concealment of treasures. An oratory.

quarried near Moscow. dark. is magnificent and elegant The ' beyond all description. the activity is connected the ancient empire naval he moved by capital of the In 1695. haul reliefs and other ornaments notwithstanding. of Peter the Great in almost exceptionally. to a Scotchman named building has been used as a pressure tower or reservoir in connection with a supply of water. he caused this structure to be built in the form tall of a vessel. the main of British capital. Outside have now Tower precincts we visited. the stone from which Moscow derives one of her most endearing popular appellations. Lombardic and Gothic and two hundred and feet high. the tower. created. not the only as a but as an conspicuous object. entrance to the principal portico. and the surrounding galleries the quarter-deck. highly-polished Labrador' marble. like the military and naval enterprise of our countrymen in more ancient days. introduced in 1829 from a source twelve miles distant. and within recent years perfected by the appli- Farquharson. at a cost of two millions sterling. completed only in 1883. his enthusiasm for matters. thirteen were meant to resemble the bow and the stern the extremities Structural accretion has destroyed all trace of a contemporaneous flag-ship. . edifice with which. has played no unimportant part in the cation development of the Russian empire. spent exclusively God with us. the direction of which was entrusted by Peter I. in a mixed style. and after serving as the location of a naval school. the Sukharef claims our attention. Being of white sandstone. while THE SUKHAREF TOWER. supported by thirty-six marble columns.' is the inscription over the on native material and labour. brings into relief the gold with which the walls and pillars are abundantly de- corated. it is as dazzling in summer as the sheen ' of the dome and bare-looking the interior of the casket the four cupolas that surmount this otherwise inelegant and But block. which. representing the mast.RUSSIAN PICTURES. of such resemblances.

MOSCOW. Danilofski.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. NEAR MOSCOW. CATHEDRAL. It typifies the connection between Mary. NEAR MOSCOW. NICHOLAS. CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY AT UMAILOF. CHURCH OF THE VIRGIN OF KAZAN. There 93 are monasteries in numbers all about Moscow well worthy of if not described mentioned. 1 . 1 FOUR CHARACTERISTIC RUSSIAN CUPOLAS. CHURCH OF ST. From the Donskoi. recorded . I'oKROFSKI VILLAGE. in our pages. and the cross. the mother of our Lord. The superposition of the cross on a crescent so often seen on Russian cupolas is not emblematical of triumph over Mohammedanism. and Simonof monasteries delightful views of Moscow and its multitudinous cupolas are obtained their churches and sacristies being also well worthy of inspection. AT MOSCOW. she being represented in ancient Greek pictures with her feet resting on a crescent. but it is almost superfluous to being say that a host of other buildings and institutions of high interest must remain un. for the device was used ages before the expulsion of the Tartars from Russia.

Kursk Railway.' a boat now preserved at in a shed the ' Moscow. nothing remains except the church. on an island of the lake. The well-known Sparrow Hills afford. and it was here also that he discovered Russian Navy. Grandsire of the Kolomenskoe. on a glorious northern summer's day. vicinity of Moscow.RUSSIAN PICTURES. is an ancient domain of the Romanoff family. the is another Petersburg. Peter the Great studied the art of war. It was built between 1775 and 1800. Standing on this slight elevation of the left bank of the Moskva. ancient seat of the St. rebuilt in 1679. on Tsars in the . we can well realise the feelings of the French invaders when they caught sight of the Kremlin walls and the glistening domes before us. a village about six miles from the centre of the city. however. the finest view of the ancient capital. of which. which we reach towards the hour of sunset. however. In the palace. Moscow ' ! Moscow and ' ! Another favourite trip by carriage or tramway is to the Petrofski Park Palace. and was occupied by Napoleon after the Kremlin had become too hot for him. Izmailovo. RUSSIAN PEASANTS NEAR KUNTSEVO. which Napoleon first beheld from their summit. In the seventeenth century the Tsars had a well-stocked menagerie as well as an aviary at this residence. and exultingly shouted.

000 Poles. and twelve brethren. population fealty and quit-rent to St. farmers. was rendered all the stronger by the appearance to him (as recorded in the annals of the Russo-Greek Church) of the Virgin Mary and the Apostles Peter and John. we find Russian peasant proprietors threshing corn with the Biblical flail ' ' ! The instrument is used throughout the rest of Russia. villas. Here.D. w hen Ladislav of on Prince Dimitri Tartars. Laid waste by the Tartars in 1408. where the corn of the peasantry is generally threshed by the A large and increasing equally ancient method of the tramp of bullocks. simple.' viewed Moscow from Kuntsevo. and self-denying Sergius to canonisation. having his kingdom. Thirty minor that vast estates monasteries were later attached to it. after his death in 1392. who was also the father of Peter I. except in the southern provinces. a nobleman of Rostof. gold. King saving of Prussia. but unsuccessfully. glad to find a primitive Russian village still occupied by stalwart specimens of the true Slavonic type of Moscow. The 1608 the monastery was besieged. quantity of agricultural machinery is sold at the two capitals to the larger landed proprietors. representing a In of at least owed 500.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. or Monastery of the Trinity. quantity of Russian agricultural produce. The estate came to the Naryshkin family from the Tsar Alexis. son-in-law of the boyar Cyril Naryshkin. unimpaired by contact with so rapidly becoming we are and factory labour. shows not only the character of the contemporaneous town life dwellings of the inhabitants of the central part of Russia. which are naturally detrimental to the quality and the . One about six 95 of our miles pleasantest drives on a recent occasion was to Kuntsevo. 1388.000. when its principal cathedral was erected. the Canterbury of orthodox pilgrims. and the claim of its abbot the pious. T . and is of little interest. To the blessing he bestowed is ascribed the great victory gained on the Don over the and treasure in Lands. The mansion is of a somewhat later period. thanked Moscow. Few travellers fail to devote is within easy a day to an inspection of the Troitskaya-Sergieva Lavra. engraved from a photograph taken on the spot. within a few miles of Moscow.000 male serfs. and to his extremely rude methods of husbandry. A. same enemies appeared before its walls a few years later. . were consequently bestowed on the monastery. and German colonists but the serf holds doggedly to his primitive plough and flail. Frederick William III. silver. Our illustration. but also that of one of their agricultural processes. and jewels. but the inscription on a granite pyramid near the conservatory is worth recording : 'On the 4th July.. and such by the middle of the eighteenth century more than 106. by 30. One of the most remarkable of the holy places in Russia reach of Moscow by rail.1818. the monastery was re-established fifteen years later. and situated in pretty woodland scenery dotted with off. which her for is At so short a distance from modernised. Sergius. It was established in 1342 by Sergius.

in Last Supper solid gold. to whom in his youth they had afforded shelter against Streltsi. for the applications of In a glass case inserted in the altar the kisses of the orthodox faithful. the most ancient insurgent are the last is the Cathedral of the Trinity. burdened nearly with jewelled ikons. the the tutelary saint. use or the life the presence of way-worn pilgrims. which stands on the of the original edifice raised by The entrance is level with the Sergius. typifying the nine celestial hierarchies. acts of piety. at which monks sell ikons. monastery.96 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Dingy. were repaired byPeter the Great. circuit. gift of Ivan shrine of one thousand pounds in pure in whose name recurs so frequently Russian history. a mile in walls. the interior interesting nature of representation alone of brass. Sergius being the principal subjects represented in pictures and photographs. is larger. but curious chiefly for its . and somewhat unsavoury from character. the silver. nearly completed in 1547. of whom 100. pictorial tapers. and on coarse enamel and deft wood-carving. the figure of Judas being is Close to the ikonostas. with nine cupolas. The Cathedral of the Assumption. not over clean. Of the twelve churches which it contains. oil. weighing the Terrible. the These rights of the newly-elected Michael Romanoff. ' ' screen are seen his pastoral staff and other paraphernalia. certain small parts of the body being left uncovered. and we a enter ground.000 repair annually to the THE TROITSA MONASTERY. as much in connection with atrocious crimes as with prodigal The incorruptible remains of St. Sergius are exhibited in it. Poland disputed and the most venerated site and doings of St. portico full of stalls. of the is its rendered attractive only by the costliness and the In the archbishop's stall we find a contents. incidents in the military of The the history monastery. and built in 1585. and a variety of other articles of ecclesiastical crosses.

recluses hardly ever leave their subterranean cells. Evangelists in it is attributed to the early part Of the other sacred of the thirteenth century. effectually walled in. dedicated to the Ascension of the Virgin Mary. seclusion beyond is the Bethany Monastery. Godunof. painted in 1609. Sergius seem to be worth all the treasures in the cathedrals and monastic establishments at Moscow and About a mile put together. and over which. The sight is a strange one on a hot day in August. founded by the late Metropolitan Philaret as a retreat from the cares of his high office. frescoes. in those less tidy days. given by the Tsar Michael in 1632. to whom so many was completed in 1/69. Streltsi were seeking to wrest him 97 from his was concealed under the altar when the sister Natalia. Chief sacristy. an object Its treasures are of paramount of mostly is not among them a resplendent copy of the Gospels. headed eagle the throne of in wood commemorates is Boris Muscovy. Peter I. in which vows of perpetual are being fulfilled by human beings in the garb of monks. the elegant Count Rastrelli. to wipe a streaming brow. or Hermit's Cell of Gethsemane. Female worshippers are admitted once a year into the church at Gethsemane. but the extraordinary richness of those at St. buried at the western entrance. A of the copy manuscripts. jewelled crosses. which contains a library of four thousand old books and Sergius Radonejski. after the profuse gorgeousness of the churches we have just viewed. a half from the monastery is the Sfciif. The binding is beautifully ornamented with floral and arabesque patterns in enamel work. pious or mundane. earlier date than the seventeenth century.MOSCOW: THE ANCIENT CAPITAL. A detached building contains the curiosity to pilgrims. It is nearly edifices we need only notice the church of St. We are to some extent prepared to see a large collection of imposing ecclesiastical garments. The interior of the church is remarkable for its simplicity. next to the house in which he lived. designed by in Russia are due. an renowned He is equally by Plato. while the ardent worshippers look and feel as if they had emerged from a steam bath. who have elected to breathe the pure air of heaven perhaps only once a year. and other ornaments. In some catacombs beyond. established in 1783 and learned Metropolitan of Moscow. and emblazoned with a large cross in rubies of fine colour. which edifices important three hundred feet in height. Let finds he within. in which their thin linen and cotton clothing had not been removed. usurper of We cannot but admire belfry. and a large twohis escape. and in reality Not a hand can be raised in the densely-crowded edifice far from pleasant. contrasted with emeralds and sapphires of great size and beauty. buried here.' not him who comes in here carry out the dirt short distance ' A ii . and we are still more impressed with its austerity when we descend to the neighbouring catacombs. he caused to be inscribed the significant admonition.

IN CHAPTER A VOYAGE DOWN VI. vniz po Volge (Down popular Russian robber-song a song with which the present generathe Little Mother. Kalmucks. the Rha (great river) or Volga. established by the Northmen at Kief. after the foundation of the powerful Russian principalities of Suzdal and Murom ' ' (eleventh century) and the removal. The Huns. not because ancient geographers mention. but with little accuracy.AN ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. and Bolgars subsequently formed powerful states on it. and after their Central Asia and ' ' . and to the exercise of untrammelled liberty but because we desire to see the celebrated fair of Nijni Novgorod. we are inspired by the Vniz po Matushki. OF THE THIRTEENTH OR FOURTEENTH CENTURY THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. and Khirghizes) to the banks of the Volga. were in their turn subdued by means similar to those which have brought The the modern Russians to the frontiers of Afghanistan and Persia. the bands armed of a Russian commenced observes writer. down the Volga) made familiar in their childhood as a were Muscovites of tion middle-aged song inciting to deeds of daring. task. tinder Rurik. sixteenth power had been destroyed in the sent fresh masses of nomads China century. Ptolemy and other great cities on the main water-artery of the WE are bent on descending the Volga. in 1158. TIIK VOLGA. but were gradually subdued and absorbed by the Great-Russian race. Khazars. and the Russian empire.' by century came the Tartars. to Vladimir of the paramount In the thirteenth throne. as flowing through the country of the Scythians and Sarmatians. These (Bashkirs. MOSCOW.

H 2 .


namely inclined. and of gaily-painted chests and other articles so extensively iron (most of under water. who waived his claim to the treasure. One of the finest specimens of Russian architecture is the Church of John the Baptist. to tion. formed. of textile goods manufactured chiefly and Vladimir. most important commercial entrepots of the empire. the assimilation that results from modernized intercommuniinevitable process of cation by rail and telegraph is rapidly depriving Nijni Novgorod of its older since mercantile features. of cotton.' But although thoroughly Russianized. and now a great centre of manufacturing industry. now in larger and larger quantities from chiefly sea-borne. Persian. of brought from the northernmost parts of the in the provinces of Moscow empire. the river than at take Yaroslaf. modern arcades which protect his customers and himself from The formerly itinerant however. religion. and the Cheremyssi of Finnish or Ugrian origin. the Chuvashi. oppressive . But most travellers are content to make the easy railway journey from Moscow to Nijni (the lower) Novgorod. like that. still afford rich materials for the study of the aboriginal races by which they were held. everything else nationally peculiar in Russia. if so service of the Almighty or in some benevolent object. at the time when the celebrated So much has already been written about that great fair is being held. ' produced by the ' village industries of Bokharian. Rybinsk. have the patience to embark on the great river at Tver.000 labourers find employment on the artificial waterway which thus connects the Caspian with the Baltic. the depot in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the English goods imported at Archangel. so far as language. or Armenian. brought and skins furs Central Asia. becomes navigable by small steamers. ior been completed by detachments of Cherniayef and Scobelef. are concerned. now taken refuge in the Russia. rain. its travellers Few it where first position in that respect dating from the middle of the last century. by an English merchant. the great inland Caspian Sea. or even at Yaroslaf. it We certainly found in in 1888 the same huge stocks of consequence of a severe flood). cosmopolitan gathering that it would serve no useful purpose to devote much Neva. means of canals communication was established between the Volga when by and the About 5000 craft and 100. especially for grain. the banks of the Volga. on its course of 2320 miles. administraand to a great extent. while another sacred edifice in it is adorned with two Tradition says it was built (in leopards. A recent visit confirms an impression long space to a description of it. 1652) with the proceeds of gold which a Russian trader had discovered in a cask sold to him as containing paint. of tea. at Yaroslaf. to which higher up This is one of the a branch line runs from the Moscow Trunk Railway. particularly the Mordva. from a small lake near the town of Valdai.A VOYAGE Suzdal has DOWN THE the VOLGA. has. in honour of our own country. and desired that it should be employed in the We could.

abundant. . cheap and inferior.BAZAR : . ' 3 and trim iron petroleum refuse as a cheap. they are unloading so quaint engaged and mediaeval-looking as they were only a few years ment of steam transport as fuel. or at any other continental mart. and who are always mentioned in heat. and we might fancy ourselves at Leipzig.102 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and blinding dust. more Turkish than Mongolian in features. The wares exhibited in those galleries are as a rule German. Even the multitude of stalwart Tartars. propelled by the use of and commodious substitute for wood< VIEWS IN NJINI NOVGOROD descriptions to of the fair.~-:v3^^evi-. great developbarges. to the before the Beggars exhibiting repulsive sores fear to withhold their donations lest their superstitiously charitable. mercantile transactions be who in- fluenced by the evil one are likewise types that are fast disappearing under . be dwindling are in Nor the in craft appear numbers.

the present governor of the province. on these arrangements is made good out of the revenue yielded by the the masses of goods stacked on the banks of the Volga and the Oka. supply some of the needed softness for body and head. not in the air. or piled on board the floating part of the fair. Shelter and food are abundantly provided for the absolutely indigent. Their clothes. to which the pangs of Nijni Novgorod. in a room of large dimensions. how important a part it plays in We the occupations of the population on the lower course of the Volga. such as they are. charitable fair. is the honorary patron of one of several night refuges. . specially deputed the obliging governor. supported by a nights of July and August. 103 and enlightened administration of General Baranoff. our sorely tried olfactory nerves will soon Among discover the masses of dried or salted fish that have been brought from the rich fisheries on the Volga and Caspian. but tea is available throughout the day. Under the guidance of an officer of the civil service. to show us the holes and corners of the fair. and we keeping orthodox. while the poor are fed at a nominal charge per meal. at a The financial deficit charge of three copecks. in which six to seven hundred of the poorer labourers find a resting-place and glad enough are they to take advantage of the wooden ledge and the cast iron cylinder offered to them as a substitute for mattress and pillow. and a cigarette in his mouth.' Siberian Line For the sum of five copecks several soup-kitchens well worthy of a visit. for the consumption of the fastshall This alone is a trade of colossal proportions. at one of the many restaurants are hunger by all inevitably bring us. and the small amount required as covering during the hot At another of these refuges. but open merry-go-round. ' ' ' at all spirits rare to find a labourer or ale are allowed. see as we descend to the Caspian. Count Ignatief. benevolent merchant named Bagroff. or less than a penny. rye bread is supplied gratis to the Near the that skirts the Volga are miserable casuals. The average consumption of bread alone is one and a half pound per man.A VOYAGE the active DOWN THE VOLGA. on the strength of old acquaintance. from the peasant nightly entertainment for all sorts in a It was a novel spectacle to see a Russian untjik sitting upwards. but it is not . which takes its name from the city and its fair. soup buck-wheat porridge the staple food of the Russian masses. travelling dclicatesse towards the source of the supply of caviar that delicious which no one can properly appreciate until he has tasted it almost We make our first real acquaintance with it at fresh from the sturgeon. of Panslavist celebrity.} and of about one pound of kasha. an ample dinner consisting of in with labourers are them supplied (about \\d. with a bottle of beer beside him. Here again. or and black bread ad libitum. we visited some very curious places of after a long stroll will and conditions of men. its first great tributary out of thirty-seven others. No capable of disposing of three pounds.

Nijni to ' ' became conspicuous as the place at which a company of Holstein merchants built the first war vessel ever launched in Russia under a charter for opening a trade with Central Asia. near the mouth of the great Kama. is substantially a structure of 1227. although in one of its painful and demoralizing phases. in 1219. still prominently extant about In the same century.' pass over the common episodes of Tartar invasion and princely internecine strife. to whom a monument in the form of a granite obelisk was raised opposite the cathedral in 1826 by 'grateful posterity.' Out of the forty odd churches outside the Kremlin. and he will. The neighbouring unsightly Church of the Transfiguration from 1834. the deliverers of Moscow. the removal to confluence of the ' Oka Low with We it of the ancient Fair of Makarief. side of the ikonostas are dedicated to the patron saints of Minin and Pojarski. It was for the purpose of arresting the incursions of the godless Bolgars. which he named Novgorod the New Town of the Countries. which they enclose. there was not much. and consequently of high interest. who may already be known to some of our readers as a learned archaeologist and comsummate connoisseur in matters of Russian ecclesiastical lore and art. who incorporated in them two towers which dated from the fourteenth century. the Cathedral of the Arch- angel. There was no disorder and national the student of to shock anything. accompaniment by detectives in plain clothes through the Kunavino quarter was sufficient proof that the tranquil surface exhibited to us was in a certain measure delusive. seventy miles lower down the great river. much reduced in height and circumference Although restored in 1620. if life. namely. their city of Oshel. The old walled city of Nijni Novgorod has in itself strong claims on to friend. in 1558. Anthony Jenkinson. the Dmitrofskaya and the walls The Kremlin we Tverskaya.104 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Andrei Alexandrovitch Titof. were. and is remarkable only for its octangular. it is no brawling . and founded a ' strong settlement at the the Volga. There is no doubt that in this respect we were under deep obligations to the enlightened official who had supreme charge of us. by way of the Caspian. could see the process of we European assimilation at work. They after a great fire. so called from a privilege granted in 1641 a monastery dedicated to St. in imitation of our countryman. Macarius. but our be hoped. that the Prince of Suzdal took. of Rostoff Yaroslavski. distinguishable by its eccentric colouring and dates its existence . However. see towering on the cliffs of the right bank of the Volga were built in 1511 by a Venetian.' inhabiting the country now known as the province of Kazan. however. and come down to the great turning-point in its history. George. a tributary of the Volga. Altars on either Tartar-looking belfry on the opposite side of the street. not take it amiss if we record our gratitude towards our good Mr. we need only indicate the Rojdestvenskaya. who had already. the intelligent traveller. crossed that sea in a ship that bore the red cross of St. Persia and India.

erec- Critics trace its 1371. not far from the floating bridge. Before proceeding on our voyage. and which existed. by the Metropolitan sented to of the it Alexis. Of the monasteries Novgorod. or terrace at the extreme end of the city. 105 peculiar It was built in 1/19. when it was ravaged or tion by Purgas. 993. who probably Holy as pre- the ikon Virgin. DOWN THE VOLGA. according authorities. Count by Gregory Stroganof out of a portion of vast riches acquired by goldmining at Nijni in Siberia. or Khersonese workm a n s h Greek it i p. Prince of the Finnish Mordva to t ribe. on the banks of the Oka. to in some 1229. and be must therefore the most ancient it holy image in Russia. cases of swarthy representations.D.A VOYAGE architecture. to Korsun. or drive to we walk the otkos. in all attributed. the is most ancient the Annunciation. A inscription on testifies that it was in painted A. overlooking the .

' for his duties ' ' more appropriate name of the consisted solely in setting latter alight. and are impressed by the monotony of the landscape.' as inscribed autoFew were the languages in which he could graphically in our note-book. bv .' description were appropriately garbed in the American-English of to which this real salt-water tar had traded during the greater part of his life. as when we travelled on the Volga some fifteen years before. extinguished some years the cession of the Islands to the Aleutian United States of America. in the service of the Russo-American Company. on which we paced or settled ourselves comfortably whenever the great heat of the sun was tempered by a kindly breeze or moderated by a welcome cloud. The steamer was one of the many vessels that have American-typed supplanted the earlier pioneers of the Our cabins were our saloons above them. in the matters of punctual speed. Volga. Those of the latter Frisco. clotted here and there with forests. The absence of smoke and of attendant soot was soon explained by the fact that the steam by which we were not ' propelled owed its origin. or wide. and confessed unreservedly that they had never been better taken care of than by the merry commander of the Novoselski. tolerable accommodation. the Caucasus and Mercury Company are in a position to offer superior in relation to other on the advantages steam-ship companies Volga. ago by He was a real cosmopolitan. and our own personal insignificance in relation to the great works V 7 We of the Creator. and all the blunt outspokenness of a Russian Slav with a shirdkaya natilra. charge of a couple of men. and over all was below. now so There is not one of the abundantly supplied from Baku on the Caspian. not to wood or coal fuel.lo6 RUSSIAN PICTURES. are favoured to the extent of We on board during our stay at Nijni. but to the refuse of petroleum. Subsidised for the carriage of mails and exiles. the spacious top deck. sleeping ' convey either his serious or his merry thoughts.' The engineer. so called after His Excellency Nicholas Novoselski. and culinary requirements. or stern wheel iron steam barges and tugs that now uses any other description of fuel. Led by the attentive captain to the we found in it engine-room. criminal and political. Our good fortune has secured to us a commodious berth on board the Novoselski. see a far-reaching alluvial plain. hundred Volga steamers of all kinds and dimensions American riverwith propellers. one being the five craft stoker. the other the should be the trimmer. and of finding a charmingly and eminently intelligent and communicative commander in the person jocose of Sea Captain Felix Alexandrovitch Pietroschiewich. A majority of our party had travelled from Australia. with the cuteness and droll levity of a Yankee. olga from its junction with the Oka. expansive mind and habit. and the originator of several of the greatest and most successful enterprises in Russia. the founder of the steamship company. an aboriginal of the coast of Croatia or Dalmatia (evidently the scene of his nativity).

camps of their own. including some of a soldiers TEA URN. his samovar. and subsequently increased to nearly seven hundred. The was accompanied by to which urn. We were travelling by one of the best mail steamers. turquoises. There was but little talk among them during the daytime. There were few races in Europe or Asia that were not represented among the five hundred passengers embarked in the Novoselski. was very soon put on shore. like companions. the closing of which. divided for that purpose into two parts. ing. Russian silk. The petroleum is furiously over the bottom of the boiler by a jet same nozzle. and excepting only a village priest. or trader. who were merchants or cotton. on the other hand. sufficed to arrest at a stopping-place the further generation of steam. the jet of petroleum refuse conveyed under each of the lour boilers and set free by the turn of a cock. knpcts. crack regiment of guards on furlough. madder. more than usually indigent and untidy in his outward appearance. on the ground of not having paid his fare. 107 a rag saturated with naphtha and ignited by a lucifer match. the fair of Nijni was yet scarcely on its decline. including priests. recourse. or tea- he the had aid frequent with and comA RUSSIAN TRADER WITH HIS panionship of his prikastclii or clerk. were huddled together on the second deck. themselves. sleeping. each passenger more or less snug at night on mattresses and felt rugs. Persians. from their more lowly in Christian not. scattered into spray as it issues from the supply-pipe. apart slept soldiers.A VOYAGE means of DOWN THE VOLGA. and peasants. They in rows and batches. which was spent in eating and drinkand on at the busy activity numerous places of call. and the rougher classes of the Russian population were consequently in a minority. who. distinguished by their cleanliness and their stores of pillows and warm coverings. All had more or less a well-to-do appearance. The Asiatics and the and made to burn of steam issuing from the lower classes. gazing . and Tartars formed Bokharians. All sorts and conditions of men and women above the trader stratum of Russian society were assembled in the saloon cabin. notwithstanding occasional disembarkations.

