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Introduction to Photoluminescence Spectroscopy

Lecturer: Shou-Yi Kuo

Outline
1.

Fundamental physics
Electron in solids Properties of semiconductors

2.

Experimental Setup
Element of PL spectroscopy

3.

Practical examples
III-Nitride materials Quantum structures

1. Fundamental physics
Electron

in solids

-Formation of energy bands -Classification of solids


Properties

of semiconductors

-Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors -Size effects

The Band Theory of Solids


Energy level

Energy bands

Formation of Energy Bands

What Is a Semiconductor ?
Conductivity

Definition

Metals: Good Conductors! Semiconductor/Semimetal: Insulators:

No rigid boundaries!

Semimetal Metal

Bandgap

Definition

Semiconductor: ~ Small bandgap insulator


Strictly speaking, must be capable of being doped

Typical semiconductor bandgaps:


0 ~ Eg ~3.5 eV

Metals & semimetals: Eg = 0 eV Insulators: Eg > 3.5 eV

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Typical Band Structures at T = 0 K


Band gap Band gap

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Metal, Semiconductors and Insulators

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Metal, Semiconductors and Insulators

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Classification of Semiconductors

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Semiconductor Bandstructure

band structure

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Band gap

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Elemental Semiconductors and Dopants

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Elemental and Compound Semiconductors

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Properties of Elemental and Compound Semiconductors

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Pure Semiconductors

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Electrical Conduction in Intrinsic Silicon at T = 0 K

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Electrical Conduction in Intrinsic Silicon at T > 0 K

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Charge Carriers in Intrinsic Semiconductors

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Charge Carriers Concentration And Fermi Level

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Intrinsic Conductivity

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What is the Density of States ?


The density of states is the number of states per unit volume per unit energy interval that are available for occupation by electrons (or holes). Optical absorption must be proportional to the density of states, because a photon cannot be absorbed if there is no final state available for the electronic transition. For 3-D parabolic bands (bulk), N(E)= (1/2p2)(2m*/2)3/2E, where m* is the effective mass of the electron. For a 2-D quantum well, N(E)= m*/p2, independent of E. For each quantum state in the quantum well, there will be a step in the density of states.

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Fermi Distribution Function Density of States and filled Electron States

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Band Gap and Concentration of Charge Carriers Vs. Temperature

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Semiconductor Doping
Doped semiconductors are called extrinsic semiconductors. One places a small amount of impurity atoms into the pure element melt, e.g. arsenic atoms into silicon crystals. The extra electron of arsenic is not paired, so it is forced up into the gap between the valence and conduction bands. The net result is that photons of lower energy can ionize an electron or hole to produce a carrier.

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Doped Semiconductor

ED EA

Some combinations of elements may not be viable.

Lattice structure breaks down at interesting concentration levels.

Difficult to do the chemistry to make it.

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n-type doping
Phosphorous (or other column V element) atom replaces silicon atom in crystal lattice. Since phosphorous has five outer shell electrons, there is now an extra electron in the structure. Material is still charge neutral, but very little energy is required to free the electron for conduction since it is not participating in a bond.

ED

ED (eV)

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p-type doping
Boron (or other column III element) has been added to silicon. There is now an incomplete bond pair, creating a vacancy for an electron. Little energy is required to move a nearby electron into the vacancy. Like a moving bubble in liquids. As the hole propagates, positive charge is moved across the silicon.

EA

EA (eV)

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Donors and Acceptors

Calculation using the hydrogen model HH+ + e-

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Ionization energies of impurities

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Intrinsic and Extrinsic (n- and p-Type) Semiconductors

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Distribution Function, Density of States and filled Electron states

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Semiconductor Energy Band Model

Recall

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Energy Band Model for a Doped Semiconductor

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Energy Band Model for Compensated Semidonductor

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Electrical Conductivity vs. Temperature

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Charge Carrier Concentration vs. Reciprocal Temperature

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Extrinsic, Saturation and Intrinsic Behavior vs. Reciprocal Temperature

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Energy Quantization :Bulk material

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2D nanostructure :quantum well

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1D nanostructure :quantum wire

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0D nanostructure :quantum dot

dispersion

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For 3-D parabolic bands (bulk), N(E)= (1/22)(2m*/2)3/2E, where m* is the effective mass of the electron. For a 2-D quantum well, N(E)= m*/2, independent of E. For each quantum state in the quantum well, there will be a step in the density of states.

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2. Experimental Setup
Element

of PL spectroscopy - Monochromator - Light source - Detector

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Wavelength range

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How to measure a spectrum

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Optical Absorption

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Photoluminescence (PL) basics

Types of luminescence
Cathodoluminescence
Cathode rays (TV and PCs display) Photoluminescence Photon excitation (fluorescent lights) Electroluminescence Electrical injection (LED.s)

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Luminescence
Classification
Direct Eg, h = Eg energy given off in process.

Fast: 10-8 s or less If after excitation turned off, emission stops in about 10-8 s , called fluorescence. If emission stops in about seconds or even minutes, called phosphorescence. Special materials called: phosphors. thermal re-excitation involved. Color (frequency) depends on impurity since many transitions may involved with (Et).

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Monochromator

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Slit