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Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of

Bachelors of Technology in Electronics & communication Engineering

Under the Guidance of Er. Gaganpreet Singh

Submitted by Navjeet Singh 7320407922

Department of Electronics & communication Engineering

Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology Ramnagar, Banur


The successful completion of any task would be incomplete without accomplishing the people who made it all possible and whose constant guidance and encouragement secured us the success This seems to be a fitting moment for me to express my heartfelt gratitude towards all those who helped me tirelessly and patiently in my training work. It gives me a great sense of pleasure to present this report on my Two month industrial training. Training in an organization like A TRAFFIC LIGHT which is fuelled by the individuals with so much zest & energy, teaming up to form a formidable force, was in itself a true learning experience which is going to help us immensely in our career. To begin with, I express my sincere thanks to Mr. Gagandeep Singh Walia(Managing Director).)to my training coordinators for allowing me to avail all the available amenities in the division. They kept faith in me and made me an active member of my team. I am thankful to them for sharing their vast resource of knowledge and experience with me. Last but not the least I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my teammates, who with their thought provoking views, veracity and whole hearted co-operation supported me throughout the duration of the training. I am thankful to The Institution of Electronics and
Telecommunication Engineers (IETE) for giving me an opportunity to undertake my Two

Months Industrial Training.


Telcoma Technologies Pvt. Ltd (ISO 9001:2008 Certified) is a provider of Telecommunication and IT based solutions, including software, equipment and systems integration services. Telcoma Technologies develops and provides products, solutions, and professional services primarily for Telecommunications/IT companies.
The business paradigm of Telcoma Technologies includes the following areas

Network Solutions Next Generation Networks Wireless Broadband Service Data Transmission Mobile Networks Value-added Systems and Intelligent Networks Network Deployment and Integration New Technologies

Operation & Business Support

Network Monitoring Network and Service Management Fulfillment Billing and Customer Care Management

Customized software development

Telcoma Technologies develops customized software solutions for its clients. Our expertise includes Java programming, Apple iPhone/Google Android applications, PHP/MySQL, Ajax and Ruby on Rails.

Web development and Internet/Intranet based Solutions

Telcoma Technologies has completed many web projects catering to niche segment of internet fraternity, which include social networking sites, content management portals, dynamic websites, multimedia rich interactive websites with Flash and Intranet based solutions for Business

Automation. The sites and portals generate a run-of-the-network traffic and a significant business every month for our clients

Corporate Training and IT/Telecom Education

Telcoma Technologies has also launched various initiatives in the area of corporate training and IT education introducing the emerging technologies training solutions at affordable price. The team at Telcoma Technologies is well-qualified and strongly motivated and committed to providing the high level of personal service and customer satisfaction. All processes within Telcoma Technologies are aligned towards the highest quality standards and formally certified to ISO 9001:2008. We "Believe in the Best", be it people, products or services. Our approach to everything emanates from this corporate philosophy. With every new day the quest for acquiring new competencies continues. Forever searching, experimenting, innovating, learning, moving ahead with our sincere efforts and dedication, shaping the future, and challenging our competencies to create new opportunities, is a never-ending proces

100% Placements The company has tie-ups with all the major companies of India such as
NOKIA-SIEMENS, TATA, IDEA, ZTE, CONNECT, TATA-DOCOMO, VODAFONE, etc. The company assures 100% placement assistance

Personality Development
The company recently collaborated with IIPM, Mohali for overall personality development and communication skills

ORGANIZATION PROFILE Company Name: Faculty Members: Telcoma Technologies. Mr.Gagandeep Singh Walia Mr. Pawanjeet singh Mr.Kapil Bhutani Mrs.Rashi Gupta. Telcoma Technologies pvt. limited SCO 123, Phase 3B2, Mohali. Phone: 0172-4010731, 09814145471 Web: info@telcoma

Company Address: Contact: Website: Email:

With the ongoing telecom revolution where the innovations are taking place at the blink of an eye, it is impossible to keep pace with the emerging trends. Excellence is an attitude that whole of the human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned properly executed and evaluated Industrial Training helps a lot in inculcating a professional attitude.

During this period, the students get the real, firsthand experience for working in the actual environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. I had the opportunity to have a real experience, which increased my sphere of telecom knowledge to a great extent. I was entrusted with project DRIVE TEST.

I was entrusted with a real life project, working on which had finally made me step into the ongoing telecom revolution and gradually become a part of it. And all the credit goes to organization TELCOMA TECHNOLOGIES PVT. LIMITED which in true self made the telecom revolution happen.


Brief History
The Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) standard for 2G pan European digital cellular with international roaming. The main purpose of the group was to develop a 2G standard to resolve the roaming problem in the six existing different 1G analog systems in Europe. In 1986, the task force was formed, and in 1987 a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed. In 1989, ETSI included GSM in its domain. In 1991, the specification of the standard was completed, and in 1992, the first deployment started. By the year 1993, thirty two operators in 22 countries adopted the GSM standard, and by 2001, close to 150 countries had adopted GSM for cellular adaptation

Frequency Bands
This GSM system is a frequency and time division system. Each physical channel is characterized by a carrier frequency and a time slot number. GSM system frequencies include two bands at 900 MHZ and 1800 MHz commonly referred to as the GSM 900 and DCS 1800 systems. For the primary band in the GSM 900 system, 124 radio carriers have been defined and assigned in two sub-bands of 25 MHz each in the 890 915 MHz and 935-960 MHz ranges with channel width of 200 kHz (these sub-bands are always referred as downlink as well as uplink respectively, we will see this concept in detailed in channel concepts later in this module). Each carrier (a total channel width of 200 KHz) is divided into frames of 8 time slots. For DCS 1800, there are two sub bands of 75 MHz in the 1710 1785 MHz and 1805 1880 MHz ranges

GSM Services
To study any system, it is very important to know the services, which the system supports or provides. Analog cellular systems were developed for a single application that is voice and in a manner similar to analog access to PSTN, other data services such as fax and voice-band modems were defined as overlay services on top of the analog voice service. GSM is an integrated voice-data service that provides a number of services beyond cellular telephone.

These services are divided into three major categories. They are Teleservices, Bearer services and supplementary services.

Features of GSM
1. The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity than analogue systems. 2. GSM allows 25 kHz per user, that is, eight conversations per 200 kHz channel pair (a pair comprising one transmit channel and one receive channel). 3.Digital channel coding and the modulation used makes the signal resistant to interference from cells where the same frequencies are re-used (co-channel interference); a Carrier to Interference Ratio (C/I) level of 12 dB is achieved, as opposed to the 18 dB typical with analogue cellular. 4. This allows increased geographic reuse by permitting a reduction in the number of cells in the reuse pattern.

It provide communication between two end user applications according to a standard protocol. These services are telephony, emergency, speech calls, group 3 facsimile, telex, short messages, and videotext. The upper most layer of the protocol stack of the standard should be specified so that it could communicate with protocols used in these applications.

Bearer services
It provide capabilities to transmit information among user network interfaces. Traditional bearer services include a variety of asynchronous and synchronous data access to PSTN/ISDN and packet switched public data network. To implement bearer services, the lower layers and the frame format of the standard should specify how these transmission would be implemented over the air-interface

Supplementary services
GSM supports a wide range of supplementary (complementary and is not mandatory) services. These services belong to both telephony as well as data services. These services are considered as revenue generating features. These are not stand-alone services but they are services that

supplement a bearer or teleservice. These services are call forwarding, call barring, call waiting, call hold, calling line identification, connected line identification, multiple communication (like conferencing, up to five ongoing calls can be included in one conversation), closed user group, Advice of charge, operator determined call barring etc. The important supplementary services are:-


Call forwarding : gives the subscriber the ability to forward incoming calls to
another number (either to the same network or even other network) with conditional or unconditional. The conditions are when the MS is not reachable, if it is busy or if there is no reply. While unconditional call forwarding is active, calls are forwarded without any condition that is the MS will be treated as a passive device.


Barring of outgoing calls : This function makes it possible for a mobile subscriber
to prevent all outgoing calls.


Barring of incoming calls : This service exists with two conditions: barring of all

incoming calls and barring of incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN.


Advice of Charge (AoC): This service provides the mobile subscriber with an
estimate of the call charges. There are two types of Aoc information: one provides the subscriber with an estimate of the bill and one that can be used for immediate charging purposes.


Call hold: This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing call and then
subsequently reestablish the call.


Call waiting : This service enables the mobile subscriber to be notified of an incoming
call during a conversation. The subscriber can answer, reject or ignore the incoming call. This functionality is applicable to all GSM telecommunications services using a circuit switched connection.


Multiparty service : This service enables a mobile subscriber to establish a multiparty

conversation. That is the subscriber can establish multiple conversations at a time (max five).


Calling line identification (CLI) presentation/restriction:

These services

supply the called party with the ISDN number of the calling party. These restriction services enable the calling party to restrict the presentation. The restriction overrides the presentation.


1/2 Clamp 7/16 Din Connector

1/2 Jumper Tower Top Amplifier 7/8 Cable 7/8 Cable Grounding Machine house 1/2 Jumper EMP Grounding clip

Grounding bar Cabinet

The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

ZTE University


Feeder and Jumper Cables

Mount, Mechnical Tilt and GSM antenna

Electrical Tilt

Feeder and jumper cable

When a new site is to be installed, firstly the right place for the site is planned by the planning department. It includes right height, TX and RX frequency of the microwave antenna. The site is installed mainly on top of the building so that the total height may be achieved by subtracting the height of the building from the total height from where the antenna is to be installed i.e. if we have planned to mount an antenna at a height of 30 meters and the height of the building selected is 18 meters, so we have to built an tower of (30mts -18mts) 12 meters.