It is so far the cool. slaying to protect . dancing frantically round each hut. that a foreigner acquainted with the language is often placed in a condition of some embarrassment. un- climatic barrenness of the that soil conditions under which they have so long struggled. accelerated as it has also been by the prevalence of goitre and other diseases. too The scenery. under similar conditions. which are not nominally Christian. when Ivan the Terrible. It was the ladies had the night become economical sociability condition of the country. was much attention. Every year also the young girls of the northern forested region of the Volga beat. At Kazan we find a very different population. was then discussed with a freedom that would astonish those who had been led to believe that in such matters Russia is a country of mutes. over which the secret police is supposed to keep close watch.io8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the they occupy. Although are to known dwellings. and especially of the Volga provinces. and it is equally interesting as the capital of a barren district in which another ancient ' ' Finnish people the Cheremyssi are evidently There are not more than 100. The days. and we soon get accustomed to were being towed up shifting monotonous to attract the Volga through after its strings of barges that shallow. on the right bank of the river. and often retired. them from drought and destructive insects. this day. and whom they pursue with wild cries as an impersonification oi death.000 men.000 of them left favourable industries living in out their last the district. with an army of 150. with a for this is the strong admixture of a handsome and vigorous Tartar element ancient capital of a Mongol kingdom which flourished between 1438 and 1552. have contributed to this result. they are in reality more than half pagan. representative of different sections of society. There indeed no part of Central Russia where these have been better preserved. the old women of a village sally out at night unclad. is To belabour unmercifully any one who may come in their way during their weird operations. The reverse outside the precincts of hotels and restaurants. With these fellow-passengers. and next day touched at Cheboksary. This is the town of towns of the Chuvash race. on the outbreak of murrain among cattle. the criticisms state of affairs which he cannot help hearing being generally very strong against the present and the powers that be. and have contributed greatly towards keeping alive among the population of the middle course of the Volga the customs and superstitions of remote ages. winding. the channels. a town of 5000 inhabitants. and. we dropped down the Volga at the rate of nineteen miles an hour. The abnormal number of idiotic and deaf and dumb children is another symptom of the moribund condition of the Cheremyssi. and entertained and instructed by the vigorous discussion of political and social questions. and the unsanitary state of their supplied with chimneys. It is Russian. the bounds of newly-sown fields. dark and the atmosphere that commenced. until we approached Simbirsk. . the unremunerative character of the simple them. subdued it.

1562. planted a cross after he had stormed the the original In the church of a convent close to of the ' the Kremlin walls the is ikon Virgin in of Kazan. Although adorned with a diamond crown presented by Catherine II. The most interesting of the churches Annunciation. is visited on Wednesdays and Fridays for devotional exercises by crowds of pious Tartars. and to the left of the causeway our attention is directed towards a pyramidal monument raised on a small mound over the bones of the Muscovites who fell at the capture of Kazan. for the heat the we subsequently were became so intense caviar that down we supported ourselves principally on and . It was under city length. Similar waste may be observed over a purpose was rich stable manure of within the zone of black earth. It is supposed to have been originally the minaret of the mosque (demolished in 1552) in which the Khans or Tsars of Kazan were buried. a Lector of the English students have the of the benefit universities language. in ! we half-smothered suburb. by and we were astonished to find that the material used for that partial repair. and its some of its ancient appearance only in its Kremlin Sumbeki Tower. in which Peter the Great built a flotilla for the Volga and the Caspian. founded in 1804. so good a provision. chiefly of surgery and medicine. the costliness of its ornamentation is insignificant compared with that of the copy we have seen in the Kazan the Poles Moscow from Cathedral at St. grapes of which voraciously with the delicious fruits we bought a small sack full for a few coppers at the long row of stalls Hurrying back to displayed that until close to we had made the sun went And glad landing-stage. after the model of the Assumption in Moscow.' to which deliverance of 1613 was attributed. The latter is an object of great reverence to the ten thousand Tartars of Kazan.A VOYAGE the DOWN THE VOLGA. spot on which Ivan IV. especially great part thrown of stables are into ravines. walls The city retains in (of 1568). where the Russia. although Oriental languages were formerly the principal As at most other Russian objects of study at this seat of learning. The site of their graves. to visit the city in a carriage that A stoppage of four hours enabled us had been ordered by telegraph. We pass the Admiralty suburb. 109 all troops of the Tartar Tsar. and in it dust. under the rude and obstinate sweepings belief that the land is not in need of any stimulant or restorative. pears. built Its altar within the Kremlin is that of the in marks the city. on the west face of the tower. apples. Chief among the numerous public institutions of Kazan is its University. our steamer. who thus keep alive the memory of their ancient rulers. and attended by about six hundred students.. along the high causeway. while far away to the right we see the mosques and minarets of the Tartar rattled. parched and grimy. five miles in is connected with the which the river bank. Petersburg. we refreshed ourselves melons.

suffered in greatly 1670 from the bands a robber of Stenka Razin. hot tea. insurgents. At about fifty miles from Kazan. washed down by cool cups of Badminton. iron. bringing to it a vast number of vessels and rafts laden with salt. but nevertheless its fortress the ultimately arrested victorious march of the A century later the IAKTAR MOSOUE AT KAZAN. over a course of 1 1 60 miles. manufactured out of Caucasian or Bessarabian wine. perched chief on a of cliff 560 feet 'above the level It the river. the Kama River. a of RUSSIAN PICTURES. Numerous on the villages and groups of storehouses river bank tell us thatwe are passing through the great corn-producing districts of South-eastern Russia. and other produce of the interior of Siberia. and we reach one of the centres of the grain trade at Simbirsk. whole . who preferred The tanks being filled by means of hose with a supply of oozy petroleum and after embarking a fresh refuse. to the wonderment of our less experienced sipping fellow-passengers. a city of the seventeenth century. rebellious of the Cossack Don . joins the Volga. water-melons. the Novoselski sped again down the muddy waters of the Volga. itself the contingent recipient of the waters of five hundred and seventy-four affluents.

while the opposite side of the river is one continuous cornfield or grass meadow. Volga between Stavropol and Samara. under Pugatchef. We had long watched our approach to the shining silver domes of the red brick cathedral and belfry of Samara. by noble landlords. yet it is a city of great commercial importance. the steamer leaves Samara and passes Pretty landscapes open out after bank has been named after the Sulphur Hills. also a Don Cossack. as a student at the University of Edinburgh and as a practical admirer and copyist of all good things that were British. in the seventeenth century have long been extinguished. It required an breathed more cage. whose late father devoted to its cultivation and improvement the knowledge he had gained in Scotland. be its is alleged far curative properties.A VOYAGE of the DOWN THE VOLGA. and being connected by rail with Moscow on the one hand and Orenburg on the other. It bears no evidence of being inhabited. that sparkles like champagne. with thickly-wooded hills beyond. This is the magnificent Count Orlof-Davydoff. freely after subdue the rebels. much of the trade and intercourse of Russia with Central The memories of Kalmuck and Cossack ravages Asia passes through it. An ordinary map of Europe shows the Samarskaya Luka. like province Simbirsk. (suffocated some ten years previously). whatever may mares' milk. except when a copious shower has converted them into the deepest and blackest of mud. and seriously threatened to wrest Moscow from Catherine II. or fermented mares' milk. and had imagined that its in Russian towns. and only a few remnants remain of the walls of the fortress by which the inroads of Next in Cossack robbers and nomadic tribes were eventually arrested. like so many other Ermak. which is about the only one that can boast of what is called which. has for some time past been recognised in England. HI country at this part of the Volga joined another rebellion. is the capital of a rich agricultural of the same name. or bend formed Here begins the . the conqueror of Siberia. by the estate of a population of 65. from being a repulsive beverage even to the sound and healthy. to the trade of Samara in grain and tallow is the supply of celebrity which the adjoining steppes offer to kumyss. There is nothing of interest in Samara. surroundings would be in keeping with such imposing resplendence. Its efficacy those who are afflicted with diseases of the lungs and kidneys. for its buildings are mean except in the main thoroughfare. with paving Clouds of dust hang over or pervade its broad streets. village on the right had who previously. through which men and cattle have to trudge until the sun has reasserted the supremacy of dust.000. A . and we can say from personal experience that. and the Empress had been brought to her in an iron Pugatchef army to its only really pretty part of the Volga right bank rises in cliffs of curious formation. Although this did not prove the case. who personated Peter III.

at Ekaterinenstad. one of whose principal settlements is Khvalinsk. with patches Petersburg to are the AN ANCIENT PIRATE RAID ON THE VOLGA. a Cossacks. the principal goal of the migrating peasantry. Within the of the district are the Palestine seceders to the Austrian Confession. Beyond prosperous domains of the Old Believers. containing the largest deposits of next to those of the Abruzzi in Italy. so called from the fact of their having been permitted to return from Austrian Poland. or dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. a town situated at the foot of a hilly background. We religious are not centre an ethnographical and long in reaching. (From a contemporaneous pritU. been Volga pirate.} of limestone that have the appearance hermit cells of Cheremshansk. the of snow. to Irghiz River begin stretch the neat and thriving German colonies . Other villages of piratical origin dot the the Cavern Hills. our next great station. It enables trains to design and execution. asphalte Europe. where they had taken refuge when being This still denies the apostolical Russian Church. the broad Volga is spanned for the first and as yet the only time by a railway bridge. magnificent in run uninterruptedly from St. From the mouth of the of a widely different character.112 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Near Syzran. persecuted by the succession of their bishops as stoutly as it does that of our own Anglican prelates. until in banks we reach Orenburg.

entirely aloof socially. planted with the agriculture in their primitive That result has object of improving the condition of so far not been attained beyond the boundaries of the colonies. II. .. while neighbours adhere doggedly to the Lutherans keep themselves A COSSACK OF THE VOLGA. at least In the provinces of Samara and Saratof these colonists number religion.000. DOWN THE VOLGA. and retain strongly their prejudices against the Russo- Greek and particularly against intermarriage with those who profess it.A VOYAGE by Catherine Russia. whose Russian modes of husbandry. 300.

the citizens rose in reforms of Peter the Great. fine tallow.000 it inhabitants. lighting They have reason to be proud of the Museum of Art with which the city has been endowed by Professor Bogoliubof. and the excepadvantage of waterworks con- structed with the aid of British capital. whose gallery of pictures. and murdered all those who rebellion against the shaved in compliance . Kalmuck Tartars. a celebrated painter. (1708). with a breadth of nearly three right bank and are occamostly perpendicular. From Saratof the Volga takes a direct southerly course for a considerable distance. 1830 and 1848. with an extensive trade in grain. Each sionally intersected by ravines. In 1700. couple of hours after leaving Saratof stopping-place is at Kamyshin. and eighteenth and Nekrasof The redoubtable Pugatchef bombarded it from the Falcon Hill. miles. It was a subsequently ravaged robber bands of Stenka Razin then held century it thriving place on several occasions it so far back by 1635. linseed. its history is one of bloodshed. A TARTAR LADY OF THE VOLGA. German in by Colonel Thomas Baillie. lower courses of the Volga. cases has a and in some cliff of name its own. a town which was founded and fortified . tobacco. and highly other its many public and private buildings. frowning undulating ground within an Saratof is a handsome and amphitheatre important of bare of and city 112.114 RUSSIAN PICTURES. notoriety is prominent Razin Another connected with robber deeds. and visitations of cholera in was pillaged by the rebel Cossacks of Bulavin . in wheat. broad and paved tional streets. Saratof is now a prosperous emporium of trade produce. it contains. in the as but was The until 1671. bluffs The on the are large left colony. is passed on the but the most important a bank. and it may be hoped that the citizens will not much longer delay the of their streets with gas. render city most European-looking on the Volga. Russian and foreign. Built on hills. 1668 instigated by the Don Cossacks. There was evidence it the and promise of still greater improvement. and to this long list of disasters must a neighbouring bluff 560 feet high be added the ravages of the plague in 1807. Like all the other towns on the middle and the suppression of piracy. mostly of the Stenka period. agricultural Surviving Its all these misfortunes. one of the numerous British officers Its fortifications proved very useful in then serving the Tsar of Moscow.

immediate vicinity. I 2 . of which the most important is the preparation of mustard. and delivered at Tsaritsyn into naphtha-cars.000 inhabitants. belonging to the Nobel and other companies is brought from Baku on the Caspian in iron vessels. which can be seen travelling in vast numbers over the rail net-work of European ' Russia. prosperous colony of Hernhuter (Bruderunita) in t 1770 on communistic principles.000. 115 Pugatchef took the town. and or Moravian Brethren. yellow sand). among other large and thriving villages trading in wheat and in salt. Although the railway that only with now formerly the capital of the Volga runs between the Volga and the Cossacks. caused it to be repopulated. raised in Elton Lake. and the fine shops it is only and ware- houses in the central square. we find ourselves suddenly a bright patch of German civilization. and gives our well-known Colman but little chance of competition. and hanged all its inhabitants in 1774. and the new large storehouses on the river bank. growing commercial from the presence of a apparent whatever Jew-baiters may say to the the great and contrary. where the goods are shipped the for Rostof. great number of Jews. looks as if railway and steam communication had roused it too early from the slumber of a Russian provincial town. which were subsequently abandoned. stone-built. and justly acquired the title of the Naphtha King. the south of Russia owes much of its material development. at the head of the Sea of Azof. A amount of timber to Kalatch on the Don. the little town of Dubofka. and our passengers rush on shore to obtain a supply of the healing and invigorating cordial. Don (the Russian rivers of which the waters are not naturally or artificially connected) has diminished the importance of the place. At Sarepta. having proved in practice to be inconsistent both with real liberty and with founded in modern of In addition to agriculture. our next stopping-place but one. that is attest importance of the place. connecting the Volga with the Don. with a population mosquitoes. yet its former prosperity is to a great extent maintained by its steam mills. This is a neat. Ragged children and in fine sand. after which Catherine II. which squalid pigs roam about in most of its dirty unpaved streets.' is well worth The oil stored on the river bank in the long rows of iron cisterns seeing. DOWN THE VOLGA. ' ' A mustard seed. Tsaritsyn (the of 36. two great and tanneries. Almost buried flies about in clouds like the indigenous Tartar Sari-chin.A VOYAGE with his orders. potteries. carries large quantities of salted and dried fish (a species of corigonus) from the Caspian. Sarepta mustard is used all over Russia. 13. Not less important is Nobel's Town. and a considerable. in the petroleum or kerosine trade of Tsaritsyn. strong balsam is also made here out of industries. the colonists pursue a variety progress. so called after the enterprising Swede who started the industry. This to further whom. short railway. We can now only mention.

which Ivan the Terrible There is not It is now half Asiatic. for we pass villages (locally called Vatagas). the later capital of the Tartar kingdom. between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries. the capital. The Russians predominate a medley numerically. mentioned remains their chief temple. they at one time. At the place we have visit. declining gently towards the Caspian. of the kingdom of Astrakhan. The Volga now makes a sudden bend to the east. known in their later invasions Golden Horde. founded by the Kipchak Tartars. comparatively lively. saltworks.' of Muscovy as the Beyond is ' In four and a half days from Nijni Novgorod we end our voyage at Astrakhan. the Tartars. although be found dotted over with Kalmuck encampments or kibitkas. and the Armenians who are most en evidence to the European eye. the Central Asiatics. and perhaps in the world. after parting with the range of hills that had so long accompanied its right bank. Tsitrakhan. the Persians. in the twelfth century. and. To our left the country appears unpopulated. to the . subject to Russia since but who. conquered in 1554. flows through a vast uniform steppe. A little further down on the same side we come upon a short line of railway abutting on the Boskunchak Lake and The right bank is on the border of the Kirghiz steppe. Subduing the of Nogai Tartars. half cosmopolitan. in alliance with the the wild Bashkirs. and Cossack settlements. and forming the province of Astrakhan. out of a population of 70. ruled supreme over almost of Central whole the Asia.RUSSIAN PICTURES. 1655. in which such concentrated. in which the it when explored will principal fishing. another town of races is in Russia. Volga in such force as to be able to threaten Russian towns so distant as Penza and Tambof. is occupation chief is Kalmytski Bazaar settlement the the Mongolian Kalmucks.000 is the Kalmucks. which many travellers are induced to in order to witness the religious rites of that once mighty Tartar race. held lower course of the MODERN TARTARS OF THE VOLGA. on account of their . but it extent of about seventy-five per cent.

who in 1665 checked depredations the trade which frequent by their by permission of the Tsar Alexis the Duchy SrrSS" AN ASTRAKHAN BOAT. of the Caucasus and Mercury Company If we land at the pier Astrakhan. Peter the Great reached Astrakhan with a large force. 117 The forest of masts which bursts respectively peculiar dress and features. belong to a variety of quaint craft well worthy of the artist's The history of the city has already been foreshadowed in our reference to Cossack rebels and marauders. Mazanderan. and Astrabad. not only made secure the possession of Astrakhan. and six years later Caspian. but gave to Russia the sovereignty over the Caspian Sea. and after the capture of Derbent and the acquisition also from Persia of Baku and the provinces of Gilian.A VOYAGE DOWN THE VOLGA. of Holstein established with the countries on the opposite side of the The last local rebellion occurred in 1706. in we find ourselves within the precincts of the ' Admiralty and . on our view as we approach the vast harbour between the main stream and the Bolda branch of the intricate Volga delta will be found on closer inspection to pencil.

The in the city is the Cathedral of the Assumption. for they are then harpooned in The larger fish are drawn on shallow places through openings in the ice. which. produced by a process of drying from the inner part of the from its bladders. is ikra. while those of more convenient size are dealt present very difficult for any fish to with closely set hooks. are kept the yacht which he sailed. as well as models of ships. sacristy has one of the richest collections in Russia of vestments A Persian mosque stands in the principal street. and to a weight . spinal marrow of the sturgeon. but excavated 1 744. important a source of wealth. and 1. in the salting and drying of the fish. thirty We may observe in passing that the Russian yearly from Astrakhan alone. thousands of labourers flock to Astrakhan to take part in its rich fisheries. name for this delicacy is caviale. as a precaution against the inundations to which the city autumn. 100.n8 Port. At least forty thousand men and women find such employment at the Volga fishing stations. and mitres. of 800 and even rapid rate measures run up to 1600 pounds. partly on in of the delta which are too shallow for lines those branches ground navigation. or in and then stored Isinglass is an ice-cellar. Their extirpation has been proceeding at a many years past. again. and a fine fish-glue is obtained are despatched barrels thousand which of The roe yields caviar. the boat in and house built for the great Reformer.500.000. and no fewer than In twenty-five thousand men are engaged in the five thousand and odd vessels and boats that pursue the same industry on the Caspian. and the time is evidently approaching when be adopted by the Government for the preservation of so It is for the sturgeon. although averaging nineteen feet in length. owing to the silting of the estuaries of the Volga. Canal. and spring. channels of the Volga delta are practically barred. in a Baku. The thirty gear used is of the strongest pounds for will in weight. a collection of old arms and specimens The most striking edifice of the tools used during his reign in shipbuilding. escape the ground-lines with which the many small Nor have the fish any repose even in winter.' RUSSIAN PICTURES. which is intersected by the Varvazzi is originally in liable. at with in are carried hauled up to high landing-stages. to be soaked for about twelve hours in brine. but transferred as a naval station in 1867 to small Here. deepened by a Greek of that name in 1817. and in the preparation of caviar. caviar being a corruption of the Italian of the only an attempt to reproduce the sound word word . shore and cleaned on the spot.000. founded by Peter I. generally unbaited. the boats. whence they to store-houses. completed in 1710. They are mostly taken partly in nets.000. winter. annual catch of these three descriptions of sturgeon is respectively 300. At Astrakhan the most valuable product of the Volga is the sturgeon (Acipenser stnrio and The average Acipcnser huso] and the smaller sevriuga (Acipenser stellatus].

rest is and packed left in tins or barrels with is a small i. they have pouched..A VOYAGE haviar. in strong brine until it in balls. drained is and put under a when its superfluous moisture has been made of the bark of the lime tree (bast) packed bags The commoner sort of caviar replaces bread strong press. . perfection beyond St. a of quality. after which. is reserved for the tables of the affluent. the quantity of dry salt until it can be taken out by . Fishing in the delta of the Volga is also pursued on a large scale by Spying. the roe is taken in Southern Europe. and. and can seldom be found in in the daily menu of the labouring classes ' ' . Petersburg. in DOG SLEDGE WITH FISH. swoop down in It is a tradition thousands to gorge themselves on their artfully-earned prey. while the inferior is merely salted and packed in ' ' The higher sort small barrels for consumption by the less wealthy classes. 119 by which the Turks and Tartars knew it ages before its appearance After the fish has been cut open. a semicircle. semi-transparent greyish colour. the sentries being also in due proportion rewarded for their vigilant services. a school of small fish. the hand off. laying of the total catch.e. so far as the rest of Europe is concerned. but the grainy on the Volga no taste and with of fish or salt. and gradually enclosing it in a shallow bight. sieves that retain the in which the roe is conis membrane passed through tained. it ripe. birds these clever that of the fishermen the disgorge the fish Volga among make a fair division them down on the sand. they form pelicans. ASTRAKHAN. out and divided into two qualities. DOWN THE VOLGA. with the aid of sentinels. the best being converted either into pressed or grainy caviar.

SOUTH RUSSIA. outpost ceased only towards the end of the seventeenth century. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY IN THE LIBRARY OF THE MONASTERY OF THE RESURRECTION.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. with Riga on the Baltic. from whom it passed alternately to the Princes of Chernigof In the thirteenth century it was razed to the ground by and of Pereyaslavl. We are now almost in the heart of the Chernozem. CHAPTER VII. or black soil country. the centre of a rich agricultural district connected by rail. and on the southAuthentic records attest the existence of east with Tsaritsyn on the Volga. the railway passing through the cities of Tula (the Russian Birmingham) and Orel. Kursk became one of the principal places on that line of defence against Its disasters and sufferings as a military the Crimean Tartars and the Poles. son of Vladimir COMING Russia Monomachus. the first town of any importance in Southern is Kursk. OR NEW JERUSALEM. after Little Russia (the more southerly districts watered by the Dnieper) submitted to the Tsar Alexis. . three hundred and thirty-five miles from Moscow in an almost direct line. In 1586 the southern frontiers of Muscovy were fortified. and the Tartars. Kursk in 1032. and in 1095 it was held by Isiaslaf. on the west. from the north. MOSCOW.

PLOUGHING ON THE STEPPES. or flat and woodless condition. Its semi-nomadic population obtained in early days the designation of Cossacks. a term now used only to denote the Southern Russians as distinguished . a man free to do been used by the Tartar hordes to designate the From the princes of the House of Rurik southerly districts passed into the possession of Lithuania. they were absorbed by the dominant Little Russia is. later. Herodotus. although it long denoted in anything he chose. not much to see within it. these into Russia a free man. but Turkish and . rather. and ultimately incorporated into provinces. No great part given fixed geographical limits can be assigned to either of these designations.SOUTH so called from the rich black RUSSIA. power. and for as the borders or especially to the Ukraine of the Poles or the Muscovites . or ancient border country. It is a great relief to the eye to see at last a handsomely-built city like Kursk. however. perched. relatively to the surrounding flatness. Strabo. and. There is. on an elevation. 121 loam of which its surface is composed to a These vast plains were known to depth of two and three yards and more. or. those of Poland. and other ancient geographers only in their present steppe. it had lower class of their horsemen. and almost smothered in the verdure of numerous gardens. This word is not Slavonic. marches became safe and populated. Little Russia was another arbitrary name anciently a to of what has been also known as the Ukraine. for even the churches are mostly not older than the second half of the eighteenth century. The more southerly part of the province of Kursk is in the Ukraine. in fact.

and later with internal enemies. and and make the most of those qualities by adorning thembeauty grace. and even the race. resembling strongly those of the Roumanian and Transylvanian peasantry. with thick forests which had to be cleared. refinement of the ease of their lives in a is attributable to the comparative a with climate more country. however. is a cross between the Polish and the Russian. full. exhibit a similar superiority over the bulk of their compeers in Great Russia. Poles and rebels. man than the Veliko-Ros. and not without a vein of romance are. from is principally the Great Russians of the more the central part of the empire. He is taller. Little Ethnographically.122 RUSSIAN PICTURES. but courageous men engaged in a life-and-death struggle with nomadic The greater hordes. as he of the con- temptuously called by his more vigorous northern brother. genial than that of the more northerly parts of the empire. although nearer akin to the Muscovite than to Russians become the Polish tongue. or Ho/iol. Indeed. who were not freebooters like the old Cossacks of the Volga. generally. gradually . Vitebsk) Malo-Ros (Little Russian) is physically a better. selves in neat and picturesque costumes. the every-day Except. and with frost and snow that left scarcely four months in the year for labour in the field. in the case life of the Southern Russian There is a strong bears a strong resemblance to that of the Irish squireen. or Great Russian. The upper classes of South Russia. and to a great extent to card-playing. tinge pensity to reckless hospitality. There the Great and the White Russians had to contend with a soil much less productive. and favoured in their social development by long contact with the ancient Western civilisation of Poland. and same an equal proof the as insouciance to the material future. Their lives are altogether more happy. also. there are well-appointed country seats in the South of Russia in which the long summer days are only for meals. The men sing of the daring exploits of their plaintive and in the minor key. though a less muscular. Their houses are not like those of other parts of Russia log huts. thatched. with swamps women of Little Russia fertile which had to be drained. although their songs. finer-featured. with wild beasts which had to be destroyed or guarded against. of the larger landed proprietors. the fused with the White Russians of the north-west (Mohilef and The and with the Slovaks of the other side of the Carpathians. full of deep feeling. enriched by the cultivation of large and fertile estates. entirely spent in card-playing. social jollification. to sport (principally coursing). There a strongly-marked difference cast in outward appearance. with interruptions There are . gardens. surrounded by and kept internally in order and cleanliness. is the mode Slav of life. The language of thought of these two branches of the Little Russian. of vermin and cockroaches but wattled. Cossack forefathers. and The women have both less rude and primitive in his domestic surroundings. and whitewashed cottages. like those of all Slavs.

on journeys to estates or towns often fifty to one hundred miles distant. and dusty one day. absenteeism has been largely on the increase. Country life. parched. and of certain capitals and watering-places in Western Thus. while Kursk and Kharkof owe much of their riches and . indeed. to the advantage solely of the principal provincial Europe. ' ' . cracked. progress to the immigration of landed proprietors from the northerly and eastern districts of the Black Soil Zone. 123 and vehicles of every description to which but they can be harnessed taking a drive through endless cornfields natural roads or tracks. and vehicular locomotion is therefore resorted to only as a matter of necessity. offers but few attractions to the surface presenting the next ladies. has no great attractions in any part of Russia plenty in the stable. A PEASANT GIRL OF 'GREAT RUSSIA. and along a of black mud.' Proper. and ever since the Emancipation of the Serfs and the accompanying extinction of the power and authority of the proprietary classes.' Kief is the resort of the more ' towns.SOUTH horses in RUSSIA.

