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368 Ansichten56 SeitenResearch, design and analysis of a house framework made of bamboo.

Mar 26, 2013

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Research, design and analysis of a house framework made of bamboo.

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Research, design and analysis of a house framework made of bamboo.

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Abstract:

This report summarizes the research findings, calculations, computational analysis and experimental testing involved in this project. The aim of the project is to research, design and analyze a structurally feasible, 3-dimensional model of a house framework made up predominantly of bamboo. The model must be designed such that it suits the needs of people living in Pabal village, Maharashtra, India. The report summarizes information obtained from research regarding bamboo building methods and principles, bamboo joinery methods, properties of bamboo and background information of Pabal village. In order to come up with a feasible design, structural analysis were done computationally by modeling and testing an idealized house framework structure and a single 3-dimensional bamboo model in ProEngineer to study the behavior of bamboo under various loading scenarios. An experiment was then designed to test and analyze bamboo samples obtained from Pabal village, so as to observe its joint behavior and ability to withstand loads.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank Dr. Paul Robinson for his advice, guidance and assistance throughout the entire course of this project as project supervisor. The author would like to thank staff from EWB-UK and EngIndia, Miss Pooja Wagh, Miss Lara Lewington and Mr Wayne Jones for all the necessary information, materials and detailed assistance provided during the course of the project. The author would also like to thank Mr Joseph Meggyesi and the technicians at Imperial College Aeronautics department for their assistance in helping to prepare the necessary equipment and materials required for the experimental portion of this project.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Bamboo in General ............................................................................4 2. Project Information ............................................................................ ......................4

2.1 Project Background 2.2 Project Aim 2.3 Problem Description 2.3.1 Structural Loads on a House 2.3.2 Bamboo Joinery 2.4 Current Applications and Information of Bamboo in Pabal 2.5 Project Scope

3.1 General Structure of a House Framework 3.1.1 General structure 3.1.2 Floor and Foundations 3.1.3 Walls 3.1.4 Interior Supporting Pillars and Exterior Supports 3.1.5 Trusses 3.2 Bamboo Joinery Methods 3.3 Effect of Bolts on Bamboo Structure 3.4 Wind Loading Calculations

4.1 Computational Analysis on Idealized House Framework 4.2 Computational Analysis on a 3-D Single Bamboo Culm Model 4.2.1 Exterior Supports and Floor Support Columns (High Axial Loading Cases) 4.2.2 Floor Beams and Roof Beams (Point Loading Cases) 4.2.3 Trusses (High Axial and Shear Loading Case) 4.2.4 Walls and Roof (Distributed Loading Cases) 4.3 Limitations in Computational Analysis 4.3.1 Limitations in Modeling Orthotropic Properties in Idealized Features 4.3.2 Limitations in Modeling Framework Using Idealized Features 4.3.3 Inaccuracy of Input Mechanical Properties 4.3.4 Inaccuracy of Multi-Pass Adaptive Calculations 4.3.5 Inaccuracy of Wind Load Calculations

5.1 Aim and Scope of Experiment 5.2 Apparatus and Set-up 5.3 Experimental Procedure 5.4 Results and Discussion

6. Summary of Guiding Principles for Designing the 3-D House Framework ......37 7. Final 3-D Bamboo House Framework Model ......................... ............................38 8. Conclusions and Improvements ......................... ..................................................39 9. References ......................... .....................................................................................39

Bamboo is the fastest growing plant on earth. It can grow up to 24 inches in a day and is grown mainly in tropical countries in East Asia, South Asia and certain parts of Central America. There are over 1000 different species of bamboo, each with differing characteristics and properties depending on the climate and soil on which the bamboo is grown. Bamboo is light and cheap and is used in many applications, such as the construction of furniture, houses and small bridges. A typical bamboo culm is cylindrical in shape and consists of nodes which are bulged and internodes which are hollow. This is shown in Figure 1-A. Biologically, bamboo consists of cellulose, lignin and polysacharides. The percentage composition for the 3 constituents are approximately 55%, 25% and 20% (Jules J. A. Janssen, 1981: p30). The mechanical properties of bamboo are influenced mainly by its cellulose content, which consists of cellulose microfibrils. Its fibre content in turn depends on other factors such as age and species. The microfibrils are aligned in the longitudinal direction of a bamboo culm, in a weaker matrix material of lignin and polysaccharides, as illustrated in Figure 1-A as well (Seema Jain et al, 1992: p4599).

Figure 1-A For this reason, bamboo has orthotropic mechanical properties, with high stiffness and strength along its strong fibres in the axial direction. In shear or in the transverse direction, it is much weaker because strength and stiffness properties depend largely on the weaker matrix material.

2. Project Information

2.1 Project Background Bamboo as a Permanent Structural Component is a project proposal put forward by EngINdia, who liaises with Engineers Without Borders-UK (EWB-UK). EngINdia is a partnership between 6 students from the University of Cambridge, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) and aims to promote appropriate and sustainable engineering solutions in developing areas. The current program focuses on Pabal village,

Maharashtra, a rural village in India located 80 miles east of Mumbai. EngINdia embarked on an expedition to Pabal village during the summer of 2005. They worked with the local community and with an educational institution near Pabal, known as Vigyan Ashram, so as to understand and appreciate the development issues the locals face and how these problems can be tackled through engineering. This project is one out of 25 projects or design challenges identified and proposed by engINdia as a result of the expedition. (Elliott Furminger et al, 2005: p16) 2.2 Project Aim The design challenge focuses on using bamboo to construct houses in Pabal. More specifically, the aim is to research, design and analyze a 3-dimensional model of a house framework, made up predominantly of bamboo, that is structurally feasible and suits the housing needs of the residents of Pabal village. 2.3 Problem Description It is important to know the local situation and certain background issues faced by Pabal village in order to fully understand the challenges and rationales for this project. Full information of the design challenge and on Pabal village can be obtained from the EngIndia website (EngIndia, n.d.). The main reason for bamboo housing is that it is much cheaper compared to steel and concrete homes. However, there are limitations as bamboo, being a biological material, disintegrates faster compared to concrete and steel. For this project, the focus will solely be on the structural feasibility of using bamboo to construct homes. 2.3.1 Structural Loads on a House The first step is to identify the types of loading that a house will experience in reality, which can be broadly classified into distributed or point loads. The main form of distributed loading is wind loading. Wind speeds in Pabal village range from 39m/s to 44m/s, which falls in the moderate damage risk category (Wikipedia, 2009: India Wind Zone Map). Point loading scenarios can take the form of a man standing on the roof or on the floor. In the scope of this project, dynamic loading cases such as earthquakes will not be considered. 2.3.2 Bamboo Joinery It has been discovered that the joints of a structure absorb approximately 85% of the energy from any force applied on it. Thus, it is important to look into how bamboo can be joined together in a house structure and ensure that the joints, which are expected to withstand high stresses, are structurally feasible. It is also important to consider that bamboo is a hollow cylindrical structure unlike wood or metal, and therefore has its own unique joinery methods. 2.4 Current Applications and Information of Bamboo in Pabal Bamboo housing is being heavily researched but no one in Pabal has ever attempted to build a permanent bamboo house. However, there have been structures built using bamboo. Figure 2-A shows examples of how bamboo has been used in some applications and reveals some of the joinery methods. It shows how bamboo is being lashed together with rope to form scaffolding and 5

how bamboo, drilled and joined together using bolts and nuts, is being used to form the skeletal framework of a shelter for agriculture. From Figure 2-A, it can also be inferred that columns and beams usually do not consist of 1 bamboo culm but several bamboo culms joined together instead. Therefore, any methods of joinery for a house framework must take this into consideration.

Figure 2-A The bamboo species found in Pabal is known as Dendrocalamus Strictus, or Calcutta bamboo. It covers 53% of the total area in India where bamboo is grown. 2 samples of this bamboo were imported from Pabal for testing, each approximately 0.40m long and with a circular cross section of diameter 0.04-0.045m. Figure 2-B shows pictures of these samples. It can be observed that one bamboo sample is thicker than the other and has nodes while the other does not. Table 2-A shows certain characteristics of this species and approximate values of its mechanical properties. (A. N. Rao et al, 1998; Jules J. A. Janssen, 1981; M. Ahmad & F. A. Kamke, 2005; International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, n.d.). Appendix A shows the approximate calculations for its area moment of inertia and buckling load. Figure 2-C defines the orthotropic principal directions for a single bamboo culm (1, 2 and 3) (M. Ahmad & F. A. Kamke, 2005: p450) and also the coordinate system defined for the directions of forces and displacements in a single bamboo culm which will be used throughout this project (x, y and z). A force in the x direction will correspond to an axial force while a force in the y and z direction will correspond to shear forces.