BTS Cabin/Shelter/Room AC GSM Antenna System


Mains Power Panel


DC Power Supply Unit

Battery Backup



All the hardware installation (Tower, Antennas, DG, BTS, Shelter AC,) during site installation is done by different vendors (NOKIA, Kirloskar, Zeppelin etc). When they complete their job, the O&M Engineer comes and checks whether the installations are done properly or not. He checks the jumpers coming from antennas very carefully. After he is completely satisfied, he starts his job of integrating the site .

A site mainly consists of following: 1.Shelter 2.DC Generator(DG) 3.Tower (including antenna)

Shelter :
For the shelter, we use four cemented base which is raised from ground to a height approximately one and a half feet with two metal rails running over this base. The shelter is mounted over this by metal nails. The Back side of the shelter has an AC exhaust fans mounted over by two metal nails. As the shelter is at a height of one and a half feet, we use 3 to 4 stairs for getting into the shelter conveniently.


Diesel Generator :
It is one of the important components used in a site. It is used in case of power breakdown, in that case it starts automatically and when the mains are ok, it stops automatically. The specifications of the DG are : AC generator: 50Hz 1500 RPM, 240 V, 10 KVA or 15KVA or 25KVA

DC Generator

For constructing the tower, firstly a concrete square wall of 3 -4 feet is made. The thickness is such that it can withhold the weight of the antenna. It is painted by orange and white color as it the standard for any antenna using microwave frequency. The two antennas i.e. the GSM and the microwave antenna are installed on top of the tower using moulds. The jumper cables are connected from top of BTS &hen connected to the feeder cable which is routed through the cable tray on to the top of the tower, then further connected by the jumper to the antenna. There are basically two types of towers : 1.Roof Top(RT) towers .

2.Ground Based towers. The main advantage of Roof Tower (RT) tower is that it reduces the height of the tower and therefore not only reduces the material required for constructing the tower but automatically saves the time required to erect a tower as well as reduces the cost required for construction.

Ground Base Tower

Roof Top Tower


Introduction to GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)

INTRODUCTION 1.The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a set of recommendations and specifications for a digital cellular telephone network (known as a Public Land Mobile Network, or PLMN). 2.These recommendations ensure the compatibility of equipment from different GSM manufacturers, and interconnectivity between different administrations, including operation across international boundaries. 3.GSM networks are digital and can cater for high system capacities. 4.They are consistent with the world-wide digitization of the telephone network, and are an extension of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), using a digital radio interface between the cellular network and the mobile subscriber equipment.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)

Definition :
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership.

1. The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity than analogue systems. 2. GSM allows 25 kHz per user, that is, eight conversations per 200 kHz channel pair (a pair comprising one transmit channel and one receive channel). 3.Digital channel coding and the modulation used makes the signal resistant to interference from cells where the same frequencies are re-used (co-channel interference); a Carrier to Interference Ratio (C/I) level of 12 dB is achieved, as opposed to the 18 dB typical with analogue cellular. 4. This allows increased geographic reuse by permitting a reduction in the number of cells in the reuse pattern. AUDIO QUALITY 1. Digital transmission of speech and high performance digital signal processors provides good quality speech transmission. 2. Since GSM is a digital technology, the signals passed over a digital air interface can be protected against errors by using better error detection and correction techniques. 3. In regions of interference or noise-limited operation the speech quality is noticeably better than analogue.


1. GSM offers high speech and data confidentiality.Subscriber authentication can be performed by the system to check if a subscriber is a valid subscriber or not.. 2. The GSM system provides for high degree of confidentiality for the subscriber. Calls are encoded and ciphered when sent over air. 3. The mobile equipment can be identified independently from the mobile subscriber. The mobile has an identity number hard coded into it when it is manufactured. This number is stored in a standard database and whenever a call is made the equipment can be checked to see if it has been reported stolen.

1. GSM uses Mobile assisted handover technique. 2. The mobile itself carries out the signal strength and quality measurement of its server and signal strength measurement of its neighbors. 3. This data is passed on the Network which then uses sophisticated algorithms to determine the need of handover.

1. In a GSM system the mobile station and the subscriber are identified separately. 2. The subscriber is identified by means of a smart card known as a SIM. 3. This enables the subscriber to use different mobile equipment while retaining the same subscriber number.


1. Speech services for normal telephony. 2. Short Message Service for point ot point transmission of text message.

3. Cell broadcast for transmission of text message from the cell to all MS in its coverage area. Message like traffic information or advertising can be transmitted. 4. Fax and data services are provided. Data rates available are 2.4 Kb/s, 4.8 Kb/s and 9.6 Kb/s. 5. Supplementary services like number identification, call barring, call forwarding, charging display etc can be provided.

1. There are total 124 carriers in GSM ( additional 50 carriers are available if EGSM band is used). 2. Each carrier has 8 timeslots and if 7 can be used for traffic then a maximum of 868 (124 X 7) calls can be made. This is not enough and hence frequencies have to be reused. 3. The same RF carrier can be used for many conversations in several different cells at the same time. 4. The radio carriers available are allocated according to a regular pattern which repeats over the whole coverage area. 5. The pattern to be used depends on traffic requirement and spectrum availability. 6. Some typical repeat patterns are 4/12, 7/21 etc.

1. A cellular telephone system links mobile subscribers into the public telephone system or to another cellular subscriber. 2. Information between the mobile unit and the cellular network uses radio communication. Hence the subscriber is able to move around and become fully mobile.

3. The service area in which mobile communication is to be provided is divided into regions called cells. 4. Each cell has the equipment to transmit and receive calls from any subscriber located within the borders of its radio coverage area.

Radio Cell Mobile subscriber

Radio spectrum is very limited, thats why we have only 10-25MHz dedicated to wireless communication. Such narrow bandwidth allows 100-400 channels of reasonable quality, which is not rational and commercially not profitable to develop network for such small number of mobile subscribers. Genius idea lead to division of the whole geographical area to relatively small cells, and each cell may reuse the same frequencies by reducing power of transmission. Each cell has its own antenna (base station), and all base stations are interconnected using microwave or cable communication. Every telephone network needs a specific structure to route incoming calls to the correct exchange and then on to the subscriber. In a mobile network, this structure is very important because the subscribers are mobile.

A cell is the basic unit of a cellular system and is defined as the area where radio coverage is given by one base station. Different cells are identified by a unique number called Cell Global Identity (CGI). In a complete network the number of cells is large.

There are a limited number of frequencies available within the frequency band specified for cellular systems. Each operator licensed to run a cellular network, has been provided with a number of frequencies. A cell has one or several frequencies, depending on traffic load. To cover a country, for example, the available frequencies must be reused. The same frequency cannot be used in neighboring cells due to interference.

Neighbouring cells cant have the same frequency.

The Location Area (LA) is defined as a group of cells. The system uses LA to search for subscribers in active state. When there is a call for a mobile station, a paging message is broadcast to all cells belonging to a specific LA.

A LA is the part of the network in which a mobile station may move around freely without reporting its location to the network. Different location areas can be identified by the system using the Location Area Identity (LAI).


The mobile station is registered in a database called Visitor Location Register (VLR). MSC and VLR are always implemented in the same node in all Ericsson GSM networks, thus the area is often called MSC/VLR Service Area. A MSC/VLR Service Area is made up of a number of LAs. It represents the geographical part of the network that is covered by one MSC. To route a call to an MS, the subscribers MSC service area is also recorded and monitored.

Network Areas

PLMN SERVICE AREA The Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is a geographical area served by one network operator and is defined as the area in which an operator offers radio coverage and possibility to access its network.


The GSM service area is the entire geographic areas in which a subscriber can gain access to the GSM network. The GSM service area increases as more operators sign contract agreeing to work together. As shown in Figure, these areas include cells, location areas (LAs), MSC/VLR service areas, and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas.

The GSM network can be divided into four main parts: 1.Mobile Station (MS). 2.Base Station Subsystem (BSS). 3.The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). 4.Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS).

Mobile Station
A Mobile Station consists of two main elements: 1.The mobile equipment or terminal. 2.The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).

There are different types of terminals/mobile equipment distinguished principally by their power and application: 1.The `fixed' terminals are the ones installed in cars. Their maximum allowed output power is 20 W. 2.The GSM portable terminals can also be installed in vehicles. Their maximum allowed output power is 8W. 3.The handheld terminals have experienced the biggest success thanks to their weight and volume, which are continuously decreasing. These terminals can emit up to 2 W. The evolution of technologies allows decreasing the maximum allowed power to 0.8W.

The MS includes radio equipment and the man machine interface (MMI) that a subscribe needs in order to access the services provided by the GSM PLMN. MS can be installed in Vehicles or can be portable or handheld stations. The MS may include provisions for data communication as well as voice. A mobile transmits and receives message to and from the GSM system over the air interface to establish and continue connections through the system. Different type of MSs can provide different type of data interfaces. To provide a common model for describing these different MS configuration, reference configuration for MS, similar to those defined for ISDN land stations, has been defined. Each MS is identified by an IMEI that is permanently stored in the mobile unit. Upon request, the MS sends this number over the signaling channel to the MSC. The IMEI can be used to identify mobile units that are reported stolen or operating incorrectly.