To the question In what late Dean Stanley's Lectures on tlic which we shall ' . Regent of Kief. 882 it became. and Kief (of which Kief is the seat of administration) passed finally under the Russian sceptre. Podolia. Nestor. prosperity and importance that in the nth no fewer than four hundred churches stood within its walls. as concisely as the subject will permit. who lived between 1050 and 1116.124 RUSSIAN PICTURES. when by a treaty with Poland the Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnieper. Traces of them are to be found only in the much-restored Cathedral of St. Olga. the Canterbury of the Russian empire. which they reached by descending the Dnieper and crossing the Black Sea in 200 About A.D. 1500. From century that time also Kief has continued to be the Jerusalem. Partly from motives of policy. 988. to induce him to abandon pagan worship. grandson Vladimir to establish the Christian religion in his dominions. Scandinavo-Slavic character of the great city was lost during the occupation of the provinces of which it was the capital. who urged him to believe in their religion and to honour Mahomet. strongly and favourably by Northway Novgorod the Great to Byzantium. Mussulmen from the Bolgar kingdom on the Volga. and so his marriage with the to its sister of the Emperor of Byzantium. gives a very circumstantial account of the conversion of Vladimir in A. after the conversion of Vladimir to Christianity. Conflagrations. and a very interesting epitome of it exists in the History of the Eastern Chnrcli. In Kief we see the districts. in and 1240. viz. and then by the Poles until 1667. together was only at the second partition of Poland (1/93) that all the districts which now constitute the South-western Provinces of Volhynia. 1496. south-western ' princely landlords of the affected by Polish culture. and in the ruined stonework of the gilt gate which Boleslas the Brave in the nth century opened with a sword (now in the cathedral at Cracow) that was contributed much The original long after used at the coronation of the Kings of Poland. an account of the great event which made it glorious and memorable to all ages. But interrupting here for awhile our description of the city. intestine and Tartar wars. and to become the founder of the Russo-Greek Church. as we have previously mentioned. swept away the grand monuments of sieges Christian antiquity which the city once possessed.D. viking ships. towns. commotions. In the year 986 envoys from the different religious bodies of the then known world came to Vladimir. Its close intercourse with Constantinople. first by the Lithuanians (from 1320). from here quote a few passages. had embraced but it was left to her Christianity at Constantinople about the year 955 . the conversion Muscovy regained Kief.. at The first to arrive were Kief. we proceed to give.' Mother of Russian planted men on their from the seat of the paramount throne of the Variag (Var&gr) principalities. It with ' ' of the Russian people to Christianity nine centuries ago. Sophia.

nor What. 125 does your religion consist ? they replied that they believed in God.' On learning that the law of the Latin Church commanded fasting. that we should suffer the same ? ' .' They came from the Pope to tell him that of the world. which was then ' fearfully ' expecting the end dency. who made the heaven and was the true the stars and the INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY INTO RUSSIA. ' ' A ' Philosopher from Greece ' came last. and eating and drinking only in honour of God. and above all. the prohibition of drinking. says the late Dean Stanley.' with the objection ' : did they receive it from the Pope. abstinence from pork and wine. They had been led to confess that they had been fathers ' Our did not believe in your religion. were also dismissed law.SOUTH ' RUSSIA.' Some Jews. and after death life in a harem. who explained their belief. perhaps. 'we cannot live without it. you wish to teach others you whom God has rejected and dispersed ? Do you wish.' Next came the representatives of Western Christendom. whilst thy gods are of wood. and every living creature.' he said. He derided the religion and . and also in what the Prophet taught circumcision. The rude prince would not. moon. dispersed for their sins throughout the world. : accept the prohibitions. one ' : We fear God. Vladimir told them to go home. the requirements of their and their dissidence from Christians and Mahometans. in a summary manner. under a general feeling of desponhaving at that epoch. their religion earth. Drinking is the great delight of Russians. however. the Papal See become the prey of ruffians and profligates.' said Vladimir.

they had no ornaments nor beauty. For this purpose he scene ' .' It is curious to ' ' . and that their stench was insupportable Roman Churches they represented that although they were better than the Mussulman mosques. 988 in the Church of the Holy Mother of God. condemned world the celebration of Mass by the Roman Church Churches triumphed which was of with unleavened bread the had been in the point on which the two greatest torn asunder and explained why the the Jews to 'Germans and Greeks' believed over the ' Him whom by had crucified. p. Sophia. The prince painted are those who on are the woe to the impelled to exclaim.D. they hastened back to Kief. and then made as a condition. 987 that the Mahometans prayed with their heads while of the German and covered. He on was other the envoys of exhibiting Vladimir a tablet the Last Judgment.' These reported in A. and of his immediate conversion to Christianity. ! sent wise men 'to examine the faith of each and the manner of their worship.126 RUSSIAN PICTURES. at that celebrated the of for its ceremonial both of Church and period splendour It was in the Church of St. the sister This sacrifice was made.D. that the Russian emissaries witnessed a service which had This yearning appears to have been purposely been rendered more than ordinarily magnificent. which surpassed all others in the grandeur of its form of worship. now replaced by a splendid cathedral in commemoration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to This was effected wholesale. Under the stern orders and Christianity. and even their idols were coarsely hewn out of wood or stone. Vladimir did not long hesitate to act on the recommendations of his But he first besieged the rich city of Khersonesus in the Crimea. 2 See p. a marriage between himself and Anne. and at whose presence the people fell on their knees and cried. 300. find in this objection such combine the beautiful and fully satisfied at Constantinople. They were struck but what most by the multitude of lights and the chanting of the hymns filled them with astonishment was the appearance of the deacons and sub. There is no record of any adornment in the rude temples of the Pagan Northmen and Slavs. ' early evidence of an innate human yearning to the impressive with religious worship. practice of the the Mahometans. founded by Heraclean Greeks. envoys. Happy right sinners who are on the left But he would not consent to be baptized until he had been more fully instructed about each religion. then all State. both of not ' . deacons issuing from the sanctuary with torches in their hands and with white linen wings on their shoulders. gorgeous with gold and mosaics. and Vladimir of the Emperor Basil Porphyrogenitus. was baptised A. Kyrie eleison ! They were told by the wily Byzantines that these were angels who had come down from heaven to mingle in the service and wanting no further proof of the trueness of the Greek religion. at 2 Khersonesus. subjecting to a similar fate the Byzantine capital 1 Lectures on the Eastern Chttrc/i. . 147.

others in the waters of the Dnieper .. except in the case of danger to life and under other urgent circumstances and affirms. on whom the Russian Church has conferred the same tine the title as that of Constanto Great : Isapostolos. recognise the and in respect of matters of faith and spiritual supremacy of the Pope denies that it the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son.' that it must have been ' From this centre the Christian the example. that the holy bread must be leavened. namely that. an AugusBoniface. almost effected exceptionally in Europe. We may well agree with Nestor a sight wonderfully curious and beautiful to see. but there was no in Russia corresponding apostle except Vladimir. whose doings we sketched on our way to Moscow. was dragged over the hills at a horse's tail. II. it It does not. Romanism in Russia (the eminent Minister of the Interior. and dispensations of complete submersion of the body at baptism. and cast into the river.' It would lead us too far to describe. Another important distinction is that. and It remains essentially Eastern. doctrine. in regard to the . recently deceased). Gaul. scourged by twelve horsemen. in close . Catherine and more recent sovereigns. . indulgences. all the men. and children at Kief were bathed some sat on the banks. on the secular or . whilst the priests procured from Constantinople read the prayers. whilst admitting the doctrine of transubstantiation. predestination. point out the prominent fact in this conversion. From the Roman Catholic Church differs strongly on many points. Suffice it to was that it consolidated between the say beginning of the fourteenth century and the middle gradual of the seventeenth.SOUTH RUSSIA. Eucharist. influence. subjected to changes in matters of liturgy. it was without the agency of missionaries.. of course. Perun. the huge wooden idol. or command Both the late Dean of Westminster and the late Count D. some plunged in. principally by Nicon. by of the lesser princes of the Rurik line. however faintly. 127 threats of the prince. connection with autocracy. Tolstoi. and a by a Martin. rejects holds the necessity purgatory. England. or ' Equal an Apostle. during the reigns of Peter I. the author of religion spread gradually over Russia. women. and Germany were Chris- tianized respectively tine. swam. and reformed to a certain extent A NUN COLLECTING MONEY FOR A CONVENT. the development of the RussoGreek Church through the four periods into which its history is divided.

This was an advantage which Pagans converted by the Latin Church were not permitted to possess. and after much genuine hesitation on the part of the lady. During the greater part of the Mass the " royal doors (in the altar screen) The ceremonial . so much modified the Russian ancient has. is to a widowed The Russian Church obligatory. who parishioners in their happened took in to ' know little was mistaken for an excessive politeness. marriage priest. said to him one day she had a great favour to ask. who declared that his kindness to the priest was much more than she had expected even from his known amiability The services of the Church are conducted in the old Slavonic. took a seat beside him. and communion between these two have to pass before the Russian clergy attain a high level of culture. Their almost entire material dependence on the rude. for which he was profusely thanked by the hostess. language. well informed also on lay matters relating to his own country. for the the father's it ! Russian. it is difficult to see what practical harmony and conceded. and which accounts. the lady of the house highly-educated noblemen in Russia. scrupulously clean. but a man of orthodox learning. ' ' white clergy. and clad in a handsome cassock of mauve silk. in his oft-quoted work : ' Maskell of the Greek Church is excessively complex. and observations was so great that ' the interest he Time propagation of Christianity in Russia without the aid of missionaries. she divulged that she would like to ask the village priest to dinner And yet he was no ordinary rural pope. although a second marriage is forbidden also retains the Gregorian Calendar.128 RUSSIAN PICTURES. cannot compress even a superficial reference to the services of the Roman Russo-Greek Church into fewer sentences than those used by Mr. The Englishman. uneducated masses with which they are socially blended militates against their worldly Their position in the social scale is well exemplified in the regeneration. into which the Scriptures were translated after Cyril and Methodius had introduced the semi-Greek alphabet. following anecdote. the Not very many years ago a young Englishman was house or mansion of one of the greatest and most To his surprise. Many generations will Russo-Greek faith. in some degree. however. are unreconcileable with those some of of the the principal points of another great stumbling-block against official Churches continues to be the denial by the Russian Synod of the apostolical succession of the But even if these points were Anglican bishops. which is still used with some modifications. that the Church Slavonic is now practically almost as different as Latin is to the vernacular of We Catholic countries the purest in ethnological descent. As doctrine regards the Anglican Church. or associated with his staying at country ' ! love of vodki .' his to do own tilling and compelled harvesting. and the symbolical which it the represents meanings by dogmas of religion are everywhere made the subjects of " minute observance. co-operation could be established between the Churches for any useful purpose.

and is the . the most gorgeous ceremony of the Russian Church is that of Easter Eve. incensing holy pictures answered in deep tones by the deacons without. tones now used Church long been written as in in the Russian are comparatively They have clef.' on which each member of the crowded congregation falls on his knees. of extraordinary It is depth and power are the most desired. . in the deep bass tones of the men mingling with tive the ol is plain- trebles younger indescribIt voices which able is in its harmony.' The cords religious music dis- of Russia ' has a peculiar charm of its own. unlike any other lies yet underneath original the tinge of Orientalism.SOUTH are RUSSIA. no is instrumental music of any voices Bass permitted. From time time a voices. far above the barbarous that are to be heard in Greek and other churches of the East at the present moment. modern. . Now the doors fly open. the treble clef. when as the clock strikes twelve the announces that Christ is risen. that the in said A SOUTH RUSSIAN WOMAN. barbaric music. 129 most part without. amongst the crowd. crossing himself and responding ' officiating priest K . through glimpse is gained of To a stranger. accompaniment. now from . the deacons remain to for the time. the wailing tones of all No kind. the closed again suddenly. Then they are the thick the celebrant rolling clouds of incense. There is a sweetness and attractiveness in the unaccompanied chanting of the choir. in on the tenor or bass Next to a coronation at Moscow. in turn the voice of the officiating priest is raised within. now and again entering for a short or pope popes pass throughout the church. unable to follow and in ignorance of the meaning. . effect is bewildering. and a fleeting another a single one intones. Now from one corner comes a chant of many closed .' the modern four lines style with five lines in not the Gregorian.

and hard-boiled eggs dyed mostly red. lustres. with Christ is risen.' and. to break the fast which a majority Bread of them have kept. bursts out the Church bell in The churches are on the largest and sweetest in tone of any in the world. . continue to the paschal salutation. Another favourite on the smooth floor. the ancient Borysthenes. . The latter is the commercial quarter. ' exchanged with each friend or acquaintance. as a rule of 'Yea.RUSSIAN PICTURES. Easter-tide game is existence Monday. is bound to carry in his Friends. town. the city is divided into (being therefore one of the greatest the Old Town. with the result that this dried mushrooms. on Pace-egg of very similar games with eggs 1 has recently been reported from Northumberland. or Town on the Cliff. and huge this great occasion bathed in light from of illumination from the no small amount the candelabra. by which which rolls furthest his and he can also win the competing eggs own well-directed egg may touch while rolling.' The choir . in the beautiful simultaneously every city. congregation adding wax taper which each worshipper. steep elevations of the right after a course of more than 1000 miles Sea Black the into falls which rivers in Russia). days. to inordinate indulgence in on the public health after Easter is over. prince or pauper. beforehand. and groats mixed with hempseed oil. both consecrated and a kind of conical cake made of curds. time to return to Kief. and so are the games played with those such as rolling them down a hollowed-out piece of wood raised at one end ecrgs The victory is to the owner of the egg a stand about twelve inches high. will be found even in the lowliest cottage. verily Easter He has risen. It is now. James's Gazette. as a matter of fact. tells heavily The exchange of dyed or painted eggs at the time of paschal salutation is a general custom throughout Russia. meat and drink. irrespective of sex. then give to each other three kisses. while the tables of the higher and middle classes groan also with viands and refreshments of a more solid kind. however. As soon as the service is over. April 27. chandeliers. Picturesquely perched on bank of the Dnieper. until the salutation has been hand.' or Easter less curious No is it to know that a competitive tapping of dyed eggs at Easter-tide prevails also in some parts of Sweden and Norway. Those with the testing of the relative strength of eggs. 1889. more or less strictly. the Pechersk. the hardest point crack the weaker shells. the people rush back to their homes. do so for some time after Easter Sunday. for the previous forty days. beer and vodka continue ' ' to flow throughout the country for sudden break from subsistence on several fish. sotto voce. the site of the famed monastery of that name. ' day. or hymn has not been in Russia its merriest peals. and no one who village rings out can realize the impressive effect of the ringing of so many bells. \Yine. and therefore win the wager It is curious that the which may be the damaged egg or a small coin. and is regularly laid out with broad streets worthy of the handsome houses 1 St. and the Podol.

is among the principal treasures of St. have been preserved on the altar walls and in places on the wall-supports and the arches. Basil.I>. destroyed two centuries later by seventeenth in the and restored between century. All these were discovered in 1843 under the whitewash which had been applied to them while the cathedral was (1590-1633) in the possession of the Uniats (Catholics. on the stall. stands in a chapel dedicated to St. nominally Here also is the great Cathedral of 1695. wearing the These effigies bear witness to the Catholic tonsure and with shaven chins. built A. the founder of the cathedral. although consecrated only in 1842. and shaded with fine old trees. is considered to be an exact reproduction of The Its the original. St. Vladimir. founded in A. 131 which line them.SOUTH RUSSIA.U. which in early ages contained chapels. 1 The Lithuanian Perkiin. ritus Greed]. and in a lower tier. The best part of the city. 989 by Greek artists and artisans. is between the Pechersk the latter was quarter and the Old Town. its adherents having been re-united to the Russo-Greek Church by official 2 conversion and 'administrative measures. The Uniat Faith is spreading among the Slavs of A us tro. Some of their beautiful mosaics remnants of the work of Byzantine artists. and thoroughly restored in 1826. and they have survived the results of those labours. convex surface of the figure in mosaic is that of the Virgin Mary. Church of St. is erected on the site of a sacred edifice bearing the same name. for the Uniat Faith or Church exists no longer. containing the principal official and other residences. who. This edifice is only erected a Christian church dedicated to St. 1390. Tartars. in the place of Perun's temple. 1 ignominiously dragged by Vladimir. in the twelfth century and again in it for was reconstructed extant. Sophia.Hungary and the Balkan peninsula. to wean the Ruthenian or South Catholicism Roman made by attempt Russo-Greek Russian peasantry from the Church. the above Equally interesting Metropolitan's hemispherical vaulting are the Greek frescoes on the wall-supports and partly in the upper galleries. with the relics of a Metropolitan who was decapitated by the Tartars in 1497. the most ancient basilica in Russia of the Byzantine style.' The tomb of Yaroslaf. which. divided from the upper by wide bands of ornamentation in similar work. mosaic floor in front of the principal altar belonged to the original church. 1017. Sophia at Constantinople has been much altered by repairs and additions. the Sophia. Tithes Church. is Another remarkable a superbly executed representation of the Lord's Supper. whose priests are depicted on the pillars that support the dome. This. repaired 1385 a reduced copy of the Its original form and renovated once more in 1850. enclosed within earthen ramparts anciently the site of the Pagan Pantheon from which Perun (or Jupiter) was . and the ancient structure has in reality been preserved only where we also find internally some in the centre of the existing mass. K 2 . Above the Metropolitan's stall are figures in mosaic of Byzantine prelates of the third and fourth centuries.

and God shall cause forth the grace of God many churches to rise within it. owing to an assembly in London of the Universal Episcopate of the Anglican Church. Pecherskaya Monastery. sympathy. or the first in rank in and the most Lavra.132 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Vladimir. for his grace addressed a letter of congratulation. the first shall hereafter shine cross seen in Russia. and an Orthodox Ecclesiastical Academy. when the Dnieper huge assumes in front of Kief the dimensions of a vast lake. The belfry alongside is more than three hundred the hill . planted. built in the elegant proportions of the style of Louis XV. were found the tomb. Christianity. with only the head. with a handsome cathedral built by Mazeppa for the use of the Uniats. . The monastery is entered by a gate ornamented with frescoes of St. It is easy among such surroundings and such memories to realise the of the spectacle great gathering of the prelates and priests of the Russoand of the Eastern Churches in close communication with it. and standing on the spot on which St. in the South of Russia. is reached by a fine avenue of trees. while its barracks are capable of accomKief is the most important strategical point modating thirty thousand men. it had been found impossible to send a bishop to Kief to represent the Church of England. Its principal cathedral. 1888. and is intended to serve as a basis of operations. Andrew. and at once arrest attention from We en mention passant that the huge arsenal which the fortress shelters supplies all the troops in South Russia with arms. according to an ancient legend. effect. the Apostle of Greece and of Scythia. Approached from the east. and goodwill to the Metropolitan of Kief. Early in spring. Theodosius. For a view of the Podol quarter we must repair to the terrace of the Church of St. the ruins Ill of St.' To the right we now see the gilt domes of the Bratski Monastery. predicting that on hills about there shall be a great city. the and coloured and of domes the spires monastery. Andrew. with seven gilt cupolas. Russia. ' of the Pechersk quarter of the city. the view from St. enclosed within the immense fortress that crowns ' . Greek Church that took place at Kief in July. on the occasion of the celebration of the nine hundredth anniversary of the conversion of the Russian people to Even the Archbishop of Canterbury was present in the spirit. flanked by the cells of the brotherhood. in 1 744. and one for which the city is well worth visiting. in which also regret was expressed that. Anthony and St. the first two abbots. brought into strong gilt relief by the massive fortress walls and bastions. which was while on the left are the shining cupolas of the formerly a Jesuit College for Ascension Convent Women. ancient in origin (1055). Andrew's terrace is more than ordinarily striking. of These are now deposited under a block of grey marble within the latter the new church. have a strikingly picturesque almost every part of Kief.' We have left to the last our mention of the most interesting sight in This is the Kief.

in river-bank. Vladimir. which the cathedral claims to hold in a side chapel. and . Anthony and St. kept constantly burning by pilgrims who come from every part of the empire. chasubles. the limestone of the high They extend a considerable distance in passages blackened by the torches of visitors. 133 internally. and the ancient stalls of the monks perpetuate its somewhat Roman Catholic appearance. of its The monastery owes excavated part celebrity and of its revenues to the neighbouring catacombs of St. and pectoral crosses of great value and religious interest. however.SOUTH feet RUSSIA. and who are So certainly not fewer than two hundred thousand in number each year. An object of special veneration is the true head of St. in the shape of ikons. The richly-decorated ceiling is scarcely seen . sacristies have been described that we must pass over the many already light even by the of the innumerable tapers which are treasures of the Pechersk Monastery. it is undoubtedly in the Tithes Church of which the principal we have spoken. church THE PECHERSK MONASTERY AT KIEF. Theodosius. the style of architecture is neither elegant high nor imposing. although the veritable tomb which contained vessels.

its founder. Nestor. typified in the two grand bridges by which the Dnieper is spanned close to Kief! The Nicholas Suspension Bridge. 6755 feet in length. largely produced in this part of Russia from beetroot and bounty-fed. Black and Azof Seas.' and corn. with palls of cloth and silk their mummified hands are so placed pilgrims. and as they contain only forty-six bodies (the others have seventy-three) of departed saints of a secondary order. died from his neck for some months . Englishman. Kharkof. with South Russia. the annalist. between these primitive works of man and the achievements of the skill and labour of the nineteenth century. over which the railway What a contrast passes. and in that posture body Other ancient catacombs have recently been discovered under the city Numerous itself. in fulfilment of a vow of continence. until they died. Kharkof became the capital of the Ukraine. Theodosius. open coffins. Sugar. principal to the east in of Kief. is exhibited who. after having been a Cossack outpost town since 1647. on either side of which lie worked in gold and silver for the intercession of the sin. human remains and coffins have been found in them.000. his small chapel and the cell in which he passed the last fifteen years of his life without breathing the fresh air. as they believed. but their origin and history have not yet been ascertained. down even to the Caucasus. In proximity to it is the splendid Mr. and the Christian character of also remains. is the being a centre from which the a and manufactures ' . are largely sold at the five fairs held each year at Kharkof. Charles an Vignolles. saints in . wool and hides from the central provinces. by girder bridge constructed by a Russian engineer. which has also reason to be proud of its university with upwards of six hundred students. to gain the kingdom of heaven.I 34 RUSSIAN PICTURES. through the small windows from which we turn away with a shudder. Anthony. for as to be able to receive the devotional In kisses of the who individually apply distinct saint most renowned removing some one cell are the remains of eleven 'martyrs/ who besetting and one and the same time immured themselves in it. and at voluntarily took food. in ' martyr being buried almost up to his still who had immured themOne order. The catacombs of St. the interments is evidenced by the pectoral crosses that have come to light. are on a smaller scale. to the south of those of St. they are not held in equal we find here also the remains of ten monks selves ' veneration. Anthony. and of its connection by rail with the shores of the Baltic and those of the In 1/65. brandy. lies in the first catacomb. and We are shown St. at the extreme end of the gallery. Nevertheless. of Northern and Central Russia are spread products throughout the provinces to the east and south. is considered to be It was built between 1848 and 1855 a noble monument of engineering art. when Poland finally seat of trade population of 160.

almost with concealed Dnieper. consecrated only in 1835. this was the camping-ground of nomadic tribes. It was only a the river from Kief in a stately village when Catherine II. The centre of the field so disastrous to the THE KAI'I I.SOUTH RUSSIA. raised it to the dignity of a town bearing her own name.. King Stanislaus Augustus Poland and a brilliant suite. principally in wool. particularly of the Khazars.K or POLTAVA. On that occasion she laid the first stone of a cathedral which was not destined to be completed on the imposing scale she had projected. also a place of extensive trade. in gardens and the Catherine's running for nearly three miles parallel Palace. which have yielded coins establishing the fact of an early intercourse both with Rome and Arabia. and cattle. Two monuments commemorate the victory. Swedes is marked by a mound which covers the remains of their slain. 135 ceded the province to Muscovy. Anciently. and which has been reduced to one-sixth in the edifice that was The town consists of only one row of buildings. Poltava. is familiar to us in connection with the defeat of Charles XII. by Peter the Great in 1 709. of Austria. of stone which we have seen in the Historical Museum at Moscow. descending of barge accompanied by Joseph II. and a vast number of tumuli. a bronze statue which represents . At Ekaterinoslaf we are again on the great Dnieper. horses. and later the high road of -the Tartar invaders of Russia. whether from the Crimea or the shores of the In the province of Kharkof are found those remarkable idols Caspian.

the ' inscription 1790. however.' By her directions. Next to Odessa. drive 1 settlement. over forty miles of steppe. in 1787.136 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and restored to a more fitting marble.' is : Johannes Howard. or Ingul with the Bug. marked by a tombstone of white Church of the Assumption is a simple obelisk. son of the admiral of Scotch parentage who. Catherine 'Dedicated to the Saviour of the human race by Catherine II. to Kherson. Nicholas. We now follow the route taken by Catherine II. Ad Sepulchrum Stas. over his grave is a block of marble surmounted by a sun-dial. considerable in a special quarter between the river and ' ' A them pursue the favourite Jewish occupation of money -changing. and the garden of her magnificent Prince Potemkin. is its Jewish population. in her clad Roman armour and crowned. with the aid of some equally gallant countrymen. and es. part of the country was called after its conquest Chesme . temporarily neglected by the naval claim to that proud position after the fall town in New in 1769. huddled together the bazaar. on which are abiding-place. but her son. number of she caused to be inscribed in Slavonic over the Cathedral of St. Within a high circular wall near The great English Vixit propter Alios. brings those who do not proceed by steamer to the great naval station and commercial port of Nicolaef. Alios Salvos Fecit. tion of Admiral Samuel Greig. he caught a cold. and to be buried in a hole under. the more favourite. from which they were again disinterred in 1874. and descend In commemoration of her visit. in the 65th year of his age the ' recorded his principal achievements. 1 789. won for the Russians the naval battle of Sea. horseback to visit a lady at some distance on the banks of the Dnieper. with a sun-dial on one face and a portrait-medallion on the An inscription on it in Russian and Latin tells us that Howard other. according to his last wish. Nicolaef re-asserted its It owes much of its present affluence to the sound administraof Sevastopol. striking feature of which. in the year 1790. Nicolaef is the handsomest as this Russia. constitute the sights of Ekaterinoslaf. the founder of the town. ordered the remains to : be exhumed. he set out from Kherson on philanthropist In Kherson. on which typhus fever supervened. and in 789 it received its present appellation in commemoration of the capture of Otchakof from the Turks on the feastDestined from the first by Potemkin to be the harbour day of St. somewhat relieved in its monotony by numerous ancient tumuli. was buried in this cathedral in 1791. the Emperor Paul. Prince Potemkin. died on the 2oth January. Being lightly The monument clad. Ouisquis Amici. painted blue and red. and the Ekaterinoslaf Prospect is dotted with their stands and their moneychests. at the junction of the It was the site until 1775 of a Cossack setch.' died and was buried in a village about four miles north of the month of November.the floor of the crypt. at the delta of the Dnieper. A fortified of a Russian fleet in the Black authorities.

