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User Defined Functions
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Introduction
u What is a User Defined Function?
l A UDF is a routine (programmed by the user) written in C which can be
dynamically linked with the solver.
n Standard C functions
s e.g., trigonometric, exponential, control blocks, do-loops, file i/o, etc.
n Pre-Defined Macros
s Allows access to field variable, material property, and cell geometry data.
u Why build UDFs?
l Standard interface cannot be programmed to anticipate all needs.
n Customization of boundary conditions, source terms, reaction rates, material
properties, etc.
n Adjust functions (once per iteration)
n Execute on Demand functions
n Solution Initialization
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UDF Basics
u UDFs assigns values (e.g., boundary data,
source terms) to individual cells and cell faces
in fluid and boundary zones.
l In a UDF, zones are referred to as threads.
l A looping macro is used to access individual
cells belonging to a thread.
n e.g., a face-loop macro visits 563 faces
on face zone 3 (velocity-inlet).
s Position of each face is available
to calculate and assign spatially
varying properties.
n Thread and variable references are
automatically passed to UDF when
assigned to boundary in GUI.
u Values returned to the solver by UDFs must be in SI units.
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Using UDFs in the Solvers
u The basic steps for using UDFs in FLUENT are as follows:
STEP 1: Create a file containing the UDF source code
STEP 2: Start the solver and read in your case/data files
STEP 3: Interpret or Compile the UDF
STEP 4: Assign the UDF to the appropriate variable and zone in BC panel.
STEP 5: Set the UDF update frequency in the Iterate panel
STEP 6: Run the calculation
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Example: Non-Uniform Inlet Velocity
u A non-uniform inlet velocity is to be imposed on the 2D turbine vane
shown below. The x-velocity variation is to be specified as:
u(y) = 20 [ 1 - (y/0.0745)
2
]
y = 0
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Example: Source Code
u The DEFINE_PROFILE macro allows
the function inlet_x_velocity to
be defined.
l All UDFs begin with a DEFINE_
macro.
l inlet_x_velocity will be
identifiable in solver GUI.
u thread and nv are dynamic
references, input to the UDF to
identify the zone and variable
being defined, respectively.
u The macro begin_f_loop loops
over all faces, f, on thread.
u The F_CENTROID macro assigns cell position vector to x[].
u The F_PROFILE macro applies the velocity component to face f.
#include "udf.h"
DEFINE_PROFILE(inlet_x_velocity, thread, nv)
{
float x[3]; /* this will hold the position
vector*/
float y;
face_t f;
begin_f_loop(f, thread)
{
F_CENTROID(x,f,thread);
y = x[1];
F_PROFILE(f, thread, nv) =
20.*(1.- y*y/(.0745*.0745));
}
end_f_loop(f, thread)
}
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Example: Interpreting the UDF
u The UDF is saved as velprof.c
u Define User Defined
Functions Interpreted
u Click Compile
u The assembly language code will
scroll past window.
velocity_profile:
.local.pointer thread
(r0)
.local.int position
(r1)
0 .local.end
0 save
.local.int f (r6)
8 push.int 0
10 save
.local.int.
.
.
.
.L1:
132 restore
133 restore
134 ret.v
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Example: Activating the UDF
u Access the boundary condition
panel.
u Switch from constant to the UDF
function in the X-Velocity
dropdown list.
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Example: Run the Calculation
u Run the calculation as usual.
u You can change the UDF Profile
Update Interval in the Iterate panel
(here it is set to1).
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Example: Numerical Solution
u The figure at right shows velocity
field throughout turbine blade
passage.
u The bottom figure shows the
velocity vectors at the inlet. Notice
the imposed parabolic profile.
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Macros
u Macros are pre-defined (Fluent) functions:
l Allows definition of UDF functionality and function name (DEFINE_ macro)
l Allows access to field variables, cell information, looping capabilities, etc.
u Macros are defined in header files.
l The udf.h header file must be included in your source code.
n #include udf.h
l The header files must be accessible in your path.
n Typically stored in Fluent.Inc/src/ directory.
l Other .h header files may need to be included.
n Depends upon relevant variables and macros needed in your UDF, e.g.,
s dpm.h for DPM variable access
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DEFINE Macros
u Any UDF you write must begin with a DEFINE macro:
l 14 general purpose macros and 10 DPM-related macros (not listed):
DEFINE_ADJUST(name,domain); general purpose UDF called every iteration
DEFINE_INIT(name,domain); UDF used to initialize field variables
DEFINE_ON_DEMAND(name); defines an execute-on-demand function
DEFINE_RW_FILE(name,face,thread,index); customize reads/writes to case/data files
DEFINE_PROFILE(name,thread,index); defines boundary profiles
DEFINE_SOURCE(name,cell,thread,dS,index); defines source terms
DEFINE_HEAT_FLUX(name,face,thread,c0,t0,cid,cir); defines heat flux
DEFINE_PROPERTY(name,cell,thread); defines material properties
DEFINE_DIFFUSIVITY(name,cell,thread,index); defines UDS and species diffusivities
DEFINE_UDS_FLUX(name,face,thread,index); defines UDS flux terms
DEFINE_UDS_UNSTEADY(name,face,thread,index); defines UDS transient terms
DEFINE_SR_RATE(name,face,thread,r,mw,yi,rr); defines surface reaction rates
DEFINE_VR_RATE(name,cell,thread,r,mw,yi,rr,rr_t); defines vol. reaction rates
DEFINE_SCAT_PHASE_FUNC(name,cell,face); defines scattering phase function for DOM
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Looping and Thread Macros
cell_t c; defines a cell
face_t f; defines a face
Thread *t; pointer to a thread
Domain *d; pointer to collection of all threads
thread_loop_c(t, d){} loop that steps through all cell threads in domain
thread_loop_f(t, d){} loop that steps through all face threads in domain
begin_c_loop(c, t){} end_c_loop(c, t) loop that steps through all cells in a thread
begin_f_loop(f, t){} end_f_loop(f, t) loop that steps through all faces in a thread
Thread *tf = Lookup_Thread(domain, ID); return thread pointer of integer ID of zone
THREAD_ID(tf); returns zone integer ID of thread pointer
Code enclosed in {} is executed in loop.
Specialized variable types
used for referencing.
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Geometry and Time Macros
C_NNODES(c, t); returns nodes/cell
C_NFACES(c, t); returns faces/cell
F_NNODES(f, t); returns nodes/face
C_CENTROID(x, c, t); returns coordinates of cell centroid in array x[]
F_CENTROID(x, f, t); returns coordinates of face centroid in array x[]
F_AREA(A, f, t); returns area vector in array A[]
C_VOLUME(c, t); returns cell volume
C_VOLUME_2D(c, t); returns cell volume for axisymmetric domain
NV_MAG(x); returns magnitude of vector x[]
real flow_time(); returns actual time
int time_step; returns time step number
RP_Get_Real(physical-time-step); returns time step size
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Cell Field Variable Macros
C_R(c,t); density
C_P(c,t); pressure
C_U(c,t); u-velocity
C_V(c,t); v-velocity
C_W(c,t); w-velocity
C_T(c,t); temperature
C_H(c,t); enthalpy
C_K(c,t); turbulent KE
C_D(c,t); tke dissipation
C_YI(c,t,i); species mass fraction
C_UDSI(c,t,i); UDS scalars
C_UDMI(c,t,i); UDM scalars
C_DUDX(c,t); velocity derivative
C_DUDY(c,t); velocity derivative
C_DUDZ(c,t); velocity derivative
C_DVDX(c,t); velocity derivative
C_DVDY(c,t); velocity derivative
C_DVDZ(c,t); velocity derivative
C_DWDX(c,t); velocity derivative
C_DWDY(c,t); velocity derivative
C_DWDZ(c,t); velocity derivative
C_MU_L(c,t); laminar viscosity
C_MU_T(c,t); turbulent viscosity
C_MU_EFF(c,t); effective viscosity
C_K_L(c,t); laminar thermal conductivity
C_K_T(c,t); turbulent thermal conductivity
C_K_EFF(c,t); effective thermal conductivity
C_CP(c,t); specific heat
C_RGAS(c,t); gas constant
C_DIFF_L(c,t); laminar species diffusivity
C_DIFF_EFF(c,t,i); effective species diffusivity
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Face Field Variable Macros
F_R(f,t); density
F_P(f,t); pressure
F_U(f,t); u-velocity
F_V(f,t); v-velocity
F_W(f,t); w-velocity
F_T(f,t); temperature
F_H(f,t); enthalpy
F_K(f,t); turbulent KE
F_D(f,t); tke dissipation
F_YI(f,t,i); species mass fraction
F_UDSI(f,t,i); UDS scalars
F_UDMI(f,t,i); UDM scalars
u Face field variables are only available when using the segregated
solver and generally, only at exterior boundaries.
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Other UDF Applications
u In addition to defining boundary values, source terms, and material
properties, UDFs can be used for:
l Initialization
n Executes once per initialization.
l Adjust
n Executes every iteration.
l Wall Heat Flux
n defines fluid-side diffusive and radiative wall
heat fluxes in terms of heat transfer coefficients
n applies to all walls
l User Defined Surface and Volumetric Reactions
l Read-Write to/from case and data files
n Read order and Write order must be same.
l Execute-on-Demand capability
n Not accessible during solve
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User Defined Memory
u User-allocated memory
Define User-Defined Memory...
l Up to 500 field variables can be defined.
l Can be accessed by UDFs:
n C_UDMI(cell,thread,index);
n F_UDMI(face,thread,index);
l Can be accessed for post-processing.
l Information is stored in data file.
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User Defined Scalars
u FLUENT can solve (up to 50) generic transport
equations for User Defined Scalars, f
k
:
u User specifies:
DefineModelsUser-Defined Scalars
l Number of User-Defined Scalars
l Flux Function, F
n DEFINE_UDS_FLUX(name,face,thread,index)
n DEFINE_UDS_UNSTEADY(name,cell,thread,index,apu,su)
n case statement can be used to associate multiple flux and transient functions
with each UDS.
u Example
l Can be used to determine magnetic and/or electric field in a fluid zone.
k
S
x
F
x t
i
k
k k i
i
k