Just as the IMEI identities the mobile equipment, other numbers are used to identity the mobile subscriber. Different subscriber identities are used in different phases of call setup. The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) is the number that the calling party dials in order to reach the subscriber. It is used by the land network to route calls toward an appropriate MSC. The international mobile subscribe identity (IMSI) is the primary function of the subscriber within the mobile network and is permanently assigned to him. The GSM system can also assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) to identity a mobile. This number can be periodically changed by the system and protect the subscriber from being identified by those attempting to monitor the radio channel.

Functions of MS
The primary functions of MS are to transmit and receive voice and data over the air interface of the GSM system. MS performs the signal processing function of digitizing, encoding, error protecting, encrypting, and modulating the transmitted signals. It also performs the inverse functions on the received signals from the BS. In order to transmit voice and data signals, the mobile must be in synchronization with the system so that the messages are the transmitted and received by the mobile at the correct instant. To achieve this, the MS automatically tunes and synchronizes to the frequency and TDMA timeslot specified by the BSC. This message is received over a dedicated timeslot several times within a multiframe period of 51 frames. The exact synchronization will also include adjusting the timing advance to compensate for varying distance of the mobile from the BTS. MS keeps the GSM network informed of its location during both national and international roaming, even when it is inactive. This enables the System to page in its present LA. Finally, the MS can store and display short received alphanumeric messages on the liquid crystal display (LCD) that is used to show call dialing and status in formation. These messages are limited to 160 characters in length (varies from mobile to mobile).

Power Levels
These are five different categories of mobile telephone units specified by the European GSM system: 20W, 8W, 5W, 2W, and 0.8W. These correspond to 43-dBm, 39-dBm, 37-dBm, 33-dBm,

and 29-dBm power levels. The 20-W and 8-W units (peak power) are either for vehicle-mounted or portable station use. The MS power is adjustable in 2-dB steps from its nominal value down to 20mW (13 dBm). This is done automatically under remote control from the BTS, which monitors the received power and adjusts the MS transmitter to the minimum power setting necessary for reliable transmission.


The SIM is a smart card that identifies the terminal. By inserting the SIM card into the terminal, the user can have access to all the subscribed services. Without the SIM card, the terminal is not operational. The SIM card is protected by a four-digit Personal Identification Number (PIN). In order to identify the subscriber to the system, the SIM card contains some parameters of the user such as its International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). Another advantage of the SIM card is the mobility of the users. In fact, the only element that personalizes a terminal is the SIM card. Therefore, the user can have access to its subscribed services in any terminal using its SIM card.

Equipment identification
The purpose of equipment identification is to ensure that no stolen or otherwise unauthorized mobiles are used in the network. To this end, every mobile is provided with a tamper-proof equipment number in the manufacturing process, in GSM an international mobile equipment

identity (IMEI). During the set-up phase, the MSC can request this number from the mobile and then send it on for checking in the network element called EIR (in GSM). If the number is barred or unknown, the set-up attempt is rejected.

Subscriber identity confidentiality

Subscriber identity confidentiality means that the operator tries to protect the user's telephone number (the IMSI) from unauthorized tapping. A temporary mobile subscriber number (TMSI in GSM) is used in the dialogue between the mobile and the network, except for the first contact attempt in a set-up phase. The MSC gives the mobile a random TMSI for each set-up.


It identifies the current location of the subscriber. LAI=MNC+MCC+LAC Where: MCC= Mobile Country Code MNC= Mobile Network Code (2 digit). Identifies the GSM PLMN in that country and takes the same value as the MNC in IMSI. LAC= Location Area Code (max. 16 bits). Identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN Network & enabling 65536 different location areas to be defined in one GSM PLMN. SUBSCRIBER AUTHENTICATION KEY (Ki) It is used to authenticate the SIM card.


It is used to unlock the MS. If one enters the wrong PIN three times it will lock the SIM. The SIM can be protected by use of PIN password.


In case of PIN, the PUK is needed for unlocking the SIM again. PUK is numeric only, with eight digits. If a correct PUK is entered, an indication is given to the user. After 10 consecutive incorrect entries the SIM is blocked. Either the IMSI or the MSISDN Number may access the subscriber data. Some of the parameters like IAI will be continuously updated to reflect the current location of the subscriber. The SIM is capable of storing additional information such as accumulated call charges. This information will be accessible to the customer via handset key entry.





Technical department has four main streams: 1. Network Switching System (NSS) & Base Station Subsystem (BSS) 3. Network Planning 4. Operation Maintenance & controlling (OMC) 5. Operation and Maintenance (O&M)

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

The BSS connects the Mobile Station and the NSS. It is in charge of the transmission and reception. The BSS can be divided into two parts: 1.The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station. 2.The Base Station Controller (BSC).

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

The BTS controls the radio interface to the MS. The BTS comprises the radio equipment such as transceivers and antennas which are needed to serve each cell of the network. A BTS is usually placed in the centre of a cell. Its transmitting power defines the size of a cell. Each BTS has between one and sixteen transceivers depending on the density of users in the cell.

BTS has 4 functional parts: 1. Transmission unit 2. Control functions 3. TRX

4. Combiner

1.Transmission unit
The task of the transmission unit is to connect the BTS to the Abis interface and, in doing so, create different types of transmission configuration possibilities. All of the Nokia BTSs have integrated transmission units. Certain Talk-family models offer additional integrated radio relay links. Transmission units are monitored by the operation and maintenance unit by means of an internal Q1 bus.

2.Control functions
Control functions can be split into four individual functions: 1. Operation and maintenance 2. Master clock function 3. Frequency hopping control 4. External alarms and controls That being said, depending on the type of BTS this could mean from one integrated unit to up to four individual plug-in units.

a.Operation and maintenance

The O&M processor controls and supervises the operation of all BTS units alone or in cooperation with other processors. It is the main interface for local O&M and controls and supervises the other units as well as delivers all status information to the BSC by means of the O&M signalling link , which it manages. It stores SW as well as downloads SW to the other units. It also downloads the software and configuration information received from the BSC or the MMI to other processors.

b. External alarms and controls

External alarms and controls are programmable interfaces to other devices in the BTS , which can be used to monitor environmental conditions at the BTS site as well as monitor the state of units, which do not have a processor of their own. An example of external alarm might be an intruder alarm or a smoke detector.

C. Frequency hopping control

The frequency hopping control processor controls the frequency hopping functions of the BTS by calculating the frequency hopping algorithm and controls the transceivers through a specific parallel bus.

3.Transceiver (TRX)
The TRX can also contain a varying number of plug-in units depending on the type of BTS. The TRX can basically be thought of in terms of two functional parts: the base band part and the radio part. The radio part can also be split into a transmitter part(Tx) and a receiver part(Rx). The Rx part may also be configured to support antenna diversity , which is supported by all of the BTS products. The functions of the TRX can be divided into two categories: O&M and telecommunication control. One of the most important functions relative to O&M is to download the software and configuration information received from the main O&M processor to its slave processors (DSPs). In terms of telecommunication control, we can apply many of the functions examined in the previous section directly to the TRX. Apart from digitising and source coding, all of these are in fact performed in the TRX, speech coding being performed in the transcoder. It is important to remember that in the uplink direction the mobile will perform the same functions as well as digitising and speech coding. Relative to the other functions of the TRX, we could also mention channel equalisation, adaptive frame alignment, RACH channel detection and measurements as TRX functions. TRX software is also designed to handle a number of signalling scenarios including call set-up and release, handovers, TX power control, Air-interface measurements and short messages.

Functionality of the BSC

The BSC manages a variety of tasks ranging from channel administration to short messaging service. Furthermore the BSC provides interfaces to other network elements. The main functionalities are explained in brief below. The following BSC functionalities consist of basic and optional functionalities. These functionalities and options are described in more detail in BSS feature descriptions.

General functionalities A. Management of terrestrial channels

1. Indication of blocking on the A interface channels between the BSC and the MSC 2. Allocation of traffic channels between the BSC and the BTSs 3. Pool support for A interface circuits 4. concept support for flexible channel assignments, for example, half rate and high speed circuit switched data

B. Management of radio channels

1.Management of channel configurations, that is, how many traffic channels and signalling channels can be used in the BSS. This is done in connection with radio network configuration. 2.Management of traffic channels (TCH) and stand-alone dedicated control channels (SDCCH). This function can be subdivided into the following tasks: - resource management - channel allocation - link supervision - channel release - power control 3. Management of broadcast control channels (BCCH) and common control channels (CCCH). This function can be subdivided into the following tasks: - channel management - random access - access grant - paging - Management of PCCCH/PBCCH for (E)GRPS

C. Management of frequency hopping:

The BSC is in charge of frequency hopping management which enables effective use of radio resources and enhanced voice quality for a GSM subscriber.

1. Handovers
The frequency of the mobile is changed in connection with handovers which are executed and controlled by the BSC. Such a handover can be one of the following three types: a. Intra-BSC, intra-cell (both intra-TRX and inter-TRX), which means that the handover takes place within the area controlled by the BSC and the mobile stays in the same cell b. Intra-BSC, inter-cell, which means that the mobile stays in the area of the BSC but moves from one cell to another c. Inter-BSC, both outgoing and incoming, which means that the mobile moves into the area of another BSC Management of signalling channels between the BSC and the BTSs The BSC supervises all 16, 32 or 64 kbit/s permanent point-to-point LAPD signalling connections, consisting of one connection per Transceiver Unit (TRX) and BTS Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU).