although steamers have at a considerable distance from it. British shipping is chiefly . Of the six ports on the neighbouring Sea Azof. about five millions sterling. owing to the shallowness of roadstead.. has been connects this important harbour of with Kharkof and other rich agricultural centres. tallow. I. and. is the most considerable. The annual value of its exports of corn. Its large trade. greatly promoted by the railway. which now mostly in grain.37 Turks and Tartars.SOUTH from the RUSSIA. wool. 1. where A NOGAI TARTAR. &c. as at Nicolaef. Alexander to anchor the is died in 1825. Taganrog.

the La Hadji-Bey and the whole of the Turkish provinces of Otchakof were annexed to the Russian empire. Ginestra of the and the Genoese. but it owes its present prosperity . employed the Neapolitan De Ribas and the Frenchman De Volante (both in her military sen-ice. was founded in 1804. an d is adorned with in a bronze monument or chief) to the Platof. and in 1637 took the Turkish fortress of Azof. Khazars and Tartars. A short distance above this great mart is Novocherkask. open-air or Odessa on the Black Sea of is the Odessns AN ITINERANT SHOEMAKER. Bolgars. when confirmed. Catherine II. immunities were later granted to the city. It is usual to bestow on the Russian heir-apparent the Cossacks. Much of the produce shipped here comes from Rostof on the Don. employed in the trade. which. the capital of the Country ' of the Cossacks.138 RUSSIAK PICTURES. and one in which many industries (especially the manipulation of tobacco grown in the Caucasus and the Crimea) are pursued. Huns. whom they powerfully assisted The town subsequent wars. It was not until 1791 that the fortress of the Greeks. Hadji-Bey of the Turks.) to construct a town and harbour. title of ' Ataman ' of the Don the The last investiture with Cossack baton 1 took place also the reigning circle.' anciently the abode of Scythians. received in Various privileges and 1 795 its present modernized name of Odessa. The present population Don dates from the sixteenth century.' Emperor in 1887. all the ancient rights and privileges of the warlike Cossacks of the Don. famous Hetman leader (Ataman of the Cossacks between 1/70 and 1816. They attacked the Tartars and Turks. Sarmatians. at a assemblage. but from 1718 they were gradually brought under subjection to the Tsar. in virtue of the Treaty of Jassy. peopled mostly by Greeks and Albanians. the chief centre of inland trade in the south-east provinces of Russia. when renegades from Muscovy and vag- rants of every description formed themselves into Cossack or robber communities. Until the reign of Peter the Great the powerful and independent Cossacks were not much interfered with.

and dependent for its supply of water upon rain-tanks and a few brackish springs. through thirty-inch pipes. and with an export trade now valued at ten Its splendid millions sterling. brought from the Dnieper. after The water administration of local the although it prevails in the great export trade of In of the Jews so considerable as it once was. who became its first governor in 1803. with no small advantage to the states in which they were permitted to become free citizens and loyal subjects.' It is much to be desired that a more sober and correct view in regard and that clue Israelite community at Odessa should supervene. harbour. least fifteen Their crews 1875 by reacling-room. who in 1823 took up his between 1817 and 1857. a chartered a notice certain in body in the sea-bathing put up by years ago. and under the annually visited by at under the British flag. being carefully filtered. when he was succeeded by Count Langeron. Odessa has now an atmosphere pure and bright. Formerly enveloped in clouds of fine dust. only a secondary influence in the capital. carried on with great vigour and enlightenment the works of construction and improvement thanks Under such advantages contemplated by his foreign predecessors. trees and gardens of great beauty. also a Frenchman. Eleven years later. affairs. in the following . however. we are not surprised to find that Odessa has developed into a handsome city of South European aspect. H. the Duke of Edinburgh. power city. in a great measure to the privileges of a free port. to which the members of it is fact. city residence at Odessa as Governor-General of New Russia. established in patronage of H. The combination of Russian. Limited. the population It is now 240. enjoyed by the Prince Woronzoff.R. whose suffering sharewailing over the unprofitable (to them) investment of so much is hard cash. thirty miles distant. rendered secure by a breakwater initiated or designed by Sir Charles Hartley. is hundred steamers. ' : The notice was words No clogs or Jews are allowed to bathe here. as they did in days long gone by in England and in other countries to which they resorted. devoid of any vegetation beyond a few shrubs and sickly acacias. Greek and Jewish sharpness that prevails at Odessa has not on the whole been favourable to the employment of foreign The Greek element has. a French emigrf. to the disabilities under which the made for the be should allowance Jews have so long struggled in Russia. of Odessa had grown from nine to twenty-five thousand.SOUTH chiefly RUSSIA. not many that community are periodically subject. of which one-half are have the advantage of an institute and Consul-General Stanley. and ample means of quenching thirst thanks to the expenditure of over a million pounds sterling by the British still holders are Odessa Waterworks Company. 139 to the talents and energy of the Duke Emanuel de Richelieu. Nor is the ' ' establishment of which it contrived to dispossess the municipality.000. baiting likely to disappear under the This culminated.

even though studiously strategic. from its having been the battle-field of the last war in which England has many continue to live. the Crimean peninsula. CHAPTER THE CRIMEA AND is VIII.ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. extending over a distance of forty-five miles. still do apart. subject to similar rule may be said. for Russia's network of railways. no portion of the of surface of the globe more adapted mankind than the Russian empire. Like that part of the Russian continent with which r connected by the narrow isthmus of Perecop. ST. energetically proceeded w ith throughout the empire. although all it many diversities human are brought into near contact. PETERSBURG. is being . it is . to a cir- THERE homogeneity cumstance territory . is one vast steppe. and government. except where the Tauric range. largely teeming with corn. CAUCASUS. from the of its extension over so an almost boundless of the expanse of race level and yet. as we shall discover in our observing their of this chapter. customs and religion. OF THE TENTH OR ELEVENTH CENTURY IN THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY. consisting of about nine thousand square miles. In those days the Crimea was a somewhat distant land whereas we may now pack up our traps and set foot at Sevastopol on the sixth day after leaving Charing Cross. journey over the Crimea and the Caucasus the subject The Crimea has a special interest for Englishmen of this generation. while many of its incidents must be fresh in the memory of the middle-aged. speaking their own tongue and own been engaged with a great European power.



the indigenous trees comprising the Tauric pine. At Yalta we are in the most fashionable watering-place in the South of Russia. are seen from the road. Alupka. and the banks are seen covered with the of the valley. conceive. and sweet-pea. yew. maple. sturdy pines and junipers looking like tufts of verdure as they overhang the perilous scape. shaping the most fantastic of sea-boards. Starting from Balaclava. poplar. with luscious pastures. Baidar the towards the Baidar one of the grandest that it is possible to a offered combination of mountain. to our beleaguering troops. sights by In front rise the bold cliff. at which point there suddenly bursts on the view From and there from fissures in the rocks strike forth again the and or the beech. and of the Emperor. an altitude of three thousand to four thousand feet. Lower down. during the bathing-season. embedded in the midst of sumptuous cultivation and as we proceed. are within a few miles of each other. brooks. veronica. lorded over the Ai Petri precipitous heights by majestic (St. concerned The residences of the Grand Dukes Michael and Constantine. Peter). where two Wellingtonife gigantece planted in 1869 by the Prince and Princess of Wales are shown. we from time to time pass masses of gigantic blocks of granite thrown up at various periods by the convulsions of Nature. the seat of the late Prince Woronzoff. but all surrounded by perfectly fascinating scenery. and cornfields with green hedges. ash. Countess Guacher. at the first west pass extreme of the the range. the road is brinks. and Mishor. crocus . while here constructed through a wealth of vegetation. to the inhabitants on the declivities that slope to the sea a of the and prolific Riviera. which begins in April and continues to Excellent carriages and good saddle-horses facilitate excursions . reminding one much of an English land- ot (carriage) road. lilies geranium and orchids. elm. this valley the road leads over a spur Gate. juniper. and beautiful region in close proximity to the sea. One of those purpose of converting the Tartars to Christianity.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS.. the peonia. oak. was better known. a place to which three ladies repaired. its comfortable hotels and luxurious clubs attracting the wealthy from for the all parts November. and the fir and beech which attain a very large size. in the affair of the diamond necklace of Marie Antoinette. under different circumladies. where the irregular declivities pine juniper project into the sea. in the reign of Alexander I. Woronzoff possession of life. The cypress and magnolia are beautiful in their development. even some of the luxuries things. which afforded so we many good through valley. at Livadia. The first genuine Tartar village is Kikeneis. with vegetation varied suggestive 143 and rising to ensures climate beyond by the description. and violet. the as the Countess de la Mothe. who was publicly whipped for being stances. copses. none attractive in their architecture. Here the Tartar villages lie embosomed in the midst of truly lovely scenery. and beyond is Gaspra.



up the smiling valleys, horsemen being enabled to visit the interior of the Yalta is peninsula by crossing the passes above Derekyuy or Uchan-su. the westernmost point of the wine-growing district, which includes Massandra, Partenite, where is a church of the eighth century, Gurzuf. and Alushta at the eastern end of the range, from which village the carriage-road turns sharp away from the coast, and leads direct to Simpheropol, the capital. The Russians are very proud of the wines grown on these shores, but connoisseurs prefer the wines of France and Germany. The yield, including the produce



Sudak on another

million gallons,

part of the coast, consists of Bordeaux,

amounts annually to about three Burgundies, Hocks, Madeira, and

some sweet wines
times have nations fought for, and disputed, the narrow classic as the scene of the strip of territory possession wanderings of Ulysses because of the golden harvests to be gathered from over the hills, and of its own even temperature. History asserts that the




Cimmerians were the first inhabitants of whom so little is known they were succeeded by the Tauri replaced, seven centuries before the
; ;









supplied their



from what had become known as the granary of Greece.' Then came the Huns, who were succeeded by the Goths, the earliest Christian settlers, and they held possession until the proud Republic of Genoa sent forth her galleys laden with men and arms to seize, if
during several

upon so












as Caffa,


settlements, appointing

subsequently every other point of vantage along consuls or governors, establishing

r*M .,.,jji &





an extensive and powerful hierarchy, and at the same time constructing those Sudak, Theodosia, and Balaclava, of which splendid defences at excite the of every passing traveller. to admiration remain enough to the south coast for the benefit of sea-bathing Visitors who throng travel by rail to Simpheropol, the chief town, and thence continue their
journey either

by way of Sevastopol, or take the but the more favoured route to Alushta


carriage-road already via Odessa, where

bi-weekly steamers convey passengers to Eupatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia, and Kertch, continuing the voyage to the ports of the Caucasus. It was near Eupatoria that the British and French forces landed, on
I4th September,
1854, not to evacuate the peninsula until July,

1856, during



which period were fought the decisive battles on the Alma and Chernaya, at Balaclava and on the heights of Inkermann, and the fortress of Sevastopol was evacuated after a lengthened siege and bombardment. The country between Eupatoria and Sevastopol has been compared by travellers to that around the Dead Sea, owing to its sterile and uninviting aspect, but the Saki mud baths in those parts attract numerous patients suffering from rheumatism and diseases of the skin. The Bay of Sevastopol, four miles in length and nearly one mile at its widest part, is one of the securest harbours in the world, having an almost uniform depth of ten fathoms. The handsome town which stood on the of hill and the extended to the water's edge, was completely destroyed slope during the war, and has only of late years commenced to recover from its calamities, for it has again been decreed a naval, military, and commercial port and station, while the railway gives an immense impetus to export trade. The hotels are good, and guides are obtainable for visiting the sites of the several camps, batteries, and battle-fields, which, in a few years, will be inaccessible to the traveller, by reason of those localities becoming
enclosed within







the warriors


during the siege, they were laid within small enclosures inside the divisions and batteries of attack and defence in which they were serving, so that


evacuated by the contending parties it was seen to be dotted with numberless cemeteries, of which one hundred and twenty-six were inside the British lines. The Russians and French early availed themselves of facilities afforded for removing their dead to grounds

the land was

and raising to their memory mausoleums which remain objects of veneration, even to the destructive Tartar herdsmen, who persisted, year after year, in inflicting every kind of damage upon the memorials of our own dead until at length the reproaches of travellers of all nations and creeds stirred to action a small body of Englishmen,
specially set apart for the purpose,

with supported by the Prince of Wales monuments have been removed from the





our soundest

cemetery, called Cathcart's, after Inkermann the walls of the old

scattered enclosures to the largest the gallant officer of that name who fell at

are levelled, and the graves covered with two to three feet of earth, so that in a few years the very sites



be forgotten.


After a length of time the lab'ring swains, turn the turf of those unhappy plains,

Shall rusty piles from the ploughed furrows take. * * * * * *

Amazed at antique titles on the stones And mighty relics of gigantic bones.'


Quite near to Sevastopol stood the ancient city, Khersonesus, founded Grecian colonists seven centuries before Christ, and of whom it is





their independence,

and owed

their prosperity

state of civilisation during the space of one thousand years to the free institutions they enjoyed, and to competence for self-government. This

and high

became city to enjoy its



Russian Prince

empire, continuing, however, until taken municipal institutions, by siege by the Vladimir, who restored it to the empire as one of the conreceiving


of the





be seen

Christianity and built the church, the in the crypt of the cathedral lately

Vladimir marriage. foundations of which are








Khersonesus as

being a flourishing city



features of its neighbourhood exquisite detail the is the student able to verify with extraordinary minuteness so that coasts, most exact of geographers, and fix the graphic delineation of that

day, and describes in and of the adjoining




upon the


so delightfully illustrated by honest

In the Eight miles from Khersonesus, says Strabo, is Symvolon-limen. is mentioned as but it the of we it as the know Odyssey port Lsestrigons,










L 2


silver. the cooking department and guest-chamber apart on the being ground floor. and a species of pilchard. war are shown by the monks with unaffected satisfaction. nevertheless the females do not retain their good looks in adult whilst the practice line. shores of the Black Sea. and for the rest of the year they remain idle. they do not wear the yashmak. For instance. during which period it is agreed among them that no festivities shall take place. George. and never think of learning a trade they work in their gardens and orchards from the end of May to the third week in August. and the females are not in the habit of holding monogamists. and well furnished with mattresses and pillows of every hue. and one respectfully preserved. mackerel. Some of the Genoese defences of the British fourteenth century remain. and coverlets richly embroidered in gold. and of England too. The road from haddock. . the last capital of the thirty of the largest towns inhabited entirely by Tartars. that lies ensconced amidst luxuriant gardens founded and vineyards reaching to the sea. as everywhere else on the occupation has disappeared. their staining certainly not to and advantage. . the latter freely decorated with an abundance of towels embroidered in gold. is of dyeing and uniting their eyebrows with a straight dark their finger. and at all times willing to welcome the belated or worn-out traveller.. or veil. obelisk in the tenth century.148 RUSSIAN PICTURES. etc. or silk. upon which are spread reclining mattresses and bolsters in satin or velvet. of the Genoese. since it was the only port oi debarkation for all our materiel of war. the delight of the ancients. but equally removed from the fanaticism of Mahometanism. the plain which was the scene of the famous cavalry charge under Lord Cardigan. or nobles. locked harbour. miles from Bakhchisarai. the cleanly more In the supposed to be the circumstances of the inmates. now marked by an and a branch road to the right leads to the Monastery of St. affluent are These Tartars are very indolent. as a rule. here engaged in the pursuit of fishing and salting their gains for import the sea at this part abounding in turbot. bream. are Greeks. In their cottages the women's apartments are on an upper story. although intercourse with others. they are. should occasion arise. Their children are fair to look upon age. the floors are covered with expensive Turkey carpets. are They hospitable. for the the during remembrance of that lady Sevastopol is Khans. because the larger the display. its inviting situation presenting a very . different aspect to the sterile surroundings north of the cliff by which it is The apartments that were occupied by Florence Nightingale sheltered. on the left. entirely from those of the men. Sevastopol to Balaclava almost skirts. stricter is Sunnites than their co-religionists on the south coast.and toe-nails. and occasionally their teeth. but nearly every vestige The inhabitants. nor do they hesitate to receive aliens in their houses. and the of the sole safe haven for our shipping. houses of the mnrzas. .



be married, he goes about for three days with a handkerchief over his head, so placed as to conceal his face, for he is a man ami the bride during that same period remains with shame
a Tartar


' ;



screened off
body. mother's


in a darkened room, quite ready to sob if spoken to by anythe wedding-day, the bride, closely veiled, takes her place at her side in a carriage, a pile of gaily-coloured handkerchiefs being on

the seats in front, one of which

given by the mother as a wedding favour



who may approach

it moves left arm, along, in which that in other the relatives carriages following silently, turn out a the is the bride. Should the procession pass through people village, and stretch a rope across the road, as is the custom in the Vosges, and

the kerchief round his

to offer his congratulations and joins the procession as

that friend ties

slowly and

but there is no spirit in the procompel the bride to pay her footing And when the not one merry shout ceedings, no fun, no cheering, no bride finally alights at the door of her future home, she is seized by a crowd of women who are in waiting, and dragged or even carried into the house and de.'/.mi. ^j :.\l rA v \ j liverecl to the 'happy man,' after which
; !






exciting, but


immediately had assembled. Bakhchisarai
work, useful

noiseless scene, the guests disperse as silently as they





and ornamental,



supplies Tartar continues



his tastes,

be very remaining perfectly indifferent

every description of improvement intro duced from without, whether in manuto




trappings, centuries.
his native



and so we agriculture the same kind of shoes or slippers, belts, cushions, horseas have been in use amongst this people during many

The Tartar does not despise even cutlery, now also manufactured at

the old flint-lock gun, and prefers Bakhchisarai, but formerly made


Karasu-bazar, a place which, in its prosperity, used to turn out as many 400,000 sword blades annually, chiefly for use in the Khan's army, but also for export to the Caucasus. The great attractions of Bakhchisarai are the places of interest within
Jews' fortress,' on the easy distance, such, for instance, as Chufut-Kaleh, summit of a rock, said to have been a stronghold since 460 B.C., and the cradle of the Karaim, a sect of Israelites opposed to the Talmudist Jews, by whom they are looked upon as heretics. The Karaim reject all tradition and Rabbinical writings, adhering solely to the Old Testament, whence



Karaim, or readers readers of Holy Writ the plural designation, Kara, a reader. They esteem the high moral teaching of Jesus Christ,

no part, accusing more they took but they look for of having shed innocent blood especially the Pharisees the coming of the Messiah from the house of David, and for the rebuilding The Karaim are energetic and industrious, and hold the of the Temple.






where they number about 5000. Their largest part of trade in the Crimea, as much as thou wouldest, desire that do canst not 'If thou is precept

thou mayest do as much


thou art able to perform.'

The Karaim



the foundation of their sect from the period of the Maccabees, in the second of the century B.C., when traditional lore was introduced to the prejudice books of Moses but, according to the Rabbinists, who form the larger


of Jews, their reputed founder was one Anan-ben-David (Hannassy), Anan of the race of Betzur, in the eighth century of the Christian era. the since ever has been which a at erected great Jerusalem, synagogue Such centre of the Karaim, who acknowledge his successors as their head.














Turkey hold


Greek, and




It is computed that there are from 50,000 to 60,000 Karaim in various parts of the globe. At the foot of the is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, a Jews' fortress

the Arabic.



cemetery of great antiquity, in which every Karai'm would wish to be buried, and wherein is pointed out, with pride, the grave of Isaac Sangaris (A.D. The countless tomb-stones 767), who converted the Khazars to Judaism.
are very varied in form, some being in the shape of a sarcophagus, others like coffins or kysts, but the more remarkable are finished off with head

and foot


itself is pierced with a number of Katch-kalen, Cherkess-kerman, etc., provided, with reclining places, corn-pits, water-tanks, chimneys and other conveniences formed out of the solid rock originally, in all probability, together with similar the The more numerous localities, many dwellings of the wild Tauri. of these cave habitations are at Tepe-kerman, but the more remarkable are









near the summit of Mangup, where one chamber measures twenty-one feet by seventeen feet. The citadel of Mangup was


principal defence of the Goths of their prince, within its


and of the


still remains standing a wall, believed to be of the fifteenth century. Near Bakhchisarai are two pillars of calcareous rock of striking appearance, a liisns natures. The




her village, her daughter pursued her to bring her back, when suddenly the would-be apostate was turned to stone for wishing to desert the true faith,

was once a woman who desiring to become a Christian


whereupon the daughter, herself became petrified






Travelling in the Crimea, as in all steppe country, is dreary work, for the beds of the larger water-courses they cannot be called rivers are almost arid, not presenting even the appearance of those

summer and autumn

verdant meandering lines exhibited by the prolific orchards on the banks of such smaller streams as the Alma and Belbek, orchards from which Russia
annually supplied with a large variety of most excellent apples and pears In these streams are taken trout, something like ,200,000. roach, and dace, and salmon are speared at their estuaries, cray-fish being

to the value of

also abundant, but chiefly in pools and ponds. bustard, attains a large size and is in great


bird of the

steppe, the

profoundly of his mortal him rifle and who has to stalk with bullet man, shy enemy, unless he prefers milder sport such as quails, pigeons, snipe, and partridges, all plentiful enough in season, as are many kinds of waterfowl on the coast, especially to the north-east and north-west.

demand, but he



was a



wretched village Stary-Krim, in the east of the peninsula, called Solghat, that could count 100,000 men on a war

at Ak-mesjid, now Simpheropol, the chief town footing, the viceroy resided has become the neutral ground of Russian, It and seat of government

Greek, Israelite, Armenian, and Tartar traders, and of gipsies, who meet here periodically over and over again, but as if they had never met before, deporting themselves with perfect indifference towards each other, scarcely exchanging a nod of recognition as they jostle one another in the crowded bent market-place or bazars, and avoiding all mutual intercourse, but each on the hardest possible bargain with his neighbour. Occasionally, a





his appearance, his dealings, not

more reserved than the




boisterous, setting value upon time, and if not respected he is at least

town, the chief and central mart, roads converge from every part of the peninsula, its caravans of double-humped camels, where the railway has not yet been


introduced, being in constant communication with the south coast and

Kertch, the city and fortress at the extreme eastern point of the Crimea, where we must now hasten as being our port of embarkation for the Caucasus, of which there is so much

having regard to its extent and the interest ever excited by that
to say,

fascinating land. Kertch, as




peninsula, has a remarkable history,

like something time the from twenty-four centuries, when it first received a name that of Panticapceum to the clay when a handful of the allied forces effected a landing in 1855, to occupy and to hold! A unique feature in its neighbourhood are the countless barrows that extend in every direction dismal-looking hillocks, the silent and imperishable monuments



wealthy people, who, after they laid their dead, These tumuli or barrows vary in size, and thus piled the earth over them. hundred feet in one of the some when, largest, measuring one years ago, direction height and one hundred and fifty feet in diameter, was explored by of the Russian Government, it was discovered to be the tomb of a Scythian us by scrupulous left to king, verifying in every particular the account Herodotus, who relates that when a king died, his wife and attendants were

an ancient, great,


St. that they might be laid in his tomb. though outwardly restored. and recovered out of this very sepulchre. silver. as is known. of which we now take leave. a name that vies in its antiquity Panticapaeum. that were bronze. that visitors their trappings. warriors. electrum. and the vessels of gold. many of which are pronounced to be the most perfect specimens in These of the high condition of art Greece in those early times. 153 strangled and his horses killed. perhaps by Venetian colonists in the fifteenth century. in search of treasure. happy and of vegetation O habitations in various stages of decay. of horses and It has been already noted on golden vessels. with the Straits of Kertch. are sometimes attended with the most unsatisfactory results. to wit. fourfold they appear Large as is the on the opposite with the lasting necropolis of Phanagoria. at some early period. rendering abortive many a campaign. find therein. and oppression was of Circassians to seek expatriation to Turkey. when he discovers. who. etc. ceded as it had been against the 1799. recognized by the golden wreaths that had adorned their brows. however. it was soon discovered. conciliated Conciliation. directed their Petersburg. carefully preserved. and priestesses have been brought to light. Circassia oppression which drove no less than 250.' resorted to chiefly in the more accessible and densely-populated territory. Interspersed human German . was not to keep it. confirmed the annexation of his dominions to Russia The To possess Georgia. to the King of Georgia. that not until the year he was able to announce to the 1863 did the 'the commander-in-chief feel that Emperor But the country was not pacified Caucasus. where tracts of once cultivated now present the distressing sight of tangled growths homes. was out of the and so the question. those of victors. the complete subjugation far from it. disputing each acre of ground with so much <_ tenacity. and bid farewell to the Crimea. his weapons.000 of four tribes of . will queen. The result denuded condition of Circassia. J O and are here there with the some natives that remain. after extensive and toilsome cuttings. unless the seventy nations spoken of by in ' ' Strabo as holding the fastnesses in the o great mountain chain were either or subdued. however. excavations are conducted during two or three months every year by a member of the Archaeological Commission of St.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and a profusion of exquisite golden ornaments and trinkets. that the tombs have been rirled. year after year. the same stubborn resistance. process of subjection was shortly commenced. page 33. the superb Kertch gallery at the Hermitage. protection afforded by the Emperor Alexander I. But besides the tombs of kings. the brave mountaineers offering. together with himself. upon the supplication of that monarch that he might be defended against his enemies. Petersburg. of attendants. nation's will. whose labours. the country into which is we perceptible in the are first about to pass after crossing lands. the remains of the king and to attention to the number shore of opening of tumuli tumuli around Kertch.

