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Group A

01. What are the products of burned fuel? The products of burned fuel are a. CO2 b. H2O 02. What are the basic general requirements of turbine fuel? The basic requirements of turbine fuel are, Be pump able and flow easily under all operating condition. Permit engine starting at all ground conditions and give satisfactory relighting characteristics. Give efficient combustion efficiency under all conditions. Have as high a calorific value as possible. Produce minimal corrosive effects on combustion system of turbine blades and fuel system. Provides adequate lubrication for movie parts of the fuel system.

03. What are the specific requirements of turbine fuel? The specific requirements of turbine fuel are, Combustion efficiency Viscosity and Volatility Flame blowout & Relighting. Carbon disposition. 04. Define calorific value of fuel The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion. In other it is an expression of the heat or energy content per pound or gallon that is released during combustion. 05. Write down two main contaminating elements of fuel Two contaminating elements of fuel are, Water Foreign Particles

06. What do you mean by TSFC? TSFC: Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC) is defined as the quantity of fuel required to produce per kilogram of thrust per hour.

The unit of TSFC is kg/kg thrust/hr. 07. What is flash point? Flash Point: At which temperature, the fuel begins to evolve vapors in sufficient quantity to form an explosive mixture with air. It is regarded as a measure of fire hazard involved in using the fuel. 08. What is the purpose of engine fuel system? The purpose of engine fuel system is to provide the engine with fuel in suitable for combustion and to control the flow the required quantity necessary for easy starting , acceleration and stable running at all operating conditions with proper pressure and temperature. 09. How combustion chamber drain valve is closed? Combustion chamber drain valve is located in the lower point of combustion chamber and closed by the gas pressure during the engine operation. 10. What do you mean by engine power ratio (EPR)

EPR is the ration between turbine discharge pressure and compressor outlet pressure

11. Mention four basic inputs of fuel control unit (FCU) Four basic inputs of fuel control unit are, Throttle movement. Intake air temperature and pressure. Rapid acceleration and deceleration. Signals of engine speed, engine gas temperature and compressor delivery pressure or burner pressure (BP)

12. What is the purpose of constant pressure differential valve? The purpose of constant pressure differential valve is to maintain a constant pressure difference across the main metering valve so that required amount of fuel can be supplied during movement of throttle valve. 13. What is the purpose of pressurization and dump (P& D) Valve? The purpose of pressurization valve is to provide primary and secondary fuel flow to dual line duplex fuel nozzles. The purpose of dump valve is to allow fuel to drain from the manifolds after engine shutdown. 14. Mention different types of fuel spray nozzles There are two types of fuel spray nozzles Atomizing Type Vaporizing Type 15. What do you mean by flat rating? Generally, flat rating is thought of as enabling the engine to produce a constant rated thrust over a wide range of ambient temperature without working the engine harder than necessary, in the interest of prolonging engine service life. 16. What do you mean by wet sump lubrication system? The lubrication system of engine in which sump oil is contained integrally in an engine sump is known as wet sump lubrication system. 17. What do you mean by dry sump lubrication system? The sump of engine where the main oil supply is contained in a separate tank is known as dry sump lubrication system. 18. How lubricating oil is cooled? Lubricating oil is generally cooled by FCOC and ACOC

19. Write down the names of lubricating oil 1.Vegetable Lubricant 2.Mineral Lubricant 3.Synthetic Lubricant 4.Animal base Lubricant 20. Write down the purpose of lubrication system The purpose of lubrication system is to supply oil to various moving parts to reduce friction load, cooling as well as cleaning the parts 21. What is the function of filter bypass valve? The purpose of bypass filter is to bypass the oil supply to the system without filtering when the filter is blocked. 22. Who cools the turbine? Turbine is cooled by CDP (compressor discharge pressure) air with help of pneumatic pipe line. 23. What do you mean by labyrinth seal? Labyrinth seal is such kind of seal which prevent the leak of bearing chamber. It prevents oil leakage by allowing the air to flow from the outside to the inside of the chamber. This flow induces positive pressure which assist the oil to return the system. 24. Write down the thrust augmenting methods Thrust augmenting methods are, Water Injection Compressor Inlet Injection Combustion chamber injection Reheat (After Burning) 25. What are the occasions on which thrust augmentation system is operated? Thrust augmentation generally operated in Military Aircraft during, Take off Climb & Combat operation

26. What do you mean by re-heat system? Re-heat system means increasing the temperature of the exhaust gas by burning additional fuel between engine turbine and the jet pipe propelling nozzle that gives the gas an increased velocity and therefore increasing the engine thrust.

