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Heat transfer mechanisms

There are three distinct mechanisms by which heat transfer can occur:

Conduction
is the ow of heat through a solid material from a region of higher to lower temperature.

Convection
is the transfer of heat by means of the actual movement of a stream of uid (can be a vapour or liquid).

Radiation

Radiation & Buildings


Heat transmission by radiation
Between any two objects the amount of energy transferred by radiation is:

is the transfer of heat by means of the straight-line passage of electromagnetic waves through space between objects of diering temperatures, without the intervention of any intermediate solid or uid material (can occur across a vacuum).

Heat exchange from the body


convection & conduction exhalation & evaporation radiation

q A(T T )
where: q = heat transferred (Watts) A = area of emitting body (m2) Th = temperature of the warmer body (K) Tc = temperature of the colder body (K) Relatively small dierences in temperature can result in signicant transfers of energy.

4 h

4 c

Heat exchange from the body


Title

Radiant heat & the building enclosure


transfer through the transparent parts of the enclosure

radiation 47% 25%

exhalation & evaporation

heating of the opaque parts of the enclosure

28% conduction & convection

transfer between individual components within the enclosure

Properties of solar radiation


The solar radiation which most impacts buildings falls within a quite narrow range of the total electromagnetic energy received from the sun.

Electromagnetic spectrum
increasing wavelength (m) 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 102 103 10 1

X-rays gamma rays 1020 1019 1018 1017

visible ultra violet 1016 1015 infrared 1014 1013 1012

microwaves radio waves 1011 1010 109 108 107 106

increasing frequency (Hz) The types of electromagnetic radiation can be organized along a continuum or spectrum, encompassing a huge range of frequencies, wavelengths and energy levels increasing energy ionizing non-ionizing radiation radiation

Electromagnetic radiation
region ultraviolet waves frequency wavelength comments ultraviolet C (UVC), most energetic & damaging to tissue, ltered out by several hundred metres of stratospheric ozone layer, blocked by window glass

Electromagnetic spectrum
increasing wavelength (m) 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 102 102 103 103 10 10 1

1 - 3 PHz

100 - 280 nm

X-rays gamma rays 1020 1019 1018 1017

visible ultra violet 1016 1015 infrared 1014 1013 1012

microwaves radio waves 1011 1010 109 108 107 107 106 106

0.94 - 1 PHz

750 - 935 THz

ultraviolet B (UVB), causes most skin damage, mostly 280 - 315 nm blocked by ozone layer, dense clouds & window glass ultraviolet A (UVA), less absorbed by atmosphere, penetrates glass & deep into tissue but less 315 - 400 nm damaging, causes uorescent materials to emit light (black light), used in tanning salons, causes fading of colours

increasing frequency (Hz) increasing energy ionizing non-ionizing radiation radiation

Electromagnetic radiation
region visible light frequency 672 - 750 THz 600 - 672 THz 519 - 600 THz 507 - 519 THz 484 - 507 THz 429 - 484 THz wavelength 400 - 446 nm 446 - 500 nm 500 - 578 nm 578 - 590 nm 592 - 620 nm 620 - 700 nm comments

Electromagnetic spectrum
10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1

violet blue green yellow orange red

increasing wavelength (m) 1

X-rays gamma rays 1020 1019 1018 1017

visible ultra violet 1016 1015 infrared 1014 1013 1012

microwaves radio waves 1011 1010 109 108

increasing frequency (Hz) increasing energy ionizing non-ionizing radiation radiation

Electromagnetic radiation
region infrared waves frequency wavelength comments near (colour, photo, solar or reected) IR, closest to visible range, can record on lm, TV remote controls, bre optics, passes through window glass short wavelength IR mid (intermediate) wavelength IR long wavelength IR, blocked by window glass far (thermal) IR, type of radiation felt as heat, blocked by window glass, produced in heat lamps

Solar radiation spectrum


increasing wavelength (m) 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 102 103 10 1