' : make to thyself images. sectarians originally deported hither by Alexander I. or Dukhobortsy. and specially district remarkable is for their kind The which chief town literally. ' on the principle that all men are equal and a monarchy unnecessary. long since Cossacks remain has adopted the dress of the even from boyhood. who style themselves the Real Spiritual Christians. by which they mean Thou shalt images. whence their origin . o 20. consists of a single-breasted but reaching almost to the ankles. on the Zaporogian. good agriculturists. for a few are stationed in each principal town. who refuse to recognise any kind of temporal authority. sheep-skin hat finished slung off at its summit with a piece of coloured cloth completes the costume.000 of those new warrior settlers consisted in barring all egress from of stations that extended first fortified line the mountains. garment. tightened only belt from which are suspended dagger. and sword. a name signifies. The number of Cossacks in Transcaucasia being very limited. having on either breast a row of ten A rifle.. of ' the Kouban gift. Grebenski continuing to preserve their identity with the natives of Great and although the whole of this imposing force. . and tempted them to the The first service of some Kuban with o grants of land and other l privileges. maintained at half a million. trustworthy. the type amongst the Zaporogians to Vladikavkaz. in 1792.' etc. whom they indiscriminately call Worldly. in in all parts like a frock-coat. the vernacular whose and to the customs of their forefathers. tongue has never been forgotten by them. and frequently pistol. their land. treatment of animals. Russia. because the true Church consists of an assemblage of such as are chosen by God to walk in the Light and Life without the use of any distinguishing signs or symbols. subsequently known as the Catherine mistrusted their power and influence. territory. true to the orthodox faith Caucasian mountaineers. each of a size to hold a cartridge. since God's command to Moses was in these words ' ' . and a few Molokane. 'Wrestlers with the Spirit' as the name implies. their cattle now ? They are steady and not . of the Caucasus. and they are now free to go whithersoever they will but how are these poor people to give up their homes. by means of a ' ' where they united with the descendants of the Grebenski The predominant Cossacks. Little of the is that still Russians. the back and a tall across is man possesses. chiefly as an escort to the closely at the with a a . together with the adjacent Black Sea Cossacks. which every or twelve sockets.' From the Molokane (milk-drinkers) sprang the Uukhobortsy. removed from them the ban of exile.' as ' distinguished from all others. our Lord having said that He and His are not of this world and they dissent from the Orthodox Church. with whom they are not to be confounded.' Ekaterinodar. The late Alexander II. The dress so universally worn by the male sex. Catherine's from having been founded by the sovereign of that name and bestowed. settlements.154 RUSSIAN PICTURES. waist.



who constructed many churches that would have been notable specimens of Byzantine architecture. Christianity was here introduced by Justinian. anciently given to piracy. the first amongst the Circassians blood of the they are the friendly relations with Russia to ' ' . Caucasus. and wolf. Practically. he will to enter into proceed eastwards. equally dashing horsemen. or turn clean round. inasmuch as our wanderings have brought us to the /Ea of Circe and the Argonauts. Should the traveller elect range. where we again tread classic ground. except well-wooded hills. and occupying about one hundred miles of the coast in the Black Sea. and sitting astride facing the horse's tail. . A favourite feat. continued to be the seat of the Catholicos of Abkhasia until the twelfth century. indolent and lawless race. has been thoroughly restored of late years. hyaena. for they are determinedly inimical to Their mountains abound in forests of magnificent walnut and where the enthusiastic sportsman will find the bear. are making of wine from their . had the Abkhases not destroyed them in their struggles against the Russians. the horse's fullest speed. they will stand on the saddle and fire all round at an or throw the body completely over to the right. keep up a rapid fire. remarkable as being the place to John Chrysostom was banished at the instance of the Empress Eudoxia although the exile never strangers. amongst many others. early youth in those singular exercises and break-neck evolutions for which the Cossacks of the Caucasus have become so famous. with seldom a roof to cover him other than the vault of heaven but the ordinary traveller is likely to encounter difficulties and delays that he would prefer to avoid. and in pursuit. wheel. his destination having Abkhases are at present heathens. Pitzuncla. who have enjoyed from time immemorial. but north of the great meet with the Kabardines. governor of 157 are performed by Chapars. The we have just quitted. the Earther south. hospitable to strangers. thoroughly domesticated. and useful breeders of cattle. which the coast. In a Mingrelian too. is the principality of Mingrelia. and extending some way inland irom the sea. and is a striking object to passing vessels. every such edifice being occupied and One church. landscape like we are as struck at the the aspect afforded by the numerous whitewashed Mingrelians. Being the mother church in the Caucasus. box. their duties . To the south of the Circassians. now addicted to thieving when the opportunity is afforded them. of being an the reputation. at Pitzunda on converted by the latter into a military post. reached escaped the general destruction. an and trained in like manner from irregular force. and plenty of smaller game.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. and pick them up whilst going at the province. is to throw their hat and rirle to the ground. then Pityus. with the imaginary enemy fire as if at an enemy left heel resting on their steed's hind quarter. Setting their horses at full gallop. are the Abkhases. incurably cottages their they in dot neighbours whom the given to indolence. a noble race.

the Svanni. and wife or at at several villages in the valley are churches of comparatively recent date . They may certainly be included amongst the handsomest people in Transcaucasia. whose farther complete it they made valley of ten miles subjugation dates back no may be said than 1876. most profuse vegetation. the mourners abandon themselves to feasting in first upheld was and brawls.' the ordination of a priesthood in 1859. and if we ascended a journey easily accomplished on horseback. in miles of the upper at no part exceedingare cut off from all and width. For or instance. although a formal submission in 1833. with their The Dadian. is the wealthiest of the dispossessed rulers : the foresight of his predecessor and his own European training having taught him the clanger of disposing of land and squandering the proceeds.I 5 8 RUSSIAN PICTURES. rather than preserving the property and contenting himself with a smaller income. when a couple other at about to be hips their garments funerals are attached each the by the who . Between Mingrelia and Abkhasia courses the Ingur. in con- sequence of the passes being blocked with The scenery in this valley. continue is to officiate after ancient custom. indeed wherever the pure air of heaven and its divine . and grand beyond description 4 ' . is of great beauty and wildrecent traveller. every imaginable flower is seen in its wild state. A MINGRELIAN PEASANT. the Svanni have been to keep to the observances of the Russian Church. and they thenceforth become man and burials. say from to near its water-shed Sougdicli. but in most their communities married. and all undergrowth even. meadow. outside communication between the beginning of September and the end of May. after the disposal of the body with over the grave.' writes a snow. if they may be to so designated. the earth is thus gorgeously arrayed. minister. or prince. light is Since required not obstructed. They fifty occupy some forty or the Ingur. their orchards. we should find ourselves amongst the well-known military station a very wild and singular people. amid the ness. own priests. strange rites. prolific through they are content to live on the produce of the interposition of a beneficent Providence rather than to any agricultural diligence on their part. and bank. vineyards otherwise abundant . well-defined features and usually raven black hair. utters a sentence two. in drunkenness the clay ending Christianity and Svanneti by the sovereigns of Georgia as early as the tenth century. hill-side and grass plot are literally covered in every forest with all that is most lovely and grove.

money A very notable feature in their villages are the towers of defence. but '59 they remain empty. fully sixty feet in height. each other. and keep Lent without knowing why they so . used as a place of refuge in The Russians have days of feud by a member or even an entire family. The price of a life is estimated hundred roubles. and yet they will cross as a caution to trespassers. with which each cottage is provided.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. filling the churches with the horns as offerings. whose language is a very distinct dialect of the Georgian. they fix the skulls of animals about the fences and walls of their habitations for the purpose of warding off evil influences. been careless and doubtlessly prudent in rarely undertaking to attack the Svanni in their isolated strongholds. life inviolable law. equal to the amount ~o to ^80. crime being met by the one paid or the at six circulation. preferring rather to leave this strange . but there being no be made up in cattle or land. but are ever ready to a tall staff surmounted by a do commit depredations upon not They steal from strangers. the services being conducted mechanically by Russian or Georgian priests in a tongue quite unknown to the people. that the price of blood shall be in of the murderer has to forfeited. Murder is rife. The Svanni fast on clo Wednesdays and Saturdays. the erect A VILLAGE IN SVANNETI.

and yielding with . a is situated from Guria. and the destruction of female infant life. another principality. towards the development of the resources of this beautiful country. exported in large quantities. intersected somewhat pestiferous but important and good roads through valleys highly cultivated with maize. and oak the box. the great range. which flows through the country whence was The Rion divides introduced into Europe the Phasian bird our pheasant. we find it bounded on the Rion. with barley. the birth of a female child being usually deemed a reproach to its parents. and other of the highest peaks . to Russia in 1878. a contingency that is certain as the result of frequent deaths through personal animosities. the hills and their declivities being overspread handsome returns. Contrary to earlier experience. of their feelings towards strangers. The upper years by the members valley reason of of its the Ingur has been the brought to notice of late of our having Alpine Club become have starting-point effected the ascent in from of which Elbruz. Ozurgheti. consideration for the property of others there is much yet to south by the River Mingrelia.i6o RUSSIAN PICTURES. recent travellers speak in more favourable terms of the but as Svanni. its annexation since that has tended in no small degree. and of their hospitality Koshtan-tau. where Returning to Mingrelia military station and commercial port. the ancient Phasis. population to its own gradual extinction. Batoum. regards their be desired. corn.

of the past. where he may tarry for a while may exchange. fifteen reached in about hours. stiffened. M . branch at line. the train travelling slowly enough. a city advantage. to the left is Imeritia. may be de- scribed as consisting of a narrow black velvet band. falling from it Archaeologists would delight in an inspection of what remains of the . the main for which will take him to Kutais. beautifully situated little on the banks of the Rion. the capital of the whole of Transcaucasia. in loose folds. 161 the chief town. ancient at AN IMERITIAN NOBI. and is sometimes ornamented with gems. not forgetful that at one period or other their dominion extended over neighbouring territories.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. like Mingrelia and Guria. Although many of the well-to-do noted for their fashions in women. but interest. through a land of much the historically and pictorially. about six miles distant. the traveller in the distance. less frivolous. to great rate Khytaea. cleverly arranged. Passengers from Odessa and the Crimea landing at Batoum find the train in readiness to convey them to Tirlis. a glory. was the residence of the rulers who lie interred at the ancient monastery and episcopal church. or velvet. a small lozenge-shaped piece of leather. The natives pride themselves not a on the distinctness of their nationality. AN IMERITIAN LAI>V. a thin white veil. and is fastened with The headstrinofs under the chin. are the a Rion station. attractively situated.E. here beauty. and worn round the brow like a coronet it is embroidered with gold or silk thread. silk. do not disdain to wear the papanaky. chiefly in Georgia. If so inclined. antiquity. Chemokmedy. which lies over the front part of the head. On highlands of the old kingdom of Armenia. the chief town of the old kingdom of Imeritia. dress generally in use amongst females of the upper classes. right. Imeritia. the residence of great It is the . WEARING THE of ^Etes any PAPANAKY. the men. and Kakhety. affect European assuming the bonnet or hat.

law-courts. reached Palace Street and Erivan Square. public library. the romancers of Georgia. some eight miles off. tions. but faithful historiographers hitherto refrained from endorsing any of the tales that have been handed down by General. beams and pillars. main thoroughfares lead to as many separate quarters. The Turks destroyed it in 1691. a restoration of the eleventh century. the European. as is the entire railway.if>2 RUSSIAN PICTURES. native bazaars. is hills. the chief seat of Government and one residence of the Governor- thousand souls. where are situated the best From the square three hotels and restaurants. conveniently divided. is obtainable. smaller dwellings and and partitions. at an altitude of twenty-seven feet. after which date it became the sepulchre of the sovereigns of Imeritia. it were well to halt at this station for accommodation fairly good the purpose of visiting the unique rock-cut town. Having driven through the suburbs on his way from the railway terminus. the where the wealthy live in well-built nouses of elegant construction An extensive bazaar. the traveller crosses the Kur over the Woronzoff Bridge. Uplytz-tzykhe. Between Kutais and TiHis is the Pass of Suram. an edifice of in century. 1 many The groups are ornamented with cornices. openings for light. have history of these remarkable excavations. the by which time he will have 1 The Crimea and Transcaucasia. which having a population of about hundred of perfectly barren at once brings him to the principal street. and the market-place and Russian view of the city and an interesting sight is obtained from the eminence : . palace main guard-house. and the National Theatre. and grooves have been cut. watered by the Kur and its tributaries. Titiis. unquestionably for water-courses. having doorways. but which a mixture the Armenian and Byzantine. of a glorious while are separated by streets and lanes. would be almost uninhabitable. the eleventh as cathedral. Governor-General. where he passes of the . presumably for the great. six miles away. and but for unpleasantly situated between ranges the River Kur. situated at the Since plain. over which are laid the lines of rail by gradients of one in twenty-two feet over a distance of about eight miles a triumph of engineering skill due. By Captain Telfer. and is believed to have been the burial-place of the great Queen Thamara. . and yet the whole has been entirely hewn Tradition is replete with incidents in the and shaped out of the solid rock. carrying away An old and equallywith them every movable decoration of value. in succession the public gardens.N. to British capital . limits Beyond this pass the train stops at Gori. and the first is ever constructed of the style now accepted Georgian. R. etc. three thousand and and enterprise. mouldings. viz. museum. interesting edifice is the Episcopal Church of Genath at Ghelaty. on the banks of which it is built. gymnasium. Here is a town there can be no other designation for it conif such a term sisting of public edifices may be employed of large habitaeach being for others.

of furriers. brass. of an evening. and so are passed a succession of silversmiths in their stalls. greatly exceeded when. and encloses that most precious Georgia. 163 crowned by the old fortress which immediately overlooks the Asiatic quarter and bazaars. As is the custom elsewhere in the East. buffalo. however. apart from other trades. and ever seek to drive away dull care by indulging in their favourite Kakhety two bottles being the usual allowance to a man's dinner. friends meet together to join in the national dance. They love wine and music.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. an allowance. in the fourth relic with which the nation was converted to Christianity century nothing less than a cross of vine stems bound with the hair of M 2 . those of one trade congregate together. goat. the wine of the country being kept in or sheep-skins laid on their back. and copper-workers. armourers. or eating and wine-shops. and presenting the disagreeable appearance of carcases swollen after lengthened immersion in water. The Georgians are merry folk. rarely allowing themselves to be depressed by the troubles of life. whence rise the confused sounds of human cries and the din from the iron. called the Lezghinka. The Cathedral of Zion was formerly the church of the Patriarch of It dates from the fifth century.

Many of his descendants are in the service of Russia.for Bagrations to if the rose . patron saint. ~_. but for the present the line is constructed as far as Akstafa only. so that identical with that of respects Russia. first 587 and allowance be made power in for will interregnums it be found that their reign extended years. and is the Georgian Church may be considered ^-. signed his renunciation of the crown the 1 in favour of Emperor Paul in 800. - preached the truth replaced by a Russian ! The patriarchate in all Exarch. a day railway will convey passengers and goods the entire Some distance from Georgia into Armenia. the St. over during 1092 the twelve earliest centuries that elapsed from their election. Nina. for not a vestige remains. The' palace of the kings has entirely disappeared. and are the representatives of one of the most ancient monarchies of the world -. GEORGIAN LADIES. George XIII. and died shortly afterwards amid the execrations of his late subjects.. who first has long been suppressed.. for having ignominiously betrayed them. 7124 feet .164 RUSSIAN PICTURES. whence travellers on their way south have to content themselves with the post-road which goes over the Delijan Pass.

' ' edifice standing within high battlemented walls presenting the appearance of in its treasury one of the most extraordinary of sacred encloses a fortress. or in the broad streets and unpaved quarter laid out by the Russians since their occupation of the province by a boulevard and gardens fair to look upon. so is Armenia essentially the land of legend and tradition. Other still more important towns in Armenia. principal arsenal in Transcaucasia was gallantly defended in 1855 by Sir Fenwick Williams and a few British officers. the cradle of the Gregorian Church. a beautiful Gregory. is Nahitchevan.916 feet above the sea. . whence a two hours' drive over a good road brings the visitor to the Monastery of Etchmiadzin. The population is Armenian and Persian.' in 1829. upon which they will the frontier. above the Armenia. Kars was finally ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. special sea. whether in the Persian the southern slopes into the plains of order for post-horses may be obtained at any post-town. available by carriage-road. fly across Within a short distance of Erivan. the first abode of Noah after he came forth from the ark. for Persia ruled here during a but at the bazaars one considerable period until vanquished by Russia meets with other nationalities. 165 descending. . defying Cossacks and custom officers alike. are Alexandropol and Kars. the largest city in Russian Armenia. and probably also his last. relics ! Another priceless brought hither by the Apostle Thaddeus in the year 34 is carried about which relic is the hand of St. since his tomb is reverently shown by the inhabitants. almost symmetrical in its outlines. As Georgia is the land of wine and song. Lesser Ararat. but the place is dull enough. and rising to an altitude of 16. their Ararat. until the garrison was starved into surrender by General Mouravieff. excellent carriages are obtainable at Erivan. the identical spear-head with which our Lord's side was pierced. for which must be held in great part responsible the magnificent mountain that exhibits itself suddenly at a dip in the road Well may the Armenians glory in long before the plains are in sight.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. At fairly Erivan. and the post-station nearest to the Persian frontier. in a silver-gilt case. but orders granted to officials or others on duty always take precedence. the traveller will find good accommodation. long a Turkish fortress town.840 feet. An and frequently cause immeasurable inconvenience to the ordinary traveller. who eagerly escort strangers to see it. looking almost dwarfed by the side of its ' ' mighty neighbour. where crooked lanes are lined with high walls. even though enlivened . 12. such as Tartars from the steppes. Kurds. surnamed the Enlightener. As in most Russian towns. the former being the largest and most powerful fortress and the the latter. peerless among the mighty works of the Creator. and Turkish dealers in search of good horses.' the founder. Greeks. and so called the only-begotten Son of God here descended and appeared to because The convent. that mask the dwellings within like the defences of a fortress. Gregory.

or for conveyance across the Caspian to Central Asia. so called from its begrimed condition. of where the the houses look as it they were the other and lining the shore new or Russian quarter being at the Modern Baku contains the pretty little bay. plains. where neither Viewed from NAPHTHA WELLS AT BAKU. some handsome residences and well-paved the principal being the busy quay. vegetable nor animal life can possibly find an existence. and in it for the is also employed the consecration of the patriarchs. where we must now from the creation. constructed of massive blocks of naphtha. Tartar city brought into prominence of late years through the introduction of railways is Elizavetpol. is embarked for transport to the interior Russia by the Volga. with its sombre numerous minarets. to journey pick ourselves up after having retraced our steps by rail to dismal-looking Baku a town of recent approached through a desert of sand and stones. The some early printing-press issue in various parts of the globe. streets. citadel. where the . purpose of healing the sick and performing other miracles. the wealth of Baku. Numerous refineries. at the west end of Baku compose the Black Town. and from being of greystone masonry. on the line between Tiflis and the MSS. Baku presents a distinctly picturesque appearance.166 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and the palace of the princes of bygone days old towering above the piled the one above base. the sea.. town. all religious books for the use of Gregorian congregations library contains and from the A Caspian. worth inspecting. being Gospels and devotional works.

they call themselves distinction to the Tartars who occupy the declivities and plains. this neighbourhood been considered holy by fire-worshippers. continued to be guarded by fire-worshippers from Yezd in Persia. from the province of Baku. ' Then are we the waves that will carry away that sand. hidden by trees. is the work of its own people. three afforded . Stretching and even from the shores of the Caspian. In Daghestan is Gunib. the vine is successfully cultivated in the Georgian district of Kakhety. as far as the slopes of the great range. Georgians are rarely met with outside the confines of their country proper. with the connivance of the Government. whilst in truth their religion consists of a love of independence and an unconquerable aversion to Russia. more especially the Lesghians. 167 Since a remote period has ever enveloped in clouds of the densest smoke. red and white. some even perpetually indeed. whom the strength of Russia was unequal to subdue during the space of thirty Do the Russians say that they are numerous as the grains of sand ? years. and even from India. selves on the heights. the last stronghold of the brave Shamyl. occupy the mountainous region known as Interior Taiil in and Eastern Daghestan mountaineers. which. ungovernable tribe. who never fail in their hostility is towards others. sexes. ago by the increasing number of speculators engaged in a trade which has now completely driven out of the market all American produce. in Georgia. where still stands the wall constructed by King Heraclius as a defence against the frequent attacks of which thin the mountaineers of Daghestan. are good tacticians. because of the many naphtha springs that were constantly burning. and. watered by the river of that name.THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. until. who invaded the and carried off females and the young of both these marauders are called. The Chentchen are a wild. because of his prosperity. Nominally. they were hustled away some ten years . shot down their enemies in scores as they advanced in column up the narrow defiles.' said the great Tartar chief when addressing the numerous tribes who placed themselves The mountaineers posted themunder his leadership to repel the invader. the fires at Surakan. Kakhety. which he owes entirely to his own industry and thrift and from being strictly a trader. the . is and acid. The two principal towns in this wine country are Telav in Upper. who is no favourite among the different populations. for they cannot forget that they were employed by Shamyl to assist him in subduing them. giving it the preference over the wine of Mingrelia. as Lesghians are Mahometans. and Sygnak in Lower. that the Georgian makes merry. After a predatory fight. a suburb of Baku. when the opportunity them. the richest vineyards being in the Valley of It is with the wine of Alazan. plain from time to time. grateful even in the days of Strabo. Kakhety. are second to none in bravery. agriculture. the foremost and most enterprising trader encountered everywhere being the Armenian. The Lesghians. and cool under fire. the Armenian is careless about .




years ago only, with their hated neighbours, the Chentchen resorted to an that of amputating the hands of their wounded ancient and cruel custom Other tribes and them to the doors of their dwellings. enemies, nailing and Kysty, the Ingush are scattered to the west of the Chentchen











Chentchen, not a little


singular mixture

Mahometanism, the

of Christianity and Paganism, tinged with talismans they wear about their persons

being inscribed with passages from the


Adjointhe Ingush and Kysty, and near the Kabardines, whose acquaintance made in Circassia, are the Ossets, a numerous tribe to the west of the



Arabic or Persian.

River Terek and in the valley of the Ardon, whose origin and history, long a subject of debate amongst ethnologists, has finally resulted in an almost general admission that the Ossets or Osses are descended from and inhabit the same parts as were anciently peopled by the Alains or Alans, mentioned for the first time by Josephus. The Ossets occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Terek, in the hilly parts where they adjoin the Hefsurs, Ph'tchavy, and Tushines,

rude tribes of puzzling religious tendencies, and exceedingly superstitious. The Hefsurs are a proud and supercilious race, inimical to Russia, as are


and Tushines, so that they rarely quit their impregnable homes in the most inaccessible sites on the mountains, and live much the same life they led a hundred years ago. The great thoroughfare between Transcaucasia and Russia is from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, the terminus of the Moscow-Rostof railway, by way
of the Dariel road, a stupendous engineering success completed in the reign This road winds over a pass 7977 feet above the sea, and is of Nicholas.

and clear for traffic in winter by the Ossets, whose country it which service they are exempt from all taxes. The traverses, post stations are the best in the Caucasus, and the distance, 126 miles, is The first usually accomplished in something less than twenty-four hours. station at which horses are changed after leaving Tiflis is Mz'hett, the site of the most ancient city in Georgia, its first capital, and residence of its
in repair in return for

Pharnawaz, 302-237 B.C. The cathedral, restored in the seventeenth century, in which many monarchs and patriarchs are interred, is worth


For ages was here inspecting as a perfect example of Georgian architecture. preserved the seamless garment of our Lord, the handiwork of the blessed

but unhappily when the Persians overran Georgia, the precious relic Virgin was sent for safe custody to Moscow, where it has remained ever since. From another station on this road is obtained a near and beautiful view


of Kazbek, ascended, twenty years ago, to its very summit, 16,546 feet, by several members of our Alpine Club, notwithstanding local traditions which
assert that the

peak of Kazbek, being a holy



inhabited by a


and that the

man who




by an unseen power

arrested by a storm, and compelled to retrace his steps. of the station the road, keeping the right bank Mr. Douglas D. through the celebrated Dariel Pass, of which











The bold and broken forms of the gigantic mountaineer, says arrest the attention of even the most indifferent observer of The mere fact of the existence of a carriage road is some detraction
' :







had nothing


yet we agreed gorge from a comparison with the finest





defiles of the Alps.'

completed the journey from Tiflis to Vladikavkaz, he will have arrived at the depot and point of transit for all goods brought by rail from Russia, and there transferred, for conveyance to the Transcaucasian provinces, to clumsy, unwieldy carts or vans drawn by those in charge of the caravans never being in a hurry, horses or oxen as to when they start, or when they arrive at their indifferent completely destination, and rejoicing in a lengthened stay at Mlety station, after having accomplished the most toilsome part of the distance the ascent and descent Vladikavkaz was founded in 1785 on the site of an Osset of the pass.




and became the headquarters and chief military depot of the Russians during their lengthened struggle for supremacy with the stoutit is now the chief town and seat of government for the hearted hillmen The population province of Kuban, and still an important military station.

of Circassians, Armenians, and Russians, and a few Ossets at The chief industries are the bazaars, for the natives made off long ago. the manufacture of silver and gold lace, arms, burkas, the Caucasian's allThe hotels are fairly good, but there weathers cloak, silver ornaments, etc.

made up

being nothing at Vladikavkaz itself sufficiently inviting to encourage a longer stay than is absolutely necessary, the following choice of routes lays before He may post through Eastern Caucasus and embark at the stranger.
or take the Petrovsk for Astrakhan and the tedious voyage up the Volga route to en Moscow or travel rail to Novorossisk by railway to Rostof
; ;

on the

Black Sea,



Ekaterinodar, post thence to

embark Tanian and


following that line as cross the straits to Kertch.
and Bashan.



Travels in the Central Caucasus







in fact,

have, within the compass of a very few pages, to sketch the leading features of Asiatic Siberia, which, having an area of nearly five million English square miles, is almost three million square miles larger than It comprises, the whole of European Russia, including Poland and Finland.

one thirteenth part of the globe. On the other hand, the population, sparsely scattered over eight provinces, is scarcely that of London, for it amounts to little more than four millions, giving less than one inhabitant per

For thousands of mile, against forty-one in European Russia. miles Siberia has a northern seaboard on the Arctic Ocean, and an eastern







degrees Europe, and on the south its limits come into contact with the empire of China and with the dominions of Russia in Central Asia. A gloomy desert of frozen tundras, or mossy boglands, on the north,

of latitude.