Figure 2-B

Figure 2-C Characteristics and Dimensions Height of culm 8-16m (curved above half its height) Thickness 0.0075-0.015m Cross-section diameter 0.025-0.08m Distance between nodes 0.20-0.45m Approximate Physical and Mechanical Properties Density 500-800 kg/m3 Moisture content 9-10% Youngs Modulus, E1 15000 106 N/m2 Youngs Modulus, E2 6200 106 N/m2 Youngs Modulus, E3 6200 106 N/m2 Shear Modulus, G12 132 106 N/m2 Shear Modulus, G23 1650 106 N/m2 Shear Modulus, G31 93.5 106 N/m2 Poissons Ratio, 12 0.39(inner)-0.58(outer) (average = 0.485) Poissons Ratio, 13 0.39(inner)-0.58(outer) (average = 0.485) Poissons Ratio, 21 0.0177 Poissons Ratio, 31 0.0177 Poissons Ratio, 32 0.3 Poissons Ratio, 23 0.3 Ultimate Tensile Strength (x direction) 160 106 N/m2 Ultimate Compressive Strength (x direction) 80 106 N/m2 Shear Strength(all directions)/Matrix Material Strength 4.6 106 N/m2 Area Moment of Inertia 2.6704 10-7 m4 Buckling Load (1 metre long bamboo) 39534 N Buckling Load (1.75 metre long bamboo) 12909.06 N Table 2-A 2.5 Project Scope The project consists of 3 phases, namely, preliminary research and calculations, computational analysis and experimental testing. The aim is to obtain and compile a set of guiding principles which can be used to design the eventual 3-D bamboo house framework model at the end of every phase, and to ensure that the structure and its joints are able to withstand the loading scenarios described in Section 2.3.1.

Research was done over a range of topics. Information obtained regarding the mechanical and physical properties of Dendrocalamus Strictus and the biological composition of bamboo have been summarized in Sections 1 and 2.4 respectively. In this section, information regarding bamboo joinery methods and building houses with bamboo will be covered. In addition, wind loading calculations and other calculations to obtain several important dimensions will be made. 3.1 General Structure of a House Framework Different parts of a bamboo house serve different essential functions. Several guiding principles were obtained to as to how the bamboo in a house framewok should be arranged together. (Jules J. A. Janssen, 1987; Bamboo Technologies, n.d.; Jo Scheer, n.d.). 3.1.1 General structure The frame of a bamboo house typically consists of horizontal floorbeams, vertical columns, purlins and many diagonally oriented components such as trusses to support shear and axial loadings from all directions. Considering the relative small size of Dendrocalamus Strictus, these crucial parts of the frame will most probably consist of more than 1 bamboo culm in order to sufficiently support the loadings experienced by the framework. The framework must be built with a large base to ensure stability. A low centre of gravity is important as well and this can be achieved by placing heavier joints that have larger steel parts mostly at the lower regions of the framework. Ideally, the house should be symmetrical. Another factor to consider is the varying shape and properties of Dendrocalamus Strictus. As mentioned in Table 2-A, its bamboo culm, which is typically 8-16 metres tall, is curved above half its height. In addition, mechanical properties are known to vary along a bamboo culm. For example, at the higher and younger parts of the culm, there is less fibre content and hence it may be weaker at those points. Therefore, it was decided that the maximum length of any bamboo culm used in the construction of the frame must be kept at approximately 5 metres. This is to ensure that every component is generally straight and has uniformity in its fibre content and hence uniformity in strength and stiffness properties. Also, from observation and mathematical formulae, the buckling load and deflection of a bamboo culm is highly dependent on its length. Because of this, to prevent failure from bending or buckling, the unconstrained length of a bamboo culm must not be too large. 3.1.2 Floor and Foundations Most houses made of bamboo have a floor that is raised above ground. This is to ensure that the bamboo is kept dry as bamboo in contact with soil and moisture has a short lifespan. This means that there must be supporting beams to hold the floor up. In the same way, the ends of the supporting beams in contact with the soil must then be kept dry. This can be achieved by securing these supporting beams on foundation concrete, which can also help to keep the house upright,

prevent it from being uprooted in strong wind. The weight of the heavy concrete also helps to lower the centre of gravity of the entire frame. It was suggested that the elevated floor be kept at least 0.50m above ground to allow inspection of the floorbeams (Jules J. A. Janssen, 1987: p23). Since the floor and foundations of the house are parts that will consist of many bamboo culms being used together to form columns, special methods of joining floor beams to its surrounding columns must be considered. There are several figures in pages 27-28 of Jules J. A. Janssen, 1987 which show how joists and floorbeams can be arranged and joined together and how the floorbeams can be joined to the surrounding columns of a house framework. 3.1.3 Walls The structural functions of walls are to withstand adjacent winds, rains and to support the roof. As far as possible, the wall should consist of vertical bamboo as they dry more quickly than horizontal bamboo. Walls must also consist of a diagonal component so as to constrain the framework and withstand shear and transverse loading. 3.1.4 Interior Supporting Pillars and Exterior Supports Most houses consist of supporting pillars, not just at its corners and walls, but also within the house itself in order to support the roof. This is especially important if the dimensions of the house are large. Support structures at the exterior of the house help to establish a larger base area, firmly anchor the framework on the ground and also reduce lateral displacements of the entire house framework. 3.1.5 Trusses Trusses are constructions that are used to support the roof. These support structures are very important and have to be strong because the roof of the house is most vulnerable during wind loading. It can easily be lifted or sucked upwards if there are strong winds blowing across it. The trusses are also the crucial parts supporting any downward loading on the roof (e.g. man standing on the roof, waterheater on roof). A good arrangement of bamboo to form the roof will be the common king post type truss because it is a simple and strong technique which requires minimal joinery (Jules J. A. Janssen, 1987: p37). It is also important to include trusses that connect and support the roof from the inner wall columns of the house. 3.2 Bamboo Joinery Methods As mentioned in Section 2.3.2, the joints linking bamboo together must be able to withstand high stresses. Bamboo must also be joined such that it fits into the overall house structure. Table 3-A summarizes in point form the advantages and disadvantages of several joinery methods, and its practical feasibility on bamboo from Pabal. (Jo Scheer, n.d.; Bamboo Technologies, n.d.; Jules J. A. Janssen, 1981: p153-226).

Advantages -Simple; insertion of smaller bamboo (tenon) into a hole in a larger bamboo (mortice) -Cheap and light. No other material required

Figure 3-A Lashing -Does not involve drilling and does not affect the structural integrity of bamboo -Able to join bamboo in any direction -Simple and strong -Able to join many bamboo culms together in any direction -Circular bolt hole enables stresses to be evenly distributed around bolt hole -Usage of steel inserts and bolts result in a strong and secure joint that is constrained in every direction

Disadvantages -Diameter of the mortice bamboo must be large enough -Does not constrain a tensile force along the x direction of smaller bamboo (tenon) -Involves drilling a large hole and damages structural integrity of bamboo -Strength of joint is dependent on strength of lashing material and how tightly it is lashed around bamboo -Will fail if lashing disintegrates or loosens over time

Feasibility -Inapplicable for bamboo from Pabal due to small diameter of bamboo

-Applicable for bamboo from Pabal - Method is already used in Pabal and materials (e.g. rope) are readily available -Applicable for bamboo from Pabal - Method is already used in Pabal and materials (e.g. steel bolts and nuts) are readily available -Applicable for bamboo from Pabal but steel plates must not be too large and thick due to small diameter and depth of bamboo culm -Usage should be minimized due to high cost of steel parts

Figure 3-B Steel Bolt and Nut Joinery -Involves drilling and affects the structural integrity of the bamboo culm to a certain extent. -Requires at least 2 bolts in a bamboo culm to constrain it

Figure 3-C

Figure 3-D

-Expensive and heavy due to usage of steel -Involves drilling of circular bolt hole and a large rectangular hole. Damages the structural integrity of a bamboo culm to a large extent -Diameter of bamboo has to be large enough and its walls has to be thick in order to hold steel plate in place

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-Simple and strong -Able to join many bamboo culms together in any direction

-Involves drilling and damages the structural integrity of a bamboo culm -Stress concentrates at the 4 corners of the square pin holes

-Applicable for bamboo from Pabal -Materials are not readily available in Pabal

Figure 3-E Double Horn Joinery -No other material required. Bamboo culm with horns is joined to another culm by inserting horns into drilled holes. -Requires bamboo wall to be thick so that horns are large and strong enough -Involves drilling and damages the structural integrity of a bamboo culm -Does not constrain a tensile force along the x direction in the bamboo with horns -Heavy -Involves drilling of bolt holes and cutting off a slot to put in steel plate. Greatly damages the structural integrity of the bamboo -Presence of steel plate internally increases the risk of failure by rupture -Requires bamboo culm to be thick to hold steel plate in place -Heavy -Involves drilling of bolt holes and affects the structural integrity of a bamboo culm to a certain extent -Applicable for bamboo from Pabal -The small diameter of bamboo results in a shallow insertion of horns, hence relying on horns alone to bear loads may not be reliable -Applicable for bamboo from Pabal -Method is applicable but costly due to steel parts -Steel parts should not be too thick due to small diameter of Pabal bamboo

Figure 3-F Internal Steel Plate and Bolts (triangulated) -Strong, stiff and secure -Able to join many bamboos together in every direction -Triangulated metal plates helps to relieve stress around joint

Figure 3-G

Figure 3-H

-Strong, stiff and secure -Able to join many bamboos together in every direction -Triangulated metal plates helps to relieve stress around joint Table 3-A

-Applicable for bamboo from Pabal -Method is applicable but costly due to steel parts