The BSC offers the possibility for the following maintenance procedures: Fault localization for the BSC Reconfiguration of the BSC Reconfiguration support to the BTS Updating of the software in the BSC, TCSM2 and BTS

During normal operation, the BSC offers various possibilities for the operator: modification of the parameters of the BSC and the BTS modification of the radio network parameters configuration of the BSC hardware administration of the BSC equipment

Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS)

The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriberrelatedfunctions.

The different components of the NSS are described below: Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC) The MSC performs the telephony switching functions for the mobile network. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems such as Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), public data networks, private networks and other mobile networks.

The Mobile Switching Center or MSC is the primary service delivery node for GSM, responsible for handling voice calls and SMS as well as other services (such as conference calls, FAX and circuit switched data). The MSC sets up and releases the end-to-end connection, handles mobility and hand-over requirements during the call and takes care of charging and real time pre-paid account monitoring. In the GSM mobile phone system, in contrast with earlier analogue services, fax and data information is sent directly digitally encoded to the MSC. Only at the MSC is this re-coded into an "analogue" signal . There are various different names for MSCs in different contexts which reflects their complex role in the network, all of these terms though could refer to the same MSC, but doing different things at different times.

A Gateway MSC is the MSC that determines which visited MSC the subscriber who is being called is currently located. It also interfaces with the Public Switched Telephone Network. All mobile to mobile calls and PSTN to mobile calls are routed through a GMSC. The term is only valid in the context of one call since any MSC may provide both the gateway function and the Visited MSC function, however, some manufacturers design dedicated high capacity MSCs which do not have any BSSes connected to them. These MSCs will then be the Gateway MSC for many of the calls they handle. The Visited MSC is the MSC where a customer is currently located. The VLR associated with this MSC will have the subscriber's data in it. The Anchor MSC is the MSC from which a handover has been initiated. The Target MSC is the MSC toward which a Handover should take place.

Mobile Switching Centre Server (MSS) The Mobile Switching Centre Server or MSC Server is a soft switch variant of Mobile Switching Centre, which provides circuit-switched calling, mobility management, and GSM services to the mobile phones roaming within the area that it serves. MSC Server functionality enables split between control (signalling) and user plane (bearer in network element called as Media Gateway), which guarantees more optimal placement of network elements within the network. Other GSM Core Network Elements connected to the MSC The MSC connects to the following elements: 1. The HLR for obtaining data about the SIM and MSISDN 2. The Base Station Subsystem which handles the radio communication with 2G and 2.5G mobile phones. 3. The UTRAN which handles the radio communication with 3G mobile phones. 4. The VLR for determining where other mobile subscribers are located.

Tasks of the MSC include

1. Delivering calls to subscribers as they arrive based on information from the VLR . 2. Connecting outgoing calls to other mobile subscribers or the PSTN. 3. Delivering SMSs from subscribers to the SMSC and vice versa. 4. Arranging handovers from BSC to BSC. 5. Carrying out handovers from this MSC to another. 6. Supporting supplementary services such as conference calls or call hold. 7. Generating billing information.

Home Location Register (HLR)

The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator. It acts as a permanent store for a persons subscription information until that subscription is canceled. The information stored includes: 1. Subscriber identity. 2. Subscriber supplementary services. 3. Subscriber location information. 4. Subscriber authentication information. The 'Home Location Register' or HLR is a central database that contains details of each mobile phone subscriber that is authorized to use the GSM core network. There is one logical HLR per PLMN, although there may be multiple physical platforms. The HLR stores details of every SIM card issued by the mobile phone operator. Each SIM has a unique identifier called an IMSI which is the primary key to each HLR record. The next important items of data associated with the SIM are the MSISDNs, which are the telephone numbers used by mobile phones to make and receive calls. The primary MSISDN is the number used for making and receiving voice calls and SMS, but it is possible for a SIM to have other secondary MSISDNs associated with it for fax and data calls. Each MSISDN is also a primary key to the HLR record. Examples of other data stored in the HLR against an IMSI record are: 1. GSM services that the subscriber has requested or been given 2. GPRS settings to allow the subscriber to access packet services

3. Current Location of subscriber (VLR and SGSN) 4. Call divert settings applicable for each associated MSISDN. 5. The HLR data is stored for as long as a subscriber remains with the mobile phone operator. The HLR is a system which directly receives and processes MAP transactions and messages from elements in the GSM network, for example, the Location Update messages received as mobile phones roam around. The HLR connects to the following elements: 1. The Gateway MSC (G-MSC) for handling incoming calls 2. The VLR for handling requests from mobile phones to attach to the network 3. The SMSC for handling incoming SMS 4. The voice mail system for delivering notifications to the mobile phone that a message is waiting.

Procedures implemented The main function of the HLR is to manage the fact that SIMs and
phones move around a lot. The following procedures are implemented to deal with this: Manage the mobility of subscribers by means of updating their position in administrative areas called 'location areas', which are identified with a LAC. The action of a user of moving from one LA to another is followed by the HLR with a Location area update while retrieving information from BSS as BSIC (cell identifier). Send the subscriber data to a VLR or SGSN when a subscriber first roams there. Broker between the GMSC or SMSC and the subscriber's current VLR in order to allow incoming calls or text messages to be delivered. Remove subscriber data from the previous VLR when a subscriber has roamed away from it.

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

The VLR database contains information about all the mobile subscribers currently located in the MSC service area. Thus, there is one VLR for each MSC in a network. The VLR temporarily stores subscription information so that the MSC can service all the subscribers currently visiting that MSC service area. The VLR can be regarded as a distributed HLR as it holds a copy of the HLR information stored about the subscriber.

When a subscriber roams into a new MSC service area, the VLR connected to that MSC requests information about the subscriber from the subscribers HLR. The HLR sends a copy of the information to the VLR and updates its own location information. When the subscriber makes a call, the VLR will already have the information required for call set-up.

Authentication Center (AUC)

AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. The AUC is a database connected to the HLR which provides it with the authentication parameters and ciphering keys used to ensure network security. The 'Authentication Centre' or AUC is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful, the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice, SMS, etc.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network. If the authentication fails, then no services are possible from that particular combination of SIM card and mobile phone operator attempted. There is an additional form of identification check performed on the serial number of the mobile phone described in the EIR section below, but this is not relevant to the AUC processing. Proper implementation of security in and around the AUC is a key part of an operator's strategy to avoid SIM cloning. The AUC does not engage directly in the authentication process, but instead generates data known as triplets for the MSC to use during the procedure. The security of the process depends upon a shared secret between the AUC and the SIM called the Ki. The Ki is securely burned into the SIM during manufacture and is also securely replicated onto the AUC. This Ki is never transmitted between the AUC and SIM, but is combined with the IMSI to produce a challenge/response for identification purposes and an encryption key called Kc for use in over the air communications. Other GSM Core Network Elements connected to the AUC The AUC connects to the following elements:

The MSC which requests a new batch of triplet data for an IMSI after the previous data have been used. This ensures that same keys and challenge responses are not used twice for a particular mobile.

Procedures implemented
The AUC stores the following data for each IMSI: 1. The Ki 2. Algorithm id (the standard algorithms are called A3 or A8, but an operator may choose a proprietary one). When the MSC asks the AUC for a new set of triplets for a particular IMSI, the AUC first generates a random number known as RAND. This RAND is then combined with the Ki to produce two numbers as follows: The Ki and RAND are fed into the A3 algorithm and a number known as Signed response or SRES is calculated. The Ki and RAND are fed into the A8 algorithm and a session key called Kc is calculated. The numbers (RAND, SRES, KC) form the triplet sent back to the MSC. When a particular IMSI requests access to the GSM core network, the MSC sends the RAND part of the triplet to the SIM. The SIM then feeds this number and the Ki (which is burned onto the SIM) into the A3 algorithm as appropriate and an SRES is calculated and sent back to the MSC. If this SRES matches with the SRES in the triplet (which it should if it is a valid SIM), then the mobile is allowed to attach and proceed with GSM services. After successful authentication, the MSC sends the encryption key Kc to the Base Station Controller (BSC) so that all communications can be encrypted and decrypted. Of course, the mobile phone can generate the Kc itself by feeding the same RAND supplied during authentication and the Ki into the A8 algorithm.

The AUC is usually collocated with the HLR, although this is not necessary. Whilst the procedure is secure for most everyday use, it is by no means crack proof. Therefore a new set of security methods was designed for 3G phones. Radio Interface Radio interface is the interface between the MS and the RBS. It is also called as Um interface. This interface has three layers (OSI). They are Physical Layer (Layer1), Data Link Layer (Layer2) and Network Layer (Layer3) Network Layer (Layer3): This layer provides the Mobile Network Signaling (MNS) service to the user application. The basic functions of this layer are to establish, maintain and terminate circuit switched connections across a GSM PLMN and other networks to which the PLMN is connected. Also it supports functions for supplementary services and short message service This layer consists of three-sub layer which are basically protocol control entities. They are a. Connection Management (CM) b. Mobility Management (MM) c. Radio Resource Management (RR) In the MS, entities from all three sub layers are present however on the network side there is a distribution of the signaling functions between different network equipment. The RR function resides mainly in the BSC. The MM and CM functions are located in the MSC. In the BTS most of the RR messages are handled as transparent message. However some of them must be interpreted by the BTS.

a. Mobility Management:
The following functions are being carried out by this Mobility management MM sub layer. All the functions regarding the location of the MS, which includes location updating type normal, location update type periodic registration and location updating type IMSI attach.