Sea of Okhotsk that embraces nearly the west, the Ural Mountains separate


the rest of this vast country is in some parts green and fertile as the prairies and pampas of America, in others mountainous, with alpine lakes, glaciers, and snow-clad peaks. The principal rivers are the Ob, the Enisei, and the Lena, which, after being fed by numerous tributaries, discharge their mighty waters into the Arctic Ocean, on points of the seaboard practically inaccessible



shipping for the steady and reliable prosecution of trade. Railways will soon be constructed to bring the rich produce of the great Siberian rivers to a westerly harbour on the Polar Ocean, more free from ice than the fjords,

On the south, Siberia has a convenient waterbays, in the Kara Sea. way into the Gulf of Tartary, namely, the great Amur river, with its tributary, the Usuri, which


diplomatically acquired from China in 1859 and 1860. So far, Asiatic Siberia





that from Perm, on the European side of





Ekaterinburg and Tiumen, it will not be long before the Ural chain is





southerly point Great Siberian



which was opened as far as Ufa,




Omsk, Tomsk, Kras-

and Irkutsk. and the Russian coast on the Pacific are




railways or under


points of construc-






rality of our readers only as a land of penal or


from early impressions conveyed by



or the Exiles of Siberia, and

more recently from the reports of
to the Russian convict system, be said to be a land flowing with

who have devoted
in the



Siberia, except

extreme north,


milk and honey,' requiring only the energy of man and the resources of civilization to raise it to a condition of great affluence. The sparseness of its population is an obstacle which greater facilities of communication are rapidly removing.


strong tide of immigration has set


from Central and Southern Russia,

even towards the distant basins of the Amur and the Usuri, where the Russian peasant finds himself in contact, not with bears, but with tigers. The natives whom the Russians have displaced as masters of Siberia are no longer to be dreaded, and their numbers are dwindling rather than
Ethnographically, the aboriginal races are grouped as the Arctic, roaming on the frozen lands of the Arctic Circle, from the mouth of the Lena









with settlements also at the


Amur and

the island of Sakhalin



of Samoyedes and of Ostiaks, and other Finnish tribes,






north-western part of Siberia, principally between the Ural

Mountains and the Enisei, from the shores of the





Enisei, from which, however, they are cut off by strong Slav

sources of the



the districts


E nisei sk and Kras-

noyarsk; the Titrkish, which
supplies fishing and hunting Yakuts to a large tract of

country intersected by the Lena, and nomadic Khirghizes,

Nogais and Bashkirs,


west of the



represented by Buriats

Mongol, and

Kalmucks, who, starting as a narrow ethnological wedge from the Arctic shore east


tribes of the

extend southwards until they meet the Tunguz and Lamut MancJiu race, dominant from the head of the Sea of Okhotsk to the Russian outpost at Vladivostok, on the Gulf of Tartary. The origin of Russian dominion in this part of Asia is worth tracing. In the most remote times, the Slavs, and mainly the Novgorodians, had

'75 commercial intercourse with the tribes settled on Ural Mountains. of which site of the the principal mart was at Isker. but with the loss over half Cossacks crossed drowned in who the had Ural. the Koriaks. . and on a second expetraders dition. in 1581. and other aborigines. in suc- ceeded of capturing of the Isker. which had exploited long been of the Stroby agents which family. A Cossack robber band under Ermak followed in the footsteps of the and trappers. Early in the sixof teenth century the Muscovite Tsars. and capital present city of Tobolsk. eventually reduced them to . at portages. and Tiumen. and established their power at Sibir (the name which the Russians gave to Isker).' of the that to lands within of the ' the basin ' Ob. or Siberia. were forced to later abandon a conquest which was virtually effected Muscovite The Tsars thus became masters of the Transby troops. and traders from Novgorod the descended the tributary streams of the Ob river in search of furs. on the Irtysh.SIBERIA. The Buriats on the Angara. having annexed the wide dominions the Asiatic slopes of the Great are known to have Novgorod. Ural territory. Tobolsk. ganoff derived great riches from its Siberian trade. demoralized also by the danger of their position in the face of inimical native tribes. Kanda. style to began Lords themselves ' of the territories of the ( )1> and is the say. was known to ancient Arab merchants and missionaries. a little above the a Tartar of the was Isker kingdom. long but the construction of fortified Cossack posts at the confluence of resisted rivers. A SIBERIAN MERCHANT IN WINTER TRAVELLING DRESS. and in mountain passes. after Ermak was soon and the the Irtysh. Cossacks.

Isker. as in the law having thus been the remainder was we have already said. and condemned. which was formally banished in 1591 to Pelym. and nine points dealt with. like a human criminal. victims of Court intrigue. political. of which the population was later increased by Dissenters from the Russo-Greek Church. a century and a half previously. Some of their descendants are 1 banks of the Lena. by first only from the sevenboth criminal and political. by successive established a semi-Asiatic form hands of those on ineffaceable injury race. and ultimately. contuof the Ukraine. for the offence of ringing out an alarm while the emissaries of Prince the usurper. on Chinese territory. The sovereigns who more immediately succeeded Peter I. But a desire to entire possess an outlet ' in the in Pacific for the huge continent of Siberia led the establish. In 1689. Boris Godunof. were exiled in batches to Siberia. factories at spite of that treaty. the militarily occupied. the Tsar was compelled to order the evacuation of the settlements formed by Cossacks on the Amur. having been swept away by a flood. in the Gulf of Tartary. Many of them. to lose its tongue and ears. arrested her in a development invasions. are now in the Mongols and Tartars inflicted such well-nigh suffering. under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The plains of Mongolia. the hordes that devastated common to the rest of Europe. of teenth whom we exiles. to at 1851. Strange to say. . from which Russian dominion was consolidated and extended. or ears. Tobolsk became the central seat of government. in Russians and Siberia. nose. or Sibir. on the sufferer in this respect was the tocsin Volga. by skilful diplomacy and the Chinese Government made a formal cession.176 RUSSIAN PICTURES. numerically The Russian but later trappers. branded or maimed in tongue. began to supply Siberia with a new class of exiles noblemen and ex-favourites. from which had issued. were succeeded. Amur was gained. and Cossacks. in Russian Government. submission. and portage connecting that river with De Castries During the Crimean War the left bank of the two extremities of the Bay. Poles. Dimitri. preponderate century. distant confines of his empire. in the thirteenth century. Towards macious Little Russians Streltsi whom the most Peter the Great had spared. . perished settled in villages along the 1 Russian revised Edition ol Rechis. 'trading the mouth of the Amur. whom and the of government at Moscow. have spoken. of the territory through which the Celestial empire is now dangerously vulnerable. Russia. in isolated forts. were Ivan the Terrible. near Tobolsk. in 1860. son of exiled to doing to death the young Among of the earliest in State criminals Siberia were the citizens the town which that the end of the seventeenth century. or perpetrators of fraud and crime against the State. just annexed to Muscovy. the first bell of the town of Uglitch. to which we are indebted for much information in a concise form. and sent to guard. and by the small remnant of the tragedy took place. representing the Slav traders.

Kennan's articles in The Century. it was. has in three shirt. to make or five thousand on foot. other parts of Siberia. . them two years to reach places of banishment in the Trans Baikal as well in as province. p. who had served under the in In the reign of Alexander banners of Napoleon. kaftan? and some kind of sheepskin entirely. and the tender mercies of the beyond left to Tunguzes and reported to prefer the chase of an escaped convict to that of a wild goat. when it more especially to 1 ' the crowding of political offenders and criminals. Siberia. 177 miserably in the forests . were last I. and the considerable contingent of Polish exiles suppression of the insurrection 1500 as settlers certain circumscribed dis- Like the ordinary criminals of every grade who have been poured into Siberia for the last century exiles and had. Catherine II.' that the cuckoo 2 The Howard Association has recently proclaims the advent of spring. and where. drawn attention to the dreadful sufferings still endured by exiles in Siberia. even if pardoned. 685. ' See Dr. about 900 Poles. or chained in It took gangs to long iron poles. while his the leanest his coat. the four political until recent journeys miles of days. which has Buriats. Nevertheless many is. the messenger of glad tidings was generally unable to find them.SIBERIA. still escape obedience to the call of ' General Kokushka. with the coat The long worn by peasants.' SIBERIAN CONVICT. xxxvi and xxxvii. tied. to sent join their countrymen performed the same dreary journey after the of 1863. in days happily gone by. ' who are only one fugitive skin. Russian edition of Reclus. and on both cheeks but at present runaways are simply placed the pale of the law. Of these. deported to the same wilds large bodies of Poles. the custom to guard against the escape of convicts trils. and about within tricts. where. with by tearing out their nosUntil 1864 they were branded a hot iron on the forehead .ind tundras of Siberia. 972 were sent as convicts. vols. where no friendly hand could help them. a half.

. the from the eyes of philanthropic governors. do much both to sustain and to raise . here salutary terror to prospective criminals. after they have once reached the places of their banishment.' which save him from the full the habitual rigour of the law. present punishment by exile might be made more impressive and more effectively of activity in centres remote deterrent of crime.. and to numerous other happy. owing to the continuous cordially received influx of educated exiles. to give him extenuating circumstances. thanks ' proneness.' No can accuse a of .' and the punishment for the most atrocious murder or series of murders does not by jury. at In some respects. Tomsk and the university recently and Russian no doubt. has not done more harm than good to the moral condition of the people. in filthy prisons. however. the penalty of death is now inflicted only in cases of political and other crimes requiring special measures of repression. Polish established at that level. plunderers felons. Russia but. As regards the generality of political exiles. Corporal punishment having been abolished in 1863. to whose steppes he banished gentleman Without pretending to . than that of the population of European Russia. Russia. and it has trial great amount of crime thus escapes punishment in become a serious question to Russian statesmen whether A suddenly introduced in 1865. a Russian Howard would undoubtedly find field watching over and improving the system in its details. who lead Siberia is a pleasant land to convicted other public institutions. doom of labour in the mines of Nerchinsk should have a considerable amount of may. of banks and a to free. is now a very hard one. of the inmates are conlargest of which ' stantly officials ill . They are by the local inhabitants. will. honest and more than ten per critic cent. bring forward a typical case of comparative that a Polish felicity in exile. innocent wives and children of the former. even. die. it cannot in truth be said that their lot in Siberia. and to their a unable to acquit prisoner clearly culpable. we may interest our readers by mentioning in 1863 met. island of Sakhalien. and perhaps luxurious life at Tomsk or lenity Tobolsk. of intentional deportation mitigate the although of present government or the superior cruelty or negligence in the matter of very great deal has already been done to the felons still sufferings condemned and banished a large revolutionists. except in its polar region.' in one of the more than twenty-five per cent. ' In this respect it appears necessary that a exceed twenty years' hard labour. and are able to find occupation and recreation of one The intellectual level of the Siberians is markedly higher kind or another. in ocean steamers which embark their miserable and dangerous freight at Odessa. criminals to the that the worst are now observe deported We on the Gulf of Tartary. themselves to a great extent the descendants of exiles. among the Bashkirs. when the benefit of of Russian juries.i 78 RUSSIAN PICTURES.

army Recalled after a couple of years. and at Aziatskaya station begins our descent into Asia. 179 was relegated. visit some of the principal Until the great country on the River Nijni the Ural. we we have been sketching via Perm. down the eastern side of the Ural Mountains. started by a Stroganoff in the sixteenth century. a voyage of four days from Novgorod by steamer. and with whom he followed in the sport deserter from the British language. who the of hawking. It is an important centre of we Here metallurgic industry. an Irish taught him the English exile liberated settled at . Although within across railway to Ufa is have to reach the the confines of Europe. resuming work in his original profession of an advocate and the knowledge he had acquired from his Irish friend enabled him to undertake English business. the Crimea. take rail to Ekaterinburg. of which there eleven. Kama. The great specimens of the many iron works of Neviansk are some thirty stocked with N 2 . the aspect of a Siberian city is given to Perm by A SIBERIAN GOLD MINK. Petersburg. St. We Siberian carried must now towns. and to retire after a very few years with a considerable fortune. At their foot lies much are Nijni Taghil. its low wooden houses. Not far from the principal works. in proximity with the famous Demidoff copper mines. from which malachite is raised. irregularly disposed.SIBERIA. we find a minerals found in museum well Siberia.


the capital province of the same name. In eight days more. Close to it is a belfry in which hangs fortress of front. Although the Ostiaks in these regions still live in tents. jasper. The upper town Tobolsk occupy a commanding position on a hill with a and from which we gain an extensive view of the Irtysh. bristling with domes and spires. on the Tura River. and a number of other stones more or less rare and precious. 1884. by descending first the and then ascending the Ob in a steamer. lapis lazuli. a town founded in 1586 on the site of an ancient Tartar city. and the British and Foreign Bible Society have consequently selected it as the most suitable place for a thorough and systematic dissemination of the it has water is communication with the it Word of a of God among Steamers run the political prisoners. like that of many an exile. and is a handsome districts. jacinths. precipitous not far from the city by the Tobol.SIBERIA. topaz. beryl. in large numbers.000). there is a mine of gold quartz at Berezof which most travellers are induced to inspect. There is also a laboratory in which the gold raised in Siberia is smelted into ingots. Ekaterinburg. In addition to iron and copper works. it must suffice to take note of the fact of their existence. and bears in the forests that have not yet disappeared under the great demand for wood fuel used in possesses The Crown a factory in local gems and stones. and at our feet spreads out the joined lower town.extensive mining mines. such smelting ore. Irtysh. was yielded by Siberia. we find ourselves at Tomsk. and to several gold washings in the neighbourhood of the city. Our railv/ay journey ends. but as they are more than a hundred miles away. was founded 1723. from Tiumen in a day and a half to Tobolsk. through its great affluent the also the goal of caravans from China and other parts of the Irtysh. after a somewhat monotonous voyage between low and flat banks inhabited by Ostiaks and other aborigines. and in their immediate in neighbourhood In are the first gold washings to which we come Siberia. the oldest and most populated in Siberia. of and . of elk. distant East. already referred to. named by Peter the Great after Catherine in of gold production in the tons I. Of the twenty churches that stand out from among the modest wooden houses of Tobolsk. city. aqua marine. and the the exiled bell of Uglitch.600. 181 miles beyond. This is the most important commercial centre in Western Siberia. opals. the Cathedral of St. . wolves. and seven times as large as Great Britain and Ireland.' and in a:s great importance as the centre of rich the seat of the State 'administration of the it which are cut and polished garnets. We are told of the emerald mines that belong to the State. or more than a quarter of the total gold world (estimated at about 144 tons). for while Ob. Exiles are distributed from this point over Eastern Siberia.. alexandrite (crimson by day and green by night). at Tiumen. thirty-two (^4. as we also do of the presence. Sophia is the most handsome.

Its prosperity and revive now that it has become the seat of a university for . retained their Enisei. via Irkutsk. and is it can also look forward to the benefits it of the in it great railway which destined sooner or later to pass through Pacific coast. the direction. they are more or less Russianized. Tomsk remained a centre ancient dress.-A TOBOLSK.182 RUSSIAN PICTURES. both of to reach China and the At present Irkutsk with province) as well made and kept post horses. of subjugation and annexation until the towns of Eniseisk and Krasnoyarsk were founded importance for the will same purpose on the Enisei River. along roads (in the as any in England. Siberia. and have not. takes a fortnight neighbouring Enisei . like their congeners on the Built in 1604.



and presents magnificent views of After passing a foot of their slopes with pines. The road winds along the wooded part of the Angara hills crowned and covered to the valley. and the transit trade in tea. lies on the It has far off in Lake Baikal. and candle works are being continued industry and trade. the seat of the administration picturesque Angara River. is one of It is 1364 feet above the ocean. from Kiakhta which it on a scale. more rugged part of the valley.000. Rapid recovery is. At Verkhneudinsk. 400 miles long by 20 to 50 in breadth. soap. great mass steep decline and forming rapids nearly of rock. by a steamer the depth close Fine fish in great variety abound in its in shore is a thousand fathoms. Travellers bound to Kiakhta can reach it from Irkutsk in four days by post and steamer.SIBERIA. being made under the impetus of Its leather.000 English square miles. rises picturesquely in the middle of the A rushing waters. which mountains is surrounded and occasionally attain a height of 7000 by is crossed At the station from which it feet. Holy Sea. the Angara will be found rolling down a four miles in length. 185 Irkutsk. which rises not a population of 36. also tenanted waters. and other trees. &c. the largest fresh water lakes in the world. also This sheet of water.. held sacred by the followers of Shamanism. on the opposite side. and occupying an area of 14. which are by the ocean seal. and before a great of Eastern Siberia. and never passed by them without an act of devotion. in large after the establishment enjoys is likely to attain a considerable development of railway communication. cedars. is the junction of the roads . called the A beautiful view is soon obtained of Lake Baikal. THE BURNING OF IRKUTSK IN 1879. however. fire 1879 was the finest town in Siberia.

at the end of a heavy and sandy road that runs along a parched and undulating tract of land covered here and there with a little grass. . and in an enclosed cemetery we find the graves of Mrs. Yule. of the labours of the devoted themselves English missionaries who. bank of the Selenga are still extant some of the outbuildings of the house in which they lived. beyond. II.1 86 RUSSIAN PICTURES. lead that and at severally to Pekin and to Vladivostok on the Pacific a small and miles we modern 110 reach the scene town. YAKS IN WINTER COSTUME ON THE LOWER AMI'K. is left . Mrs. Selenginsk. Stallybrass. to the conversion of the Mongolian Buriats. and three of their children. On the (. Sixty miles further on. between 1817 and 1840.

the growth of the northern provinces of China. since its free in population. where a better exclusively quality is produced than in the south. and thereby becomes As a matter of fact. bidding fair to render The Russian is already in the richly-stuclcled Crown of All the Russias. south.' women Notwithstanding the competition of sea- borne tea. A and so is still richly miserable-looking place. where In its we have a so-called carts square to alight in a dirty inn infested with vermin. separates entered through a gate the in Russian the The latter empires. of the is ' ' exile. . From want of space we cannot return to Verkhneudinsk. we stop to gaze at the corn and hay market Mongolian wheels. the advantage of cheaper carriage by sea.SIBERIA. which can no longer be considered as the land of made of Siberia. which enjoys. seen to greater advantage in it than on his native dreary plains. Neutral ground. 1728. ' great wall of Kalgan). where. the leaf brought to Kiakhta is long been exploded. for there has been a great mingling of blood in this new country. 187 Troitskosavsk. even Russian It was founded as a fort about officials are not allowed to sleep. already for the the icy north. making rapid strides numbers and Sibir one of the most valuable jewels prosperity. and mounted on wooden discs instead of walk along a macadamized road brings us to the Russian frontier town of Kiakhta. on the other hand. in from becoming rooted to the being rigidly excluded (from beyond the order to prevent the subjects of His Chinese Majesty soil. under existing arrangements with China. resulting in a spirit of freedom and a broadness of view. and which forms the bulk of the tea consumed in European Russia. 220 is yards wide. and Chinese by three thousand male Celestials. notwithstanding that its cathedral is Buriat endowed with gold and jewelled church properties. has strength by sea. drawn by oxen. a A Lamasery is among the principal sights of this place. a town inhabited palisade of Maimachen. gravitation of its development is towards the genial long road to the Pacific by in itself. and an incessant interchange of thought of a high intellectual order. imported via Odessa and St. The theory that tea carried overland is superior to that which aroma. and follow the travels deteriorated in or way of the grand country of the Amur a vast and one also of high importance to Russia from a strategical kingdom Our readers must be content with the sketch we have point of view. in strong contrast with the comparatively low level of general culture in the European parts of Russia Proper. Petersburg. nor as mingling with in exclusively the land the honest banished. a great trade still exists in that article.

and merging on the north into the Russian advances focus in in the direction of India. : of the earth's surface into the Transcaspian region. The time has arrived when we should set aside the vague geographical designation of Central Asia. indicating the territories beyond the Caspian. includof ing the Aral Sea. within which are comprised the lands great division east at the Tianshan and the. the Khirghiz steppe country. MOSCOW. CHAPTER X. and historically three distinctive and politically important. the days of the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny the question of Central Asia. beginning at the southern limits of Siberia. between the Oxus Jaxartes. To our immediate forefathers the greater part of the country thus consolidation bounded was known as of Russian dominion in Independent Tartary. OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY IN THE PUBLIC RUMIANTSOFF MUSEUM. within its steppes of Siberia. a terra then almost incognita. has been more and more prominently brought to the notice of the British public in connection with SINCE and the country is now so well that none of our readers and physical political aspects will expect or require to derive any additional light from our sketchy pages. and bounded on the south by the governor-generalship the stretching from Turkestan. but Central Asia has converted portion the this final large. abutting on the east on the empire of China. CENTRAL ASIA. bounded on the south by the dominions of Persia and Afghanistan. terminating on the the third : .FROM A MS. provinces south-eastern shores of the Caspian to Merv and the Afghan frontier.



combined area of these three satrapies is over a million and a half English square miles. 1 1 For this digest. centuries. and Bokhara. at the foot of the great tablelands of Thibet and Chinese Tartary. Samarkand. we are to a great extent indebted to Mr. laid waste Maracanda (Samarkand). 191 Mountains and the Pamir. ruled afterwards Parthians. the fire overwhelmed the Bactrian empire. the limits of Turkestan are marked by the Hindu Kush. Our first glimpse into the interior of the Great. separating Northern Persia from the Turcoman deserts and oases. Geddie's excellent work on The Russian Empire. They were succeeded by Arabs of the Khalifate. region is afforded by the famous the year 329 B. early in the eighth century.C. the Scythians in turn by the Persians. he passed Persians across the Oxus. J. crossed in . on inflated skins or trusses of hay Kush. this expedition the Hindu of Alexander when hunted the fugitive then. proselytized with and sword. On the south. and planted the roots of Mahometanism so deeply that to this day the most orthodox champions of Islam are to be found in the mosques of Khiva.CENTRAL ASIA. who. which gradually merges into the Kopet Dagh range of mounThe tains. which survived for to the Bactrian several Jaxartes. as the natives do even now. and for much other information tersely conveyed. while their total population is little more than five millions. advanced kingdom. and Chinese. and founded the On their way to the Indus. .

of the successors of Timur in Bokhara and in Kokan. Mogul empires. wars. but the Mongol hordes of Chinghiz Khan. . established to the onset of the Uzbegs. from which they entered upon a deadly struggle with the nomads who held the steppes The Shahs who ruled over Kharesm (Khiva) established themor deserts.RUSSIAN PICTURES. and Kokan. latter the terror of the world. and was assassinated Turcoman deserts in humanity' who overthrew the Persian and reared the height of his fame. pally by races of Iranian origin. peopled princiof Turkestan. as the ruling power in the country. and chased the remnants of his Long and cruel army through the Afghan passes and across the Indus. Seljuk The of their power Khorassan. Khiva. massacred and slew. The subsequent national history of Turkestan is largely made up Another flood of invasion from the northern Mogul. his the half of the fourteenth century. and fleeing ultimately through Afghanistan of the Great the and founded 'Empire India. had no title to the name as the seat selected and Turks burst in from the the until north-east. then. overthrew the rule and now again. the subjects of laid waste Bokhara and Samarkand. or the lame). selves at Samarkand known took the as and Shah. issue in by Tamerlane (Timur-Leng. countries traversed by the Oxus and the Jaxartes. waged between the direct descendants of Chinghiz and their neighbours and kinsmen the chiefs of the Golden Horde were brought to an they defeated whom KOKAN. in 1747. who made Samarkand steppes capital. but he Ferghana. the but of great 'scourges in was Nadir Shah. which thus became Turkestan. behind the mountain screen of Persia. the ruler of famous Baber. to withstand unable was himself at Samarkand. in 1219.' of struggles for ascendency the last between the the Khanates of of Bokhara. conquered Delhi (1525). the Twice called the province of Ferghana.

. a large caravan. in 1722. With an a military line of frontier to the west of Tsaritsyn. the sea the approaches to those countries being then jealously guarded by the Spaniards and Portuguese. and two missions to Bokhara. after defeating the Turcomans who opposed his passage. In 1695. we find Paul Centurione. and the Italians were occupied idea of reaching India and China by an overland route. Persia. and Siberia. also with the character of a mission. Bokhara. Portuguese. and took This enabled him to advance provinces in which those towns were situated. and foreigners Muscovy long finally ' countries of the Far East (the 1480. on the roads to India. his frontier to the Terek. from and the other maritime nations brought home which the Dutch. 193 The gravitation of Muscovy towards the Russian Drang Nach Osten) began after thrown off. on which he planted a thousand families of Don forty thousand attacked prosecution of his plans required the conquest of the Caucasus. to When in Persia. whose silks had come into The mission of 1675 was instructed to report on the Oxus. with the of the Terek. Balkh. and several unsuccessful attempts were made. In 1694. as the most convenient route to Bokhara. the Chinese Wall. Peter I. During the reign of Alexis. two adventurous Russians from Astrakhan reached Balkh and Cabul. was despatched gave the first strong impulse to It was his master-mind that first pointed out to his countrymen. Ivan III.' by which Turkey. a annexed the Tartar with the Khanates of Central Asia. with the English. into the possibility of trading to India by way of the Caspian and Oxus. heard the Great had much of the Peter land of India. the Terrible. gold. and India. Muscovy sent her first Pekin.. to the court of Ivan IV. at the mouth Baku and Derbent. Russian trade and travel Central Asia. a scheme which though begun in his day was not completed until 1864. a Genoese. established the road now traversed by a military railway. the powerful and ambitious prince who then to the foundations of the Russian empire. A similar object brought Marco Venetian. treasure in . which he crossed flying the flag of St. those acquired by conquests brought Muscovy into commercial communication Foscarini. and to establish commercial relations with the Central embassy to Asiatics. had been was broken surrounded. on the Volga. in 1537. the Dutch. who had The geographical position kingdoms of Kazan. So inquiring at Moscow the early as 1520. abundance and in he. he appeared suddenly. entered into relations began lay with the neighbouring states of Western Europe and with the Sultan of In the reign of Ivan IV. George. Cossacks. In 1558 Anthony Jenkinson equipped a small war vessel on the Caspian. Meanwhile. The o . therefore. when the Tartar yoke was began to visit it.. down. Khiva. Between 1669 and 1672. Astrakhan. army of men. and all further fear of a barbaric invasion of the rest of Europe was removed. Holland. great request.CENTRAL ASIA. and brought back the first direct intelligence of the wealth of India. He reached Bokhara with his merchandise.

without agents approaches to them. diplomatic. the Russians began to descend systematically in the year 1845. which is in reality only a lagoon two the year on the 1 Transkaspien und seine Eisenbalm nach Aden des Erbauers. M. and forts established at the ' ' ' ' the Or and the Ural and at Orenburg. and these found it necessary to carry out his behests slowly and deliberately. submitted to Peter the Great. supplicated his aid against the robber Turcomans. from disease and exhaustion. A military expedition sent by Peter for the purpose of establishing the ascendency of Russia terminated in a disaster that confluence of the ' when ' ' : . by the possession of Siberia Caucasus in the centre. encouraged the Central Asiatics to believe in their impregnability. and agreed to admit Russian traders to Khiva. and returned to Orenburg with the loss of one third of the troops . and expeditions. by careful study of the Khanates and the Not a year passed. established on the Sea of Aral.194 RUSSIAN PICTURES. liberated a great number of Russians whom they had kidnapped and held in bondage as slaves. . of vengeance to his successors. in 1718. . . By Dr. had. O. Kirghiz country between Siberia and the present possessions of Russia in Central Asia were brought within the sphere of Russian administration. under General Perofski. and had also. or perished miserably in Peter the Great left a legacy the desert between the Aral and the Caspian. Gen. scientific. from 1718 to 1850. 1888. Although thus confronted by an irresistible Khanates long and ignorantly disdained the power of Russia force. against Khiva but it was unable to overcome the hardships of crossing the steppes in winter. the original base of operations against Central Asia. in 1714. Great Horde all the tribes who held the submitted. Frightened at last by the evident intention of the Russians to renew their attempt to reach Khiva. the Khivans entered into negotiations for peace. . Russia against their enemies the Kalmucks. Prince Bekovitch Cherkaski and his army were massacred. sorely pressed by the Bokharians. A solid basis was now acquired for further progress in Asia in the in the south. or military. Parallel with these operations in the Caucasus was an advance made The Kirghiz Kaisaks obtained the protection of eastwards from Siberia. the first Kokandian stronghold A flotilla also was Jaxartes. by fortified places in the province of Orenburg and in the Ural Mountains. and by 1853 Ak-meched (Fort Perofski). A large force was sent in 1839. and in 1732 the middle Kirghiz horde recognised the sovereignty of Russia. Small war next built on the Sea of vessels were Aral. Annenkof. being despatched by Russia. after the interchange of some missions since 1629. Heyfelder Hanover. Lieut. By the year 1827. From Siberia. Three years later another fort was planted on the Irghiz River. by dominion over the north. the 1 but in 700 and 1 703 the Khivans. was taken after a severe combat. when the fort of Uralsk (Irghiz) was established in the Kirghiz steppe.