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It was decided that the methods that will be used in the 3-D house framework design are lashing, steel bolts and nuts and external steel plates and bolts. There are several reasons for choosing the above three methods. The first reason for choosing lashing and steel bolts and nuts is the fact that these two methods are already being used in Pabal, as shown in Figure 2-A. The materials for these two methods are readily available there and therefore these two methods are the cheapest. Secondly, the three selected methods are the most simple with regards to drilling and cutting the bamboo culm as compared to the other 5 methods. Lashing does not require drilling at all and the other 2 methods only require a circular bolt hole to be driven through the centre of the bamboo culm in order to fit the joint. This can be done easily with a drill. Furthermore, with regards to the structural integrity of the bamboo culm structure, a small circular hole is relatively less damaging than a large orifice or slot, which is required in steel piece inserts or internal steel plates and bolts. A circular bolt hole is also preferred to a square pin hole as it helps to relieve stress concentration at the bolts. Lastly, it has been shown that columns and beams in scaffoldings are usually formed by joining many bamboo culms together (Figure 2-A). This is because a single bamboo culm alone will not be able to withstand the loading conditions that such large structures are under. A house structure will include columns and beams that can consist of many bamboo culms. It is therefore important to choose the joinery methods that are able to connect many bamboo culms together effectively and in every direction. The three methods of joinery chosen are all able to do this effectively, although in the case of external steel plates and bolts, joining more bamboo culms together may mean enlarging the steel parts and increasing the overall weight of the joint. 3.3 Effect of Bolts on Bamboo Structure The main problem on a bamboo culm at its joint will therefore be the effect of drilling a bolt through it. For a steel bolt and nut or external steel plates and bolts joint, the steel bolt and nut is the immediate contact between the joint and bamboo culm. Any loading applied to a bamboo culm will be transmitted via the bolts to surrounding culms. It is important, thus, to research and investigate the behavior and stress distribution of bamboo and steel bolts on this contact interface and area surrounding them. This investigation was done using hand calculations and will be observed in greater detail using computational analysis and experimental testing. Even without loading, it must be ensured that there are minimal cracks or notches formed during the drilling of a bolt hole and insertion of a bolt. There will be stress concentrations at the notches during loading and this induces crack propagation in the bamboo material. One method to prevent the forming of cracks or discontinuities is to ensure that the bolts fit perfectly into the bolt holes which must have a suitable tolerance. This is to ensure that the bolt doesnt crush the bamboo at the bolt holes, if it is too big, and also, it must be ensured that it does not slip out, if it is much smaller than the bolt holes. In the following calculations, it is assumed that the bolt holes that are drilled are perfectly circular and compatible with the bolts and has no notches or discontinuities along its surface. Stress distribution around the bamboo structure is dependent on the diameter of the bolt holes. Too small a diameter will result in low contact surface area with the bolt and, in turn, high stresses. Too large a diameter damages the structural integrity of the bamboo culm. The bolt itself must also be

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thick enough to ensure that it can withstand the loads on it. The distance of the bolt hole from the edge of a bamboo or from another bolt hole is important as well because too short a distance can result in the bolt being completely sheared out and sudden failure of the surrounding structure. Appendix B shows the calculations made to obtain the optimum cross section diameter, d, of the bolt or bolt hole and the minimum distance of bolt from bamboo edge, B. d was found to be 0.008m (8mm) and B was fixed at a minimum of 0.04m (40mm). These 2 requirements will be one of the guiding principles when eventually designing the house model in 3-D. 3.4 Wind Loading Calculations As mentioned in Section 2.3.1, the region of Pabal can experience wind speeds of up to 44m/s. Hence, wind loading calculations have to be done for the wall and roof surfaces of a house. These calculations are based on factors considered in the Code and Commentary for the Indian Standard for Wind Loads on Houses (Bureau of Indian Standards, 1987a: p17-40) and an example in its explanatory handbook (Bureau of Indian Standards, 1987b: p43-44). The general shape and dimensions of a building must be considered and therefore it was decided that the house model will have a pitched roof and basic dimensions of 5m by 4m by 2m (i.e. length, L width, W wall height,H). The roof height, h, was estimated to be 1m.There are altogether 4 wind loading scenarios defined specifically in the Indian Standard and they vary according to wind direction and internal and external coefficients of pressure on the roof and wall surfaces. Appendix C shows the calculations which estimates wind pressure loading on the house surfaces. Figure 3-I shows the legend for the different wall and roof parts and dimensions. Table 3-B summarizes the pressure loadings on the surfaces of the house obtained from the calculations.

Pressure(N/m2) 0 wind, Cpi = -0.5 90 wind, Cpi = 0.5 1199.477 -834.219 265.4581 -834.219 -78.6543 169.9334 -78.6543 -563.87 314.617 -911.461 117.9814 -911.461 Table 3-B

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4. Computational Analysis

Computational analysis involved the modeling of 3-D part models in ProEngineer and testing them in Mechanica. In Mechanica, 3-D part models were tested and analyzed by first meshing up the part using finite elements. There was one limitation because the finite element meshes tend to be complicated and the computer did not have enough memory to carry out the finite element analysis for part models. Hence, a complicated model such as a house framework was simulated by modeling it with beam and shell idealizations and testing it in Mechanica, which took up less memory and time. A part model such as a single 3-D bamboo culm is much simpler and these can be tested as a part model in Mechanica. In general, the process was to first model an idealized (non-3-D) house framework based on building principles obtained from preliminary research. The entire structure was then tested under wind loading conditions. These wind pressures were obtained from research as shown in Table 3B. Having tested the idealized model and observing its entire stress and force distribution, the next step is to zoom in on each component of the house framework (e.g. floor, walls, roof etc) and note down the maximum forces and stresses that the bamboo culms in these components experience. To observe in more detail how the bamboo culms in each component behave in 3-D, an individual 3-D bamboo culm was modeled. The maximum forces noted down beforehand were then applied to this 3-D model, which was tested in Mechanica. The 3-D bamboo culm model must be constrained according to the method of joinery that is used on it. Finally, the stress distributions (in 3-D) throughout the single bamboo model and its deformation can be observed and analyzed. A conclusion can then be reached as to whether the component of the house framework is structurally feasible. Figure 4-A below illustrates this process.

Figure 4-A The idealized house framework, modeled using idealized shell panels and beams, is shown with its various components labeled in Figure 4-B. The joints of the model were designed without beam release. This means that the idealized beams are rigidly joined to each other, with freedom to be displaced in all directions but no freedom to rotate about the joints. The only exceptions were the ends of the bamboo components at the foundations, which were rigidly constrained such that they will not displace or rotate in any direction. Also, due to limitations in Mechanica, every beam can only be modeled as a single bamboo culm without nodes. This is done by idealizing each culm as a hollow cylinder with a constant and uniform hollowed circular cross section, which has an outer diameter of 0.05m and inner diameter of 0.03m. The wall panels are modeled as uniform square or triangular shells with a thickness of 0.05m. In addition to that, unlike part models, only isotropic, 14

not the original orthotropic, material properties can be input into idealized beams or shell panels in Mechanica. Therefore, from the values in Table 2-A, instead of inputting different values for material properties in the 3 principal directions, the Youngs modulus throughout the beam or shell material was considered to be the smaller values of E2 or E3 (6200 106 N/m2) while the poissons ratio was set at a value of 0.3. Appendix D-1 shows several views of this house framework and appendix D-2 shows the dimensions of the framework.

Figure 4-B 4.1 Computational Analysis on Idealized House Framework The pressure values in Table 3-B were applied to the surfaces of the idealized house model which is tested in Mechanica. Figures 4-C to 4-F show how the framework deformed under the 4 wind loading scenarios, together with their respective Von Mises stress distributions. The deformation was set at a scaling of 5%. Table 4-A records the maximum stresses and forces detected in each component of the framework for all the wind loading cases. Appendix E shows a typical run status description obtained from Mechanica for the first wind loading scenario (0 wind, Cpi = 0.5).

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Figure 4-H:Wind Loading Case 4: 90 wind, Cpi = -0.5 Floor support columns Floor beams Interior Exterior support supports pillars

Stresses and Forces Max Von Mises stress(N/m2) Max axial stress (N/m2) Max shear stress (N/m2) Max beam resultant, x (N) Max beam resultant, y (N) Max beam resultant, z (N)

Trusses

Roof

Wall

999500 459800 1216000 514900 1101000 1122000 1038000 826000 394900 1138000 479600 955100 336800 399700 499800 231700 607800 294100 550300 599300 523100 1038 496.2 1431 602.7 1200 423.2 500.7 10 45 27.41 10 127 289.2 140.7 10.2 36.2 22.98 5 181.9 244.3 335.3 Table 4-A 19