27. Why methanol is added to water in the water injection? During water injection methanol is mixed with water because it gives anti-freezing properties and also provides an additional source of fuel. 28. How thrust reversing is achieved in case of turbojet engine? Thrust reversing is achieved by directing the exhaust gas at approximately 45 degree. It is achieved by several methods like, Clamshell door operation Bucket target system Cold steam reverser system 29. What is Class-A fire? Class A fire are those that have ordinary combustible materials such as paper, cloth, or wood as their fuel. These are not normally the class of fire that occurs in an aircraft power plant area. 30. What is Class-B fire? Class B fire has flammable liquids as its fuel, oil and rubber. This is the most common type of fire that occurs in the power plant area of the aircraft. 31. What is the function of fire detection system? The function of fire detection system is to detect the presence of fire before it is visible to the flight crew. 32. What do you mean by false start & Hung Start? False Start: A condition in which the fuel-air mixture inside a gas turbine engine ignites and burns, but the RPM does not build up high enough for the engine to continue to run without help from the starter. Hung start: A improper start of a gas turbine engine in which the engine starts but fails to accelerate to a self-sustaining speed.

33. What do you mean by two shot fire extinguishing system? A pair of fire extinguishing bottles may be used for two nearby engine. In that case each bottle have two discharge head, One for each engine. Bottle no-1 either for 1st shot for left engine or 2nd shot for right engine. Similarly Bottle no 2 is used either 1st shot for right engine or 2nd shot for left engine. The arrangement is called two shot fire extinguishing system. 34. Why bleeder resistor is fitted in ignition circuit? The bleed resistor is fitted in the circuit to allow the capacitor to bleed off its charge when the system is de-energized. It also protects the circuit from overheating if power is turned on when no igniter plug is installed. 35. What is the function of rectifier unit in ignition system? The function for rectifier unit or blocking diod is to convert secondary coil induced Alternating Current into Direct Current. 36. Why it is required to wait for specific period to work in HT lead/ ignition plug after switch off??? It is required to wait for a specific period to work in High tension lead or ignition plug after switch of so that the high voltage stored in storage capacitor would be discharged trough discharge air gap tube. After discharging, its safe to work on HT ignition plug. 37. How pneumatic starter motor is cut-off? Pneumatic starter motor is cut-off by over speed switch 38. How electrical starter is cut-off? Electrical motor is cut-off by under current relay. 39. What are the pneumatic sources for starting an engine? The pneumatic sources of starting an engine are APU, GPU and from the cross bleed air source of an operating main engine. 40. What is the function of clutch mechanism in starter? The function of clutch mechanism in starter is to engage and disengage the starter drive from the engine drive.

Group B
1. Mention the difference jet A & jet B fuel Jet A Grade Flash Point Freezing Point Fuel type Kerosene based fuel Lower than jet B Higher than Jet B General Aviation Fuel Jet B gasoline and Kerosene mix Higher than jet A Very Low than jet A Military Fuel

2. How microbial in the fuel feed on Microbial growth is produced by various forms of microorganism that live and multiply in the water interfaces of jet fuels. These organisms may form slime similar in appearance to the deposits found in stagnant water. The color of this slime growth may be red, brown, or black. If not properly controlled by frequent removal of free water, the growth of these organisms can become extensive. The organisms feed on the hydrocarbons that are found in fuels, but they need free water in order to multiply. 3. How to control fuel contamination All aviation maintenance personnel should be familiar with the following means of contamination control. a. Fuel being pumped into airport storage should pass through a filter-separate. b. Turbine fuel should be allowed to settle for a period of one hour per foot of depth of the fuel before being withdrawn for use. c. Storage tank should be checked with litmus paper after each new load of fuel is received and the fuel has settled. The litmus paper should remain submerged of a minimum of 15 seconds. During periods of heavy rain underground tanks should be checked with litmus paper more frequently. d. Fuel being withdrawn from storage should be passed through a filter-separator meeting specification MILL-F-8508A. e. To lessen the likelihood of rust and scale the tanks of mobile fuellers should he constructed of either stainless steel, nonferrous material or steel coated with a reliable, inter material.

