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Shake,Rattle&Rollwith

ASCE7TheSeismicChapters

AsseenthroughthebreakdownofIBC2006Section1613EarthquakeLoads,wefoundthat
favoritefriendoftheIBC2006,"designedinaccordancewithASCE7"showupoverandover.
Theinformationtheyreferencedcouldn'tbethatbad,right?Unfortunately,onceyoufindthe
truth,you'llprayafaultopensbelowyouandendsyoursuffering.Itisbad.Verybad.
Thesecretsbehindseismicloadsand"designedinaccordancewithASCE7"arenotrelegatedto
onesimplechapter.No,sir.Here'swhatyou'llfind:
1) Chapter11SeismicDesignCriteria
2) Chapter12SeismicDesignRequirementsforBuildingStructures
3) Chapter13SeismicDesignRequirementsforNonstructuralComponents
4) Chapter14MaterialSpecificSeismicDesignandDetailingRequirements(thankfully,this
isexcludedfromIBC2006seeIBC2006Section1613.1Scope)
5) Chapter15SeismicDesignRequirementsforNonbuildingStructures
6) Chapter16SeismicResponseHistoryProcedures
7) Chapter17SeismicDesignRequirementsforSeismicallyIsolatedStructures
8) Chapter18SeismicDesignRequirementsforStructureswithDampingSystems
9) Chapter19SoilStructureInteractionforSeismicDesign
10) Chapter20SiteClassificationProcedureforSeismicDesign
11) Chapter21SitespecificGroundMotionProceduresforSeismicDesign
12) Chapter22SeismicGroundMotionandLongPeriodTransitionMaps
13) Appendix11AQualityAssuranceProvisions(thisisalsoexcludedfromIBC2006)
14) Appendix11BExisitingBuildingProvisions
Hadenoughyet?I'llpausewhileyougovomit....backalready?Doesn'tthislookjustdandy?
Beforeyoupanic,allthisisn'trequiredreadingfortheLateralForcesExam.Infact,I'dhazarda
guessthatonlyastructuralengineerspecificallytrainedinseismicdesignwouldeverlookatall
thismaterial(theygettousebooksandgraphingcalculators,afterall).
Sowheredowebegin?Howdowemakesense?Allhopeisn'tlost.
Chapter11SeismicDesignCriteria
Thisiswherethingsstart,andyou'llquicklyrecognizesomeofthevariablesandcoefficientsin
the21/2pages(twocolumnsperpage)ofnotation.TherearemanyandtheASCEemphasizes
thatthenotationpresentedonlyappliestoseismicdesign.Sincethescopeoftheinformationis
vast,I'mgoingtodivergefromnormalpresentationandjustverybrieflylistvarioustables,a
fewformulasandtheircorrespondingvariablesandcoefficients.
Section11.4.2SiteClass
ThisisdeterminedfromaTableinChapter20bywayofaseriesofcalculations,butthemost
relevantinformationistheSiteClassanddefinition:
SiteClass Definition SiteClass Definition
A HardRock B Rock
C Verydensesoil&softrock D Stillsoil
E Softclaysoil F Soilsrequiringsiteresponseanalysis
1
Section11.4.3SiteCoefficientsandAdjustedMaximumConsideredEarthquake(MCE)
SpectralResponseAccelerationParameters
Hereisanacronymthatyouseeofteninreadingonseismicdesign:MCE.Thismeans
"maximumconsideredearthquake"andisusedinconjunctionwith"maximumconsidered
earthquake(MCE)spectralresponseacceleration."Quiteamouthful.Section11.4.3bringsout
thespectralresponsecoefficientsinformulasandsometables,whichI'mgoingtoreproduce
justforcontext,butarecertainlynotrequiredtomemorize.Also,thissectiontiesinexclusively
withthefollowingSection11.4.4.Ifthereisanythinginformationtokeepinmindforthe
LateralForcesexamasitrelatestothesesections,rememberthefollowing:
1) "S"=spectralresponseacceleration
2) "SubscriptS"=shortperiods(0.2seconds)
3) "Subscript1"=1secondperiods
4) "SubscriptM"=maximum
5) "SubscriptD"=design
TheASCEthrowsafewcurveballslater,andyouhavetorefertothenotationchartto
understandtheiruseofthesubscriptinthecontextthesectionitsbeingused.Restassured
though,ifyouareatacocktailpartyandyouseeageekedoutengineerscribble"S
DS
=0.25"on
anapkin,youcanwowyourfriendsbysaying,"He'sworkingonthedesignearthquakespectral
responseaccelerationparametersatshortperiods.It'saseismicdesigncategoryBorCbased
ontheoccupancy."Headimmediatelytowardthealcoholafterwards.
Thefollowingaretheformulas,tables,anddefinitionsfoundinSection11.4.3andSection
11.4.4.Ignoreatyourleisure.
S
MS
= F
u
S
s