215 - 425 THz

0.7 - 1.4 m

X-rays gamma rays 1020 1019 1018 1017

visible ultra violet 1016 1015 infrared

microwaves radio waves 1011 1010 109 108 107 106

100 - 215 THz 40 - 100 THz 20 - 40 THz

1.4 - 3.0 m 3.0 - 8.0 m 8.0 - 15 m

solar radiation
1014 1013 1012

increasing frequency (Hz) increasing energy ionizing non-ionizing radiation radiation

0.3 - 20 THz

15 - 1,000 m

Solar radiation spectrum


To identify impact on buildings, we are mostly concerned with solar radiation, whose electromagnetic spectrum is a function of the suns temperature

Solar radiation spectrum


To identify impact on buildings, we are mostly concerned with solar radiation, whose electromagnetic spectrum is a function of the suns temperature The major components of the solar spectrum when it reaches the outside of the earths atmosphere are ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation.

Solar radiation spectrum


As the radiation passes through the atmosphere, the spectrum is somewhat modied due to absorption and scattering.

Solar radiation spectrum


As the radiation passes through the atmosphere, the spectrum is somewhat modied due to absorption and scattering. It is this scattering which gives the sky its brightness and provides the ambient diuse daylighting used in buildings. Blue radiation is scattered by particles about equal to its wavelength, while the longer wavelength colours are less impacted, giving the sky its blue appearance.

Solar radiation spectrum


increasing wavelength (m or 10-6 m)
thermal (far) 1000

Solar radiation spectrum


blackbody radiation (at sun) radiation outside atmosphere

100

200

500

0.1

0.2

0.5

10

20

50

ENERGY

radiation at earths surface Of the total radiation reaching the earths surface: 2% is in the ultraviolet range 49% is in the visible range 49% is in the infrared range

short

near

ultra violet 1015

visible

infrared

solar or thermal radiation 1014 1013 1012


200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400

long

UVC

UVB

UVA

mid

WAVELENGTH (nm) ultraviolet visible infrared

increasing frequency (Hz)

Interaction of radiation with objects


When electromagnetic radiation strikes an object, it can be reected, transmitted or absorbed incident radiation absorbed radiation transmitted radiation

Interaction of radiation with objects


The reection, transmission or absorption characteristics of an object depend on the characteristics of the material, as well as the wavelength and incident angle of the incoming radiation. They can be characterized by the following coecients: reectance coecient (reectivity) transmission coecient (transmissibility) absorption coecient (absorptivity) For any given material, wavelength and angle of incidence, the three coecients must add up to 1 (or 100%).

reected radiation

absorbed radiation is also re-emitted

re-emitted radiation

If a material is completely opaque, it transmission coecient is of course equal to zero.

Interaction of radiation with objects


Re-emitted: Once electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by an object, its temperature will rise depending on the amount of energy absorbed. In order to maintain an energy balance, it will need to re-emit the radiation.

Interaction of radiation with objects


Re-emitted: Once electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by an object, its temperature will rise depending on the amount of energy absorbed. In order to maintain an energy balance, it will need to re-emit the radiation.

The peak wavelength of this emitted radiation is inversely proportional to its temperature the higher the temperature of the radiating body, the lower the wavelength of the emitted radiation.

The peak wavelength of this emitted radiation is inversely proportional to its temperature the higher the temperature of the radiating body, the lower the wavelength of the emitted radiation.