From visual analysis in Figures 4-C to 4-F, it can be observed from all 4 wind loading cases that the parts of the house framework that tend to bear the most loading are the trusses, floor foundation supporting columns and exterior supports. Also in general, stress will concentrate at the joints of the framework. In wind loading, the parts with highest deformations or displacements are usually at the walls or roof where pressure is directly applied. This is probably because any pressure loading on these components are usually normal to the plane of the bamboo culms. The large deflections are thus due to bending and this will be analyzed in more detail in Section 4.3.4 where computational testing will be done on a 3-D bamboo culm. Nevertheless, the exterior supports are shown to be effective in holding the walls in place, preventing the walls from further displacing laterally. The values in table 4-A will be used in the next part of the computational testing on a single 3-D bamboo model. The maximum beam resultants in the x direction correspond to maximum axial loads while those in the y and z directions correspond to shear forces detected in the idealized bamboo culms. In general, it is observed that the parts which experienced the highest shear forces in y and z directions were mainly the walls and roof. These high shear forces were mainly found at the joints. As mentioned, any pressure loading on these components are usually normal to the plane of the bamboo culms, in other words, in the y or z directions relative to bamboo culms. Therefore, it is no wonder that high resultants in the y and z directions were detected. The trusses were found to be under both high axial and shear forces. The interior support pillars and floor beams experienced moderately low axial forces and very low shear forces. For exterior supports and floor support columns, high axial forces were detected but shear forces are very insignificant. The results were analyzed to check if the idealized framework is theoretically feasible. This was done by comparing the stresses detected in the model and comparing them to the material strength of bamboo recorded in table 2-A. For example, the highest axial stress detected was 1.138 106 N/m2 while the tensile and compressive strengths of bamboo, from table 2-A, are 160 106 N/m2 and 80 106 N/m2 respectively, which are far higher than what was recorded. This shows that from the results of the testing on an idealized framework in Mechanica, none of the components in the framework should theoretically fail by failure of fibres by tension or compression. Also, the highest shear stress detected was 6.078 105 N/m2 while the matrix material strength of bamboo, from table 2-A, is 4.6 106 N/m2. Theoretically, the framework should not fail by shear in any direction as well. In addition, the highest displacement value in the framework was found to be 0.001035m. A good value for the maximum allowable displacement in a structure can be taken as 0.5% of the maximum length of the structure. In this case, the maximum length of the framework is 5m and 0.5% of 5m is 0.025m. The displacements of the framework therefore do not exceed the maximum allowable value. Nevertheless, it is insufficient to say that the framework is structurally feasible if we base this conclusion solely on the results of testing an idealized model. This is due to certain limitations which are explained further in Section 4.3. However, the results are able to give us a rough idea which components of the framework bear the highest axial or shear loads and stresses but more specific analysis must be done in 3-D.

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4.2 Computational Analysis on a 3-D Single Bamboo Culm Model For each component in the house framework, a model of a single bamboo culm was modeled in 3D in ProE, and they vary depending on the length and joinery method of the specific component. This is assuming, again, that each component has beams or columns consisting of only 1 single culm. In general, all the models have bolt holes and the cross sectional dimensions were estimated in accordance with the values recorded in Table 2-A and by observing the samples from Pabal. This time, the orthotropic material properties of bamboo can be input into the part model in Mechanica and the culm was modeled with nodes. All the 3-D models were then tested in Mechanica by constraining each one appropriately and applying the forces that it will realistically and theoretically experience. Steel bolts and supports were modeled as well. From Table 4-A, 3 different loading scenarios from wind loading can be identified to be tested in 3-D. In addition to that, 1 loading scenario was included that simulates point loading cases. The components of the house framework that will be analyzed in 3-D are highlighted in red as shown in Figure 4-I.

Figure 4-I 4.2.1 Exterior Supports and Floor Support Columns (High Axial Loading Cases) From the idealized framework, the maximum unconstrained lengths of the exterior supports and floor support columns are approximately 1m. From Table 4-A, these components are known to bear high axial loads of up to 1431N and insignificant shear loading. Their behavior can be approximately shown in 3-D by separately applying tensile and compressive loads of 1500N, and neglecting shear loading, on a 1-m long 3-D bamboo culm. This model, and how it is constrained and loaded, is as shown in Figure 4-J below.

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Figure 4-J Figure 4-K shows its stress distribution in the x direction and shear stress distribution for the tension case. The stress distributions were shown for the entire model and also zooming in at the bolt regions. Figure 4-L shows the same distributions on the same model for the compression case. Table 4-B summarizes the maximum stresses, loads and displacements recorded on the bamboo culm (excluding the bolts/supports) for the tension and compression cases. The results were compared to the maximum allowable values so as to assess the structural feasibility of using a single bamboo culm to construct these components.

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Figure 4-K

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2

Maximum compressive stress (N/m2) Maximum shear stress (N/m2) Compressive load (N) Maximum displacement magnitude (m) Maximum displacement, x (m) Maximum displacement, y (m) Maximum displacement, z (m)

Compression 16.0 106 Bamboo tensile strength (N/m2) 6 6 -16.11 10 -12.0 10 Bamboo compressive strength (N/m2) 6 6 11.35 10 8.1 10 Bamboo matrix material strength (N/m2) 1500 Buckling load (N) 1.554 10-4 1.526 10-4 Maximum allowable displacement (m) 1.554 10-4 1.526 10-4 8.71 10-6 5.105 10-6 3.954 10-6 3.278 10-6 Table 4-B

From Figures 4-K and 4-L, it is observed for both tension and compression cases that axial and shear stresses in general concentrate near the bolt holes, and specifically near the region of the culm in direct contact with the bolt. Also, there is some stress concentration at the nodes. This is due to the presence of edges found in the inside of a bamboo culm at the nodes where it is not hollowed. Stress concentrates at these edges. For the tension case, it can be seen that there is a

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region of compressive (negative) stresses at the side of the bolt region near the edge of the bamboo. This is known as the shear-out region, where the bamboo material is in compression. As mentioned in Appendix B, failure can occur at this region by shear-out or by compression of fibres. On the other side of the bolt, there are 2 clear patches, at the top and bottom, where high tensile stresses are present. This could be due to the stretching of the bamboo material in the direction of the axial loading. High shear stresses were also detected at this region. Failure by shear is therefore likely to occur at this region. For the compression case, compressive stresses were detected at the side of the bolt region further from the edge of the bamboo and shear stresses are high at this region as well. From Table 4-B, it can be seen that large displacements are mainly in the x direction and any displacements in the y and z directions (since these directions are constrained) are probably due to the change in shape of the culm as it deforms according to its poissons ratio. None of the maximum allowable stresses, buckling load or displacements were exceeded except for in the shear case, where maximum shear stresses detected in the tension and compression cases both exceed the matrix material strength. It can thus be inferred that failure by shear or matrix failure is likely to happen, and from the visual analysis done from Figure 4-K and 4-L, failure will probably begin from the bolt region where high shear stresses concentrate. Cracks may begin to form and propagate from the bolt holes at the regions of high shear stresses. In summary, it is insufficient and structural unfeasible to use a single bamboo culm for the construction of the floor support columns or exterior supports. In the 3-D design of the house framework, more bamboo culms should be used and joined together (e.g. at least 2 or 3) so as to increase the effective cross sectional area of these components and thus reduce stresses. 4.2.2 Floor Beams and Roof Beams (Point Loading Cases) From the idealized framework, the maximum unconstrained lengths of the floor beams and roof beams are approximately 1 m. It is realistic to assume that a man may be standing directly on the floor beam or on a roof beam. This is equivalent to applying a point load of approximately 1000N at the centre of a 1m bamboo culm in the y direction, constrained fully at both ends at the bolt holes. This model, and how it is constrained and loaded, is as shown in Figure 4-M below.

Figure 4-M Figure 4-N shows its stress distribution in the x direction and shear stress distribution. Table 4-C summarizes the maximum stresses, loads and displacements recorded on the bamboo culm (excluding the bolts/supports). The results were compared to the maximum allowable values so as 25

to assess the structural feasibility of using a single bamboo culm to construct the roof and floor beams.

Figure 4-N Maximum tensile stress (N/m2) Maximum compressive stress (N/m2) Maximum shear stress (N/m2) Maximum displacement magnitude (m) Maximum displacement, x (m) Maximum displacement, y (m) Maximum displacement, z (m) 35.0 106 -35.0 106 18.12 106 0.009256 4.158 10-4 -0.009212 4.5 10-5 Table 4-C Bamboo tensile strength (N/m2) Bamboo compressive strength (N/m2) Bamboo matrix material strength (N/m2) Maximum allowable displacement (m) 160 106 80 106 4.6 106 0.005

Even though the point load was applied in the y direction, it was observed that the highest stresses were in the axial direction. From Figure 4-N, it is observed that axial and shear stresses are concentrated at the centre of the culm instead of at the bolt region this time. More specifically, a region of high compressive axial stresses was found on the top surface of the bamboo culm while a region of high tensile stresses are found on the bottom surface. This is due to the bending of the culm, that resulted in the compression of the bamboo material at the top surface and the stretching of the bamboo material at the bottom surface as the culm deflects in the y direction. High shear stresses were also found near the middle of the culm at the top and bottom surfaces. All

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these can also be explained from the formula x = My/I. A point load in the y direction produces shear forces and shear stresses in the culm. These produce a bending moment distribution along the culm which contributes to direct stresses in the x direction. From Table 4-C, it is observed that the maximum shear stress and displacement magnitude (mainly due to displacement in y direction) recorded exceeded the maximum allowable values. Failure by shear or by matrix failure is thus likely to happen at the middle of the culm near the point of loading. Cracks are likely to form there near the regions of the nodes where there are stress concentrations and propagate. In summary, this means that a single bamboo culm is insufficient in constructing a structurally feasible floor or roof beam. In the 3-D house framework, more culms should be used in floor and roof beams to increase the effective cross sectional area and reduce stresses. The deflection of the bamboo culm at its midpoint can actually be calculated using the formula f = (1/48) (FL3/EI). From this formula, a way to reduce the deflection, f, can be clearly seen. Since Youngs modulus, E and force applied, F are constants, increasing the area moment of inertia, I , by increasing the number of bamboo culms and reducing the unconstrained length, L, can help to decrease the value of deflection, f. This is especially so for the unconstrained length, L, which is to the power of 3. Therefore, besides adding more bamboo culms, an alternative is to constrain the floor beam or roof beam by adding another joint or constraint along its culm. Also, by reducing deflections and hence degree of bending, the fibres on the top and bottom surfaces will also be subjected to less compression and tension respectively. 4.2.3 Trusses (High Axial and Shear Loading Case) From the idealized framework, the maximum unconstrained length of trusses can be up to approximately 1.75m. Since the culm is relatively long, it is likely to experience large deflections. Also, from Table 4-A, these components of the house are known to bear both high axial and shear loads. In view of all these, it is necessary to provide a strong and stiff joint for this particular component. It was decided that one end of all trusses will be constrained using external steel plates. Figure 4-O shows how trusses and their joints will typically appear and how they are equivalently modeled, constrained and loaded in Mechanica. Figure 4-P shows the Von Mises and shear stress distributions for the entire bamboo culm. It also shows the stress distribution in the x direction at the bolt region. Table 4-D summarizes the maximum stresses and displacements recorded on the bamboo culm (excluding the bolts/supports). The results were compared to the maximum allowable values so as to assess the structural feasibility of using a single bamboo culm to construct a truss.