S
M1
= F

S
1

S
S
=
2
S
S
MS

S
1
=
2
S
S
M1

S
S
S
1
s)
S
M
S
M1
ts
S
S
S
1
d
F
u
=
F

A
=themappedMCEspectralresponseaccelerationatshortperiods(basedonthemaps)
=themappedMCEspectralresponseaccelerationat1secondperiod(basedonthemap
S
=MCEspectralresponseaccelerationatshortperiods,adjustedforSiteClasseffects
=MCEspectralresponseaccelerationat1secondperiod,adjustedforSiteClasseffec
=thedesignearthquakespectralresponseaccelerationparametersatshortperiods
=thedesignearthquakespectralresponseaccelerationparametersat1secondperio
shortperiodsitecoefficientbasedonTable11.4.1
=1secondperiodsitecoefficientbasedonTable11.4.2
nimportantnoteaboutthemaps:whenyouseethecontoursorselectedpoints,theyarea%
ofg,accelerationduetogravity.Youdon'twanttojustgrabanumberanduseitasyourS or
tomakesuretocheckyoursubscript.
s
S
1
.
ThecoefficientFcanbetricky.Fnormallymeans"force"ofsometypeatsomepoint,butyou
have

2
Table11.4.1SiteCoefficient,F
a

CESpectralResponseAccelerationParameteratShortPeriod SiteClass MappedM


S
s
5 0.25 S
s
=0.5 S
s
=0.75 S
s
=1.0 S
s
1.2
A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0
D 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0
E 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9
F Callyo ngineer ure
Table11.4.1Sit
SpectralResponseAccelerationParameterat1secondPeriod
eCoefficient,F
v

SiteClass MappedMCE
S
1
0.1 S
1
=0.2 S
1
=0.3 S
1
=0.4 S
1
0.5
A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3
D 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5
E 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.4
F Callyo ngineer ure
(I'vehighlighted s)
trum
ndardandsitespecificprocedurescan'tbeused,
acceleration(g)
I= inseconds
In
thebaselinevalue
Section11.4.5DesignResponseSpec
Thissectionismostlyforinstanceswhensta
andseveralformulasareinvolvedaswellasgraphing.Inthissection,onlytwovariablesare
relevantforouruse:
S
u
=spectralresponse
fundamentalperiodofthestructure
terestingnote:Ifyouarebored,masochisticorhavealreadycountedthesocksinyoursock
drawer,theUSGShasaprettyniftypieceofsoftwarethatfiguresallthevaluesinSection11.4

se
rtancefactorinCodes,youseethevariable,I.Also,
importanceisalmostalwaysavaluebasedonoccupancytype(thecommonIBCtable).
OccupancyIII=1.25
OccupancyIV=1.5
anddrawsthedesignresponsespectrumgraphbymerelytypinginazipcode.Youcaneven
choosewhatCodestandardyouareusing.It'sactuallykindoffuntoplaywith(canyouusethe
word"fun"whentalkingaboutseismicdesign?).Alotofthedesignbabblestartstomakesen
onceyoumesswiththissoftware.Youcandownloadithere:
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/design/
Section11.5.1ImportanceFactor
Anytimeyouseereferencetoimpo
Importanceisverysimpletoremembersincethereareonlythreevalues:
OccupancyIorII=1.0
3
Section tegory
Thissec tainsseveralconditionalsandthe"ifthen"languagegets
convolu unately,thesectionischartdriven.Hereisthemostimportant
seismicdesigncategorychosenwillbeusedinmany
l
11.6SeismicDesignCa
tion,whileshort,con
tedquickly,butfort
thingtorememberaboutthissection:the
chartsfordefiningtheconstraintsofthestructureanditscomponents.
I'mgoingtoreproducethechartsandincludemyownasStep1,whichillustratesanoddbal
conditional.
Step1(basedon1secondperiod)
ValueofS
1
OccupancyCategory
I,II,orIII IV
S 0.75 E F
1

otherwise,useoneofthefollowingtables(thesearetheprimarycategories):
11.6.11SeismicDesignCategoryBasedonShortPeriodResponseAcceleration
a meter
Table
P ra
ValueofS
DS
OccupancyCategory
IorII III IV
S <0.167 A A A
DS
0.1 S
DS
<0.33 B B C 67
0.3 < .50 C C D 3 S
DS
0
0.5 D D D 0 S
DS
Tab . 1SeismicDesignCategoryBasedon1secondPeriodResponseAcceleration
Occupan tegory
le1
ValueofS
1 6.1
Parameter
D1
cyCa
IorII III IV
S <0.067 A A A
D1
0.0 S
D1
<0.133 B B C 67
0.1 0.20 C C D 33
D1
S <
0 D D D .20 S
D1