At typical room temperatures, this radiation is emitted in the longer wavelength infrared region. Such wavelengths cannot pass through window glass readily, and therefore heat up the internal space

Impact of solar radiation on buildings

Solar radiation intensity through apertures


The quantity of energy which enters a building through any aperture is a function of: 1) the amount of solar energy which strikes the aperture (in W/m2) dependent on suns position relative to the aperture orientation of the aperture (horizontal, vertical N, S, E, W) latitude, day, hour sky condition (overcast, clear) 2) the size of the aperture (square metres)

through apertures

opaque elements

3) the properties of the glazing material to transmit solar energy (glazing transmission coecient, in percentage)

Solar radiation intensity through apertures


The amount of available solar energy passing through apertures on surfaces of dierent orientations has been compiled by ASHRAE as function of latitude, month, and time of day for clear sky conditions

Solar Heat Gain Factors (W/m2)

48N latitude

Clear, cloudless day, including direct, diffuse and reflected radiation (20% ground reflectance) through single-glazing (Tg = 0.87). On the 21st day of each month indicated. Extracted from ASHRAE Solar Intensity & Solar Heat Gain Factor tables.

9 10 11 noon 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

24 37 45 48 45 37 24 4

42 54 61 63 61 54 42 24

60 72 79 81 79 72 60 44 23

79 90 97 99 97 90 79 64 49 39

93 103 109 111 109 103 93 83 73 112 52

98 108 114 116 114 108 98 90 93 146 111

96 106 112 114 112 106 96 86 78 116 57

84 95 102 104 102 95 84 69 53 42

63 75 82 84 82 75 63 46 24

44 56 64 66 64 56 44 25

25 38 46 48 46 38 25 4

16 30 38 41 38 30 16

North-facing vertical surface Jan Feb Mar 5 6 7 23 8 4 24 44 9 24 42 60 10 37 54 72 11 45 61 79 noon 48 63 81 13 45 61 79 14 37 54 72 15 24 42 60 16 4 24 44 17 23 18 19

Apr 39 49 64 79 90 97 99 97 90 79 64 49 39

May 52 112 73 83 93 103 109 111 109 103 93 83 73 112 52

Jun 111 146 93 90 98 108 114 116 114 108 98 90 93 146 111

Jul 57 116 78 86 96 106 112 114 112 106 96 86 78 116 57

Aug 42 53 69 84 95 102 104 102 95 84 69 53 42

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

24 46 63 75 82 84 82 75 63 46 24

25 44 56 64 66 64 56 44 25

4 25 38 46 48 46 38 25 4

16 30 38 41 38 30 16

East-facing vertical Jan 5 6 7 8 90 9 371 10 333 11 166 noon 51 13 45 14 37 15 24 16 4 17 18 19

surface Feb

Mar

Apr 337 628 690 621 466 245 106 97 90 79 64 45 19

10 470 530 415 205 68 61 54 42 24

458 644 609 460 232 86 79 72 60 44 22

May 122 504 668 689 611 458 249 120 109 103 93 79 61 38 8

Jun 228 534 667 678 600 450 248 126 114 108 98 84 67 46 17

Jul 129 492 653 675 601 453 249 124 112 106 96 81 63 40 9

Aug 316 598 665 605 453 247 113 102 95 84 69 49 21

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

403 602 581 444 230 91 82 75 63 46 23

11 439 508 403 203 71 64 56 44 25

90 363 328 165 53 46 38 25 4

272 286 146 44 38 30 16

East-facing vertical Jan 5 6 7 8 90 9 371 10 333 11 166 noon 51 13 45 14 37 15 24 16 4 17 18 19

surface Feb

Mar

Apr 337 628 690 621 466 245 106 97 90 79 64 45 19

10 470 530 415 205 68 61 54 42 24

458 644 609 460 232 86 79 72 60 44 22

May 122 504 668 689 611 458 249 120 109 103 93 79 61 38 8

Jun 228 534 667 678 600 450 248 126 114 108 98 84 67 46 17

Jul 129 492 653 675 601 453 249 124 112 106 96 81 63 40 9

Aug 316 598 665 605 453 247 113 102 95 84 69 49 21

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

403 602 581 444 230 91 82 75 63 46 23

11 439 508 403 203 71 64 56 44 25

90 363 328 165 53 46 38 25 4

272 286 146 44 38 30 16

South-facing vertical surface Jan Feb 5 6 7 8 63 259 9 406 488 10 615 653 11 734 755 noon 772 790 13 734 755 14 615 653 15 406 488 16 63 259 17 18 19