,
_

k = 1, , N
scalars
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User Defined Scalars (2)
u User must also specify:
l Source terms, S
f
l Diffusivity, G
f
n case statement needed to define
UDF diffusivities for each UDS.
l Boundary Conditions for each UDS.
n Specified Flux or Specified Value.
u Define as constant or with UDF.
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Interpreted vs. Compiled UDFs
u Functions can either be read in and interpreted at run time (as in the
example) or compiled and grouped into a shared library that is linked
with the standard FLUENT executable.
u Interpreted vs. compiled code
l Interpreter -
n Interpreter is a large program that sits in the computers memory.
n Executes code on a line by line basis instantaneously
n Advantages - does not need a separate compiler
n Disadvantage - slow and takes up space in memory
l Compiler (refer to Users Guide for instructions)-
n Code is translated once into machine language (object modules).
n Efficient way to run UDFs. Uses Makefiles
n Creates shared libraries which are linked with the rest of the solver
n Overcomes interpreter limitations e.g. mixed mode arithmetic, structure
references etc.
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Supporting UDFs
u Because UDFs can be very complicated, Fluent Inc. does not assume
responsibility for the accuracy or stability of solutions obtained using
UDFs that are user-generated.
l Support will be limited to guidance related to communication between a
UDF and the FLUENT solver.
l Other aspects of the UDF development process that include conceptual
function design, implementation (writing C code), compilation and
debugging of C source code, execution of the UDF, and function design
verification will remain the responsibility of the UDF author.
n Consulting option
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
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Outline
u Definitions; Examples of flow regimes
u Description of multiphase models in FLUENT 5 and FLUENT 4.5
u How to choose the correct model for your application
u Summary and guidelines
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Definitions
u Multiphase flow is simultaneous flow of
l Matters with different phases( i.e. gas, liquid or solid).
l Matters with different chemical substances but with the same phase (i.e.
liquid-liquid like oil-water).
u Primary and secondary phases
l One of the phases is considered continuous (primary) and others
(secondary) are considered to be dispersed within the continuous phase.
n A diameter has to be assigned for each secondary phase to calculate its
interaction (drag) with the primary phase (except for VOF model).
u Dilute phase vs. Dense phase;
l Refers to the volume fraction of secondary phase(s)
n Volume fraction of a phase =
Volume of the phase in a cell/domain
Volume of the cell/domain
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Flow Regimes
u Multiphase flow can be classified by the
following regimes:
l Bubbly flow: Discrete gaseous or fluid
bubbles in a continuous fluid
l Droplet flow: Discrete fluid droplets in a
continuous gas
l Particle-laden flow: Discrete solid
particles in a continuous fluid
l Slug flow: Large bubbles (nearly filling
cross-section) in a continuous fluid
l Annular flow: Continuous fluid along
walls, gas in center
l Stratified/free-surface flow: Immiscible
fluids separated by a clearly-defined
interface
bubbly flow droplet
flow particle-laden
flow
slug flow
annular flow
free-surface flow
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Flow Regimes
u User must know a priori what the flow field looks like:
l Flow regime,
n bubbly flow , slug flow, etc.
s Model one flow regime at a time.
Multiple flow regime can be predicted if they are predicted by one
model e.g. slug flow and annular flow may coexist since both are
predicted by VOF model.
l turbulent or laminar,
l dilute or dense,
l bubble or particle diameter (mainly for drag considerations).
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Multiphase Models
u Four models for multiphase flows currently available in structured
FLUENT 4.5
l Lagrangian dispersed phase model (DPM)
l Eulerian Eulerian model
l Eulerian Granular model
l Volume of fluid (VOF) model
u Unstructured FLUENT 5
l Lagrangian dispersed phase model (DPM)
l Volume of fluid model (VOF)
l Algebraic Slip Mixture Model (ASMM)
l Cavitation Model
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Dispersed Phase Model
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Dispersed Phase Model
u Appropriate for modeling particles, droplets, or
bubbles dispersed (at low volume fraction; less
than 10%) in continuous fluid phase:
l Spray dryers
l Coal and liquid fuel combustion
l Some particle-laden flows
u Computes trajectories of particle (or droplet or
bubble) streams in continuous phase.
u Computes heat, mass, and momentum transfer
between dispersed and continuous phases.
u Neglects particle-particle interaction.
u Particles loading can be as high as fluid loading
u Computes steady and unsteady (FLUENT 5) particle
tracks.
Particle trajectories in a spray dryer
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u Particle trajectories computed by solving equations of motion of the
particle in Lagrangian reference frame:
where represents additional forces due to:
l virtual mass and pressure gradients
l rotating reference frames
l temperature gradients
l Brownian motion (FLUENT 5)
l Saffman lift (FLUENT 5)
l user defined
Particle Trajectory Calculations
p p p p
p
F g u u f
dt
u d
/ / ) ( ) (
drag
r
r r r
r
+ +
F
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Coupling Between Phases
u One-Way Coupling
l Fluid phase influences particulate phase via drag and turbulence transfer.
l Particulate phase have no influence on the gas phase.
u Two-Way Coupling
l Fluid phase influences particulate phase via drag and turbulence transfer.
l Particulate phase influences fluid phase via source terms of mass,
momentum, and energy.
l Examples include:
n Inert particle heating and cooling
n Droplet evaporation
n Droplet boiling
n Devolatilization
n Surface combustion
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u To determine impact of dispersed phase on continuous phase flow
field, coupled calculation procedure is used:
u Procedure is repeated until both flow fields are unchanged.
DPM: Calculation Procedure
continuous phase
flow field calculation
particle trajectory
calculation
interphase heat, mass, and
momentum exchange
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Turbulent Dispersion of Particles
u Dispersion of particle due to turbulent fluctuations in the flow can be
modeled using either:
l Discrete Random Walk Tracking (stochastic approach)
l Particle Cloud Tracking
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User Defined Function Access in DPM