It provides the user identity procedures. These procedures are authentication, TMSI reallocation, IMSI detach and identification of the MS by requesting either IMSI or IMEI.

c. Radio Resource Management:

The main purpose of this sub layer is to establish, maintain and release a dedicated connection between the MS and the network. This includes handover procedures, cell selection at power on and cell re-selection in idle mode, recovery from lack of coverage in idle mode. The following are the basic RR functions. On the downlink, the RR sub layer sends system information to the busy MS. On the uplink, the MS transmits measurement reports. The network may use the RR ciphering mode-setting procedure for setting the ciphering mode. The class mark change procedure is used by the MS to provide the system with additional MS class mark information. It is also used to indicate to the network a change in class mark. For example, when the power capabilities of a hand held MS are changed because the MS is connected to external power in a vehicle.

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

The EIR is also used for security purposes. It is a register containing information about the mobile equipments. More particularly, it contains a list of all valid terminals. A terminal is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The EIR allows then to forbid calls from stolen or unauthorized terminals (e.g., a terminal which does not respect the specifications concerning the output RF power).

EXPLANATION 1. Um The air interface between the MS (Mobile Station) and the BTS. This interface uses
LAPDm protocol for signaling, to conduct call control, measurement reporting, Handover, Power control, Authentication, Authorization, Location Update and so on. Traffic and Signaling are sent in bursts of 0.577 ms at intervals of 4.615 ms, to form data blocks each 20 ms. The traffic channels in the Air interface are allocated onto a TDMA frame. The TDMA frame consists of 8 time slots. Generally, all time slots are used for traffic channels. Time slot 0 and sometimes also time slot 1 can be used for the signaling between the BTS (BSC, MSC) and the MS.

TDMA Frame = 8time slots 2. Abis The interface between the Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller.
Generally carried by a DS-1, ES-1, or E1 TDM circuit. Uses TDM sub channels for traffic

(TCH), LAPD protocol for BTS supervision and telecom signaling, and carries synchronization from the BSC to the BTS and MS. It is a 2 Mbit/s interface which can carry up to 96 channels. The capacity of the Abis depends on the type of signaling used between the BSC and the BTS. When using 64 kbit/s signaling, the 2 Mbit/s link capacity is 80 traffic channels. Using 16 kbit/s signaling, the 2 Mbit/s link capacity is 96 traffic channels.

3. A The interface between the BSC and Mobile Switching Center. It is used for carrying
Traffic channels and the BSSAP user part of the SS7 stack. Although there are usually transcoding units between BSC and MSC, the signaling communication takes place between these two ending points and the transcoder unit doesn't touch the SS7 information, only the voice or CS data are transcoded or rate adapted.

4. Ater The interface between the Base Station Controller and Transcoder. It is a proprietary
interface whose name depends on the vendor (for example Ater by Nokia), it carries the A interface information from the BSC leaving it untouched.

5.Gb Connects the BSS to the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) in the GPRS Core

6. B-Interface b/w MSC-VLR 7. C-Interface b/w MSC-HLR 8. E-Interface b/w MSC-MSC 9. F-Interface b/w MSC-EIR

Channel structure
A total of 156.25 bits is transmitted in 0.577 milliseconds, giving a gross bit rate of 270.833 kbps. There are three other types of burst structure for frame and carrier synchronization and frequency correction. The 26bit training sequence is used for equalization, as described above. The 8.25 bit guard time allows for some propagation time delay in the arrival of bursts.

Physical channels
In the air interface, frequency channel C0 and time slots TS0 and TS1 on that channel constitute the physical channels. Each cell has a dedicated C0 channel. Most logical control channels for signaling across the air interface are carried by LAPDm. In the interface between the base station and the BSC, all signaling is carried by LAPD links, which in turn use PCM channels. Signaling that is also transported across the air interface is carried by links having 0 as the service access point identifier (SAPI) address. Since a BSC is responsible for the maintenance of its base stations, BSC-BTS communication is extensive. The maintenance signals are carried by LAPD links having 62 as the SAPI address for base station maintenance and 63 for maintenance of LAPD. The LAPD links are in turn carried by a time slot (usually TS1) on the PCM link connecting a base station to its BSC. In the interface between a BSC and its MSC, there are three levels of physical channels. The topmost level is the discrimination mechanism of the BSSAP protocol, which distinguishes between signals to be transported between a mobile and the MSC and signals that are to be transported only between the MSC and the BSC. In both cases, BSSAP signals are carried by the SCCP in SS7. All call-related signaling uses SCCP's connection-oriented service, while the connectionless service is used in all other cases. SS7 normally uses one or more time slots in a PCM system. The physical channels - together with the relay functions - are used to create logical channels through all or part of the access network. In the air interface, these logical channels are divided into nine types of control channel and two types of traffic channel, all of which are mapped onto the time slots of the physical channels.

Control channels

Control channels are divided into three classes, based on how and when they are used: broadcast channels (BCH); common control channels (CCCH); and dedicated control channels (DCCH).

The GSM system has 11 logical channels

Broadcast channels
Class BCH channels continuously send information about cell and network parameters to the mobiles. They are unidirectional (from base station to mobile) and used jointly by all mobiles. There are three types of broadcast channel: A frequency correction channel (FCCH) carries frequency correction information. A synchronization channel (SCH) carries frame synchronization information and information for identifying the base station. A broadcast control channel (BCCH) carries cell-specific information. These channels are shown in the lower part of Figure.

Common control channels

Class CCCH channels are used for access to the network. These three channels, too, are common to all mobiles. A paging channel (PCH) is used by the network to call terminals. A random access channel (RACH) is used by a mobile to answer paging calls and call the network when the mobile initiates set-up. An access granted channel (AGCH) is used by the network to allocate a dedicated control channel (SDCCH - see below) for continued signaling or some other channel (FACCH - see below) for handover.

All these logical channels are unidirectional: PCH and AGCH from network to mobile and RACH from mobile to network. The signals sent on RACH, AGCH and PCH are relayed via the base station and transferred to and from the BSC on LAPD links.

Dedicated control channels

Class DCCH channels are used for signaling between a mobile and the network before and during a call. These three channels are allocated to individual connections and are always bidirectional. A stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) is used for signaling during the set-up phase; that is, before traffic channel has been allocated. This channel is also used for registration, authentication and signaling in connection with clearing. A slow associated control channel (SACCH) is a locating channel that the mobile uses to continuously report received signal strength in the visited cell and from surrounding cells. The channel can also be used for controlling the output power of the mobile. Note, however, that SACCH does not have the signaling capacity required to control handover. A fast associated control channel (FACCH) - only available in conversation state - is used for handover operations. FACCH is allocated 20 ms of the traffic channel when rapid signaling is required. The listening party does not notice the loss of 20 ms conversation because the receiving unit repeats the last 20 ms. There is one FACCH for each traffic channel. Signals on SACCH, FACCH and SDCCH are relayed to the BSC via the base station. Signals related to call handling; authentication and registration are relayed via SDCCH and then sent to the MSC. Connection handling is performed in both the BSC and the MSC. All control channels except SCH and FCCH use LAPDm. The following comments complete the information given in figure: Between the BSC and base stations, LAPD links are used for maintenance of base stations (base control function, BCF, in GSM). Between the BSC and the MSC, BSSAP (discrim.) signaling is used for paging (in the case of a call to a mobile) and for handover, if the MSC is involved in this handover.

Traffic channels
A traffic channel (TCH) is used to carry speech and data traffic. Traffic channels are defined using a 26-frame multiframe, or group of 26 TDMA frames. The length of a 26-frame multiframe is 120 ms, which is how the length of a burst period is defined (120 ms divided by 26 frames

divided by 8 burst periods per frame). Out of the 26 frames, 24 are used for traffic, 1 is used for the Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) and 1 is currently unused (see Figure). TCHs for the uplink and downlink are separated in time by 3 burst periods, so that the mobile station does not have to transmit and receive simultaneously, thus simplifying the electronics. In addition to these full-rate TCHs, there are also half-rate TCHs defined, although they are not yet implemented. Half-rate TCHs will effectively double the capacity of a system once halfrate speech coders are specified (i.e., speech coding at around 7 kbps, instead of 13 kbps). Eighth-rate TCHs are also specified, and are used for signaling. In the recommendations, they are called Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channels (SDCCH).

Call set up can be classified into two major categories, they are (i) Call From MS (Mobile Originated call) (ii) Call to MS (Mobile Terminated call)


Call From MS (Mobile Originated Call)

Mobile Originated call is possible when the MS is attached with the MSC/VLR and is listening to the system information.

1. The MS requests a SDCCH using RACH 2. The MS indicates that it wants to set up a call. The identity of the MS, IMSI is analyzed and the MS is marked as busy in the VLR 3. Authentication is performed 4. Ciphering may be initiated. 5. The MSC receives a setup message from the MS. This includes the kind of service the MS wants and the B-number. MSC verify that the MS doesnt have services like barring of outgoing calls. If the MS is not barred, the setup of call proceeds. 6. Between the MSC and the BSC a link is established and a PCM time slot is seized. The MSC sends a request to the BSC to assign a TCH. The BSC assigns a TCH to the call (if there is an idle TCH available) and tells the BTS to activate the channel. The BTS sends an acknowledgement when the activation is completed and the BSC orders the MS to switch over to the TCH. The BSC informs the MSC when the assignment is complete. 7. An alert message is sent to the MS indicating that a ringing tone has been generated on the other side. The ringing tone generated in the exchange on the B- subscriber side is sent t the MS via the group switch in the MSC. 8. When the B subscriber answers, the network sends a connect message to the MS indicating that the call is accepted . The MS returns a connect acknowledgement which completes the call set-up.