Mar

Apr 20 56 173 335 472 558 587 558 472 335 173 56 20

71 257 449 596 689 720 689 596 449 257 71

May 8 38 66 120 243 366 447 474 447 366 243 120 66 38 8

Jun 17 46 72 107 208 319 396 423 396 319 208 107 72 46 17

Jul 9 40 69 119 237 356 435 462 435 356 237 119 69 40 9

Aug 22 59 168 323 456 539 568 539 456 323 168 59 22

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

66 244 430 573 664 695 664 573 430 244 66

3 242 466 628 729 763 729 628 466 242 3

62 394 602 720 758 720 602 394 62

316 563 694 734 694 563 316

South-facing vertical surface Jan Feb 5 6 7 8 63 259 9 406 488 10 615 653 11 734 755 noon 772 790 13 734 755 14 615 653 15 406 488 16 63 259 17 18 19

Mar

Apr 20 56 173 335 472 558 587 558 472 335 173 56 20

Impact of solar radiation on opaque surfaces

71 257 449 596 689 720 689 596 449 257 71

May 8 38 66 120 243 366 447 474 447 366 243 120 66 38 8

Jun 17 46 72 107 208 319 396 423 396 319 208 107 72 46 17

Jul 9 40 69 119 237 356 435 462 435 356 237 119 69 40 9

Aug 22 59 168 323 456 539 568 539 456 323 168 59 22

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

66 244 430 573 664 695 664 573 430 244 66

3 242 466 628 729 763 729 628 466 242 3

62 394 602 720 758 720 602 394 62

316 563 694 734 694 563 316

Impact of solar radiation on opaque surfaces


Solar radiation which strikes the opaque exterior surfaces of a building cladding typically results in heating of the surface. Predicting the exact amount of heating which occurs or the temperature rise is complicated by many factors.

Factors inuencing surface temperature rise


Ambient air temperature determines heat loss/gain to environment by conduction and convection Mean radiant temperature of surroundings dependent on temperature of nearby objects and sky impacts heat loss/gain by radiation Air movement impacts heat loss/gain by convection Absorption characteristics of surface determined primarily by colour/texture/material determines proportions of energy absorbed, reected, or transmitted Construction of assembly beneath the surface cladding determines heat transfer by conduction into the assembly thermal mass provides short-term energy storage

Determining temperature rise


The most common technique for determining the temperature rise makes use of the concept of a Sol-Air temperature, which is dened as the ctitious exterior air temperature resulting in identical heat ows to the actual situation. The dierence between the Sol-Air temperature and the actual exterior air temperature know as Sol-Air Excess Temperature can be calculated from the Solar Intensities, depending on latitude, month, time of day and orientation of the surface.
SolAir Excess Temperature (SolAir Temperature minus Air Temperature) (C) Clear, cloudless day, including direct, diffuse and reflected radiation (20% ground reflectance), on the 21st of each month indicated. Vertical surfaces: Tsa - Tair = (/h0) I Horizontal surfaces: Tsa - Tair = (/h0) I 4C Incident short wave solar intensity I = 1.15 x SHGF from preceding table (factor of 1.15 removes 0.87 glazing factor). Values are for dark-coloured surfaces (/h0 = 0.052); for light-coloured surfaces (/h0 = 0.026), divide by 2). Values in table below are calculated from preceeding ASHRAE Solar Intensity & Solar Heat Gain Factor tables.

This Sol-Air Excess Temperature can be thought of as the rise in temperature of the surface caused by the solar radiation.