u User defined functions (UDFs) are provided for access to the discrete
phase model. Functions are provided for user defined:
l drag
l external force
l laws for reacting particles and droplets
l customized switching between laws
l output for sample planes
l erosion/accretion rates
l access to particle definition at injection time
l scalars associated with each particle and access at each particle time step
(possible to integrate scalar variables over life of particle)
FLUENT 5
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Eulerian-Eulerian Multiphase Model
FLUENT 4.5
10s 70s 120s
water
water
air
air
Becker et al. 1992
Locally Aerated Bubble Column
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Eulerian Multiphase Model
u Appropriate for modeling gas-liquid or
liquid-liquid flows (droplets or bubbles
of secondary phase(s) dispersed in
continuous fluid phase (primary phase))
where:
l Phases mix or separate
l Bubble/droplet volume fractions from 0
to 100%
n Evaporation
n Boiling
n Separators
n Aeration
u Inappropriate for modeling stratified or
free-surface flows.
Volume fraction
of water
Stream function
contours for water
Boiling water in a container
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Eulerian Multiphase Model
u Solves momentum, enthalpy, continuity,
and species equations for each phase and
tracks volume fractions.
u Uses a single pressure field for all phases.
u Interaction between mean flow field of
phases is expressed in terms of a drag,
virtual and lift forces.
l Several formulations for drag is provided.
l Alternative drag laws can be formulated
via UDS.
l Other forces can be applied through UDS.
Gas sparger in a mixing tank:
contours of volume fraction
with velocity vectors
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Eulerian Multiphase Model
u Can solve for multiple species and homogeneous reactions in each
phase.
l Heterogeneous reactions can be done through UDS.
u Allows for heat and mass transfer between phases.
u Turbulence models for dilute and dense phase regimes.
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Mass Transfer
u Evaporation/Condensation.
l For liquid temperatures saturation temperature, evaporation rate:
l For vapor temperatures saturation temperature, condensation rate:
l User specifies saturation temperature and, if desired, time relaxation
parameters r
l
and r
v
. (Wen Ho Lee (1979))
u Unidirectional mass transfer, is constant
u User Defined Subroutine for mass transfer
( )
sat
sat l l l v
v
T
T T r
m


&
( )
sat
v sat v v l
l
T
T T r
m


&
1 2 12
r m &
r
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Eulerian Multiphase Model: Turbulence
u Time averaging is needed to obtain smoothed quantities from the space
averaged instantaneous equations.
u Two methods available for modeling turbulence in multiphase flows
within context of standard k- model:
l Dispersed turbulence model (default) appropriate when both of these
conditions are met:
n Number of phases is limited to two:
s Continuous (primary) phase
s Dispersed (secondary) phase
n Secondary phase must be dilute.
l Secondary turbulence model appropriate for turbulent multiphase flows
involving more than two phases or a non-dilute secondary phase.
u Choice of model depends on importance of secondary-phase
turbulence in your application.
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Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model:
FLUENT 4.5
Volume fraction of air
2D fluidized bed with a central jet
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Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model:
u Extension of Eulerian-Eulerian model
for flow of granular particles
(secondary phases) in a fluid
(primary)phase
u Appropriate for modeling:
l Fluidized beds
l Risers
l Pneumatic lines
l Hoppers, standpipes
l Particle-laden flows in which:
n Phases mix or separate
u Granular volume fractions can vary
from 0 to packing limit
Circulating fluidized bed, Tsuo and Gidaspow
(1990).
Solid velocity profiles Contours of solid
volume fraction
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Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model:
Overview
u The fluid phase must be assigned as the primary phase.
u Multiple solid phase can be used to represent size distribution.
u Can calculate granular temperature (solids fluctuating energy) for each
solid phase.
u Calculates a solids pressure field for each solid phase.
l All phases share fluid pressure field.
l Solids pressure controls the solids packing limit
u Solids pressure, granular temperature conductivity, shear and bulk
viscosity can be derived based on several kinetic theory formulations.
n Gidaspow -good for dense fluidized bed applications
n Syamlal -good for a wide range of applications
n Sinclair -good for dilute and dense pneumatic transport lines
and risers
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Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model
u Frictional viscosity pushes the limit into the plastic regime.
l Hoppers, standpipes
u Several choice of drag laws:
l Drag laws can be modified using UDS.
u Heat transfer between phases is the same as in Eulerian/Eulerian
multiphase model.
u Only unidirectional mass transfer model is available.
l Rate of mass transfer can be modified using UDS.
l Homogeneous reaction can be modeled.
n Heterogeneous reaction can be modeled using UDS.
u Can solve for enthalpy and multiple species for each phase.
u Physically based models for solid momentum and granular temperature
boundary conditions at the wall.
u Turbulence treatment is the same as in Eulerian-Eulerian model
l Sinclair model provides additional turbulence model for solid phase
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Algebraic Slip Mixture Model
FLUENT 5
Courtesy of
Fuller Company
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Algebraic Slip Mixture Model
u Can substitute for Eulerian/Eulerian,
Eulerian/Granular and Dispersed phase models
Efficiently for Two phase flow problems:
l Fluid/fluid separation or mixing:
l Sedimentation of uniform size particles in liquid.
l Flow of single size particles in a Cyclone.
u Applicable to relatively small particles
(<50 microns) and low volume fraction (<10%)
when primary phase density is much smaller than
the secondary phase density.
Air-water separation in a Tee junction
Water volume fraction
l If possible, always choose the fluid with higher density as the primary
phase.
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u Solves for the momentum and the continuity equations of the mixture.
u Solves for the transport of volume fraction of secondary phase.
u Uses an algebraic relation to calculate the slip velocity between phases.
u It can be used for steady and unsteady flow.
is the drag function
ASMM
p rel
a u
r r