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Figure 4-O

Figure 4-P 28

110.1 106 Bamboo tensile strength (N/m2) -99.3 106 Bamboo compressive strength (N/m2) Maximum shear stress (N/m2) 60.0 106 Bamboo matrix material strength (N/m2) Compressive load (N) 1200 Buckling load (N) Maximum displacement magnitude (m) 0.06519 Maximum allowable displacement (m) Maximum displacement, x (m) 0.001161 Maximum displacement, y (m) 0.05311 Maximum displacement, z (m) 0.03785 Table 4-D

From Figure 4-P, it is observed that stresses concentrate at the node and near the bolt holes where the culm is in direct contact with the bolt. From the stress distribution diagram in x direction, it is observed that at the region around the bolt hole as shown, there is a region of compressive (negative) stresses at one side of the bolt and a region of tensile (positive) stresses on the other side. High shear stresses were also detected there. Referring to Table 4-D, it can be seen that the maximum compressive stress recorded exceeded the compressive strength of bamboo. This means that at some point along the culm, the bamboo material, be it fibres or matrix, may fail as a result of compression. In addition, the maximum shear stress detected far exceeds the matrix material strength. Failure by shear or by the matrix material is therefore certain to occur. The displacements in the y and z directions also exceed the maximum allowable displacement. From observing Figure 4-P, it is likely that cracks will form from the bolt region where high axial and shear stresses concentrate as matrix material fails and propagate from there in both directions along the culm. At the same time, there could be crushing and compression of fibres as well. In summary, it is insufficient to use a single bamboo culm to construct a truss. More bamboo culms can be used to reduce stresses at the bolts and along the culms. Decreasing the unconstrained length by adding a joint along the culm will also help to reduce deflections and relieve stresses at the bolts. In order to avoid drilling and damaging the culm any further, any additional joint can use the method of lashing instead of steel bolts and nuts. 4.2.4 Walls and Roof (Distributed Loading Cases) The maximum unconstrained lengths of the floor and roof components are approximately 1.4m (the diagonals). The loadings on these bamboo culms are different because these loadings are transmitted from distributed wind pressures on the wall and roof surfaces. Effectively, along these bamboo culms, the loads are distributed as well. Figure 4-Q shows a typical wall or roof panel, with the diagonal bamboo culm highlighted in red and illustrates how the distributed loads along these diagonal culms are being estimated.

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Figure 4-Q The 2 triangles on a single wall or roof panel are each divided into 3. As a result, every bamboo culm in the walls or roof will be directly in contact with 2 adjacent smaller triangles. From Table 3-B, the maximum pressure measured for wind loading was 1200N/m 2. Therefore the distributed load was estimated by multiplying this pressure loading value to the area of 2 small triangles (i.e. shaded area in Figure 4-Q). The distributed load was estimated to be 400N. Figure 4-R shows how the 3-D bamboo culm model was subsequently constrained and loaded in Mechanica in 2 separate cases.

Figure 4-R Figure 4-S shows the axial and shear stress distributions for distributed loading in the y direction. Figure 4-T shows the same distributions for the case where distributed loading is in the z direction. Table 4-E summarizes the maximum stresses, loads and displacements recorded on the bamboo 30

culm (excluding the bolts/supports) for both cases. The results were compared to the maximum allowable values so as to assess the structural feasibility of using a single bamboo culm to construct these components.

Figure 4-S

Figure 4-T

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2

Maximum compressive stress (N/m2) Maximum shear stress (N/m2) Maximum displacement magnitude (m) Maximum displacement, x (m) Maximum displacement, y (m) Maximum displacement, z (m)

Bamboo tensile strength (N/m2) Bamboo compressive strength (N/m2) Bamboo matrix material strength (N/m2) Maximum allowable displacement (m)

2.066 10-4 1.696 10-4 -0.004807 5.369 10-6 1.653 10-5 0.002876 Table 4-E

From Figures 4-S and 4-T, the results obtained were very similar to that in point loading. In the first case (distributed load in y direction), the high axial stresses and shear stresses were found along the bamboo culm. High tensile and compressive stresses were found on the bottom and top of the culm as it bends and the highest deflection was in the direction of the loading in the middle of the culm. Stress concentrations were found at the bolt holes as well but they were not as significant as those along the culm. The second case reflects similar results as the first, except that stress concentrations at the bolt regions are slightly more significant this time. This could be due to forces being applied in the z direction. Because of the way and direction the culm deforms, there will be regions of high pressure at the bamboo-bolt contact surfaces. Referring to Table 4-E, all the maximum stresses and displacements recorded did not exceed the maximum allowable values except for shear stress. Therefore, it can be inferred that the bamboo culm may likely fail by shear or by failure of matrix material. Cracks can form either from the middle of the culm or from the bolt holes and propagate. Using a single bamboo culm to construct roof and wall components is thus considered structurally unfeasible. Compared to the point loading case, where the length of the culm is 1m, the maximum deflection at the midpoint of the culm for both distributed load cases are smaller, even though the culm is longer at 1.4m. For distributed loads, deflection at midpoint, f, is calculated theoretically using the formula f = (5/384) (qL4/EI). The smaller deflection is therefore due to a smaller value of distributed load, q, which offsets the larger value of the length of culm, L. From the formula, it can be also seen that reducing L and increasing I by addition of joints and bamboo culms respectively will help to decrease deflections and hence decrease axial and shear stresses. 4.3 Limitations in Computational Analysis 4.3.1 Limitations in Modeling Orthotropic Properties in Idealized Features As mentioned, for idealized beams and shells, orthotropic properties cannot be defined in Mechanica, and only isotropic materials can be defined. The Youngs modulus assigned for the axial direction was much lower than in reality. In other words, the high stiffness properties of bamboo in its axial direction along its fibres were not taken into account. This affects the

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displacements or strain values for the idealized beam and the entire structure, which will be overestimates, since E1 has been under-estimated. 4.3.2 Limitations in Modeling Framework Using Idealized Features As mentioned as well, the idealized beam has a uniform cross section area and is the shape of a hollow cylinder. This only manages to model a real-life bamboo to a certain extent. This is because an idealized beam does not consider the bamboos orthotropic properties, biological structure, fibre content, nodes and varying cross section area. Furthermore in the idealized framework, each column or beam consists only of 1 bamboo culm. This differs from reality where each column or beam usually has more than 1 bamboo culm joined alongside each other. In addition, an idealized beam only shows how stresses, forces and moments vary in 1 dimension along the beam x-axis. It does not show stress distributions in 3-D. Lastly, the idealized shells are isotropic and has a uniform cross section, with a thickness of 0.05m. This was an estimate because in reality, a panel made up of bamboo culms is not isotropic and may not be uniform in shape. 4.3.3 Inaccuracy of Input Mechanical Properties The physical and mechanical properties of Dendrocalamus Strictus vary widely. Internet and literature sources have stated differing values for the species, even after taking into account factors such as age, moisture content and culm position. It is difficult to experimentally test and obtain accurate values of E1, E2, E3, G12, G23, G31, 21, 31, 32, 12, 13 and 23. These values were estimated either by testing a small sample or by modeling a single bamboo sclerenchyma cell, considering the entire biological structure of bamboo, its matrix-fibre content and using mathematical formulae to estimate its overall stiffnesses and poissons ratio values in the 3 principal directions. (Jules J. A. Janssen, 1981: p19-149) The best estimates were then recorded down in Table 2-A. In reality, the mechanical properties of bamboo may not be uniform along its culm in the axial direction. This is because its biological composition changes along its culm. The further up the culm, the younger the plant, and hence the lower the fibre content. The bamboo microfibrils are also not continuous along the culm. Nodes and internodes also have differing mechanical properties. A bamboo culm is also not perfectly straight. Its cross sectional area also decreases in general as its height increases. In addition, the mechanical properties of bamboo may vary across its radial direction as well because along the radial direction, the vascular bundles of microfibrils increases from its inner wall to its periphery (outer wall). 4.3.4 Inaccuracy of Multi-Pass Adaptive Calculations In test runs in Mechanica, the mathematical method used to calculate the forces, stresses and displacements in the idealized beams or in any part model is known as the multi-pass adaptive convergence method. In this method, a percentage convergence value is entered to determine the accuracy level. This percentage applies to the convergence quantities selected (i.e. stress, displacement etc). During the analysis, Mechanica performs calculations at increasingly higher polynomial orders for each element edge. For calculations on the idealized house framework, the maximum polynomial order was set at 9 while for the 3-D bamboo culm model, it was set at 3. The

