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Name Address

: :

Telephone No. : e-mail : Position :

Kamaruzzaman b. Daud Mechanical Engineering Department, Ungku Omar Polytechnic, Jln. Raja Musa Mahadi, 31400 Ipoh, Perak. 05-5457622 ext.1041 Polytechnic Lecturer

Name Address

: :

Telephone No. : Position :

Roslan b. Hashim Mechanical Engineering Department, Ungku Omar Polytechnic, Jln. Raja Musa Mahadi, 31400 Ipoh, Perak. 05-5457622 ext.1041 Polytechnic Lecturer

Name Address : : Nor Resom bt. Buyong English Language Unit, General Studies Department, Ungku Omar Polytechnic, Jln. Raja Musa Mahadi, 31400 Ipoh, Perak. 05-5457622 ext. 2225 Polytechnic Lecturer

Telephone No. : Position :



What Do You Think Of This Module?

Title of Module: _______________________ Students Name: _______________________ Module Code : ___________

Registration No. : ___________

Course: ____________________________________ Module Writers: ______________________________ Please use the following scale for your evaluation:

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Instruction : Please on the space provided. No. How much do you agree with the following statements? A. FORMAT The pages are organized in an interesting manner. The font size makes it easy for me to read the module. The size and types of pictures and charts used are suitable for the input. The pictures and charts are easy to read and understand. The tables used are well-organised and easy to understand. The arrangement of the Input makes it easy for me to follow. All the instructions are displayed clearly. B. CONTENTS I understand all the objectives clearly. I understand the ideas conveyed. The ideas are presented in an interesting manner. All the instructions are easy to understand. I can carry out the instructions in this module. I can answer the questions in the activities easily. I can answer the questions in the self-assessment. The feedback section can help me identify my mistakes. The language used is easy to understand. The way the module is written makes it interesting to read. I can follow this module easily. Each unit helps me understand the topic better. I have become more interested in the subject after using this module. 1 SCALE 2 3 4

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The curriculum grid of this module is based on the curriculum used by Malaysian Polytechnics. No. TOPIC


Total Hours

Basic Thermodynamics

1 ( 1 H)

2 (2H)

3 (2H)

5 Hours

Non-Flow Process

4 ( 3 H)

5 ( 2 H)

5 Hours

Flow Process

6 (2H)

7 (2H)

4 Hours

Properties of Steam

8 (5H)

5 Hours

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

9 (3H)

10 (3H)

6 Hours

The Steam Power Cycle

11 (5H)

5 Hours



UNIT 1 1.0 1.1

1.2 UNIT 2 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS Introduction Fundamental and derived quantities 1.1.1 Force 1.1.2 Energy 1.1.3 Power 1.1.4 Pressure 1.1.5 Density Unit conversions BASIC THERMODYNAMICS Introduction Definitions of system, boundary, surrounding, open system and close system Property, state and process The First Law of thermodynamics Work and heat transfer Sign convention for work transfer Sign convention for heat transfer Internal energy

UNIT 3 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS Definition of perfect gas Boyles Law Charles Law Universal Gases Law Specific heat capacity at constant volume Specific heat capacity at constant pressure Relationship between the specific heats Specific heat ratio

UNIT 4 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3

NON-FLOW PROCESS Introduction Differences between the Flow and Non-Flow Process 4.1.1 Flow Process 4.1.2 Non-Flow Process Constant temperature (isothermal) process Adiabatic process



UNIT 5 NON-FLOW PROCESS 5.0 Non-flow process 5.1 Polytropic process 5.2 Constant volume process 5.3 Constant pressure process UNIT 6 6.0 6.1 6.2 FLOW PROCESS Steady flow processes Steady flow energy equation Application of steady flow equation 6.2.1 Boilers 6.2.2 Condensers

UNIT 7 FLOW PROCESS 7.0 Application of steady flow equation 7.0.1 Turbine 7.0.2 Nozzle 7.0.3 Throttle 7.0.4 Pump 7.1 Equation of continuity UNIT 8 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 PROPERTIES OF STEAM Introduction Phase-change process Saturated and Superheated Steam Properties of a Wet Mixture 8.3.1 Specific volume 8.3.2 Specific enthalpy 8.3.3 Specific internal energy 8.3.4 Specific entropy The use of Steam Tables 8.4.1 Saturated Water and Steam Tables 8.4.2 Superheated Steam Tables Interpolation 8.5.1 Single Interpolation 8.5.2 Double Interpolation





UNIT 9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

THE SECOND LAW OF THE THERMODYNAMICS Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics The heat engine and heat pump Entropy The T-s diagram for a steam To show that Q = h2 h1 Reversible processes on the T-s diagram for steam 9.5.1 Constant pressure process 9.5.2 Constant volume process 9.5.3 Constant temperature (or isothermal) process 9.5.4 Adiabatic (or isentropic) process 9.5.5 Polytropic process THE SECOND LAW OF THE THERMODYNAMICS The P-V and T-s diagram for a perfect gas Reversible processes on the T-s diagram for a perfect gas 10.1.1 Constant pressure process 10.1.2 Constant volume process 10.1.3 Constant temperature (or isothermal) process 10.1.4 Adiabatic (or isentropic) process 10.1.5 Polytropic process THE STEAM POWER CYCLE Introduction The Carnot cycle 11.1.1 Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle 11.1.2 The work ratio for Carnot cycle Rankine cycle 11.2.1 Thermal efficiency of Rankine cycle 11.2.2 The work ratio for Rankine cycle Specific steam consumption

UNIT 10 10.0 10.1

UNIT 11 11.0 11.1





MODULE GUIDELINES To achieve maximum benefits in using this module, students must follow the instructions carefully and complete all the activities. 1. 2. This module is divided into 11 units. Each page is numbered according to the subject code, unit and page number. J2006 / 1 / 5

Subject 3. 4.