Call to MS (Mobile Terminated Call)



Transit Exchange



(3) (5)



Signaling connection Speech path



(8) (8)





Figure : Call to MS from PSTN. 1. The number dialed by the calling party is called the Mobile station ISDN number (MSISDN). If the call is being made from a PSTN exchange, the exchange analyses the number and decides that the call is for a GSM subscriber 2. From PSTN, the call is routed to the GMSC in the home PLMN of the called MS. 3. By analyzing the MSISDN, the GMSC finds out which HLR the subscriber is registered in. GMSC asks the HLR for information so the call can be routed to the MSC/VLR where the MS is temporarily registered. 4. The HLR contacts the VLR and gets the roaming number. 5. The HLR forwards the roaming number to the GMSC. 6a. With the help of the roaming number, the GMSC can appropriate MSC. 6b. The call is routed to the MSC 7. The MSC knows which location area the MS is located in and sends a message to the BSCs handling this location area. 8. The BSC distributes the paging message to the BTSs in the LA paging route the call to the

9. The BTSs page the MS using IMSI The MS sends a request for a SDCCH when it detects its identity in the paging message. The MSC performs authentication and starts ciphering. The MSC may send information to the MS about requested services like speech, data, fax etc., The BSC orders the BTS to activate a TCH and release the SDCCH. The MS is ordered to tune to the frequency of the TCH. An alerting message is sent from the MS indicate that a ring tone has been generated in the MS. The ringing tone for the calling subscriber is generated in the MSC. When the mobile subscriber answers, the MS sends a connect message. The network completes the through connection path and sends a connection acknowledgement to the MS. The duplex path for traffic is open now.

GSM is a digital mobile standard But radio frequencies are analogue. So the question is how do we transmit digital information in an analogue signal ? It looks difficult, but if we think about the values that must be transmitted (0 and 1), suppose that the frequency varies between two values, one representing 0 and the other representing 1. By altering the value of a certain characteristic of frequency at every specified interval (the bit duration), we can translate an analogue signal into a bit stream in the frequency domain. This technique is called modulation. The characteristics that can be varied is the frequency, the amplitude or the phase shift. The modulation technique used in GSM is the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK).

1 Bit duration Phase Modulation AM FM M Amplitude Modulation Frequency Modulation Modulation Signal

In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (known as muxing) is a term used to refer to a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share an expensive resource. For example, in telecommunications, several phone calls may be transferred using one wire. The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel, which may be a physical transmission medium. The multiplexing divides the capacity of the low-level communication channel into several higher-level logical channels, one for each message signal or data stream

to be transferred. A reverse process, known as demultiplexing, can extract the original channels on the receiver side. A device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (MUX), and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (DEMUX). Inverse multiplexing (IMUX) has the opposite aim as multiplexing, namely to break one data stream into several streams, transfer them simultaneously over several communication channels, and recreate the original data stream.

Categories of multiplexing
The two most basic forms of multiplexing are time-division multiplexing (TDM) and frequencydivision multiplexing (FDM), both either in analog or digital form. FDM requires modulation of each signal. Variable bit rate digital bit streams may be transferred efficiently over a fixed bandwidth channel by means of statistical multiplexing, for example packet mode communication. Packet mode communication is an asynchronous mode time-domain multiplexing, which resembles but should not be considered as time-division multiplexing. Digital bit streams can be transferred over an analog channel by means of code-division multiplexing (CDM) techniques such as frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) and directsequence spread spectrum (DSSS).

1. The GSM handover process uses a mobile assisted technique for handovers, in order to: Maintain the user connection link quality. Manage traffic distribution accurate and fast

2. The overall handover process is implemented in the MS,BSS & MSC. 3. Measurement of radio subsystem downlink performance and signal strengths received from surrounding cells, is made in the MS. 4. These measurements are sent to the BSS for assessment.

5. The BSS measures the uplink performance for the MS being served and also assesses the signal strength of interference on its idle traffic channels. 6. Initial assessment of the measurements in conjunction with defined thresholds and handover strategy may be performed in the BSS. Assessment requiring measurement results from other BSS or other information resident in the MSC, may be perform. in the MSC. 7. The MS assists the handover decision process by performing certain measurements. 8. When the MS is engaged in a speech conversation, a portion of the TDMA frame is idle while the rest of the frame is used for uplink (BTS receive) and downlink (BTS transmit) timeslots. 9. During the idle time period of the frame, the MS changes radio channel frequency and monitors and measures the signal level of the six best neighbor cells. 10. Measurements which feed the handover decision algorithm are made at both ends of the radio link.

1. At the MS end, measurements are continuously signaled, via the associated control channel, to the BSS where the decision for handover is ultimately made. 2. MS measurements include: Serving cell downlink quality (bit error rate (BER) estimate). Serving cell downlink received signal level, and six best neighbor cells downlink received signal level.

3. The MS also decodes the Base Station ID Code (BSIC) from the six best neighbor cells, and reports the BSICs and the measurement information to the BSS.

1. The BTS measures the uplink link quality, received signal level, and MS to BTS site distance. 2. The MS RF transmit output power budget is also considered in the handover decision.

3. If the MS can be served by a neighbor cell at a lower power, the handover is recommended. 4. From a system perspective, handover may be considered due to loading or congestion conditions. In this case, the MSC or BSC tries to balance channel usage among cells.


1. During the conversation, the MS only transmits and receives for one eighth of the time, that is during one timeslot in each frame. 2. During its idle time (the remaining seven timeslots), the MS switches to the BCCH of the surrounding cells and measures its signal strength. 3. The signal strength measurements of the surrounding cells, and the signal strength and quality measurements of the serving cell, are reported back to the serving cell via the SACCH once in every SACCH multiframe. 4. This information is evaluated by the BSS for use in deciding when the MS should be handed over to another traffic channel. 5. This reporting is the basis for MS assisted handovers

The following measurements is be continuously processed in the BSS:

1. Measurements reported by MS on SACCH Down link RXLEV Down link RXQUAL Down link neighbor cell RXLEV

2. Measurements performed in BSS Uplink RXLEV Uplink RXQUAL MS-BS distance Interference level in unallocated time slots

Every SACCH multiframe (480 ms) a new processed value for each of the measurements is calculated.

Handover is done on five conditions: 1. Interference 2. RXQUAL 3. RXLEV 4. Distance or Timing Advance 5. Power Budget Interference - If signal level is high and still there is RXQUAL problem, then the RXQUAL problem is because of interference. RXQUAL - It is the receive quality. It ranges from 0 to 7 , 0 being the best and 7 the worst. RXLEV - It is the receive level. It varies from -47dBm to -110dBm. Timing Advance - Ranges from 0 to 63. Power budget - It is used to save the power of the MS.

1. Handover takes place in the same cell from one timeslot to another timeslot of the same carrier or different carriers (but the same cell). 2. Intra-cell handover is triggered only if the cause is interference. 3. Intra-cell handover can be enabled or disabled in a cell.


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Call is handed from timeslot 3 to timeslot 5




Call is handed from timeslot 3 of cell1 to timeslot 1 of cell2 . Both the cells are controlled by the different BSC.


Handover takes place between different cells which are controlled by the different BSC.

Handover Priority
1.Up Link Interference ---- Intra cell handover 2.Down Link Interference ---- Intra cell handover 3.Up Link Quality Poor ---- Inter cell handover 4.Down Link Quality Poor ---- Inter cell handover 5.Up Link Strength Poor ---- Inter cell handover 6.Down Link Strength Poor ---- Inter cell handover 7.MS-BS Distance exceed TA ---- Inter cell handover 8.Better Cell ---- Inter cell handover 9.Macro-Micro delay handover ---- Intra cell handover 10. GOOD C/I handover ---- Intra cell handover 11. Directed Retry ---- Inter cell handover

Base Station Identity Code

Problem defination A problem could arise when the mobile station in a given position is performing a handover, but is receiving two cells using the same BCCH frequency. This can happen when the mobile station is moving along the national borders, where on each side of the border the different PLMN operators have some frequencies in common. In order to discriminate between cells transmitting the BCCH channels at the same frequency, the mobile station uses the Base Station Identify Code (BSIC). The BSIC is broadcast on the SCH (Synchronization Channel) of each cell. Definition of BSIC The BSIC is a local color code that allows a mobile station to distinguish between different neighboring base stations. However, it is not an unambiguous identification of a base station. Many cells bear the same BSIC. The scheme of BSIC values to be used are normally laid down in a bilateral agreement between the concerned PLMN operators to prevent

The Frequency Hopping function permits the dynamic switching of radio links from one carrier frequency to another. Frequency Hopping changes the frequency used by a radio link every new TDMA frame in a regular pattern. Frequency Hopping is a GSM feature which can be enabled or disabled on a per cell basis.

Reasons for frequency hopping Decreasing the probability of interference

Frequency Hopping will spread the annoyance of interference over different mobile stations in a particular cell

Suppressing the effect of Rayleigh fading

Rayleigh fading (or multipath fading) is caused by different paths followed by the radio signal. Rayleigh fading can cause coverage holes. Rayleigh fading is location and frequency dependent. When the mobile station is stationary or moves at a slow speed, Frequency Hopping will significantly improve the level of the air-interface performance. However, when the mobile station moves at a high speed, Frequency Hopping does not harm, but does not help much either. The more frequencies are used in a particular cell, the more Frequency Hopping can gain in suppressing the effect of Rayleigh fading.