)) ( (
t
u
u u g a
m
m m

+
r
r r r r
drag
f
p p m
p
f
d

18
) (
2

drag
f
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Oil-Water Separation
Fluent 5 Results with ASMM Fluent v4.5 Eulerian Multiphase
Courtesy of
Arco Exploration & Production Technology
Dr. Martin de Tezanos Pinto
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Cavitation Model ( Fluent 5)
u Predicts cavitation inception and approximate extension of cavity bubble.
u Solves for the momentum equation of the mixture
u Solves for the continuity equation of the mixture
u Assumes no slip velocity between the phases
u Solves for the transport of volume fraction of vapor phase.
l Approximates the growth of the cavitation bubble using Rayleigh equation
u Needs improvement:
l ability to predict collapse of cavity bubbles
n Needs to solve for enthalpy equation and thermodynamic properties
n Solve for change of bubble size
l
v
p p
dt
dR
3
) ( 2

l
v v v
p p
R
m


3
) ( 2 3
&
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Cavitation model
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VOF Model
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Volume of Fluid Model
u Appropriate for flow where Immiscible
fluids have a clearly defined interface.
l Shape of the interface is of interest
u Typical problems:
l Jet breakup
l Motion of large bubbles in a liquid
l Motion of liquid after a dam break
(shown at right)
l Steady or transient tracking of any
liquid-gas interface
u Inappropriate for:
l Flows involving small (compared to a
control volume) bubbles
n Bubble columns
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Volume Fraction
u Assumes that each control volume contains just one phase (or the
interface between phases).
l For volume fraction of k
th
fluid, three conditions are possible:
n
k
= 0 if cell is empty (of the k
th
fluid)
n
k
= 1 if cell is full (of the k
th
fluid)
n 0 <
k
< 1 if cell contains the interface between the fluids
u Tracking of interface(s) between phases is accomplished by solution of
a volume fraction continuity equation for each phase:
Mass transfer between phases can be modeled by using a user-defined
subroutine to specify a nonzero value for S

k
.
l Multiple interfaces can be simulated
l Can not resolve details of the interface smaller than the mesh size


k
j
k
i
k
t
u
x
S +
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VOF
u Solves one set of momentum equations for all fluids.
u Surface tension and wall adhesion modeled with an additional source
term in momentum eqn.
u For turbulent flows, single set of turbulence transport equations solved.
u Solves for species conservation equations for primary phase .
j j
i
j
j
i
i j
j i
i
j
F g
x
u
x
u
x x
P
u u
x
u
t
+ + + + +