to Persia. by forty-five miles in breadth. which still holds the port of Resht. .' now O 2 . and Shahrisiabs in 1870. Except where at long intervals a Russian fort has been built. and Kokan The Kokandians lost their fortress of Chemkend length stan later. anciently defended by a wall against the inroads of nomads. and Tashkent became. these dismal shores only by wandering bands of Kirghizes and Turcomans. the bays and inlets on the But their dimensions are necessarily small eastern side being mostly shallow.CENTRAL hundred and 1858 all ASIA. 195 sixty-five miles in the Kirghizes between and operations in became comparatively easy. On the west coast the white walls of a few old cities. it the city of river whom in the Middle Ages called the ' Gog and Magog. the capital of a Russian 'TurkeGeneral consolidated the conquests made in 1864 province. such as Derbent and Baku (the emporium of petroleum). and the sea itself a Russian lake. Even it. Its southern shores are visited belong and eastward of Arabian writers Astrabad. Bokhara. Samarkand was taken in 1868. overhang the blue waters. It Persian trading companies have no right to now bears on its frequently boisterous waters sail merchant vessels on (ninety-eight feet below TURCOMAN WOMEN. At about the same time the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Persian frontier at the Atrek became Russian. and fringed with barren sand dunes and salt marshes.' Cherniayeff and 1865 by beating the Bokharians at Idjar. in 1864. a year Russia. near which disembogues the Gurghen. the level of the Euxine) a multitude of Russian steamers and sailing craft. In Orenburg and the Jaxartes submitted to the directions of Khiva.

such as shifting sands. almost tropical heat. with their sides clothed with forests. All the materials. the first of Russians in the Tekke forts seized the but permanently 1877. the journey will be easily performed within a week. when Krasnovodsk was taken and fortified. over 1500 miles long. We have no space for a description of the enormous difficulties that were surmounted by the active and zealous general. Petersburg. Transcaspian Railway greatest feats of modern and reflects on its constructor. of Ghilan and Mazanderan are the lofty ranges of the Elbruz. St. Tekke-Turkomans and Persians flocked to the earth-works until close upon eighteen thousand of them obtained employment. from sleepers to rails and rolling-stock. was occupied is mills near the the same 1888 says that decidedly the best built Sea of Azof. Samarkand. and completed in 1888 at Samarkand. at the ' This ' is ' stop for refreshment at a European station in buffet. the train brings us across the Ust-urt Desert to Kizyl Arvat. fortress which Scobelef captured from the we are Tekkes it in in proximity to the iSSi with great in Askhabad. the importation of labourers from Smolensk and Kief in aid of two Transcaspian Railway Battalions. imperishable credit Annenkof. These necessitated the planting of shrubs on embankments. the boring of artesian wells and the establishment of other waterworks. Built in 1 880-81. unpopulated wastes. the eastern coast of the Caspian began to be utilized as a basis of operations against the marauding Tekkes and the Khivans. for the route established by rail from Uzun-Ada. the present starting-point on the eastern shore of the Caspian. year 1868. to the ancient capital of Tamerlane (about nine hundred miles) can be reached in nine and a half days from St. The greater part of the rails were manufactured and supplied by English . has now been almost entirely abandoned. London. want of water. Petersburg.196 RUSSIAN PICTURES. General engineering. and Bokhara. Travelling at the rate of twenty-five to thirty-five miles an hour. At Geok-Tepe. when it became one of the bases of operations which resulted in the total discomfiture of the Turcomans.' and the introduction of petroleum refuse from Baku for purposes of fuel and light. the next slaughter. and their highest summits crowned with eternal snow. by occupied only in 1880. where those who have obtained permission to travel on this military line railway from his fortified position at Mihailofsk. Some reverses and the necessity of them General Scobelef to recommend the construction of a impelled avenging the From head of Krasnovodsk of one the Bay.' Shy at first. At the back of the rich slopes represented in effigy at the Guildhall. were Russian. and the absence of wood or other fuel. The Times correspondent year. and the extension of Russian dominion to Sarakhs and Merv. including a passage of three days across the Caspian from As soon as Baku obtains direct railway communication with Astrakhan. its extension from the original terminus at Kizyl Arvat was commenced in 1885. The old caravan route from Orenburg to Tashkent. 1 but one.

'97 There are some very good streets. the Great. The Queen ' once a vast and glorious city. such the Saryks.000. energetic oasis River. profusion of wild grapes.. Afghans and Kurds. ruins remain by city. Scobie. and Pearl of the World.000 souls. as well as from their neighbours from the Bokharians and the . According to the Merv of Tekkes warlike and the recent the most statistics. crumbling on the left bank of the Murghab. A monument perpetuates and a fine public garden. and surrounded by a brick wall. etc. Salors. The oasis of Merv. but differ in their characteristics the Persians. name which Before reaching the station of Tedjen. intersected by the Murghab the Russians built new the the old of town. a future station on the way to Herat. the line crosses the river of that flows past Sarakhs. lull of shops. Khorassan has for some time been on our soon reach a point which is scarcely more than eighty miles right. as their name number about 105. of Turkish race. a the railway. The semi-nomadic and once predatory Turcomans are. whose ancestor in Russia was Mr. implies. the sacred city of the Shiite Persians frontier of The their saint Mahmud Riza. a Scotch schoolmaster. has an area of only 2400 square miles. consists of several parallel streets and neat-looking houses of brick. and we the burial-place of distant from Meshed. the memory of Scobelef.CENTRAL place on all ASIA. rendered fertile by irrigation. the total Turcoman population is at least 700. supposed to have been built by Alexander A TEKKE VILLAGE. While as Taken together with other tribes.' Eighty miles beyond we are at Merv.

finest metal. and Mongols. and not unfrequently in a jacket Gold and silver In cold weather a khalat is worn. the Amu-Daria. latter are The clever in and a wadded khdlat or robe. only two hundred miles from Herat. beautifully embroidered. Merv is which. has horses. like the Jaxartes. Persia. they are capable of supplying the best irregular cavalry in the world.198 RUSSIAN PICTURES. From early youth the Turcoman is accustomed to long journeys on horseback over the desert. they have so far left agriculture to their slaves thirst. hunger. distinction of being thus adorned. ornaments are in common use horses alone sharing with the women the . The great Karakoum Here we reach desert is left on the borders of Bokhara at Chardjui. generally of the TEKKES. and to endure fatigue. knitting. hats to preserve their heads from the sun in summer and the cold in winter. although there been a considerable intermingling of blood amongst them all. and Herat about three hundred and fifty miles from our outpost at Candahar. attired in Turkey-red trousers and a shirt. Devoting themselves to the chase and to robber raids. the Oxus of the Greeks and the Jihun of the Arabs. and produce carpets of such high quality in taste and texture that they are largely The men wear high sheep-skin exported to Russia. They a fired from stand are also provided with other weapons. and France. from the matchlock Their women are to the modern breech-loading rifle. and weaving. falls into the Sea of Aral after a course of fifteen . from which hangs a sword. Considering also the excellence of their and women. spinning.

or colleges. ' the head of Islam. out .CENTRAL ASIA. and . or Its dome is one hundred feet in height. the Times correspondent described the in which he saw twenty-five half-naked. . At one side of the artificial hill that supports the citadel. in front of the palace. one of great commercial importance. the steam mill. Writing in 1888. The unsanitary condition of Bokhara is well worthy of the attention of Russian administrators. which is from the quantity of native products floated down the river for land carriage at this point. again. Close by is the from its summit. with adjoins railway station. but practically neither can have any other will than that of Russia. two Englishmen. The and blue carried Sentences of death were formerly arranged in curious designs. 199 A Russian town. is principal mosque. with a ceiling that nearly touched the heads of the visitors. At Sary-Bulak. were executed in 1842. more than a thouplanted on a conical elevation within the Ark. Bokhara is nominally independent. hundred miles. is that of Baliand. than twenty feet long by ten feet broad. Whatever may be the political and commercial aspects of the question. built by Tamerlane.' Its history is it associated with B. . The Khan's palace. in the new province of Turkestan and four stations beyond this we arrive at Samar. Happily.' as : Mecca ' is its heart. Constantinople. Like the Khanate of Khiva. namely. stand out from among low-lying. the condemned by hurling ancient of Mir and another Arab. faced with glazed white gardens. under Russian pressure. it still contains some interesting buildings. the lower dungeons have been filled up and closed for ever and it is to be hoped that ere long the Khan will be compelled to raze these barbarous dungeons to the ground. Below this well. Nearly four hundred mosques and over one hundred medresseh. to be devoured by insects and vermin. is in the Reghistan. a Turkish bath at a of with mud on side like the dome one top building tiles. Sur- rounded by a wall of sun-baked mud. also mosque built by Tamerlane. as not more room. and theatre. who conquered 325. and pierced by eleven gates. kand.C. and approached by tortuous alleys and dirty thoroughfares. was a still deeper one the hole into which our countrymen were let down. a church. In a well. mud-built dwelling-houses ensconced in sand years old. dirty prisoners. we are again on territory not ostensibly but de facto annexed by Russia. he saw twenty more men huddled together with hardly room to move. with fine columns mosque. and square. approached by a small door in the right-hand wall of this chamber. one hundred and eighty-five miles from Bokhara. or citadel. two great names Alexander of Macedon. attached to it is a minaret two hundred feet high. humanity has undeniably gained much from the establishment of Russian but it is to be hoped that the Tsar's mission of authority in the Khanates civilization will be carried out no less fully and rigorously than the establishment of his military power. The town of Bokhara is sixty miles further to the north-east. stands the prison in which It is a low Stoddart and Conolly.

the belief in mosques surrounding the whose re-appearance at a SAMARKAND. The most interesting ruin Amir. and It was under his care that Samarkand became the centre of the colleges. mosques. Tamerlane the Great. or Tomb of Timur. Living King. date 1868 which has passed is signified . who lavishly expended the pillage of the rich countries to the south and west in rearing and beautifying its palaces. The buildings are much out of repair with blue and white porcelain tiles.200 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Its chief architectural glory is the immense mosque of Shah-Zindeh. the arabesques. faced forming mosaic patterns and tints. but it has suffered sadly from being a type of is that of Gur the destroyer's . and power of the Eastern world. resting-place of a martyred is in fact a collection of prophet. learning The city preserves some remains of its ancient magnificence. now outside its This attenuated precincts. make it worthy of the palmy era of Samarkand. carved wooden pillars that support them.' but the lofty portals and domes. the and the finely by the title of ' marble and tiled staircases. the interior walls overlaid with arches and ceilings covered with pendent alabaster work.

the officiating Imam on that occasion making an address descriptive of the benefits conferred by the Russian Government. stretches out on the north can hire a real Muscovite drojki. and stating that never had the native population of Turkestan enjoyed so tranquil and prosperous an existence as now.' Uzbegs of the Turanian tribes that were wont to descend upon ' the lands watered by the Jaxartes and the Oxus since the days of Chinghiz Khan. now prettily laid-out garden that adjoins the residence. opened great ceremony in the presence of the GovernorGeneral. severely large citadel now half ruined. remember a young officer of the Imperial Guards being asked: 'Are also To which the significant reply was. when the and irrigation works. Nor have new Mahometan Governor-General. consists of Iranian who Tajiks (Sarts). flowers. population suffered of the hands A at the Cossacks. should I ? I . about two hundred miles distant from Samarkand. a with side of a boulevard and citadel. numbering about 30. Jews. the administrative centre of A the Province of Turkestan. and only a question of time. over four hundred years old. is prettily situated on a branch of the Chirchik River. Hindoos. and its quaint and bizarre native quarter is separated by a ravine from the new Russian town. and gipsies. the Russians omitted to satisfy the religious requirements of Among the of them. This was restored by the Russian Government in and with 1888. captured by Cherniayef in 1865. There are two large squares bright and an with orthodox church in the centre of each. and in great part composed subjects.000. of the college or home of the astronomers attached by that ruler to his capital. lies eighty miles to the north of the capital of Turkestan. in which the finest building is the residence of the with turf and their numerous mosques of Tashkend. We however. centre of the bazaar we see the ruins of the Ulug Beg Observatory the first erected in Asia. The bazaars are also full of Persians. an excellent visitor pavement.' Chimkent. ' ' have no debts. and even the great block of greenish-black stone which marks the On a hill in the cenotaph of the conqueror has been broken in twain. occupied Sogdiania before it became the land of the and of Turks. almost the only one of any antiquity is that of Khoja Akhrar. still surmounted by a high minaret. the pride of the somewhat rivalled by the city is its park of a thousand apricot trees. the Green Town. Why you going to Tashkent ? all With these attractions. Within its walls are the crumbling remains. avail himself of the benefits of in the Here the will get cup of fragrant civilization. occupying an area as wide as that of Paris. The well laid-out Russian town. which. and is equally buried in verdure and intersected by streams It was taken in 1864.CENTRAL hand. prolongation of the line to Tashkent. ASIA. Tashkent has long been considered a place of exile or temporary retirement by the Russians who repaired to it. tea. and otherwise be interested European He the native population. is The city. Surrounded by gardens.

rises in we approach the Celestial several streams in So much of its Mountains. like the Oxus. 5 ? it. it gave in the days of Tamerlane. -. is high veneration. THE GRAND MINARET. its name to a province .- . the old post road that we travel hence to Orenburg starting-point for Central Asia. Ji. above towers place. and testifies to the ancient strategical importance of the At Turkestan. for and waters are deflected that its middle lower courses upper irrigation are sluggish and shallow. j v . All we have space to say of the ancient town of Turkestan is that.> . it.. along a which was called Jassy who in 1397 began the construction of a huge of in honour Hazret-Yusufi. KHIVA. i" i^:v". Hazret-i-Turkestan. . Mf' .202 RUSSIAN PICTURES. and but little available for navigation. a Mahometan saint held to this day in mosque It an interesting and curious group of'. which five miles to the north-east. and falls. into the Sea of Aral. as therefore.. It is. ' r > . one hundred and the Syr Daria. or Jaxartes.

the torturing his of quite recently been forbidden by the Khan. occupying an oasis bordered by the left bank of the lower course of the Oxus. sur- rounded by a low earthen wall. within which dwell the Khan and his principal officers. Its fame is that of a which slave mart market in Asia at the chief slave chiefly Persians. .000 slaves. is now constrained to be on his best behaviour. semi-independent Khanate. prisoners has brother of Bok- The city is little more than a collection of hovels of baked mud. and Russians. and earthquakes many places fissured this seventh wonder of the world. that traffic.CENTRAL ASIA. homes. or on the tablelands of Persia and Afghanistan. the patron saint of the Khivites. and gave liberty to 37. . flanked here and there by pools of foul. Under the influence of Russia. but requires passing notice as the of a large. found a A Russian military expedition in 1873 put an end for ever to ready sale. of its outer walls have from the Russian cannonade suffered inscriptions directed have in 1864 against the citadel in which it stands. in front of that mosque. and travellers (Kostenko and MacGahan) have described it stagnant water as containing more cemeteries than Its mosques and medresseh gardens. kidnapped by the Turcomans on the shores of the Caspian. who. Afghans. and within easy striking distance from the Russian military station on the opposite side of the river. and the only mosque with any pretensions to architectural beauty is that which holds the tomb of Our illustration shows the minaret Polvan. They were attacked by disease or massacred by the Turcomans on their march in small detachments across their number reached original the desert. but only a relatively small THE MOSQUE OF HAZRET-I-TURKESTAN. 203 The glazed bricks and incised evidently unfinished by its Persian architect.' in ' Khiva Russian is not legitimately within a the scope of our sketches capital of the empire. like hara. These are almost the only buildings of brick at Khiva. are in the citadel.

their language differing but little from that of the Russians. Russians. like that of Russia. the remainder being Jews (in the proportion of thirteen per cent. and escape from Tartar subjugation. with Scandinavian invasion a reliable authority of the present century. the complete been a matter of two great Slav branches has long by their Russian brethren. Lithuanians. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. of Poles. XI. permitted the Poles to work out their own development on lines so widely question. and other odd kindred remnants. and co-operation with Western civilization.Vistula Provinces. as in history .ILLUMINATION FROM A MS. kingdom created at the great settlement of political accounts in 1815 has been officially styled 'The Cis. . CHAPTER POLAND. Czechs Contact (Bohemians). The provinces in tutional THE Czar still bears the title of King of Poland. and became. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TRUITSA MONASTERY. apart from those pursued amalgamation of these practical impossibility.157 English square a population of eight millions.. asserting that the descended on the Polish coast of the Baltic. Bulgarians. five per cent. Servians. Northmen begins. have an aggregate area of 49. Germans. and other aliens.' ever since the absolute incorporation with the Russian empire in 1868. that Polish Szainocha. MOSCOW. The Poles (the Polacks of Shakespeare) are a branch of the Slav race. composed to the extent of sixtyand miles. but the consti- ten in number. and settled chiefly in towns).

1 ft S^^s^aWi^ .


gained for himself the title of Rex Rusticorum. Moravia. in succession to Sigismund II. of the Polish Ukraine to solicit Russian protection was the inferior position Roman to which their Greek religion had been reduced in relation to The Russians and Poles had been at war with each other for Catholicism. that of Stephen Bathori. Sobieski. who He conquered Dantzig and gave a solid foundation to the Polish State. A. the last of the that of two chambers. Jagellons. in Casimir Cracow. Jagellons. and it was a sovereign of the same House. which thus became own pagan dynastically united (1386) with that of Lithuania. which. introduced in the next . King to of Hungary. the throne of Poland. elected to the Muscovite throne by the Russian boyars. While occupied in besieging the Huguenots at Rochelle. Augustus. elected Jagellon (baptised Magna Charta. who established his capital. who with those of Poland. ancestors of noble houses.. .. already limited by and the crown became elective. by the bestowal of benefits on the peasantry.D. but Jagellon. of France. Louis. son of Sigismund III. -was called its the throne but in order the ensure in all continued possession compelled re-instate nobles their privileges. of Lithuania. who were of the nobles. where the Polish kings were ever after crowned.. the power of the king. absconded from Cracow in order to become Henry III. or freeadscripti glebce. a peasant. Boleslas I. Silesia. under Minin and Pojarski. of Sigismund II. 964. the Great. and White Russia. whom she loved. his sister's son. but soon expelled by the patriots. the by Vladislaf (Ladislas) the Short. of the Swedish Wasa family. Henry of Valois but he quickly was elected to the throne. After compelling his daughter to marry. On to his death. On the death. two centuries. it is on record that Russia. could not keep Kief and Little Russia for the Poles. the Brave. After Pomerania. He was the last sovereign of the Piast period. and to convert his Duke offered to unite his extensive and adjacent dominions the nobles.POLAND. Christianity in the being partitioned. Moscow had been occupied in 1610 by the Poles in the name of Ladislas. to 1320. in 1572. who had saved Vienna for the Austrians. subject to alterations made at Diets. reign. reunited at Polish Justinian (1334-1370). . in virtue of their to under the name of Ladislas) subjects to Christianity. 207 On the other hand. the first Grand Duke of Poland (about A. and by the limitation of the power holders. under a he was Pacta Conventa.D. in accordance with the principle that long obtained were of Poland territories the component neighbouring Russian principalities. as far as the Dnieper. and at a time when Poland enjoyed more religious liberty than any other country in Europe. was retained as part of the Coronation Oath so long as there were Polish kings to be consecrated. 842) was Piastus. brought and one of the reasons that led the Cossacks strong intolerance with them. The was still further diminished. Jesuits. who founded a dynasty that was superseded only in 1385 by the Lithuanian was introduced by the fourth of the Piasts. not William of Austria.

succeeded Sobieski. and entry of Suvoroff into Warsaw over dismemberment (1795) of ancient Poland. the ashes of the Prague suburb. Calvinists. which had taken alarm at a liberal constitution voted by the Polish Diet in 1791. in which sovereign. and . and in 1772 the first partition of Poland was consummated. Such was the outcome of disorders and revolutions in the wars with Muscovy. and Sweden. during which he was superseded by Stanislas I. and reigned until 1733. Cracow. under which even Warsaw was absorbed by Russia. Poland occupied a territory much more extensive than that of France. obnoxious to the dissidents and other of Lutherans. in the third Previous to these several partitions.. with an interval of five years. Dissension and anarchy became next still more general ' the Civil war. as well as with and of Tartars and Frederick Augustus II. Turkey. rights Roman Catholic Church played a great part. IN PODOI. State. it included the province of Posen and part of West Prussia. In addition to the kingdom proper. resulted in the intervention of ' the reign of the question of in the Prussia and Russia. Cossacks.208 RUSSIAN PICTURES. Augustus III. Elector of Saxony. The second followed in 1793.IA. especially as it had provided for the emancipation of the The struggle made by Thaddeus Kosciuszko ended in the adscript! glcba. KAMENETS. under an arrangement between the same countries.

and which. with the result we have indicated at the head of this chapter. and are therefore not likely to disappear like the Bos Americanns. 209 Lithuania. Notwithstanding the wide measures of Home Rule introduced by Alexander II. Silesia. In still earlier times. the bear. Bessarabia.POLAND. the national army abolished. Outside Warsaw and its immediate vicinity there is little in Russian Poland to interest the tourist. Dense forests stretch down from the Russian. the bison are strictly preserved from the hunter. from Moscow. not without encouragement from Napoleon III. and the Polish language proscribed in the public offices. The finest in . in its while to the west and border Podolia. and to within a . which is supposed to have been the original stock of our horned cattle. and forest. Interspersed among these barren or soil wooded tracts are areas containing some of the Europe. Kaminets. at the partitions remained incorporated with the Russian empire. anciently Polish. and the lynx. present province of Kief. and Livonia were embraced within the Polish possessions. in combination with many liberal and pregnant reforms in Russia Proper. and it is only towards the north and east that the ground may be said to be heavily timbered. and Posen to Prussia. These successive partitions gave the most extensive portion of Polish territory to Russia. when also the constitution of 1815 was withdrawn. when Galicia (with Cracow) was restored to Austria. Napoleon I. stronghold against Turkey north its frontier extended almost to the walls of Riga. the survivor of the Aurochs (Bos primigcnius). Although much worried by the wolf. belonging to more than eight thousand proprietors. but were not fully to subjected to a Russian administration until after the great Polish insurrection of 1830. with wide expanses of sand. This was first constituted into a Grand Duchy under the King of Saxony. It is produced on the larger estates of two hundred to fifteen hundred acres. the provinces of Volhynia and Podolia. and part of the In 17/2 Dantzig was a seaport of Poland.. Galicia. Polish provinces that had fallen to the share of Catherine II. which has so long been ruthlessly slaughtered in the United empire. heath. and in 1862. into the administration of the kingdom. revived a Polish state out of the provinces that had been seized by Prussia and Austria. supplying from time imcorn-bearing memorial vast quantities of superior grain for shipment from ports in the Baltic. The country is generally level and monotonous. Moldavia. and now form the last retreat in Europe of the Bison Europoeus. Warsaw became The old again a kingdom under a constitution granted by Alexander I. or buffalo. appeared to offer to the Poles the prospect of no inconsiderable influence over the independence began to manifest itself. spirit destinies of the Russian the old of national States. province of Grodno. an insurrection broke out at Warsaw. and in 1815. the most populous to Austria. and the most commercial short distance Prussia.

and their habits of life but little superior. visit affording no accommodation that would render possible the of even the least fastidious traveller. frequently industrial. Petersburg or Moscow. and. replaced Cracow as the residence of the Polish kings . WITH UNIVERSITY IN THE BACKGROUND. WARSAW. Founded in the twelfth century.000 farms seldom exceeding forty acresto nothing towards exportation. which we take on our way by rail to or from St. Warszawa. THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS. especially in the matter of drink. Consequently we confine ourselves to Warsaw. their mode of agriculture being almost as rude as that of the Russian peasantry. Russia. contribute who next hold more than 240. others we may say the great majority are poor and squalid. during the Piast period. large and occur than in more and while some are rich and small. Towns.210 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the seat of the appanaged Dukes of Masovia. peasantry.

Petersburg and Moscow. in which the troops are exercised. churches and chapels. and the old royal apartments are occupied by the Governor-General. It 211 has now is garrison of 31. built in the thirteenth century. The hung ceilings of this chateau were painted by Bacciarelli. on which city. ever-changing. by and enlarged and restored by several of the Polish kings. were in out indiscriminately put every direction from the sword.' and which is on its way from the Carpathians to the Baltic.000. from Sigismund III. is ' picturesquely disposed along the brow of the cliff and on the plains above. and now the residence of the Emperor when he visits Warsaw. a Warsaw. is high. a country seat of much elegance built by King Stanislas front of elegant Augustus.' in 1861. Warsaw its with chiefly built. and animated stately lines of streets. The left bank of the Vistula. mostly Roman Catholic. or Champs private residences. or castle. but a considerable distance from the town. the country seat of the consort of John Sobieski . and divided as Poland itself. when to fortified. as a penalty for the insurrection In the same direction. and the military hospital at Uiazdov. this . place of entertainment much frequented by the inhabitants of and Bielany. a population of about 445. stands the cathedral. and restored on the last occasion by King John Sobieski. in Near Novi Sviat (New World) Elys&'s. or New Town but it certainly retains no traces of deep antiquity. viceroy. Contiguous to the Lazienki Park are the extensive gardens of the Belvedere Palace. is the recovered from inhabitants the assault Prague suburb. and therefore as the (1586). or Old Town. A still more ancient sacred edifice is the Church of Our Lady in the Nove Miasto. also Mariemont. built in in is 1832-35. here shallow. and spacious gardens. Opposite vantage. the Beyond great Sapieha and Sierakovski Barracks towers the Alexander Citadel. In the Stare Miasto. strongly old German in aspect. in which the Poles attempted in the Grand Duke Constantine. its has sixteen never thousand A vast panorama and spreads melancholy dirty point of is the Zamek. Kaskada. gay. built the Dukes of Masovia. Crossing a large square. formerly a castle of the Kings of Poland. when it was twice stained with blood. to Stanislas Augustus Poniatovski. a pretty spot on the Vistula commanding a fine view.POLAND. and the pretty. we reach the fine park of Lazienki. Street. Across the broad sandy bed of the stream. and its walls are with portraits of numerous beautiful women. which. bordered by fine lime-trees we find the Avenues. on the election of Sigismund III. not including the Russian officers and men. On page 205 we give an illustration of the prettiest portion of the grounds. The square in front of the castle was the scene of the last Polish 'demonstrations. 1830. at the expense of the city. wide squares. formerly by Suvoroff in 1 794.500 capital of Poland. We drive 1830 to get rid of their hence in less than an p 2 . with its outlying fortifications. are numerous and so are the monasteries and convents (twenty-two). (eighty- The five). Its pictures and objects of art are now at St.