4. What is the basic function of EEC

EEC (electronic Engine Control): An electronic fuel control for a gas turbine engine. The EEC senses the power-lever angle (PLA), engine RPM, bleed valve, and variable stator vane position, and the various engine pressures and temperatures. It meters the correct amount of fuel to the nozzles for all flight conditions to prevent turbine over-speed and over-temperature. 5. Write down at least four basic requirements of fuel Be pump able and flow easily under all operating condition. Permit engine starting at all ground conditions and give satisfactory relighting characteristics. Give efficient combustion efficiency under all conditions. Have as high a calorific value as possible.

6. What is the purpose of centrifugal breather


The purpose of the centrifugal breather to separate the air and mist from the returning oil to tank. SYSTEM: The returning air/oil mist passes into the centrifugal breather for separation for separation. The rotating van of the breather centrifuge oil from mist and air vented overboard through the hollow drive shaft.

7. What is the purpose of differential pressure regulating valve The purpose of differential pressure regulating valve to maintain constant pressure across the main metering valve.

8. What is the reference of oil pressure? The reference of the oil pressure is sump pressure. 9. Name the methods of augmenting thrust? 1. Water injection; two types of water injection a. compressor inlet injection b. combustion chamber injection 2. Reheat.

10. Why scavenge pump capacity is much higher than pressure pump. The scavenge pump removes oil from the bearing compartments and gearboxes by suction. But by suction air, mist also come with oil. The entrained air that accumulates in the oil increases its volume and

necessitates the use of a much higher capacity scavenge subsystem. Thats why scavenge pump capacity is much higher than pressure pump.

11. Classify metal fire Certain metals are flammable or combustible. Fires involving such are designated "Class D" in both systems. Examples of such metals include sodium, titanium, magnesium, potassium, uranium, lithium, plutonium, and calcium. Magnesium and titanium fires are common. When one of these combustible metals ignites, it can easily and rapidly spread to surrounding ordinary combustible materials.

12. Name the halogens in Halon-1202 & Halon-1301 Halon 1202 Dibromo-difluro-methane is lightweight and noncorrosive to aluminum steel, or brass, but it is relatively toxic and is high in cost. Halon 1301 Bromo-trifluoro-methane is one of the most effective of the modern fire extinguishing agents. It is non-toxic and noncorrosive and is far more effective that most of the other agents. It is a liquefied gas whose freezing point is -270F. For use in aircraft power plant fire extinguishing systems, it is stored in spherical high-rate-discharge bottles. 13. What is the function of vibrator in the dc input ignition unit? Vibrator consist of a permanent magnet & transformer. A permanent magnet will hold the pointer closed by attraction of the pointer closed by attraction of the pointer armature. When the points are pulled open, stopping current flow. This action is repeated approximately 200 times per second for producing a pulsating DC. Then AC is produced with the help of transformer in vibrator. 14. How to identify a high energy ignition plug

15. Differentiate low voltage ignition plug from high voltage ignition plug.

16. What is the main advantage of pneumatic starter over electric starter High torque to weight ratio then electrical starter in electrical starter

Eng. may be motored at high or low speed But it cannot possible in electrical starter system.

17. Why electric starter is used on turbo prop engine? Most electrical starters used on turbo-prop engines because its clutch mechanism as like as air turbine starter, which prevent starter from applying excessive torque to the engine drive, at predetermined torque the clutch plates within the clutch housing lip around and acts as a friction clutch. During starting the friction is designed to slip until engine speed and starter speed increase to develop less than the slip torque setting. 18. Differentiate DC input ignition unit from AC input ignition unit a. The AC input system is said to have better extreme climate reliability than the DC input system, and the reliability than the point system is said to have an effect of increased service life for the transformer unit. b. DC system heat up rapidly while the AC system heat up late. c. In flight, both AC and DC main systems can be switched to one igniter plug for one time cycle, then to the other igniter plug. This procedure could be repeated as long as in-flight ignition is required. d. If an AC continuous ignition system is installed there is usually no time limit. The pilot does switch from right to left plug, however, for equal amounts of time in the interest of plug service life. There are no DC continuous systems. e. The DC system remains in popular use, especially when no auxiliary power unit is installed and a battery input voltage is all that is available for starting. On larger aircraft, the APU has a battery DC input ignition and the main engines can then use the APU's alternator output for powering an AC input system.