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latter was much lower because the computer did not have enough memory to continue running the test for a 3-D part model in Mechanica beyond a polynomial order of 3. An analysis converges when the difference in the results of the last two calculations is within the percentage specified. Typically, a good convergence value should be between 1% and 25%. Lower convergence percentages yield more accurate results, but it takes a longer time to reach a lower convergence percentage. For the analysis on both the idealized framework and the 3-D bamboo culm, the convergence values were set at 1%. However, not all of the results of the analysis reached convergence and this is shown in an example of a test run status description in Appendix E. This could be due to two reasons. Firstly, a singularity may be present and the engine is trying to capture a high stress or flux gradient. Alternatively, a highly distorted element may be trying to capture a smooth stress or flux field. 4.3.5 Inaccuracy of Wind Load Calculations The wind loads calculated and input into the idealized framework differ slightly from in reality. In the analysis, the test runs were simplified by applying a uniform pressure on each roof or wall surface. In reality, as wind blows on a house, the distribution of pressure coefficients both externally and internally is never uniform across any panel, but varies as wind speeds flowing past the bluff body (i.e. house) vary at each point of the wall or roof surface. This is shown in page 35 of Bureau of Indian Standards, 1987. In addition to that, wind loading in reality is unpredictable and can be from any direction or angle. Only 2 directions, 0 and 90 were considered in our calculations.

5.1 Aim and Scope of Experiment The aim of the experiment is to find out how much axial and shear loading the bamboo samples obtained from Pabal, constrained and joined by a bolt, can withstand. Due to shortage of samples, only shear loadings in the Y direction and tensile loadings in X direction were considered. In addition, the samples obtained varied in thickness and this creates the possibility to investigate how the thickness of the bamboo culm affects its overall performance. The experiment involves applying loads of varying magnitudes and directions on 6 samples of bamboo till they fail, in order to simulate loading scenarios in practice and to observe its behavior and performance, especially at the bolt holes. The results will then be plotted and compared to the theoretical values, calculated from computational testings, of maximum loads that the house framework will experience during wind loading. 5.2 Apparatus and Set-up The set-up consists of a tensile testing machine and steel plates and bolts. There are altogether 6 samples of bamboo, each 0.12 m long. The 2 original samples from Pabal were cut into 3 each, and thus there were 3 thin and 3 thick samples. Each sample was cut and drilled such that they fit into the apparatus. 4 of the samples were resin-glued on one end to constrain them while the other end

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is loaded via a bolt. Appendix F-1 shows pictures of all 6 samples and the experimental set up. Table 5-A summarizes several important dimensions in the 6 samples. Distance of bolt hole from edge (m) 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 Diameter Thickness, Angle of of bolt t bamboo to hole (m) vertical, (m) () 0.008 0.006 0 0.008 0.008 30 0.008 0.00667 60 0.008 0.0138 0 0.008 0.012 30 0.008 0.014 60 Table 5-A Shear-out area, A (m2) 0.00096 0.002208 -

Sample 1 (thin) Sample 2 (thin) Sample 3 (thin) Sample 4 (thick) Sample 5 (thick) Sample 6 (thick)

5.3 Experimental Procedure The step-by-step procedure of the experiment is described below: 1) Mount Sample 1 on the test machine, setting the loading speed at 5mm/min. The data to be taken down is a graph showing force applied (F) in kN and displacement (x) in mm. 2) Apply tensile force from 0N until failure of sample. Failure of sample is represented by an abrupt and significant change in the structure of bamboo or sudden rupture. Observe the behavior of the bamboo, especially at joints. 3) Repeat steps 1 and 2 for all other samples. 5.4 Results and Discussion The raw results (i.e. force-displacement graphs) for all 6 samples are plotted in Appendix F-2. These results are then analyzed by finding its axial and shear components at failure, as shown in Table 5-B and are tabulated in Figure 5-A. Figure 5-A also compares the experimental results to the computational measurements. Force at Axialwhich failure component occured(N) (N) 4154 4154 2934.27 2541.152 2281.77 1140.885 11630 11630 9180 7950.113 5661.51 2830.755 Table 5-B Shearcomponent (N) 0 1467.135 1976.071 0 4590 4903.011

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6000

Shear Load(N)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Axial Load(N) 10000 12000 14000

Figure 5-A Referring to Table 5-B, for both the thin and thick samples, as the shear force components increases with angle to vertical, there is a significant decrease in the failure load of all the bamboo samples. This has occurred even through the axial components are decreasing. It is evident that even though bamboo has very strong axial properties, it has a low ability to withstand shear forces. From Figure 5-A, it is also clear that the axial and shear strength properties of bamboo increase greatly as its culm thickness increases. This is because a thicker culm effectively means a larger cross sectional area which eventually increases the maximum shear, axial or buckling loads that it can bear. It also increases the area moment of inertia and hence reduced the deflection due to bending. From the Figure 5-A, it is observed also that the maximum axial and shear loads calculated from computational analysis fall comfortably within the failure loads tested for both the thin and thick bamboo. An inference can thus be made that bamboo from Pabal is able to withstand the forces it will theoretically experience as part of a house framework. The shear strength for Sample 1 in the x direction was calculated by taking the failure load and dividing by the shear-out area. This value was found to be 4327083 N/m2, which is very close to the theoretical value of the matrix material strength obtained from research of 4.6 106 N/m2. The shear strength of Sample 4 was calculated to be 5267210 N/m2 which is relatively close as well. Therefore, it is evident that the samples fail as a result of failure of the matrix material. Each sample failed at differing loads but in general they have similar modes of failure. These modes of failure were, to a large extent, predicted during the computational analysis. Figure 5-B shows Sample 1 after it has been tested to failure and from this sample the failure modes can be clearly identified. From observation, as loading at the bolt increases, the matrix material at the contact interface for all samples will be crushed and the fibres along the shear-out region will be compressed and slightly crushed at the contact surface as well. The bolt hole will thus enlarge. This was also shown in the computational testings of the 3-D bamboo culm where high compressive stresses were found at the shear-out region of the bolt holes which were seen to 36

deform and enlarge. Next, cracks began to appear along the culm of the bamboo. They originate from the bolt hole region, which is the point of high axial and shear stress concentration, as shown in computational analysis as well. Referring back to Figure 4-K, which is the tension loading case in computational analysis, the regions of high axial and shear stress concentrations correspond to regions A and B on Figure 5-B. Regions A and B are also where cracks begin to form and propagate as well on the sample. The cracks are a result of the failure of the matrix material at the fibre-matrix contact interface as loading increases and they propagate along the shear-out region and also in the opposite direction. There is also evidence of shear-out, especially in samples 1 and 4, where the loading is purely in the tensile direction. Finally all 6 samples failed with a sudden and abrupt rupture of the bamboo culm along the propagated cracks.

Figure 5-B In the experiment, since samples were short (0.12m), the magnitude of bending is not as large as that measured in computational testing. Therefore, no failure by tension or compression of fibres at the top or bottom surfaces occurred for any of the bamboo samples. Nevertheless, for the samples which were inclined at an angle and hence have shear forces present, there was slight bending in the culm which increased the rate of crack propagation. From the experiment, it can also be concluded that using steel bolt and nuts to join bamboo alone may not be structurally feasible. It is shown that the culm rarely fails because of axial loads on its fibres but shear loads can easily destroy its matrix material. Also contact pressure at the bolts with the bolt holes results in the matrix material being crushed. One solution is to use steel bolt and nuts together with lashing as a form of joinery method. The lashing can help to bear some of the loads and relieve shear stresses at the bolts.

On top of the building principles explained in Section 3.1, it is clear that through hand calculations, computational analysis and the experiment, other guiding principles to design the 3-D framework model can be obtained. These guiding principles are summarized in point form below. 1. B > 0.04, d = 0.008 2. Reduce the distance, L, of the unconstrained length of a bamboo culm as it reduces the bending moment, axial stresses and deflections in the bamboo beam. 37

3. Arrange bamboo culms such that its high stiffness in the axial direction is exploited, since bamboo is strong in axial but weak in shear. 4. Bamboo harvested should be as thick as possible, especially for parts experiencing high shear loads. E.g. roof and wall parts. 5. Use more than 1 bamboo culm for every component in the framework, depending on how much load it has to bear 6. Do not use steel bolt and nuts joinery alone to join bamboo culms together. Always use it together with lashing to distribute loads and relieve stresses at bolt hole.

The final 3-D bamboo house framework model was modeled in ProEngineer. In order to simplify the model and display its various parts clearly, lashing of joints were not drawn in. For the design, it is assumed that lashing is present in every joint except for the ones with external steel plates. Figure 7-A shows a picture of this 3-D model, with the main parts of the framework labeled. Appendix G-1 shows the general views of the 3-D house structure. Appendix G-2 shows diagrams of several close-up views of joints within the house framework, which are circled in Figure 7-A. For the joints, the red holes represent where bolts will be inserted.