48N latitude

SolAir excess temperature on exterior surfaces


The increase in temperature on exterior surfaces of dierent orientations can be calculated from the ASHRAE solar intensity data as function of latitude, month, and time of day for clear sky conditions
SolAir Excess Temperature (SolAir Temperature minus Air Temperature) (C) 48N latitude

North-facing vertical surface Jan Feb Mar 5 6 7 1 8 1 3 9 1 3 4 10 2 3 4 11 3 4 5 noon 3 4 5 13 3 4 5 14 2 3 4 15 1 3 4 16 1 3 17 1 18 19

Apr 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 3 2

May 3 7 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 5 4 7 3

Jun 7 9 6 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 5 6 9 7

Jul 3 7 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 5 5 7 3

Aug 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 3 3

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1 3 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 3 1

1 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 1

1 2 3 3 3 2 1

1 2 2 2 2 2 1

Clear, cloudless day, including direct, diffuse and reflected radiation (20% ground reflectance), on the 21st of each month indicated. Vertical surfaces: Tsa - Tair = (/h0) I Horizontal surfaces: Tsa - Tair = (/h0) I 4C Incident short wave solar intensity I = 1.15 x SHGF from preceding table (factor of 1.15 removes 0.87 glazing factor). Values are for dark-coloured surfaces (/h0 = 0.052); for light-coloured surfaces (/h0 = 0.026), divide by 2). Values in table below are calculated from preceeding ASHRAE Solar Intensity & Solar Heat Gain Factor tables.

East-facing vertical Jan 5 6 7 8 5 9 22 10 20 11 10 noon 3 13 3 14 2 15 1 16 0 17 18 19

surface Feb

Mar

Apr 20 38 41 37 28 15 6 6 5 5 4 3 1

1 28 32 25 12 4 4 3 3 1

27 39 36 28 14 5 5 4 4 3 1

May 7 30 40 41 37 27 15 7 7 6 6 5 4 2 0

Jun 14 32 40 41 36 27 15 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 1

Jul 8 29 39 40 36 27 15 7 7 6 6 5 4 2 1

Aug 19 36 40 36 27 15 7 6 6 5 4 3 1

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

24 36 35 27 14 5 5 4 4 3 1

1 26 30 24 12 4 4 3 3 1

5 22 20 10 3 3 2 1 0

16 17 9 3 2 2 1

North-facing vertical surface Jan Feb Mar 5 6 7 1 8 1 3 9 1 3 4 10 2 3 4 11 3 4 5 noon 3 4 5 13 3 4 5 14 2 3 4 15 1 3 4 16 1 3 17 1 18 19

Apr 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 3 2

May 3 7 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 5 4 7 3

Jun 7 9 6 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 5 6 9 7

Jul 3 7 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 5 5 7 3

Aug 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 3 3

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1 3 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 3 1

1 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 1

1 2 3 3 3 2 1

1 2 2 2 2 2 1

South-facing vertical surface Jan Feb Mar 5 6 7 4 8 4 15 15 9 24 29 27 10 37 39 36 11 44 45 41 noon 46 47 43 13 44 45 41 14 37 39 36 15 24 29 27 16 4 15 15 17 4 18 19

Apr 1 3 10 20 28 33 35 33 28 20 10 3 1

May 2 4 7 15 22 27 28 27 22 15 7 4 2

Jun 1 3 4 6 12 19 24 25 24 19 12 6 4 3 1

Jul 2 4 7 14 21 26 28 26 21 14 7 4 2

Aug 1 4 10 19 27 32 34 32 27 19 10 4 1

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

4 15 26 34 40 42 40 34 26 15 4

14 28 38 44 46 44 38 28 14

4 24 36 43 45 43 36 24 4

19 34 42 44 42 34 19

East-facing vertical surface Jan Feb 5 6

Mar

Apr 20

May 7 30

Jun 14 32

Jul 8 29

Aug 19

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

The text and images used in this presentation have been obtained from a number of di erent sources. This information has been assembled speci cally for the delivery of the course CIVL 478 Building Science & the Building Enclosure, and forms an integral part of the course material which is required for examination. The presentation is intended for educational purposes only, to be used solely by students enrolled in the course. It is not to be distributed electronically or in hard copy format to any other party. Greg Johnson