) ( ) ( ) (
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Formulations of VOF Model
u Time-dependent with a explicit schemes:
n geometric linear slope reconstruction (default in FLUENT 5)
n Donor-acceptor (default in FLUENT 4.5)
s Best scheme for highly skewed hex mesh.
n Euler explicit
s Use for highly skewed hex cells in hybrid meshes if default scheme fails.
s Use higher order discretization scheme for more accuracy.
n Example: jet breakup
u Time-dependent with implicit scheme:
n Used to compute steady-state solution when intermediate solution is not important.
s More accurate with higher discretization scheme.
s Final steady-state solution is dependent on initial flow conditions
s There is not a distinct inflow boundary for each phase
n Example: shape of liquid interface in centrifuge
u Steady-state with implicit scheme:
n Used to compute steady-state solution using steady-state method.
s More accurate with higher order discretization scheme.
s Must have distinct inflow boundary for each phase
n Example: flow around ships hull
Decreasing
Accuracy
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Comparison of Different Front Tracking Algorithms
2nd order upwind
Donor - Acceptor
Geometric reconstruction
Geometric reconstruction
with tri mesh
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Surface Tension
u Cylinder of water (5 x 1 cm) is surrounded by air in no gravity
u Surface is initially perturbed so that the diameter is 5% larger on ends
u The disturbance at the surface grows because of surface tension
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Wall Adhesion
u Wall adhesion is modeled by specification of contact angle that fluid
makes with wall.
l Large contact angle (> 90) is applied to water at bottom of container in
zero-gravity field.
l An obtuse angle, as measured in water, will form at walls.
l As water tries to satisfy contact angle condition, it detaches from bottom
and moves slowly upward, forming a bubble.
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Choosing a Multiphase Model:
Fluid-Fluid Flows (1)
l Bubbly flow examples:
s Absorbers
s Evaporators
s Scrubbers
s Air lift pumps
l Droplet flow examples:
s Atomizers
s Gas cooling
s Dryers
l Slug flow examples:
s Large bubble motion in pipes or tanks
l Separated flows
s free surface, annular flows, stratified flows, liquid films
lCavitation
lFlotation
lAeration
lNuclear reactors
l Combustors
l Scrubbers
l Cryogenic pumping
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Choosing a Multiphase Model:
Gas-Liquid Flows (2)
Volume fraction Model Comments
Less than 10% DPM
Cavitation
Ignores bubble coalescence or particle-particle interaction.
Inception of cavitation and its approximate extension.
All Values ASMM
Eulerian
Applies to two phase flows only. If density of
primary phase is much less than the density of the
secondary phase, restricts to applications with small
diameter and low volume fraction of the Seconday
phase.
For large bubbles either use Vof or modify the Drag
law. Ignores bubble coalescence or interaction.
All Values VOF Bubbles should span across several cells.Applicable
to separated flows: free surface flows, annular flows,
liquid films, stratified flows.
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Choosing a Multiphase Model:
Particle-Laden Flow
l Examples:
s Cyclones
s Slurry transport
s Flotation
s Circulating bed reactors
l Dust collectors
l Sedimentation
l Suspension
l Fluidized bed reactors
Volume fraction Model Comments
Less than 10% DPM
ASMM
Ignores bubble coalescence or particle-particle
interaction
Only one solid size. More efficient than DPM. For
liquid-solid applications can be used for higher
volume fraction of solids but well below packing
limit.
All values Eulerian
Granular
Solve in a transient manner..
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Solution Guidelines
u All multiphase calculations:
l Start with a single-phase calculation to establish broad flow patterns.
u Eulerian multiphase calculations:
l Use COPY-PHASE-VELOCITIES to copy primary phase velocities to
secondary phases.
l Patch secondary volume fraction(s) as an initial condition.
l For a single outflow, use OUTLET rather than PRESSURE-INLET; for
multiple outflow boundaries, must use PRESSURE-INLET for each.
l For circulating fluidized beds, avoid symmetry planes. (They promote
unphysical cluster formation.)
l Set the false time step for underrelaxation to 0.001
l Set normalizing density equal to physical density
l Compute a transient solution
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Solution Strategies (VOF)
u For explicit formulations for best and quick results:
l use geometric reconstruction or donor-acceptor
l use PISO algorithm with under-relaxation factors up to 1.0
n reduce time step if convergence problem arises.
l To ensure continuity, reduce termination criteria to 0.001 for pressure in multi-grid
solver
l solve VOF once per time-step
u For implicit formulations:
l always use QUICK or second order upwind difference scheme for VOF equation.
l may increase VOF UNDER-RELAXATION from 0.2 (default ) to 0.5.
u Use proper reference density to prevent round off errors.
u Use proper pressure interpolation scheme for hydrostatic consideration:
l Body force weighted scheme for all types of cells
l PRESTO (only for quads and hexes)
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Summary
u Modeling multiphase flows is very complex, due to interdependence of
many variables.
u Accuracy of results directly related to appropriateness of model you
choose:
l For most applications with low volume fraction of particles, droplets, or
bubbles, use ASMM or DPM model .
l For particle-laden flows, Eulerian granular multiphase model is best.
l For separated gas-liquid flows (stratified, free-surface, etc.) VOF model is
best.
l For general, complex gas-liquid flows involving multiple flow regimes:
n Select aspect of flow that is of most interest.
n Choose model that is most appropriate.
n Accuracy of results will not be as good as for others, since selected
physical model will be valid only for some flow regimes.
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Conservation equations
u Conservation of mass
u Conservation of momentum
u Conservation of enthalpy
+ + + +

q q q q q q q q q q q q q
F P u u u
t
v
r r r
) (

n
p
pq q q q q q
m u
t
1
&
r

) (
1
pq pq
n
p
pq
u m R
r
& +

+ + + +

q q q k
q
q q q q q q q q
s q u
dt
dp
h u h
t
r r r
. : ) ( ) (
) (
1
pq pq
n
p
pq
h m Q & +

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Constitutive Equations
u Frictional Flow
l Particles are in enduring contact and momentum transfer is through
friction
l Stresses from soil mechanics, Schaeffer (1987)
u Description of frictional viscosity
u is the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor
[ ]
frict s kin s coll s s , , ,
, max +
) 0 (
s
u
r
2
,
2
sin
I
P
s
frict s


2
I
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Interphase Forces (cont.)
u Virtual Mass Effect: caused by relative acceleration between phases
Drew and Lahey (1990).
l Virtual mass effect is significant when the second phase density is much
smaller than the primary phase density (i.e., bubble column)
u Lift Force: Caused by the shearing effect of the fluid onto the particle
Drew and Lahey (1990).
l Lift force usually insignificant compared to drag force except when the
phases separate quickly and near boundaries

,
_

) ( ) (
, s s
s
f f
f
f s vm fs vm
u u
t
u
u u
t
u
C K
r r
r
r r
r

) ( ) (
, f s f f s L fs k
u u u C K
r r r

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Eulerian Multiphase Model: Turbulence
u The transport equations for the model are of the form
u Value of the parameters
k
k
k k k k k k
k
t
k
k k k k k k k k
k
G k k u k
t
+ + + +

) (
v
k
k k k k
k
k
k
t
k
k k k k k k k k
k
c G c
k
u
t

+ + + +

} { ) (
2 1
v
3 . 1 92 . 1 44 . 1 3 . 1 1 09 . 0
3 2 1
c c c c
k
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Comparison of Drag Laws
Fluid-solid drag functions
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0.010.060.120.170.230.280.340.390.45 0.5 0.56
Solids volume fraction
f
Syamlal-O'Brien
Schuh et al.
Gidaspow A
Gidaspow B
Wen and Yu
Di Felice
Fluid-solid drag functions
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0.010.07 0.13 0.19 0.25 0.31 0.37 0.430.49 0.55
Solids volume fraction
f
Syamlal-O'Brien
Schuh et al.
Gidaspow A
Gidaspow B
WenandYu
Di Felice
Relative Reynolds number 1 and 1000
Particle diameter 0.001 mm
Arastoopour
Arastoopour
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Drag Force Models
Fluid-fluid drag functions
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
10 2460 4910 7360 98101226014710
Re
Cd
Schiller and Naumann
Schuh et al.
Morsi et Alexander
( )

'

>
+

1000 Re 44 . 0
1000 Re Re 15 . 0 1 24
687 . 0
D
C
( )
( )

'