In GSM, the frequency hopping is implemented through:

Baseband hopping (BH) Divert a call to different transceiver on a frame basis

Synthesiser hopping (SH) Fix a call on a transceiver which re-tunes the frequency on a frame basis

Baseband Hopping (BH)

Number of transceiver units in place equals number of hopping frequencies in the sequence Each transceiver unit is tuned to a fixed frequency A call is routed to different transceivers on a frame basis Hopping spectrum is limited by the number of transceiver units Combining loss is independent of number transceiver units in place 1. Tuned cavity combiners used 2. BH introducing high EIRP

Synthesiser Hopping (SH)

Transceivers are tuned to new frequencies on a frame basis Number of hopping frequencies is not limited by the number of transceivers in place A call is always routed to a given transceiver Hybrid combining is required for SH High carrier numbers reduces EIRP Air combining is recommended to recover EIRP

Key Differences (BH ~ SH)

Both can be used to improve quality or increase capacity BHs effectiveness is limited by the number of transceivers equipped SH can hop over a wide range of frequencies and is independent of number of transceivers equipped

Key Advantages SH
SH is more effective to provide frequency diversity and interference diversity Extending coverage area - frequency diversity Improving quality - frequency diversity Enabling aggressive reuse - interference diversity Realising the potential benefits to operators, the synthesiser frequency hopping capability has been made available since the first generation of Motorolas BTS equipment

Frequency Hopping Parameters

Cell Allocation (CA): Refer to all available frequency carriers in a cell. The allocation should be consecutive starting from effective frequency carrier 0. Mobile Allocation (MA): Set of frequencies to hop over. Maximum of 63 frequencies can be defined in the MA list. Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Order used to hop over the frequencies. There are 64 different sequences: Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Order used to hop over the frequencies. There are 64 different sequences: 1. 0 is cyclic 2. 1 - 63 are pseudo random Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): used to define initial frequency of hopping. The value of MAIO ranges between 0 to (N-1) where N is the number of frequencies defined in the MA list. MAIO of all channel of one hopping TRX must be identical but of different hopping TRX in same cell must be different. Frequency Hopping Indicator (FHI): Defines a hopping system, made up by an associated set of frequencies (MA) to hop over and sequence of hopping (HSN). Training Sequence Code (TSC): Used for delay equalization at RX end. TSC must be the same as BTS code.

Planning for frequency hopping

The plan depends upon the type of Frequency Hopping system used. As in case of SFH, a separate frequency plan is prepared for the BCCH carriers. Generally the frequency band is divided into two parts, one used for BCCH frequency plan and other for hopping frequencies. Since BCCH carrier radiates continuously without downlink power control, frequencies used for BCCH on one cell should not be used as hopping frequencies on other cell.

The division of frequency band for allocation of BCCH and hopping carriers should be done to maintain reasonable C/I for BCCH carriers as well as to have enough frequencies for hopping. Planning of HSN MA list is same for all the cells of the site. MA list is same for the cells of different sites. MA list is different for the cells HSN is set to 0

The benefits of MAIO planning can be best achieved only in case when sectors having same MA list are synchronized. For non-synchronized sectors MAIO can be the same. In cases where there are large numbers of hits, MAIO change can be very effective as it adds the offset in the hopping sequence and hitrate can be reduced.

Frequency hopping is a powerful technique to improve transmission quality and enhance capacity Synthesiser frequency hopping is a cost effective and flexible means to maximising capacity using Aggressive Reuse Motorolas wide scale deployment of frequency hopping networks validated the effectiveness of the frequency hopping


It is a method that is adopted to optimized GSM network. Once a GSM network is rolled out based on network planning tool prediction. The nature of network hardly ressembles with the prediction so that the operator or the service provider tasks is to bring the network back as nearest as possible towards the prediction. Through the systematic process of collecting the air interface data from the already built network status of existing network get recorded. The collected data is processed offline to know the deviation from the prediction as per the interpretation of the pre processing result configuration changes are performed on the network. Then further DRIVE TEST is performed to check the modified status . after a few changes the network is brought very near to the prediction then the network is set to optimized .


DRIVE TEST is performed to identifies the Network Problem, Analysis the reasons behind all these problems and performed its Rectification.







1. DRIVE TEST is conducted with the aim of collecting data GSM network. 2. DATA COLLECTION:The RF data collected in the drive test is compared with the corresponding planned by post processing tools. 3ANALYSIS:. we analyse data collected which result in reaccomudation of changes or action steps to be taken in network RF parameter. 4. ACTION PERFORMED : In this we make changes in the network on the behalf of data analysis to meet our requirements.


1. Data collected to find and analyze problems in the network 2.Vehicle (specially preferred diesel vehicle ). 3. Handset that is Drive test mobile phone. 4. External vehicle mounted GPS. We mainly used magnetic GPS. But some time

handheld GPS is also used. Handheld GPS is of two types (a). 72 channel (b). 12 channel
5. Laptop with drive test software and GPS connection capability 6. Dongle Key 7. Baffo cable : It is used to connect handheld GPS with laptop. It is used only when we are using handheld GPS instead of magnetic GPS.

8. USB HUB: It is used to connect multiple handsets with a single laptop . it is used only when we are performing drive test for more than one operator or for various mode of operation (IDEAL , DEDICATED , DATA) of the single operator at the same time .

9. GPS cable. 10. Magnetic compass : it is used to check out the sector of site to which we are latched.

TYPES OF DRIVE TESTS (w.r.t. area covered):

1. CW Drive : It is done at the face Initial network setup. 2. SWAP Drive Test: This drive test is performed when there is any Updation in existing network. 3. GPRS Drive Test-: Data drive test is done for GPRS and EDGE . It is manly done for checking out the the speed of GPRS and EDGE.

4. Benchmarking Drive Test:It is basically done by comparing performance of observing network with one the best network at that time . it is done to check the coverage area of Multiple Operator . 5. Frequency Scanning Drive Test: In this kind of DRIVE TEST we check C/I ratio for checking the proper planning of BCCH to avoid overshooting of signal . In this we have to check the proper interference range so we come to know about proper frequency planning. 6. Extensive Drive Test:Extensive Drive test is basically used to check maximum coverage strength in each Sector of a particular site. 7. Single Call Functionality Test (SCFT):In this type of drive test we basically check three main things . 1. Initially we have to check that is the site is located at the planned latitude longitude os shifted. 2.Then we have to check its orientation and tilt according to the clutter. 3. Then we have to check its swap (a) Sector swap (b)cable swap (c)Diversity swap Then we have to finally start our drive test in which we basically Making 10 calls and 5 sms in each site to check all the planned RF parameter and radio parameter. 8. Green Field Drive Test: It is done at the time of New network acceptance Test Drive. 9. Migration drive test : It is used only when location area code that is LAC of a site is changed .

DRIVE TEST TYPES (w.r.t work to be done in drive test):

1. Routine drive test 2. Problem specific drive test 3. Cell coverage analysis drive test


(A). Network is monitored on a regular basis (B). Drive test routes to include all the major roads, important locations, etc

(C). Routes regularly drive tested and problems further analyzed and solved (D). May require removing interfering carrier, Power Change to BTS, Frequency Plan change, Neighbor addition , etc.


(A). Problems reported by statistical analysis, routine drive testing, customer care centre , etc (B). List of problematic cells identified and drive tested thoroughly to analyze the problem (C). Data collection and analysis done simultaneously


(A). Usually carried out for new planned sites in the network (B). New cells to come on air are thoroughly drive tested to determine their server and coverage areas (C). Optimisation to be carried out for any major deviation from the initially planned design


1. Attach the equipments starts with dongle key. 2. Define the COM PORTS for each equipments . it is used for version 6 and older. 3. Then connect all the driver to the software. 4. Now the mobile connect is in IDLE mode and it will show live network parameter . 5. Click on the record button of the toolbar to start the recording of the log files. Log files are saves in the .log extension. 6. Drive on the route to check the coverage of each cell. By doing so we will be able to record the various RF PARAMETER and we can find the issues in the network. 7. After doing all this now we can export the log file into desired format.


1. Call Drops 2. Call Setup Failures 3. HO Failures 4. Interference 5. Call Quality and Coverage 6. GPRS/EDGE Performance


1. PRIMARY ROUTE:It included all the major roads , highways. This should be priorities whenever conducting a coverage test unless a new site is installed for a specified objective. Firstly drive test is done on the basis of planned network. If there is any new site installed then the planned network will be on priority. 2. SECONDARY ROUTE:It include all streets , subdivisions and compound when accessible. 3. MISCELLANOUES ROUTES:It include special location like inbuilding, malls, and tourist places.


Various window(workspace ) used for showing the performance of drive test are set as follow: 1. click on the file option and then save workspace as (*). 2. then for setting the workspace select the option presentation . 3. Go to option GSM and select various windows as shown below.


1.GSM current channel . 2. GSM radio parameter 3. GSM C/I 4. GSM serving + neighbouring 5. GSM hopping channel 6. MAP 7. GPS.

Description of current channel window:

1. TIME : It tell about the exact time detail of the handset which is connected to the kit. 2. CELL NAME: It tells about the name of the current cell with which our handset is latched . 3. CELL GLOBAL IDENTITY: It gives the complete information of the mobile country code , mobile network code, location area code , cell identity.

