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Classification of Hypertension

There are several classification of hypertension, among others based on the cause, based on the level of systolic and diastolic pressure, and based on the abnormalities that appear. Based on the cause 1) Primary hypertension hypertension of unknown cause clearly 2) Secondary hypertension hypertension that we can know about the cause Based on the level of systolic and diastolic pressure 1) Borderline hypertension Bood pressure between 140/90 mmHg and 160/95 mmHg 2) Mild hypertension Blood pressure between 160/95 mmHg and 200/110 mmHg 3) Moderate hypertension Blood pressure between 200/110 mmHg and 230/120 mmHg 4) Severe hypertension Blood pressure between 230/120 mmHg and 280/140 mmHg Based on the abnormalities that caused 1) Hypertension first class hypertension without any abnormality in the body's organs 2) Hypertension second class hypertension with cardiac enlargement 3) Hypertension third class hypertension with abnormalities in the other organs besides the heart

Complications of Hypertension
Heart Complications High blood pressure is a major risk factor for hypertensive heart disease, the leading cause of illness and death from high blood pressure. Hypertensive heart disease is a group of complications that include: Coronary Artery Disease. High blood pressure contributes to the thickening of the blood vessel walls, which can cause or worsen atherosclerosis (accumulated deposits of cholesterol in the blood vessels). The end result is coronary artery disease (CAD), also called ischemic heart disease, which increases the risk for angina (chest pain), heart attack, stroke, and death. High blood pressure is the most common risk factor for heart attack and stroke. Heart Failure. High blood pressure increases the heart's workload. Over time, this can cause the heart muscle to thicken. As the heart pumps against elevated pressure in the blood vessels, the left ventricle becomes enlarged and the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute

(cardiac output) goes down, a condition called left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Without treatment, this can lead to heart failure. Cardiac Arrythmias. High blood pressure increases the risk for cardiac arrhythmias (disturbances and irregularities in heartbeats). Arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions, and ventricular tachycardia. Stroke About two-thirds of people who suffer a first stroke have moderate elevated blood pressure (160/95 mm Hg or above). Hypertensive people have up to 10 times the normal risk of stroke, depending on the severity of the blood pressure in the presence of other risk factors. Hypertension is also an important cause of so-called silent cerebral infarcts, or blockages, in the blood vessels in the brain (mini-strokes) that may predict major stroke or progress to dementia over time. Diabetes and Kidney Disease Diabetes. High blood pressure, and some of the medications used to treat it, can increase the risk for developing diabetes. There are strong biologic links between insulin resistance (with or without diabetes) and hypertension. It is unclear which condition causes the other. People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease need to reduce their blood pressure to 130/80 mm Hg or lower to protect the heart and help prevent other complications common to both diseases. Up to 75% of cardiovascular problems in people with diabetes may be due to hypertension. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for type 2 diabetes in all patients with blood pressure higher than 135/80 mm Hg. End-Stage Kidney Disease. High blood pressure causes 30% of all cases of end-stage kidney disease (medically referred to as end-stage renal disease, or ESRD). Only diabetes leads to more cases of kidney failure. Patients with diabetes and hypertension need to be monitored very closely for the development of kidney disease. Eye Damage High blood pressure can injure the blood vessels in the eye's retina, causing a condition called retinopathy.

Prevention of Hypertension
1. Low Salt Diet

Limit consumption of foods containing high levels of salt or sodium such as salted fish, salted egg and preserved foods and substances containing monosodium glutamate, like sardines. Sodium bias causes fluid buildup in the body that cause many people biased high blood pressure. 2. Low-Fat Diet Reduce consumption of fatty or oily foods such as fatty meats, and avoid the consumption of goat meat, fruit durian, and caffeinated beverages such as coffee. 3. Lose excess weight because obese people are more at risk of hypertension 4. Noticing Diet Consumption of a balanced and varied diet. Increase fiber foods such as vegetables and fruits. 5. Exercising Regularly Sports such as running, aerobics or cycling is done regularly can help lower blood pressure. This situation can be done if you get permission or advice from a doctor. Because aerobic seidikit not require power. For patients who are old, or 45 years and over, usually recommended brisk walking 30-45 minutes, 3-4 times a week. 6. Stop smoking and alcoholic beverages 7. Checking Blood Pressure In Periodic It is highly recommended for those who do have a history of hypertension descent to avoid attacks of severe hypertension suddenly.

Treatment of Hypertension
The main goal of treatment for hypertension is to lower blood pressure to less than 140/90 - or even lower in some groups such as people with diabetes, and people with chronic kidney diseases. Treating hypertension is important for reducing the risk of stroke, heart attack, and heart failure. High blood pressure may be treated medically, by changing lifestyle factors, or a combination of the two. Important lifestyle changes include losing weight, quitting smoking, eating a healthful diet, reducing sodium intake, exercising regularly, and limiting alcohol consumption.

Medical options to treat hypertension include several classes of drugs. ACE inhibitors, ARB drugs, beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and peripheral vasodilators are the primary drugs used in treatment. These medications may be used alone or in combination, and some are only used in combination. In addition, some of these drugs are preferred to others depending on the characteristics of the patient (diabetic, pregnant, etc.).
1) {Diuretic hydrochlorothiazide tablets (HCT), Lasix (Furosemide)} is a class of hypertension

drugs, the discharge process of the body via urine. But since potassium is likely wasted in the urine, so controlling the consumption of potassium should be done.
2) Beta-blockers {Atenolol (Tenorim), Capoten (captopril)}. Drug is used in an effort to control

blood pressure through prose slows the heart and widen (vasodilation) of blood vessels.
3) Calcium channel blockers {Norvasc (amlopidine), Angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE)}. It

is one of the drugs commonly used to control high blood pressure or hypertension is through the process of blood vessel relaxation that also widens blood vessels. If blood pressure is successfully lowered, it is wise to have frequent checkups and to take preventive measures to avoid a relapse of hypertension.