>
> +
< +

2500 Re 4008 . 0
2500 Re 200 Re / Re 0135 . 0 Re 914 . 0 24
200 Re 0 Re 15 . 0 1 24
282 . 0
687 . 0
D
C
(Re) are , , where
Re Re
3 2 1 2
3 2
1
f a a a
a a
a C
D
+ +
Schiller and Naumann
Schuh et al.
Morsi and Alexander
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Solution Algorithms for Multiphase Flows
u Coupled solver algorithms (more coupling between phases)
l Faster turn around and more stable numerics
u High order discretization schemes for all phases.
l More accurate results
Implicit/Full Elimination
Algorithm v4.5
Implicit/Full Elimination
Algorithm v4.5
TDMA Coupled
Algorithm v4.5
TDMA Coupled
Algorithm v4.5
Multiphase Flow Solution
Algorithms
Multiphase Flow Solution
Algorithms
Only Eulerian/Eulerian
model
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Heterogeneous Reactions in FLUENT4.5
u Problem Description
l Two liquid e.g. (L1,L2) react and make solids e.g. (s1,s2)
l Reactions happen within liquid e.g. (L1-->L2)
l Reactions happen within solid e.g. (s1--->s2)
u Solution!
l Consider a two phase liquid (primary) and solid (secondary)
n liquid has two species L1, L2
n solid has two species s1,s2
l Reactions within each phase i.e. (L1-->L2) and (s1-->s2) can be set up as
usual through GUI (like in single phase)
l For heterogeneous reaction e.g. (L1+0.5L2-->0.2s1+s2)
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Heterogeneous Reactions in FLUENT 4.5
n In usrmst.F
s calculate the net mass transfer between phases as a result of reactions
Reactions could be two ways
s Assign this value to suterm
If the net mass transfer is from primary to secondary the value
should be negative and vica versa.
s The time step and mass transfer rate should be such that the net volume
fraction change would not be more than 5-10%.
n In urstrm.F
s Adjust the mass fraction of each species by assigning a source or sink
value (+/-) according to mass transfer calculated above.
s Adjust the enthalp of each phase by the net amount of heat of reactions
and enthalpy transfer due to mass transfer. Again this will be in a form of
a source term.
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Heterogeneous Reactions in FLUENT 4.5
u Compile your version of the code
u Run Fluent and set up the case :
l Enable time dependent, multiphase, temperature and species calculations.
l Define phases
l Enable mass transfer and multi-component multi-species option.
l Define species, homogeneous reactions within each phases
l Define properties
l Enable user defined mass transfer
GOOD LUCK!!
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Particle size
Descriptive terms Size range Example
Coarse solid 5 - 100 mm coal
Granular solid 0.3 - 5 mm sugar
Coarse powder 100-300 m salt, sand
Fine powder 10-100 m FCC catalyst
Super fine powder 1-10 m face powder
Ultra fine powder ~1 m paint pigments
Nano Particles ~1e-3 m molecules
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Discrete Random Walk Tracking
u Each injection is tracked repeatedly in order to generate a statistically
meaningful sampling.
u Turbulent fluctuation in the flow field are represented by defining an
instantaneous fluid velocity:
where is derived from the local turbulence parameters:
and is a normally distributed random number
u Mass flow rates and exchange source terms for each injection are
divided equally among the multiple stochastic tracks.
i i i
u u u ' +
i
u '
3
2
'
k
i
u

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Cloud Tracking
u The particle cloud model uses statistical methods to trace the turbulent
dispersion of particles about a mean trajectory. The mean trajectory is
calculated from the ensemble average of the equations of motion for
the particles represented in the cloud. The distribution of particles
inside the cloud is represented by a Gaussian probability density
function.
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Stochastic vs. Cloud Tracking
u Stochastic tracking:
l Accounts for local variations in flow properties such as temperature,
velocity, and species concentrations.
l Requires a large number of stochastic tries in order to achieve a
statistically significant sampling (function of grid density).
l Insufficient number of stochastic tries results in convergence problems
and non-smooth particle concentrations and coupling source term
distributions.
l Recommended for use in complex geometry
u Cloud tracking:
l Local variations in flow properties (e.g. temperature) get averaged away
inside the particle cloud.
l Smooth distributions of particle concentrations and coupling source terms.
l Each diameter size requires its own cloud trajectory calculation.
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Granular Flow Regimes
Elastic Regime Plastic Regime Viscous Regime
Stagnant Slow flow Rapid flow
Stress is strain Strain rate Strain rate
dependent independent
dependent
Elasticity Soil mechanics Kinetic theory
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Flow regimes
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Eulerian Multiphase Model: Heat Transfer
u Rate of energy transfer between phases is
function of temperature difference between
phases:
l H
pq
(= H
qp
) is heat transfer coefficient between
p
th
phase and q
th
phase.
n Can be modified using UDS.
( )
Q H T T
pq pq p q

Boiling water in a container:
contours of water temperature
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Sample Planes and Particle Histograms
u As particles pass through
sample planes (lines in 2-D),
their properties (position,
velocity, etc.) are written to
files. These files can then be
read into the histogram
plotting tool to plot
histograms of residence time
and distributions of particle
properties. The particle
property mean and standard
deviation are also reported.
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Combustion Modeling
in FLUENT
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Outline
u Applications
u Overview of Combustion Modeling Capabilities
u Chemical Kinetics
u Gas Phase Combustion Models
u Discrete Phase Models
u Pollutant Models
u Combustion Simulation Guidelines
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Applications
u Wide range of homogeneous
and heterogeneous reacting
flows
l Furnaces
l Boilers
l Process heaters
l Gas turbines
l Rocket engines
u Predictions of:
l Flow field and mixing
characteristics
l Temperature field
l Species concentrations
l Particulates and pollutants
Temperature in a gas furnace
CO
2
mass fraction
Stream function
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Aspects of Combustion Modeling
Dispersed Phase Models
Droplet/particle dynamics
Heterogeneous reaction
Devolatilization
Evaporation
Governing Transport Equations
Mass
Momentum (turbulence)
Energy
Chemical Species
Combustion Models
Premixed
Partially premixed
Nonpremixed
Pollutant Models
Radiative Heat Transfer Models
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u Gas phase combustion
l Generalized finite rate formulation (Magnussen model)
l Conserved scalar PDF model (one and two mixture fractions)
l Laminar flamelet model (V5)
l Zimont model (V5)
u Discrete phase model
n Turbulent particle dispersion
s Stochastic tracking
s Particle cloud model (V5)
n Pulverized coal and oil spray combustion submodels
u Radiation models: DTRM, P-1, Rosseland and Discrete Ordinates (V5)
u Turbulence models: k-, RNG k-, RSM, Realizable k- (V5) and LES (V5)
u Pollutant models: NO
x
with reburn chemistry (V5) and soot
Combustion Models Available in FLUENT
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Modeling Chemical Kinetics in Combustion
u Challenging
l Most practical combustion processes are turbulent
l Rate expressions are highly nonlinear; turbulence-chemistry interactions
are important
l Realistic chemical mechanisms have tens of species, hundreds of reactions
and stiff kinetics (widely disparate time scales)
u Practical approaches
l Reduced chemical mechanisms
n Finite rate combustion model
l Decouple reaction chemistry from turbulent flow and mixing
n Mixture fraction approaches
s Equilibrium chemistry PDF model
s Laminar flamelet
n Progress variable
s Zimont model
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Generalized Finite Rate Model
u Chemical reaction process described using global mechanism.
u Transport equations for species are solved.
l These equations predict local time-averaged mass fraction, m
j
, of each
species.
u Source term (production or consumption) for species j is net reaction
rate over all k reactions in mechanism:
u R
jk
(rate of production/consumption of species j in reaction k) is
computed to be the smaller of the Arrhenius rate and the mixing or
eddy breakup rate.
u Mixing rate related to eddy lifetime, k /.
l Physical meaning is that reaction is limited by the rate at which turbulence
can mix species (nonpremixed) and heat (premixed).
R R
j jk
k