Figure 7-A

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It is fairly accurate to conclude that the results of our research, calculations, computational testing and experiment are valid in reflecting the mechanical and physical nature of bamboo and how it will behave structurally in a framework. Nevertheless, designing a house framework made up predominantly of bamboo encompasses issues that are beyond the scope of this project and they must be carefully studied as well. One such issue could be fatigue failure by creep. In reality, any cracks formed at the bolt holes of a joint take time to propagate until it reaches its critical crack length, where sudden failure occurs. Experiments could be done by assuming that the framework undergoes cyclical wind loading over a certain period of time and then investigations and testing can be done to estimate this critical crack length to see if this length is large enough to be detect before sudden failure happens. From the results of this project, it can also be seen that bamboo will likely fail due to its weaker matrix material. Therefore, a method to chemically strengthen the mechanical properties of the matrix material of bamboo can be researched into. Within the project scope, several improvements could be made in future too. Firstly, significant errors are present in designing the idealized house framework in Mechanica as explained in Section 4.3. An improvement could be to use a better software, if any, that can accurately input the orthotropic properties of bamboo into an idealized model. This software must be accompanied with more computer memory so that even a complicated model like the final 3-D bamboo framework model can be designed and tested computationally. Another improvement would be to import more bamboo samples from Pabal in future. This will enable more testing to be done and more realistically since the samples can be of a greater length and will be very similar to the actual components of the house framework. Testing can also be done to obtain the mechanical properties of bamboo so there is no longer any need to estimate them. Testing can also be done to investigate how joint and culm behavior is influenced by factors such as the presence of nodes in a component and whether drilling bolt holes through nodes has significant advantages over drilling bolt holes through internodes. During the experiment in this project, the loading speed was set at 5mm/min, a very slow loading rate, so that the manner at which bamboo ruptures can be observed easily over a longer time period. However, in reality, when the house framework experiences, say, a sudden gust of wind from a static position, the bamboo components effectively experience a high loading rate over a period of a few seconds. The greater loading rate could have resulted in greater damage and a lower failure load recorded. Therefore, the experiment could have been conducted with a higher loading rate to simulate an actual scenario, in which case, observations of how the bamboo ruptures can then be made by using a high speed camera.

9. References

(1) A. N. Rao, V. Ramanatha Rao & J. T Williams. (1998). Priority Species of Bamboo and Rattan. [e-book] India, IPGRI and INBAR. Available from: http://www.bioversityinternational.org/publications/Pdf/49.pdf [Accessed 12 March 2009] (2) Bamboo Technologies (n.d.) Bamboo Living Home Construction. [Online]. Available from: http://www.bambooliving.com/construction.html [Accessed 20 February 2009]

39

(3) Bureau of Indian Standards (1987) IS-875 Part 3. A Commentary on Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures, Part 3 Wind Loads (Second Revision). Roorkee, India, Indian Institute of Technology. (4) Bureau of Indian Standards (1987) IS-875 Part 3. An Explanatory Handbook on IS 875 (Part 3): 1987, Wind Loads on Buildings and Structures. Roorkee, India, Indian Institute of Technology. (5) Elliott Furminger, Mariel John, Tim Laundon, Vivek Shah, Pooja Wagh & David Walker. (2005). EngINdia Final Report. [Online]. Available from: http://www.engindia.net/resources [Access 4 February 2009] (6) EngIndia. (n.d.). Pabal Information. [Online]. Available from: http://www.engindia.net/ [Accessed 4th February 2009] (7) International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (n.d.) Dendrocalamus Strictus. [Online]. Available from: http://www.inbar.int/publication/txt/tr17/Dendrocalamus/strictus.htm [Access 15 February 2009] (8) Jo Scheer (n.d.) Green Home Building. [Online]. Available from: http://www.greenhomebuilding.com/QandA/bambooQandA.htm [Accessed 20 February 2009] (9) Jules J. A. Janssen. (1981). Bamboo in Building Structures. Dissertatie Drukkerij Wibro, Helmond. (10) Jules J. A. Janssen. (1987). Building with Bamboo: A Handbook. Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1988. (11) M. Ahmad & F. A. Kamke. (2005). Analysis of Calcutta Bamboo for Structural Composite Materials: Physical and Mechanical Properties. [Online] Wood Science Technology 39: 448-459. Available from: www.springerlink.com/index/K13J1VH822127801.pdf [Accessed 16 March 2009] (12) Seema Jain, Rakesh Kumar & U. C. Jindal. (1992) Mechanical Behavior of Bamboo and Bamboo Composite. [Online] Journal of Materials Science 27, 4598-4604. Available from: www.springerlink.com/index/J603R1734K822206.pdf [Accessed 16 March 2009] (13) Wikipedia (2009) Climate of India. [Online]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_India [Accessed 25 February 2009]

40

Appendix A: Approximate calculations for area moment of inertia, I, and buckling load, Pk, Average cross-section diameter, D = (0.08 + 0.025)/2 0.05m Average cross-section thickness, t 0.01m (as measured from bamboo samples) Average cross-section outer radius, R 0.025m Average cross-section inner radius, r 0.015m Area moment of inertia, I = (/4)(R4-r4) = (/4)( 0.0254-0.0154) = 2.6704 10-7 m4 Buckling load for a 1-metre long bamboo, Pk = 2EI/L2 = 2(15000106)(2.670410-7)/1 = 39534 N Buckling load for a 1.75-metre long bamboo, Pk = 2EI/L2 = 2(15000106)(2.670410-7)/4 = 12909 N

Appendix B: Calculations to obtain optimum diameter of bolts, d, and minimum distance of bolt hole from edge, B For a bamboo with bolt through its middle, it is likely to experience shear-out or failure in the x-direction. Shear-out occurs when the entire shear-out region slides out in the direction of the force applied. Another way where the bolt can be dislodged from its place is when the shear-out region is small enough, such that the fibres in that region buckle due to high compressive stresses before the shear strength level is reach. (i.e. fibres buckle or compress before shearing out). These 2 methods of failure can sometimes occur simultaneously.

Finding B For shear calculations, Shear stress, = F/A In this case, A 4tB Assuming shear strength of bamboo in x-direction is dependent on strength of matrix material = 4.6 106 N/m2 In order for failure by shear not to occur, shear stress < shear strength. Therefore, assuming a force of approximately 4000N being applied and t = 0.01m Shear strength > F/A = 4000/(4tB) = 4000/(40.01B) 4.6 106 > 100000/B B > 100000/(4.6 106) B > 0.02174m Introducing a factor of safety of 2.0 (used commonly for buildings), Therefore, B 0.04m

Finding d Assuming a force of approximately 4000N being applied again, Surface area in contact with bolt = 2 t 0.5 d = 0.031415927 d m2 In order for failure not to occur, stress on fibres < ultimate compressive strength = 80 106 N/m2 4000/(0.031415927 d) < 80 106 4000/(0.031415927 80 106) < d d > 0.001592m However, d has to be large enough so that bolt does not fail. Assuming a force of 4000N being applied to the bamboo via the bolt, from the diagram below, it is shown that the steel bolt will experience shear forces of approximately 2000N.

Shear yield stress of steel 20 ksi = 137 106 N/m2 Thus for bolt not to yield by shear, shear yield stress of steel > Shear stress on bolt 137 106 > 2000/A = 2000/(r2) r > (2000/( 137 106)) r > 0.002156m d > 0.004311m Introducing a safety factor of 2.0, d 0.008m

Appendix C: Wind loading scenarios and calculations according to Indian Standards for Wind Loading Basic velocity of wind at Pabal, Vb = 44 m/s Height of house, H = 2m Width of house, W = 4m Length of house, L = 5m Roof height, h = 1m Roof angle = tan-1(h/(w/2)) = tan-1(1/2) = 26.56505 H/W = 0.5 L/W = 1.25 Area of all walls = [(L + W + L + W) H] + [2 0.5 W h] = 40m2 Assume medium permeability where 18% of walls are windows and doors (i.e. degree of permeability = 18%) Internal coefficient of pressure, Cpi = 0.5 Terrain category and class of Pabal: category A, class 2 Risk coefficient, k1 = 0.92 Terrain, height and structure size factor, k2 = 1 Topography factor, k3 = 1 Design wind velocity, Vz = k1 k2 k3 Vb = 40.48 m/s Design wind pressure, Pz = 0.6 (Vz)2 = 983.1782 N/m2 Wind pressure, P, acting in a direction normal to a wall/roof surface = (Cpe - Cpi) Pz Cpe = external pressure coefficient Cpi = internal pressure coefficient Legend: Wall A Wall B Wall C Wall D Roof 1 Roof 2 Cpe values for 0 wind 0.7 -0.25 -0.6 -0.6 -0.2 -0.4 Cpe values for 90 wind -0.6 -0.6 0.7 -0.25 -0.7 -0.7 90 wind, Cpi =0.5 90 wind, Cpi =-0.5 Cpe-Cpi P(N/m2) Cpe-Cpi P(N/m2) -1.1 -834.219 -0.1 -61.794 -1.1 -834.219 -0.1 -61.794 0.2 169.9334 1.2 942.358 -0.75 -563.87 0.25 208.5546 -1.2 -911.461 -0.2 -139.036 -1.2 -911.461 -0.2 -139.036