4. CELL GPRS SUPPORT: It tells whether the serving cell is GPRS supportable or not. 5. BAND: It tell about the band used used by the cell to which our handset is latched that whether it is working at GSM900 OR at GSM 1800. 6. BCCH ARFCN: It shows the BCCH frequency which is assigned to the sector to which handset is latched. 7. TCH ARFCN: It gives the details of TCH ARFCN on which our call hopps. This parameter is enable only when our call is on hopping. 8. BSIC:IT is combination of network color code (NCC) and base station color code (BCC). IT tells about the sector with which our handset is latched. 9. MODE: It tells about the mode of operation that is whether we are performing DRIVE TEST in IDEAL , DEDICATED or PACKED mode. 10. TIME SLOT:It tells about the time slot to which handset is latched. 11. CHANNEL TYPE : IT tells about which type of channel are used during the call. 12. CHIPHERING : It shows either the security parameter are enable or not. 13. SPEECH CODEC: IT shows whether the ongoing call is on half rate or full rate. 14. MAIO: Mobile allocation index offset. Tells about starting hopping frequency.


1. RX LEVEL: It shows the received level in terms of dbm that mobile is receiving from the site or it is the received level signal strength. The total range defined is between 0 to -120 dbm but ideally we say -48 to -110 dbm . If the value lie between -0 to -70 it comes under very good category. If value lies between -70 to -80 it comes under good category. If value lies between -80 to -90 it comes under average category. If value lies between -90 to -100 it comes under poor category. If value lies between -100 to -110 it comes under very poor category. 2. RX QUALITY :It is the continuity of the received signal. It depend upon the BER(bit error rate ) on the scale. Its values lie between 0 to 7 . If value lies between 0 to 3 it comes under good category. If value lies between -90 to -100 it comes under average category. If value lies between -90 to -100 it comes under poor category. 3. BIT ERROR RATE:It is the ratio of the number of bits error to the total number of bits transmitted in a given time interval. BER is measure for the voice quality in the network. After channel ha decoded a 456 bits block it is coded again and compared with 456 input bits. Number of differ bits corresponds to error bits and results in a range of 0 to 7 RX QUALITY. It should be less than .2%. 4. FER(FRAME ERASER RATE);Frame eraser rate is represents the percentage of the frames being dropped due to high number of non correcting bit error in the frame. It should be less than 1% in case of voice call and should be less than 5% in case of data call. 5. SPEECH QUALITY INDEX(SQI): It is dedicated to reflecting the quality of the speech or it is the sppech quality in cellular network as received by human listener. It depends upon BER and FER. It lies between 0 to 30. If the value lie between 0 to -15 it comes under very bad category. If value lies between 16 to 20 it comes under average category. If value lies between 21 to 25 it comes under good category.

If value lies between 26 to 30 it comes under very good category. Its values is updated after a time period of every 0.5 sec. 6. CARRIER TO INTERFERENCE RATIO : The carrier over interference ratio is the ratio between the signal strength of the current serving cell and signal strength of undesired component. It should be atleast greater than 9. 7. DISCONTINUOUS TRANSMISSION :It is defined as the ratio of the number of silent blocks to the total number of block transmitted. 8. TIMING ADVANCE:It gives a value that tells about the distance between MS and BTS if the value is 0 it means MS is in radius of 550 m from the BTS. 9. RADIO LINK TIME OUT;This parameter defines the range value of radio link time out . it shows current value of RLT. It can be decreased by 1 but increased by 2 according to status of the M R. If measurement report is received then its value increase by 2 but if it is not received it is decreased by1. If the value reaches 0 it resulta in normal call drop. We can set the maximu value as 64 and minimum as 4. 10. MS BEHAVIOUR MODIFIED: This windows shows current setting for the mobile station instance whether handover is disabled or multiband operating enable.


. Go to presentation then click on signaling and select following windows as shown below. 1. Layer 3 messages 2. Layer 2 messages 3. More repots 4 . Events

For performing data drive test :

Add a new workspace and name it as DATA. GO TO presentation click on GSM then click on DATA SERVICES and the add the following windows as shown below:

1. GSM data throughput 2. GSM timeslot 3. GPRS linechart 4. GSM PDP context(packet data)


1. Click on configuration. 2. Then click on general and select the CELL FILE LOAD . 3. Add the CELL FILES from where it is placed and then press ok. 4. To check the cell parametric information we have to click option info in the map window. 5. Select the tool and then click on the cell to get its complete information.

It gives the complete information about the following: (a). Serving cell that is about the site to which our handset is latched. It tells about the BCCH, BSIC, MNC, LAC, CI etc. (b).It gives the complete information of neighbor defined. (c). It tells about the various parameter of the antenna that is what is direction of the antenna and used antenna is of which beamwidth. (d). It tells about the position of the cell that is it tells the latitude and longitude of cell.


1. Click on the option GEO SET MANAGER in the map window. 2. Go to map and then click on layer control. 3. Add the object which we want to open in the map and then click on ok. 4. Go to the file and save the GEO SET .

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Routes chosen to be representative of the part of the network under study. If applicable, collect GSM speech and GPRS drive test data together. Drive test to be carried out preferably during peak traffic hours. Calls to be made preferably mobile to a fixed number (Test Number). Call duration to be equal to the average call duration for the network. For a typical metro city, at least 1000 calls required for good statistical confidence.

1. Non working sites/sector or trx.

2. Frequency hopping 3. Overshooting sites 4. coverare holes 5. C/I AND C/A ratio 6. High interference 7. Capacity problems 8. handover failure 9. Ping pong handover 10. Call drop reaasons

Analysis 1: low signal level Above window shows the problem of low signal level it all happen only when there are few no of site and too many different types of obstacle like hills are present those stop the line of site of the broadcasting signal. There might be a lot of coverage hole or places with insufficient signal level.

Analysis 2:Sudden appearance of neighbors Above shown windows tells about the problem of sudden appearance and disappearance of neighbor. 1st arrow tells about the sudden the sudden increase and decrease in neighbor level and 2nd arrow gives indication of the too frequent handover. Due to terrain or obstacles neighbor may pop with high levels causing the BSC to give wrong handover decision. In this case the call will be handed to neighbor every short period of time

Analysis 3:Sudden decrease in Rx level This window tells that there is sudden decrease in Rx level . This curve formation is due to tunnel effect causing sudden decrease in Rx level and cause ping pong hand over. Arrow indicate the formation of tunnel due to sudden variation in Rx level

ANALYSIS 4: It shows that there is Large distance between two sites and very poor Rx level is there through a long distance. It also indicate that the neighboring handover are not defined because Rx level varies from -61 to -80, still there is no handover and Call drops take place a number of times.

Analysis 5: This window shows that there is cable swap in the site to which it is presently latched. Because even after moving for away from the 2nd sector user still latched to the 2nd sector. There may be one way handover is defined or may be the defined handover margin was very high (even more than 33db) . Can be solved by defining proper handover.


1. Rectified Hanging GSM at BRD0022. 2. H/W change at HWR0052 to remove CF:2A:8 3. Height reduction at HWR005 and HWR008 to prevent

4. Overshooting. 5. Down tilt given at GND0012 to avoid overshooting


1. Do not drive too much away from the site . 2. Try to cover all the sectors of the site to check the handover performance. 3. Drive into the site passing through the clutter as well as crossing the clutter. 4. Try to avoid driving twice on the same roads. 5. Also makes shorts calls to check mobile originating, mobile terminating call and call setup. 6. Makes long calls for checking handover and other parameter. 7. Whather condition have to be kept in mind. 8. Report all the setup related problem either manually of by filemarks. 9. Proper connection should be check time to time.


Every live Network needs to be under continuous control to maintain/improve the performance. Optimization is basically the only way to keep track of the network by looking deep into statistics and collecting/analyzing drive test data. It is keeping anzeye on its growth and modifying it for the future capacity enhancements.

The optimization is to intend providing the best network quality using available spectrum as efficient as possible. The scope will consists of all below..
Finding and correcting an existing problem after site implementation and integration. Meeting the network quality criteria agreed in the contact. Optimization will be continuous process of improving overall network quality.

Optimization cannot reduce the performance of the rest of the network. Area of interest is divided in smaller areas called cluster to make optimization and

follow up processes easier to handle


A) Daily Report: To check cell level Rapid fault identification Parameters like TCH, congestion, SDCCH, TCH drop rate B) Weekly Report: Cell level Performance trend Traffic trend Cell detention Cell accessibility C) Monthly Report: TCH Utilization BSC level Performance trend Processor Loading


1) Non working sites and TRX 2) Inactive radio network features like freq hopping 3) Disable/Enable GPRS 4) Overshooting sites 5) Coverage hole 6) High interference spots 7) Drop calls 8) Capacity problem 9) Missing neighbors 10) One way neighbors 11) Ping Pong HO 12) HO not defined 13) KPI for accessibility and retainability 14) Equipment performance 15) Faulty installations RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OPTIMIZATION: 1) Defining HO 2) Proposing a new site or new sector or IBS or repeater 3) Proposing antenna azimuth change 4) Proposing antenna tilt change 5) Proposing antenna type change 6) BTS equipment like filter change 7) Retuning of interferal freq 8) BSIC change 9) Adjusting HO margin

10) Changing power parameter 11) Addition of equipments 12) Addition of TRX cards