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Setup of Finite Rate Chemistry Models
u Requires:
l List of species and their properties
l List of reactions and reaction rates
u FLUENT V5 provides this info in a mixture material database.
u Chemical mechanisms and physical properties for the most common
fuels are provided in database.
u If you have different chemistry, you can:
l Create new mixtures.
l Modify properties/reactions of existing mixtures.
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Generalized Finite Rate Model: Summary
u Advantages:
l Applicable to nonpremixed, partially premixed, and premixed combustion
l Simple and intuitive
l Widely used
u Disadvantages:
l Unreliable when mixing and kinetic time scales are comparable (requires
Da >>1).
l No rigorous accounting for turbulence-chemistry interactions
l Difficulty in predicting intermediate species and accounting for
dissociation effects.
l Uncertainty in model constants, especially when applied to multiple
reactions.
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Conserved Scalar (Mixture Fraction)
Approach: The PDF Model
u Applies to nonpremixed (diffusion) flames only
u Assumes that reaction is mixing-limited
l Local chemical equilibrium conditions prevail.
l Composition and properties in each cell defined by extent of turbulent
mixing of fuel and oxidizer streams.
u Reaction mechanism is not explicitly defined by you.
l Reacting system treated using chemical equilibrium calculations (prePDF).
u Solves transport equations for mixture fraction and its variance, rather
than species transport equations.
u Rigorous accounting of turbulence-chemistry interactions.
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Mixture Fraction Definition
u The mixture fraction, f, can be written in terms of elemental mass
fractions as:
l where Z
k
is the elemental mass fraction of some element, k. Subscripts F
and O denote fuel and oxidizer inlet stream values, respectively.
u For simple fuel/oxidizer systems, the mixture fraction represents the fuel
mass fraction in a computational cell.
u Mixture fraction is a conserved scalar:
l Reaction source terms are eliminated from governing transport equations.
O k F k
O k k
Z Z
Z Z
f
, ,
,

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Systems That Can be Modeled Using a Single
Mixture Fraction
u Fuel/air diffusion flame:
u Diffusion flame with oxygen-
enriched inlets:
u System using multiple fuel
inlets:
60% CH
4
40% CO
21% O
2
79% N
2
f = 1
f = 0
35% O
2
65% N
2
60% CH
4
40% CO
35% O
2
65% N
2
f = 1
f = 0
f = 0
60% CH
4
20% CO
10% C
3
H
8
10% CO
2
21% O
2
79% N
2
f = 1
f = 0
f = 1
60% CH
4
20% CO
10% C
3
H
8
10% CO
2
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Equilibrium Approximation of System
Chemistry
u Chemistry is assumed to be fast enough to achieve equilibrium.
u Intermediate species are included.
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PDF Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction
u Fluctuating mixture fraction is completely defined by its probability
density function (PDF).
u p(V), the PDF, represents fraction of sampling time when variable, V,
takes a value between V and V + V.
u p(f) can be used to compute time-averaged values of variables that
depend on the mixture fraction, f:
l Species mole fractions
l Temperature, density
p V V
T
T
i
i
( ) lim


i i
p f f df

( ) ( )
0
1
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PDF Model Flexibility
u Nonadiabatic systems:
l In real problems, with heat loss or gain, local thermo-chemical state must
be related to mixture fraction, f, and enthalpy, h.
l Average quantities now evaluated as a function of mixture fraction,
enthalpy (normalized heat loss/gain), and the PDF, p(f).
u Second conserved scalar:
l With second scalar in FLUENT, you can model:
n Two fuel streams with different compositions and single oxidizer stream
(visa versa)
n Nonreacting stream in addition to a fuel and an oxidizer
n Co-firing a gaseous fuel with another gaseous, liquid, or coal fuel
n Firing single coal with two off-gases (volatiles and char burnout products)
tracked separately
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Mixture Fraction/PDF Model: Summary
u Advantages:
l Predicts formation of intermediate species.
l Accounts for dissociation effects.
l Accounts for coupling between turbulence and chemistry.
l Does not require the solution of a large number of species transport
equations
l Robust and economical
u Disadvantages:
l System must be near chemical equilibrium locally.
l Cannot be used for compressible or non-turbulent flows.
l Not applicable to premixed systems.
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The Laminar Flamelet Model
u Temperature, density and species (for adiabatic)
specified by two parameters, the mixture
fraction and scalar dissipation rate
l Recall that for the mixture fraction PDF
model (adiabatic), thermo-chemical state is
function of f only
l can be related to the local rate of strain
u Extension of the mixture fraction PDF model to
moderate chemical nonequilibrium
u Turbulent flame modeled as an ensemble of
stretched laminar, opposed flow diffusion flames
2
) / ( x f ) , ( f
i i

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Laminar Flamelet Model (2)
u Statistical distribution of flamelet ensemble is specified by the PDF
P(f,), which is modeled as P
f
(f) P

(), with a Beta function for P
f
(f)
and a Dirac-delta distribution for P

()
u Only available for adiabatic systems in V5
u Import strained flame calculations
l prePDF or Sandias OPPDIF code
u Single or multiple flamelets
l Single: user specified strain, a
l Multiple: strained flamelet library, 0 < a < a
extinction
n a=0 equilibrium
n a= a
extinction
is the maximum strain rate before flame extinguishes
u Possible to model local extinction pockets (e.g. lifted flames)


1
0 0
) ( ) ( ) , ( df d P f P f
f i i


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The Zimont Model for Premixed Combustion
u Thermo-chemistry described by a single progress variable,
u Mean reaction rate,
u Turbulent flame speed, U
t
, derived for lean premixed combustion and
accounts for
l Equivalence ratio of the premixed fuel
l Flame front wrinkling and thickening by turbulence
l Flame front quenching by turbulent stretching
l Differential molecular diffusion
u For adiabatic combustion,
u The enthalpy equation must be solved for nonadiabatic combustion
( ) ( )



t
c
x
u c
x Sc
c
x
R c
i
i
i
t
t i
c
+

'