19. Why methanol is added to water in the water injection system If water only was injected, it would reduce the turbine inlet temperature, but with the addition of methanol the turbine inlet temperature is restored by the burning of methanol in the combustion chamber. Thus the power is restored without having to adjust the fuel flow.

20. What is the purpose & type of fire detection system? The purpose of fire detection system to detect fires or overheat conditions in the power plant portion.

Type : Thermal switch fire detection system Thermocouple type fire detection system Continuous loop fire detection system Pressure type sensor responder fire detection system

Group C
1. Describe differential pressure regulating valve. Purpose: The purpose of constant pressure differential valve is to maintain a constant pressure difference across the main metering valve so that required amount of fuel can be supplied during movement of throttle valve. Operation: A constantly changing fuel bypass is the means by which pressure differential is maintained at a constant value, regardless of orifice size. By directing metered fuel to the spring side of the differential pressure regulator diaphragm, the pressure differential will always return to the value of the spring tension. This spring tension being a constant value, the differential pressure will also be constant. 2. Describe pressurization and Dump Valve (P&D) valve. A pressurizing and dump valve is often used along with a duplex fuel nozzle of the dual inlet line type. Rather than provide a flow divider in each nozzle, as with the single line duplex, this arrangement allows for one central flow divider called a pressurizing and dump valve. The term pressurizing refers to the fact that at a pre-set pressure, fuel flows into the main manifold as well as through the pilot manifold. The term dump refers to the valve's capability of dumping the entire fuel manifold after shutdown. Manifold dumping is a procedure which sharply cuts off combustion and also prevents fuel boiling as a result of residual engine heat. This boiling would tend to leave solid deposits in the manifold which could clog the finely calibrated passageways. The dump valve, sometimes called a drip valve, is incorporated in the low point of fuel manifolds which utilize the simplex and single line duplex type of fuel nozzles. Its sole purpose is to drain the fuel manifold after engine shutdown. It is subject to the same environmental restrictions mentioned for the pressurization and dump valve.

3. Describe flat rating.

Most commercial engines and some business jet engines are referred to as flat rated. This refers to the flat shape of the full thrust curve. The flat portion of the curve ends at the point on the ambient temperature scale at which the thrust starts to drop below 100%.

4. Describe oil servicing procedure. The important consideration when servicing the oil system is to insure that servicing is accomplished within a short time after engine shutdown. Manufacturers normally require this in order to prevent over servicing. Over servicing may occur on some engines which have the tendency to allow oil in the storage tank to seep into lower portions of the engine after periods of inactivity. When the oil level is checked later than the prescribed time after shutdown, a typical procedure is as follows a. If the oil level is low, but still visible on the dipstick, motor the engine over with the starter for 20-30 seconds; then recheck the oil level. b. If the oil level is not visible on the dipstick, add oil until an indication appears on the dipstick; then motor the engine for 20-30 seconds and recheck the oil level. An important consideration after oil servicing is recording the amount of oil serviced.-A steady oil consumption within allowable limits provides a valuable trend analysis of engine wear at main bearing seal locations. 5. Describe in brief the water injection system. There are two basic methods of injecting the coolant into the airflow. Some engines have the coolant sprayed directly into the compressor inlet, but the injection of coolant into the combustion chamber inlet is usually more suitable for axial flow compressor engines. This is because a more even distribution can be obtained and a greater quantity of coolant can be satisfactory injected. When water/methanol mixture is sprayed into the compressor inlet, the temperature of the compressor inlet air is reduced and consequently the air density and thrust are increased. If water only was injected, it would reduce the turbine inlet temperature, but with the addition of methanol the turbine inlet temperature is restored by the burning of methanol in the combustion chamber. Thus the power is restored without having to adjust the fuel flow. The injection of coolant into the combustion chamber inlet increases the mass flow through the turbine, relative to that through the compressor. The pressure and temperature drop across the turbine is thus reduced, and this results in an increased jet pipe pressure, which in turn gives additional thrust. The consequent reduction in turbine inlet temperature, due to water injection, enables the fuel system to schedule an increase of fuel flow to a value that gives an increase in the maximum rotational speed of the engine, thus providing further additional thrust. Where methanol is used with the water, the turbine inlet temperature is restored or partially restored, by the burning of the methanol in the combustion chamber.