Page Number 5

Unit 1 The general and specific objectives are given at the beginning of each unit. The activities in each unit are arranged in a sequential order and the following symbols are given:

OBJECTIVES The general and specific objectives for each learning topic are stated in this section.

INPUT This section introduces the subject matter that you are going to learn.

ACTIVITIES The activities in this section test your understanding of the subject matter. You have to complete this section by following the instructions carefully.

FEEDBACK Answers to the questions in the activity section are given here



SELF-ASSESSMENT Self-assessment evaluates your understanding of each unit.

FEEDBACK TO SELF-ASSESSMENT This section contains answers to the activities in the self-assessment.

5. 6.

You have to follow the units in sequence. You may proceed to the next unit after successfully completing the unit and you are confident of your achievement.


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GENERAL AIMS This module is prepared for the second semester students who are undergoing Certificate/Diploma programmes in Malaysian Polytechnics. In each unit, the aim is to expose the students to the concepts of Thermodynamics and to lead them towards selfdirected learning with guidance from their lecturers.

PREREQUISITE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE At least a pass in Mathematics and Science at SPM level

At the end of this module, students should be able to: understand the principles and concepts of units and dimensions 2. define the fundamental concepts of system, boundary, surrounding, open system and close system 3. understand the state of working fluid, its example and the definition of the first law of thermodynamics 4. describe the differences between work and heat transfer 5. define and show the definition and application of internal energy, the Boyles law, Charles law and universal gases law 6. define and apply the principle of specific heat capacity of constant pressure and constant volume 7. provide definition, differences and give examples of the flow process and the non flow process 8. provide definitions of heat and work in reversible processes 9. define and calculate the following non-flow processes : 9.1 constant temperature (isothermal) process 9.2 adiabatic process 9.3 polytropic process 9.4 pressure and volume constant processes 10. derive the meaning and interpret the steady-flow energy equations 11. apply the steady-flow energy equations on : 11.1 boiler 11.2 condenser 11.3 turbine 11.4 nozzle 11.5 throttle 11.6 pump 12. define the following phases: 12.1 solid 12.2 liquid


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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

12.3 steam define steam at constant pressure differentiate the wet steam, dry saturated steam and superheated steam define dryness fraction (x) and internal energy derive enthalpy from the energy equations apply of the wet steam equations define and evaluate the properties of steam using u = h + pv and the steam tables calculate the specific volume, enthalpy, internal energy and entropy using the steam table, equation and interpolation define The Second Law of Thermodynamics define, give examples and state the differences between the efficiency of heat engine and heat pump define entropy, s derive Q = T. ds equations for reversible process use T s diagram to show the changes in entropy and its properties for steam define constant pressure using T s diagram define and calculate Q = h2 - h1 draw volume and pressure properties using T s diagram use equations and calculate the changes in entropy for constant pressure and constant volume draw reversible isothermal, isentropic and polytropic process using T-s diagram for vapour and perfect gas calculate heat, work done and the changes in entropy for isothermal, isentropic and polytropic process draw Carnot cycle using the T s diagram define and calculate the Carnot cycle efficiency differentiate between Carnot and Rankine cycle describe the two characteristics of Rankine cycle draw Rankine cycle using the T s diagram define the processes in Rankine cycle draw block diagrams for Rankine cycle derive equation for turbine, condenser, pump and boiler calculate heat, work done and efficiency of Rankine cycle.


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TEACHING AIDS AND RESOURCES NEEDED 1. 2. 3. Calculator Mayhew,Y.R. & Rogers, G.F.C. Steam tables Plant laboratory

1. 2.

Ahmad Taufek Mohd Tiblawi, (1990). Haba dan Bendalir II; IBS Buku Sdn. Bhd. Dr. Yunus A. Cengel & Boles, M.A.(1994). Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach; McGraw-Hill, Inc Eastop, T.D. and Mc Conkey, A.(1978). Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists; Longman Irving Granet & Maurice Bluestein, (2000). Thermodynamics and Heat Power (6 Edition); Prentice Hall Inc.




K. Iynkaran & David J. Tandy, (1993). Basic Thermodynamics: Applications and Pollution Control; Prentice Hall, Simon & Schuster (Asia) Pte. Ltd. Mayhew,Y.R. & Rogers, G.F.C., (1981). Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids in SI Units (3rd Edition); Oxford, Basil Blackwell. Metcalfe, F. (1972). Heat Engines and Applied Heat; Cassell & Company Ltd Moran,M.J. and Shapiro, H.N.(1988). Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc Rayner Joel, (1971). Basic Engineering Thermodynamics in SI Units (3rd Edition); Longman Group Ltd. Thomas,T.H. and Hunt, R. (1987). Applied Heat; Heinemann Educational Books


7. 8.