_
,

+ 0 1
R U c
c unburnt t

p
ad
p
p
p
Y Y c /
ad unburnt
T c T c T + ) 1 (
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Discrete Phase Model
u Trajectories of particles/droplets/bubbles are
computed in a Lagrangian frame.
l Exchange (couple) heat, mass, and
momentum with Eulerian frame gas phase
u Discrete phase volume fraction must < 10%
l Although the mass loading can be large
l No particle-particle interaction or break up
u Turbulent dispersion modeled by
l Stochastic tracking
l Particle cloud (V5)
u Rosin-Rammler or linear size distribution
u Particle tracking in unsteady flows (V5)
u Model particle separation, spray drying,
liquid fuel or coal combustion, etc.
Continuous phase
flow field calculation
Particle trajectory
calculation
Update continuous
phase source terms
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u Turbulent dispersion is modeled by an ensemble of
Monte-Carlo realizations (discrete random walks)
u Particles convected by the mean velocity plus a random
direction turbulent velocity fluctuation
u Each trajectory represents a group of particles with the
same properties (initial diameter, density etc.)
u Turbulent dispersion is important because
l Physically realistic (but computationally more expensive)
l Enhances stability by smoothing source terms and
eliminating local spikes in coupling to the gas phase
Particle Dispersion: The Stochastic Tracking Model
Coal particle tracks in an
industrial boiler
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Particle Dispersion: The Particle Cloud Model
u Track mean particle trajectory along mean velocity
u Assuming a 3D multi-variate Gaussian distribution about this mean
track, calculate particle loading within three standard deviations
u Rigorously accounts for inertial and drift velocities
u A particle cloud is required for each particle type (e.g. initial d, etc.)
u Particles can escape, reflect or trap (release volatiles) at walls
u Eliminates (single cloud) or reduces (few clouds) stochastic tracking
l Decreased computational expense
l Increased stability since distributed source terms in gas phase
BUT decreased accuracy since
l Gas phase properties (e.g. temperature) are averaged within cloud
l Poor prediction of large recirculation zones
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Particle Tracking in Unsteady Flows
u Each particle advanced in time along with the flow
u For coupled flows using implicit time stepping, sub-iterations for the particle
tracking are performed within each time step
u For non-coupled flows or coupled flows with explicit time stepping, particles
are advanced at the end of each time step
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Coal/Oil Combustion Models
u Coal or oil combustion modeled by changing the modeled particle to
l Droplet - for oil combustion
l Combusting particle - for coal combustion
u Several devolatilization and char burnout models provided.
l Note: These models control the rate of evolution of the fuel off-gas from
coal/oil particles. Reactions in the gas (continuous) phase are modeled
with the PDF or finite rate combustion model.
Particle Type Description
Inert inert/heating or cooling
Droplet (oil) heating/evaporation/boiling
Combusting (coal) heating;
evolution of volatiles/swelling;
heterogeneous surface reaction
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NO
x
Models
u NO
x
consists of mostly nitric oxide (NO).
l Precursor for smog
l Contributes to acid rain
l Causes ozone depletion
u Three mechanisms included in FLUENT for NO
x
production:
l Thermal NO
x
- Zeldovich mechanism (oxidation of atmospheric N)
n Most significant at high temperatures
l Prompt NO
x
- empirical mechanisms by De Soete, Williams, etc.
n Contribution is in general small
n Significant at fuel rich zones
l Fuel NO
x
- Empirical mechanisms by De Soete, Williams, etc.
n Predominant in coal flames where fuel-bound nitrogen is high and
temperature is generally low.
u NO
x
reburn chemistry (V5)
l NO can be reduced in fuel rich zones by reaction with hydrocarbons
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Soot modeling in FLUENT
u Two soot formation models are available:
l One-step model (Khan and Greeves)
n Single transport equation for soot mass fraction
l Two-Step model (Tesner)
n Transport equations for radical nuclei and soot mass fraction
concentrations
u Soot formation modeled by empirical rate constants
where, C, p
f
, and are a model constant, fuel partial pressure and
equivalence ratio, respectively
u Soot combustion (destruction) modeled by Magnussen model
u Soot affects the radiation absorption
l Enable Soot-Radiation option in the Soot panel
RT E n
f formation
e p C R
/

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Combustion Guidelines and Solution Strategies
u Start in 2D
l Determine applicability of model physics
l Mesh resolution requirements (resolve shear layers)
l Solution parameters and convergence settings
u Boundary conditions
l Combustion is often very sensitive to inlet boundary conditions
n Correct velocity and scalar profiles can be critical
l Wall heat transfer is challenging to predict; if known, specify wall
temperature instead of external convection/radiation BC
u Initial conditions
l While steady-state solution is independent of the IC, poor IC may cause
divergence due to the number and nonlinearity of the transport equations
l Cold flow solution, then gas combustion, then particles, then radiation
l For strongly swirling flows, increase the swirl gradually
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Combustion Guidelines and Solution Strategies (2)
u Underrelaxation Factors
l The effect of under-relaxation is highly nonlinear
n Decrease the diverging residual URF in increments of 0.1
n Underrelax density when using the mixture fraction PDF model (0.5)
n Underrelax velocity for high bouyancy flows
n Underrelax pressure for high speed flows
l Once solution is stable, attempt to increase all URFs to as close to defaults as possible
(and at least 0.9 for T, P-1, swirl and species (or mixture fraction statistics))
u Discretization
l Start with first order accuracy, then converge with second order to improve accuracy
l Second order discretization especially important for tri/tet meshes
u Discrete Phase Model - to increase stability,
l Increase number of stochastic tracks (or use particle cloud model)
l Decrease DPM URF and increase number of gas phase iterations per DPM
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Combustion Guidelines and Solution Strategies (3)
u Magnussen model
l Defaults to finite rate/eddy-dissipation (Arrhenius/Magnussen)
n For nonpremixed (diffusion) flames turn off finite rate
n Premixed flames require Arrhenius term so that reactants dont burn
prematurely
l May require a high temperature initialization/patch
l Use temperature dependent C
p
s to reduce unrealistically high temperatures
u Mixture fraction PDF model
l Model of choice if underlying assumptions are valid
l Use adequate numbers of discrete points in look up tables to ensure
accurate interpolation (no affect on run-time expense)
l Use beta PDF shape
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Combustion Guidelines and Solution Strategies (4)
u Turbulence
l Start with standard k- model
l Switch to RNG k- , Realizable k- or RSM to obtain better agreement
with data and/or to analyze sensitivity to the turbulence model
u Judging Convergence
l Residuals should be less than 10
-3
except for T, P-1 and species, which
should be less than 10
-6
l The mass and energy flux reports must balance
l Monitor variables of interest (e.g. mean temperature at the outlet)
l Ensure contour plots of field variables are smooth, realistic and steady
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Concluding Remarks
u FLUENT V5 is the code of choice for combustion modeling.
l Outstanding set of physical models
l Maximum convenience and ease of use
n Built-in database of mechanisms and physical properties
l Grid flexibility and solution adaption
u A wide range of reacting flow applications can be addressed by the
combustion models in FLUENT.
u Make sure the physical models you are using are appropriate for your
application.