6. Describe in brief the clamshell door thrust reversal system. The clamshell door system is a pneumatically operated system, as shown in detail in fig. Normal engine operation is not affected by the system, because the ducts through which the exhaust gases are deflected remain closed by the doors until reverse thrust is selected by the pilot.

On the selection of reverse thrust, the doors rotate to uncover the ducts and close the normal gas stream exit. Cascade vanes direct the gas stream in a forward direction so that the jet thrust opposes the aircraft motion. The clamshell doors are operated by pneumatic rams through levers that give the maximum load to the doors in the forward thrust position; this ensures effective sealing at the door edges, so preventing gas leakage. The door bearings and operating linkage operate without lubrication at temperatures of up to 600 deg. C 7. Describe the thermocouple principle along with its use.

8. Describe engine starting procedure An air manifold which runs through the entire aircraft interconnects the APU, GPU and the main engine bleed ports and the starter inlets. a common procedure with this system is to start one engine from APU or GPU and the remaining engine(s) may be started from the APU, GPU or bleed air source of the operating engine. The starting procedure of the typical duel-spool engine would be as follows: Start master ON. The starting button/switch is pressed. Starter air manifold pressure will drop slightly, N2 starts increasing. At 15-20% N2andpositive indication of N1 Place the Ignition/fuel Lever to ON. Watch for EGT rise and oil pressure indication Monitor all engine instruments up to idle speed of the engine.

9. Describe engine fire warning test procedure. A test switch enables testing of The sensing loop continuity Correct functioning of complete circuit The fire extinguishing circuit.

Putting the test switch to test position will energize the test relay. This will Change extinguishing test light from shut off relay to extinguishing time delay rely. Prevent the cartridge in the extinguishing bottle from fire Energize a holding relay Interrupt the close circuit of the sensing element Fire warming will come. Extinguishing test light will come on after 5 seconds. 10. Draw & level starting sequence graph.

11. Describe continuous fire detecting system. This system works on the same basic principle as the spot-type fire detection system. But, the continuous loop-type of system has as its sensor a long anconal tube. This tube is arranged around the area it is protecting in such a way that it will sense any fire or overheat condition in the compartment.

There are two types of sensing elements in use. Kedde Fenwal Kedde System: Kedde sensing element consists of anconal tube in which two sensing wire are embedded in a ceramic insulating core. At low temperature ceramic acts as insulator and at high temperature its resistance decreases and it allows current flow through it. If there are fire or overheat, ceramics core allows current flow between two sensing wire and the warning will come. Fenwal System: fenwal sensing element consists of a inconel tube with a single wire electrode. The pure nickel electrode is surrounded by ceramic beads to prevent the electrode and conductor from touching each other. The beads in this system are wetted with a eutectic salt which has an electrical resistance that varies with temperature. At normal temperature the eutectic salt works as insulator. When fire occurs, temperature raises, it allows current flow and the warning will come. 12. Describe fan reversing system. The cold stream reverser system can be actuated by an air motor, the output of which is converted to mechanical movement by a series of flexible drives, gearboxes and screw-jacks, or by a system incorporating hydraulic rams. When the engine is operating in forward thrust, the cold stream final nozzle is open because the cascade vanes are internally covered by the blocker doors (flaps) and externally by the movable (translating) cowl; the latter item also serves to reduce drag.

On selection of reverse thrust, the actuation system moves the translating cowl rearwards and at the same time folds the blocker doors to blank off the cold stream final nozzle, thus diverting the airflow through the cascade vanes.

13. Describe after burner (re-heat) system. Afterburning consists of the introduction and burning of fuel between the engine turbine and the jet pipe propelling nozzle, utilizing the unburned oxygen in the exhaust gas to support combustion. The resultant increase in the temperature. The area of the afterburning jet pipe is larger than a normal jet pipe would be for the same engine, to obtain a reduced velocity gas stream. To provide for operation under all conditions, an afterburning jet pipe is fitted with either a two-position of a variable area propelling nozzle. In this method, the fuel injection is scheduled separately to the individual streams, and it is normal to provide some form of interconnection between the flame stabilizers in the hot and cold streams to assist the combustion processes in the cold by-pass air. 14. Outline the steps of checking oil quantity & filling procedure.