This is hour to one of the most interesting places near Warsaw. of his beautiful consort are of great elegance. and several noticeable residences. historical is full of of Countess the property Potocka. objects of art. now repose after driving the Turks from the walls of Vienna. On the same For want of more strongly attracted by an original known in England. The apartments . which but little to describe space. many palatial among which is one to Copernicus. again we must plead guilty of omitting of . monuments. who died in it. of which the most interesting is the magnificent in retreat he and here arms. and other curiosities. brought back the trophies of his mighty deeds The chateau. victory. built the Castle by John Sobieski. of Villanov. portraits. sought this To suit of armour presented by the Pope to Sobieski in memory of his great \ ' *#* POLISH PEASANTS. In the gallery Seneca pictures although we are is of we notice an admirable Rubens the Death portrait of Bacon.212 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the Polish founder of modern astronomy.

the public so buildings. and buried John THE IRON GATE MARKET (AT THE BACK OF THE SAXONY GARDEN). . ground 213 we pass in over of handsome which. to whom Belgium owes Evangelical Cemetery. is cemeteries. gardens. one Cockerell. theatres.POLAND. much of her industrial prosperity.

and a population slightly in excess of two or about it sixteen inhabitants to the square mile. the people are more thriving. present a succession of fiords and rocky headlands similar to those of Norway.255 English square miles. In 1809 Sweden ceded to Russia her rights over Finland. the poor stony patches of soil afford but a scanty occasionally. streams. who form about eighty-five per cent. IN THE LIBRARY OF THE TROITSA MONASTERY. a peculiarity from which has been derived the poetical designation of the country. sustenance . Along the coasts. to the peasantry. OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. but not equally wide. occur but inland. ' XII.FROM A MS. MOSCOW. and a good part of its sea-margin on the Gulf of Finland. wegians.. long coast-line on the Gulf of Bothnia. In both these respects Norway very closely. THE millions. Fertile plains. of the and who are almost as much driven to emigration as the Norpopulation. deep. formed by the recession of the sea. 144. are second only to those of Norway. and after a separate negotiation between the Finnish Diet and Alexander I. for the sea gives them lucrative occupation. Land of a Thousand Lakes. or resembles The The hilly interior is intersected by a vast number of lakes and grand. in the North of It has a superficial area of Europe. the Estates swore allegiance to the Emperor as the Grand Duke of Finland. from the Swedish frontier on the Tornea River.' as Finland is poetically called by her loving sons. possesses physical charms which. CHAPTER FINLAND.



together privileges. and they are carried chiefly by the national which merchant navy. when a Parliament of two Chambers was established in The maintenance of the Lutheran religion with all the Extensive powers are reserved to the sovereign. In regard to religion and education. The latter are dealt with by the by the Imperial Foreign Finlanders .FINLAND. and an independent of the fluctuations of the Russian rouble liberal than that of Russia. upon forest and attempts to seize his prey. clergy. which continues to this day to be In virtue of it. and therefore best calculated to sustain a sound system of finance and to promote trade and navigation. deceitfully represented by the wisp of straw smeared with. in recent years under a system of general military conscription. excepting only its foreign relations. were assured to previous rights the Philanders in a solemn manifesto. as in Sweden until 1866. and enjoy not life which comparatively few tourists have witnessed. and grayling fishing. country. the Finlanders have reason to be proud of the results of the legacy bequeathed to them by their old Scandinavian the principal masters. in the shape of salmon. or franc. contribution independent tariff a distinct coinage. a great stumbling-block But the Finnish interior. sledge. 2 17 and the integrity of their conand stitution. which. In winter he can shoot as many wolves as he chooses to pursue on a The pig is kept in a bag. and placed mother under the Russian War Department. gives employment to more than twelve thousand men. bearing no imperial charge or . The Finnish language. tar. and dairy produce much more are exports. but enterprising and also excellent sport. nominated by the Crown. Office. carried the well-ordered country An excellent system of education is zealously superintendence of the Lutheran clergy. Timber. Petersburg as a kind of delegation of the Senate at Helsingfors. lard that is attached to a long rope at the back of the sledge. which renders the Finnish marc. with a sucking-pig to squeak by twisting his as a lure. so different from all other European tongues. He is represented at Helsingfors by a Governorincluding the right of veto. composed of four Estates (nobles. of the national army. and made the wolf darts out from the dark which tail. who do not or in man woman that admit to the Communion any person who is unable to read or write. char. burgesses. to is the the exploration of the less frequented parts of with a handbook only scenery and intelligent traveller armed or a dictionary can easily make his way. These are already highly developed. and peasantry). A committee composed of a Secretary of State and four other members acts at St. are : Among the most important privileges thus enjoyed a separate budget. they have a Diet their jealously guarded Charter of Rights. The accommodation outside of the towns is of a somewhat rougher . that There read out under is cannot scarcely a the Bible. administers the affairs of the Grand Duchy. trout. established is also who Commander-in-Chief General.

while the steamer passes through the moderate waves of the open part of the Gulf of Bothnia. a valuable library. This is reigning over the place. to find an air of desolation A and destroyed two-thirds of the city. but with a well-assorted stock of absolute necessaries (including insect powder and mosquito netting). enjoyed. we have a pretty view of via Gothenburg and hours we the city. It is disappointing. its interior renovated without detriment houses at considerable distances . roughly-paved streets. in from each other. on landing. As we steam up the small and shallow Aura joki. personal acquaintance can soon be made. Although the Cathedral of St. in smooth and sheltered water except for about two and a half hours.218 RUSSIAN PICTURES. to the quay where our passports and luggage are examined. after the charming landscape we have ABO CATHEDRAL. and such of its university (established as had been spared from many previous conflagrations. Henry was completely gutted on that occasion. description than in Norway. yet its rude and heavy Gothic exterior has been preserved. imparted by the wide. and by the deserted appearance of the thoroughfares. public buildings taught the citizens the necessity of rebuilding their public edifices and private raged the for two days in 1827. by the prevalence of low wooden fire which houses. with this fascinating country. In fifteen Stockholm. and the willingness to brave slight discomforts. or river. cross over from the Swedish capital to Abo. including 1640).

the present terminus considerable amount of shipping of the railway from St. founded in 1558. of her misfortunes and in The secular Finlander. and there is in reality no danger of death by drowning on such an excursion. Svertschkoff. The scenery. the border of ancient Osterbothnia a stone wall. Henry. from the interior in peculiar boats made of thin planks. Uleaborg lies at the mouth of a great and rapid river which flows out of Lake Ulea.. A fishing abounds in most of the rivers that of affords the several to Tornea water opportunity inspecting snug trip by little ports. when the girl city itself was removed up the to its foundations a short distance river. one of the most progressive towns in Finland. or in one of the tar-laclened craft that have so fragile an appearance. is very fine. The sun may be seen at midnight from Mount Aavasaksa. some sixty miles distant. and salmon fall into the Gulf of Bothnia. . fore- most among which is the trip to the pretty island of Runsala. with a Russo-Greek church commanding a splendid view Gamla Karleby. 1857 by Kristinestad. at the mouth of the Kumo and not far from which is a River. University by (Adolphus) opposite Ekman. . designed by V. the creation of Count Per Brahe in 1649. for the IV. chiefly with Great Britain. excepting the Residence. which bend as if they were made of pasteboard. . a lies peasant before she wore the Swedish diadem. The present site from its pagan consort of Eric XIV. add to the interest of the cathedral. 219 to The first episcopal chair of Finland was previous architectural features. a large block buildings of the city are unimportant. and is one of the principal ports in Finland. . but whose name betrays a Russian origin. number of charming excursions can be made from Abo. and descend the river in a hired boat. an old royal domain now dotted with villas. Petersburg.FINLAND. . in which Bishop since surrounded wooden house. within instituted 1300. an active-looking town of the gulf and the islands on it of tarred roofs. embellished by a stained window allegorical of her love for Sweden and Finland. and possessing a and lastly Uleaborg. its walls after their consecration by Bishop Magnus in A. near the Myllyranta Ironworks on Lake Ulea. an Englishman. to a place called Vaala. such as Bjorneborg. . especially at the largest and midway rapids of Pyhakoski. first preached Christianity in Finland in the two neighbouring parishes of which the Finnish national costume is still though exceptionally worn Nikolaistad. . or Vasa. with a good deal of shipbuilding and a considerable amount of The tar is brought down trade. when shooting the numerous rapids of the Those who are in search of excitement cannot do better than drive Ulea. a (transferred after 1827 to Helsingfors). The stained windows. built Gustavus the cathedral. and the frescoes in the chancel by which is one of the chapels. A large and now occupied by government officers.D. and black-haired Philanders (all others being very light) Brahestad. in tar and deals. a native of Abo.

and was once distinguished by the appellation of Little Stockholm. when daylight ' lasts only three hours. they derive 23rd-24th of June (St. and who yet would like to gaze at a phenomenon which not only fascinates the eye by its strange grandeur and by the weird effect of light it produces. it is visited by Laplanders. the Manchester of Finland. although it does not remain entirely above the horizon for more than seventy-two hours. . hams. the most northerly town in Finland. John's to sell the tongues. As almost everywhere else in this country of wood. with the Swedish capital.22C RUSSIAN PICTURES. however calm and sheltered. at the junction of two lakes which supply an immense water power to cotton. The extension of the railway from Uleaborg to Tornea F1NLANDEKS. and paper mills. but also impresses the mind most deeply and with more awe than any other cosmic marvel among the great and glorious works of the Omnipotent Creator. As a contrast to this coast trip the railway may be taken to Tammerfors. until 1809. leaving only the most energetic to post fifty miles to Mount Aavasaksa.' from its brisk trade. and many other industrial establishments. from which of the night Eve and Day) swarms of travellers arrive to see the midnight sun. no doubt deflect from the present yachting route to the North Cape the many would-be travellers who dread the sea. or cabin accommodation ever so roomy and convenient. Tornea. in which a goodly number of Englishmen are will employed as foremen. In winter. from which the sun is visible at midnight for fourteen days. on the . is separated from the Swedish town of Haparanda by a dried-up branch of the Tornea River. flax. with their swift reindeer and sledges. and skins of the animals their whole support while in summer.

exemplified as is in ' . and rock. In summer the Imatra hotel. our attention is called to a modern castellated villa lying in a pretty park to the left of the line. an echo repeats the discourse. not as Sharp the pitches in the hill next the driving in Finland may be called furious. and The University Library contains attended by nearly a thousand students. . and the since 1827. and from which Kuopio. reached by flights of steps. The most prominent object in some than porticoes of Corinthian columns. and par- ticularly the view from the bridge that spans the Helsingfors has been the capital of the Grand Tammerfors Rapicls. raised (1830-52) in Senate Square. which form a separate collection. is the Senate House. charming little town. Norway. Its style is that of the Renaissance. railway brings us to the southern extremity of Paijanne Lake. about 150. the seat of a bishopric and Station At Lahtis the a district renowned for the by road But. road are descended at full gallop. the views obtained on this journey are lovely. ascended at a round trot. On the south side of the same square we find the Alexander University. on a mass of granite fifty-nine feet high.FINLAND. 221 water. and a far-seen landmark from seaward. with a large seminary for teachers. owing altar. although perhaps not as small boys who drive them. used on great occasions. Hurry only when catching fleas.000 books in Russian and Polish. is the Church of St. and a good part of The small horses are as quiet. Just before reaching it. we soon come to the picturesque old town of Tavastehus. in a two-wheeled in trotting capacities of its horses. hardy. with a central hall. with the pews radiating from it. being eighty miles long by about eighteen at its widest part. over and above the 50. from the top of the splendid dome. preaches congregation to the curious acoustic properties of the edifice. Jyvaskila. his back the from the with towards but. Nicholas. Resuming our railway journey. There is but little to see in this town beyond a church in which the altar is placed The clergyman in the centre of the edifice. Steamers run hence to a pretty place a and to called Heinola. The speed at which the by Finlanders travel is curiously out of keeping with the general dilatoriness of intelligent it one of their favourite proverbs. seat of a university political connection of the city. one of the largest in Finland. can be reached cart. and in which stands the throne of the Grand Duke.' Norwegians are also taught the same maxim. which can easily accommodate three thousand worshippers. and the Russian form of a Greek cross The two distinguishes it from the usual architecture of Lutheran churches. and owes much of its prosperity to the Finland with Russia. situated in the midst of enchanting their character. Facing this church. constructed in 1832.000 volumes. Duchy since 1819. are very handand no finer view of Helsingfors and its pretty environs can be obtained . but little inferior to the Norwegian carriole. whose life-sized portrait hangs in each of the rooms occupied by the several administrative divisions of the Senate. and well taken care of as the Norwegian animal.

Europe and America. The fall is not perpendicular. this awe-inspiring work of Nature is seen through a for hours the seething water. but with a gradual slope over about half a mile. when.222 RUSSIAN PICTURES. the mist having risen. not only from St. who no heed of the deafening taking Sunrise is the best time to see the Imatra-Koski. all parts or rapids. but from Falls. is scenery. grinds into small fragments the empty watch barrels that are thrown into it for at the last edification of visitors. golden light. The rush and roar of the It waters are very grand and imposing. Petersburg. noise it produces. crowded of with tourists. Viborg can be reached either by returning to the railway at Villman- . who come to see the Imatra formed by the Vuoksi rushing through a narrow chasm between two steep granite rocks. giving a difference of sixty-one feet between the top and the end of the rapids.

within a narrow compass. in in its port in Mon is miniature. with a considerable trade is artificially represented Here we may being full of fine statuary and monuments. Its show place where the scenery of Finland timber. 223 Viborg.FINLAND. the home park VIBORG CASTLE. shipped from the domain of Baron Nicolai. the principal features of the great Russian empire. Trangsund Bay. CENTRAL CIRCULATE CHILDREN'S ROOM . both in Europe and in Asia. s now a town of seventeen thousand strand. Repos. stands an old castle. where by taking the pretty canal route from Lauritsala. appropriately terminate the labour of attempting to describe. built in 1293. or i- inhabitants. by pen and pencil.

. 33 Kertch. 69. 200 Schamyl. in Samoyedes. description of. 214 French invasion of Russia. galia. church architecture. 221 Tchapars. Russian charity for. 168 Phasis. 31 New Jerusalem Monastery. . 33 pictures . on Cathedral of Basil. 52 gardens of. the. 160 Ph'tchavy. . galley slaves. . Bay of. . 179 Derekyuy. description of. the. description of. 43 Imperial Public Anitchkoff Palace. voyage on. 59 Utchan-su. English factory at. 157 Abo. 59 Saratuf. 143 Mz'hett. 146 Siberia. 45 Bjorneborg. . 87 Imatra. . . defeats Tartars. 146 Irghiz River. 28 Hefsurs. Inkerman. story of. in Russia. 219 Gautier. the. 162 Tiumen. the. 25 Pugatchef. 152 Purtenite. . 136 Khiva. 60 Howard. Khersonesus doors at. 39. 136 Caucasus. rebellion of. 222 Kursk. 22 Jews' fortress. 168 Basil. . 80 Granovitaya Palace. 52 Peterhof. 144 Dimitri. 148 Tavastehus. description White Russia. 22 Riga. Orenburg. 138 tombs in. 85 Red robes. 219 the. 168 NAHITCHEVAN. 19 Wirballen. 120 Chersonesus. 157 people of. 158 Ingush. gold mines. provements 88 . the. expedition of. 198 Anthony. 106 . monuments of Peter Tsitrakhan. 154. 196 Astrakhan. 144 Merv. 53 167 Darial Pass. 78 . description of. 20 Rostof. in Crimea. description Elbruz. bridges. sacred at. Valley of. description of. nego- Ararat. . 52 Krestofski Island. Kouban district. 203 Orlof diamond. Cheremshansk. 185 manufacture of. the. of. 103 Sturgeon CATHERINE II. . description of. 19 Nijni Novgorod. Count. 203 Khvalinsk. 56 Archangel. description of. 82 . the. 132 . Grebensky. 144. 95 Moscow. 160 its Tarn an. 138 Novorossisk. 164 Demidoff mines. 88. 116 Kalmytski Bazaar. 108. 197 Telav. 154 LONDON: WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. 59. 84 Cathedral of Archangel Michael. 120 Kikeneis. description of. Library. &c. 44 47 Monastery of Alexander the Fortress. 169 Delijan Pass. 28 Paijanne Lake. 167 Alexandropol. 170 natives of. 174 . 147 Batoum. history of. martyrdom Jyvaskila. 219 Verkhneudinsk. 23 EASTER IN RUSSIA. of. . people of. isthmus of. 143 Alushta. 167 Sympheropol. 219 66. the Patriarch. 112 Cheremyssi. Church of Abridges. the. 77 . 152 Symvolon-limen. 154 . 146 Chancellor. 174 political history of. the. 21 FINLAND. 131 . the. Lake. grave of. the. 115 Tsarskoe Se'lo. Andrew. 31 diamond. 151 Terek River. 86 German colonies. re- 80 . imin. . 138. 148 Bakii. Cathedral of the the AlabasAnnunciation. 71 Nicolaef. 144 Pavlofsk. 25 Isinglass. 152 Akstafa. the. the. the. 154 Monastery of the Trinity. 82 . description of. 121 . 20-23 . at Kherson. 158 SLAF. 116 Tula. 222 Imeritia. the. . the. 157 Kakhety. 20 Temple Hills. 196 Georgia. . 161 Ingur River. 40 . 80 of. 115 Dukhobortsy. 143. 179 Peter the Great founds Petersburg. Rion River. 116 Kama River. 118 Cemeteries. 124. 55 Peipus Lake. 60 Izmailovo. 151 in. 143 Kysty. . doc128 Sukharef Tower. Cape. 196 Kola. 153 Caviar. 167 Kalmucks. the. province of. history of. 143 Ak-mesjid. 157 PADIS CLOISTER. 37 St. conquest of. 53 Mingrelia. 154. 56 of. 65 Onega. 60 94. 65 Oranienbaum. 20 GAMLA KARLEBY. Tchentchen. 63 Solovetsk. 112 . . Vasili Ostrof. . Herat. manufacture of. Prince. 124 Olonets. 53 Orel. 154. So Dorpat. description of. 101 . 136 IDIOTCY. the. description of. 59 Cheboksary. 121 . 162 Gouria. . LIMITED. 50 Anglican Church. the. 115 Miirmon Coast. 53 Sevastopol. 65 Pharnawaz. 50. 158 Sourakan. 34 Kulikova. 165 Archangel. of. 165 Ermak. the. 43 bazaars. Kertch collection. . 151 Jesuits. 49 .. expedition Wierzbolow. 167 Tedjen. 70 buildings of. description. of. Petrofski Park and Palace. 90 . 25 Pskova River. of the Saviour. the. 32 Orlof of. 21 Little Russia. the. history. Kayan Cathedral. 26 Rion. the. 59 Kars. Mangup. 221 . Chuvash. STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. Great Palace. 19 Vilna. 112 Ekaterinodar. 139 . . 161 . Lahtis. description of. 162 Koutais. description of. 152 Solombola Island. 56 Jehoshaphat. Ossets. 106 of. 145 Eustace of Vilna. 27 MIety. 48 Nevski. 84. 222 Panticapa5um. 146 202 Chimkent. in Lithuania. 169 Ekaterinoslaf. 166 Baltic provinces. 127 . the town. 88 . 59 Sarepta. 23 Vladimir.Karthen City. 129 Mishor. 33 . Nenocksa. 55 Ivan the Terrible before Pskof. 112 Kiakhta. 154 Bokhara. 204 Poltava. 70 Kremlin at. John. 24 Kremlin of. 124 Vladikavkaz. province of. CENTRAL CfRCULATI CHlLUHEN'S ROOM . . the. 167 Schlusselburg. -222 KABARDINES. 169 Molokane". climate of. 55 at. 26 Balaclava. description of. the. 81 the Terem. description of. the. Kour River. 165 Eupatoria. Valley of. 78 Bells of. 112 Irkutsk. Stary-Krim. description of. Pityus. 116 Kivatch. WARSAW. 101 Vasa. Isaac's. 97 Solghat. 103 . capture of. 219 Black Sea Cossacks. 181 Ekatcrinenstad. in Massandra. 181 Tobolsk. Pechersk Monastery. 91 . 59 ZAPOROGUE. description 130 : Cathedral of St. conquest of. 168 Ostrof. 129 Ekaterinburg. 134 St. 90 beggars in. . 169 Novoselski. king of Georgia. 143 Yaroslav. 164 Alazan. Turcomans. 144 VALDAI. 181 Tomsk. 116 Brahestad. 167 Gurzuf. Vologda. 167 Tepe-kerman. 165 Askhabad. 165 Karaim. 161 Kovno. 19 Kristinestad. 165 Alle River. 112 Kief. Rd. . Black Sea. Karaim. . Etchmiadzin. 25 sieges of. 132 Kirghiz Steppes. 55 and . 196 Troitsk osavsk. 122 Gunib. 157 RADZIVILL. convicts. 169 Kul-Oba tomb. 36 . 201 Tartars of the Crimea. 187 Troitsa Monastery. 28 Perecop. 131 . the. markets of. 95 Kuopio. 64 Sougdidi. Don. 28 DAGHESTAN. 50 31 Petersburg. the. 65 Kizyl Arvat. 169 Volga. 56 Kolomenskoe. 86. Geok-Tepc. 147 Syr Daria. 65 Olga. 27 Abkhases. martyrdom . 104 churches and monasteries.INDEX. 149 21 John of Vilna. 168 Tver. 168 Tiflis. the Black Prince. 179 Nobel's Town. the. Sophia at. description of. the. NICHOLAS. 42 38 streets Transcaspian Railway. 118 the. 101 UKRAINE. 161 . 168 Kazan. 32 Hermitage. . no Neva River. 72 Niemen River. no Skiit. 28 Rybinsk. Jews 74 Oka Stretna. the Tithes Church. 154. 169 Ai Pctri. 24 TAGANROG. 154 Dunaburg. White City. 56 Music. 197 Michaelofski. 55 Sergi. 94 . 52 Petrofsk. . 108 history of. 92 Sparrow services of. 60 Russo-Greek Church. in Russia. Alupka. 160 tiations with Elizabeth. Monastery of. . 185 Viborg. 35 . 74. 219 Ural Mountains. 98 . 118 Ivan vi. Bay of. 114 JACOB RIVER. 188-192 Tushines. the. St. in Kuntsevo. Church. 185 Bakhchisarai. 94 Moravian Brethren at Sarepta. halls of. conversion of. 143 Baikal. 157 Mil HI. 104 Kremlin. 63 Ardon River. 59 Samara. fishing. the. 138 BAIDAR VALLEY. 47 Grandfather of the Russian Navy. 160 EHzavetpoI. 101 ST. 140 Cronstadt. 115 Erivan. the. 23 White Sea. 137 m Chernozem. . 135. 94 Koshtan-tau. people of 122 MAIMACHEN. Belfry of Ivan. description of. 32 Orlof-Davydoff. 1 20 Swanny. 223 Vilia River. 169 Petrozavodsk. Dubofka. 149 Jews. 21 welcomes Chancellor. 138 Crimea. description of. 144 Amu-Daria. UleSborg. 51 Yelagin Island. 53 River. 97 Bible. 200 Samarskaya Lake. history French in. 76 77 Chinese Town. 95 ikon. 160 Great Russia. 152 Kharkof. 101 209 to.i. 157 Poland. fisheries of. 152 Stavropol. dangerous situation Winter Palace. 167 Tashkent. 85 tron. . 221 Taoul mountaineers. 108 Kertch Collection. description of. Russia. Sophia. 37 . death of. 1 20 135 Lesghians. the. Russian pictures. tomb of. 167 Souram. 220 at. dress of people. defeat of. Nevski Prospect. 165 Narva. 199 Boskunchak Lake. Vitebsk. 168 . the. conversion of. Waterfall of. the. 197 Turkestan. 176. 169 Tammerfors. 76 Kremlin. 23 Dvina. 179 Simbirsk. 167 Lithuania. the trines of. religious history of. 49 character of. 135 Pskof. in Samarkand. province of. 151 187 Elton Lake. AT EKATERINO- Old Believers at Kern. ruins Circassia. 90 Romanoff House. . description of. 115 Sary-Balak. the. description of. Kamyshin. 40 drivers. 218 Agriculture in Holmogory. 144 HAPSAL. 115 Novgorod the Great. 168 Heinola. Pass of. 153 Gori. nt Pytzounda. 24 bell of. 162 . Allied. 104 Nijni Taghil. 114 Kanin. 160 Rornnove. AA RIVER. 198 Cathedral of the Assump84 tion. martyrdom of. 140 Perm. Monastery of. 108 Sygnak. 202 Syzran. 95 Tsaritsyn. Great's Gallery.. 153 Cossacks. 86 . 70 Novocherkask.. province . description of. . . 136 Nicon. 222 Helsingfors. 149 Kasbek. and Alexander. 168 31. 166 LADOGA LAKE. Cathedral of St. Rembrandt Gallery. the. use of. Russia Company. 19 YALTA. 187 ^ Bethany Monastery. description of. Museum . 168 Armenia. . 116-118 Azof.. 85 Square. 134 Kherson. 222 of. 108 the. no ODESSA. of. . St. rebellion Streltsi. Peter the . 181 Torne. in Stenka Razin. Tatars defeat Kumyss. the. 42 drojki 42.

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