r 1 SeismicDesignCriteria Chapt e 2
o, aren'tgoinghereindetail,ortheotherchaptersforthatmatter.Thischapteriswhere
comestogether,butitisvastandcomplex.Asananalogy,imaginetheKaplan
asheetoficecoveringacesspool.Chapter12isthe
N
everything
we
materialfortheLateralForcestestbeing
waistdeepsludgeyousinkintowhentheicebreaks,andthefollowingchaptershaveyouin
overyourhead(literallyandfiguratively).ThereafewthingstomakenoteofinChapter12,
though,mainlytoseethecomparisontotheoldUBCseveralitemsareeasilyrecognizable
4
First,Chapter12isimmediatelytabledrivenbywayofTable12.21DesignCoefficientsand
FactorsforSeismicForceResistingSystems.Rememberhowwewentthroughthemazein
Chapter11togettheSeismicDesignCategory?Well,hereiswhereyouuseit.Inverysimplifi
steps,youbasicallydothefollowing:
1) PickyourSeismicforceresistingsystem
2) Checkyourlimitationsandper
ed
missibilitybasedontheSeismicDesignCategory
ient,systemoverstrengthfactorand
ngfromthetable.Acommonquestionis"Whatisthis
2.1.1:

That'sre
andvar
eitis.Forthesakeofcomparison,herearetheoldformulasfromthe
hemeaningofthecoefficients):
3) Recordtheresponsemodificationcoeffic
deflectionamplificationfactor
4) HeadovertoSection12.8EquivalentLateralForceProcedure
Letmestepbackandmentionsomethi
mysterious"R"value?"TheanswerisfoundinChapter12andTable1
R=theResponseModificationCoefficientwhichisanumericalvaluebasedonthetype
ofseismicforceresistingsystemused.
allyallyouneedtoknowaboutRsincetheexactvaluemustbederivedfromatable
iesconsiderably.
Section12.8.1SeismicBaseShear
Goodoldbaseshear.Her
1994UBC(I'mnotgoingtorehasht
1994UBCformulafordeterminingbaseshear
ZIC
I =
R
w
w
withC=anumericalcoefficient
1.2SS
I
23
C =
andTisapproximatedbythefollowingformula:
I = C
t
(b
n
)
34

TheASCE705version,whichisalsotheIBC2006version,comesintwoflavors:equivalentand
simplified:
ASCE705/IBC2006Equivalentformulafordeterminingbaseshear
I = C
s
w
C
S
=istheseismicresponsecoefficient
w=istheeffectiveseismicweight
determinedbytheformula:
S
[
R
where:
withC
s
C
s
=
S
I

5
6
where:
S
S
=thedesignearthquakespectralresponseaccelerationparametersatshort
periods
=theresponsemodificationfactor
ccupancyimportancefactor
Acoupleadditiona
andtheASCEn tC
s
shallnotbelessthanC
s
= u.u1.Themostimportantitemto
recognizeisthe venotshown,anditmeans:
I=thefundame minedinSection12.82

lformula to
If whichisvery
similar
R
I=theo
lformulasforC
s
follow,buttheymainlyprovideandupperandlowerlimits,
otestha
interjectionofTinthoseformulasI'
ntalperiodofthestructure(s)deter
JustlikedeterminingTinthe1994UBC,determiningTinASCE7requiresaccesstoatable,with
theexceptionthattheASCErequiresanadditiona thatreferencesanothertable
providearangefortheupperlimitandapproximatefundamentalperiod.
certaincriteriaaremet(mainlyheight),thesimplifiedversioncanbeused,
tothe1994UBC:
ASCE705/IBC2006Simplifiedformulafordeterminingbaseshear
I =
FS
S
R
w
where:
S
S
=
2
S
F
u
S
s

F=1.0foronestorybuildings,1.1for2storybuildings,and1.2forthreestory
buildings
modificationfactor
w=effectiveseismicweightofstructurethatshallincludethetotaldeadand
otherloads(ashortlistfollows)
F =thedesignearthquakespectralresponseaccelerationparametersatshort
p
appedMCEspectralresponseaccelerationatshortperiods(basedon
th
And,thatisitfol
schoolbellring usly,whatwehavediscussedisnomorethan
thatfrostyfilmo l
theASCE7seis ters.Thatisfinewithme:Vn,vd,vc(Icame;Isaw;Iconquered...or
atleastmadeaf
Howmuchoft seeontheLateralForcesExam?Probablynothingormaybeafew

R=theresponse
u
eriods
S
S
=them
emaps)
ksfortheunderpinningsofASCE7TheSeismicChapters.IthinkIhearthe
ing,soclassmustbeover.Obvio
nyourwindshieldinthemorningwhencomparedtothe"biblical"scopeofal
micchap
inemessofthings).
hiswillyou
coefficients,butatleastyouhavethe"secret"knowledgebehindthosemysteriouswordsin
theIBC2006:"designedinaccordancewithASCE7).
Pleasewarnmeinadvanceifmytextcausesyoutofindyourselfsittinginadarkcloset,rocking
backandforth,mumbling"Die,IW.DieIW.....IthinkIcancatchthenextflighttoBelize.
IWthebluehairedfreak