0 wind, Cpi = 0.5 0 wind, Cpi = -0.5 2 Cpe-Cpi P(N/m ) Cpe-Cpi P(N/m2) 0.2 216.2992 1.2 1199.477 -0.75 -717.72 0.25 265.4581 -1.1 -1061.83 -0.1 -78.6543 -1.1 -1061.83 -0.1 -78.6543 -0.7 -668.561 0.3 314.617 -0.9 -865.197 0.1 117.9814

Appendix E: Run status description in Mechanica for wind loading case 1: 0 wind, Cpi = 0.5 -----------------------------------------------------------Mechanica Structure Version L-01-43:spg Summary for Design Study "Windloading0degCpi05" Fri May 08, 2009 22:50:44 -----------------------------------------------------------Run Settings Memory allocation for block solver: 128.0 Checking the model before creating elements... These checks take into account the fact that AutoGEM will automatically create elements in volumes with material properties, on surfaces with shell properties, and on curves with beam section properties. Generate elements automatically. Checking the model after creating elements... No errors were found in the model. Mechanica Structure Model Summary

Model Type: Three Dimensional Points: Edges: Faces: Springs: Masses: Beams: Shells: Solids: Elements: 196 449 170 0 0 414 170 0 584

-----------------------------------------------------------Standard Design Study Static Analysis "Windloading0degCpi05": Convergence Method: Multiple-Pass Adaptive Plotting Grid: 4 Convergence Loop Log: (22:50:45)

Principal System of Units: Meter Kilogram Second (MKS) Length: m Mass: kg Time: sec Temperature: K >> Pass 1 << Calculating Element Equations (22:50:45) Total Number of Equations: 2832 Maximum Edge Order: 3 Solving Equations (22:50:46) Post-Processing Solution (22:50:46)

Calculating Disp and Stress Results (22:50:46) Checking Convergence (22:50:46) Elements Not Converged: 584 Edges Not Converged: 449 Local Disp/Energy Index: 100.0% Global RMS Stress Index: 100.0% Resource Check (22:50:46) Elapsed Time (sec): 2.17 CPU Time (sec): 1.47 Memory Usage (kb): 166708 Wrk Dir Dsk Usage (kb): 2048 >> Pass 2 << Calculating Element Equations (22:50:46) Total Number of Equations: 5526 Maximum Edge Order: 4 Solving Equations (22:50:46) Post-Processing Solution (22:50:47) Calculating Disp and Stress Results (22:50:47) Checking Convergence (22:50:47) Elements Not Converged: 510 Edges Not Converged: 449 Local Disp/Energy Index: 100.0% Global RMS Stress Index: 63.7% Resource Check (22:50:47) Elapsed Time (sec): 3.07 CPU Time (sec): 2.20 Memory Usage (kb): 167796 Wrk Dir Dsk Usage (kb): 3072 >> Pass 3 <<

Calculating Element Equations (22:50:47) Total Number of Equations: 9816 Maximum Edge Order: 5 Solving Equations (22:50:47) Post-Processing Solution (22:50:48) Calculating Disp and Stress Results (22:50:48) Checking Convergence (22:50:49) Elements Not Converged: 498 Edges Not Converged: 277 Local Disp/Energy Index: 100.0% Global RMS Stress Index: 68.9% Resource Check (22:50:49) Elapsed Time (sec): 4.67 CPU Time (sec): 3.38 Memory Usage (kb): 167796 Wrk Dir Dsk Usage (kb): 5120 >> Pass 4 << Calculating Element Equations (22:50:49) Total Number of Equations: 14514 Maximum Edge Order: 6 Solving Equations (22:50:49) Post-Processing Solution (22:50:50) Calculating Disp and Stress Results (22:50:50) Checking Convergence (22:50:51) Elements Not Converged: 407 Edges Not Converged: 188 Local Disp/Energy Index: 85.2% Global RMS Stress Index: 36.4% Resource Check (22:50:51) Elapsed Time (sec): 7.00

CPU Time (sec): 5.25 Memory Usage (kb): 167796 Wrk Dir Dsk Usage (kb): 10240 >> Pass 5 << Calculating Element Equations (22:50:51) Total Number of Equations: 19470 Maximum Edge Order: 8 Solving Equations (22:50:52) Post-Processing Solution (22:50:54) Calculating Disp and Stress Results (22:50:54) Checking Convergence (22:50:55) Elements Not Converged: 260 Edges Not Converged: 122 Local Disp/Energy Index: 24.7% Global RMS Stress Index: 9.9% Resource Check (22:50:55) Elapsed Time (sec): 10.71 CPU Time (sec): 8.12 Memory Usage (kb): 175988 Wrk Dir Dsk Usage (kb): 17408 >> Pass 6 << Calculating Element Equations (22:50:55) Total Number of Equations: 25194 Maximum Edge Order: 9 Solving Equations (22:50:58) Post-Processing Solution (22:51:00) Calculating Disp and Stress Results (22:51:00) Checking Convergence (22:51:01) Elements Not Converged: 166

Edges Not Converged: Local Disp/Energy Index: Global RMS Stress Index:

40 18.2% 9.4%

Stress error estimates are not available because all external element edges lie in regions that are constrained or where the stress is potentially singular. ** Warning: Convergence was not obtained because the maximum polynomial order of 9 was reached. Resource Check (22:51:02) Elapsed Time (sec): 17.62 CPU Time (sec): 12.67 Memory Usage (kb): 176338 Wrk Dir Dsk Usage (kb): 26624 The analysis did not converge to within 1% on edge displacement, element strain energy, and global RMS stress. Total Mass of Model: 3.263217e+03 Total Cost of Model: 0.000000e+00 Mass Moments of Inertia about WCS Origin: Ixx: 3.88567e+04 Ixy: -1.63139e+04 Iyy: 4.99575e+04

Ixz: -1.79230e+04 Iyz: -1.43384e+04 Izz: 5.01515e+04 Principal MMOI and Principal Axes Relative to WCS Origin: Max Prin 6.46607e+04 Mid Prin Min Prin 6.12884e+04 1.30166e+04 -6.98391e-01 6.62346e-01 2.71197e-01 6.83960e-01 5.06019e-01 5.25494e-01

Load Set: LoadSet1: WINDLOADINGCASE1 Resultant Load on Model: in global X direction: -4.081811e-11 in global Y direction: -1.032337e+04 in global Z direction: 1.533758e+04 Measures: Name Value Convergence -------------- ------------- ----------max_beam_bending: 8.627042e+05 17.9% max_beam_tensile: 1.073968e+06 0.0% max_beam_torsion: 2.140066e+05 36.3% max_beam_total: 1.173760e+06 0.0% max_disp_mag: 1.104188e-03 2.9% max_disp_x: -6.994929e-04 100.0% max_disp_y: -7.533575e-04 2.0% max_disp_z: 8.072690e-04 3.7% max_prin_mag: -1.383113e+06 15.1% max_rot_mag: 9.953889e-04 3.5% max_rot_x: 8.719008e-04 2.9% max_rot_y: -8.875118e-04 3.6% max_rot_z: -6.588706e-04 4.8% max_stress_prin: 1.327418e+06 11.6% max_stress_vm: 1.233789e+06 4.9% max_stress_xx: -1.293728e+06 18.8% max_stress_xy: 2.923498e+05 30.7% max_stress_xz: -1.461749e+05 27.9% max_stress_yy: 9.279412e+05 20.2% max_stress_yz: -3.989038e+05 12.8%

Center of Mass Location Relative to WCS Origin: ( 2.50000e+00, 2.00000e+00, 2.19698e+00) Mass Moments of Inertia about the Center of Mass: Ixx: 1.00533e+04 Ixy: 2.19662e+00 Iyy: 1.38118e+04 Ixz: 1.03591e-07 Iyz: -7.74107e-08 Izz: 1.67035e+04 Principal MMOI and Principal Axes Relative to COM: Max Prin 1.67035e+04 Mid Prin Min Prin 1.38119e+04 1.00533e+04 5.84427e-04 1.00000e+00 0.00000e+00 1.00000e+00 -5.84427e-04 0.00000e+00

max_stress_zz: 9.050774e+05 15.5% min_stress_prin: -1.383113e+06 21.2% strain_energy: 6.621483e+00 0.8% Analysis "Windloading0degCpi05" Completed (22:51:02) -----------------------------------------------------------Memory and Disk Usage: Machine Type: Windows NT/x86 RAM Allocation for Solver (megabytes): 128.0 Total Elapsed Time (seconds): 17.74 Total CPU Time (seconds): 12.75 Maximum Memory Usage (kilobytes): 176338 Working Directory Disk Usage (kilobytes): 26624 Results Directory Size (kilobytes): 8051 .\Windloading0degCpi05 Maximum Data Base Working File Sizes (kilobytes): 26624 .\Windloading0degCpi05.tmp\kel1.bas -----------------------------------------------------------Run Completed Fri May 08, 2009 22:51:02 -----------------------------------------------------

2 3 4

5 6

Force(kN) vs Displacement(mm)

12 10 8

Force (kN)

6 4 2 0 0 -2 Displacement (mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Sample 1 (thin 0)

Sample 4 (thick 0)

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