William S. Alek
INTALEK, INC., 7760 E. State Rte 69, Ste C5381 Prescott Valley, AZ 86314, USA Phone: (928) 2550198 http://www.intalek.com/ mailto:william.alek@intalek.com
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this book is to explore concepts related to FREE Energy and the control of Gravity/Antigravity that are based entirely within the framework of extended classical Newtonian physics called Newtonian Torsion Physics. It is shown that the cause of gravity is a type of macroscopic torque between inertial frames where the origin of the torque occurs within imaginary or complex space. The effect manifests in real space as universal mass attraction, or gravity. A correlation has been discovered between mass, inductors, and capacitors, thereby relating the imaginary or complex origin of torque to gravity, and how this same torque affects electromagnetism. A simplified torsional mass relativity model called Natural Relativity (NR) Theory is presented and directly related to gravity. This theory is then correlated to Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) Theory, and as a consequence, creates a corrected Principle of Equivalence Theorem showing the origin of gravity and antigravity comes from imaginary or complex space. A temporal rotation operator is introduced using Eulers Identity, which shows the imaginary or complex (i.e., timepast and timefuture) motion of matter as positive or negative displacement into imaginary space, which embodies the fundamental concept of time travel. The speed of light c, Planck's constant h, permeability 0, permittivity 0, Boltzmann's Constant k, electric charge q, and the Fine Structure Constant are invariant between inertial frames and therefore, unaffected by torque because the fluctuation or curvature of the fundamental parameters that compose these constants are shown to evaluate to unity gain. In other words, these constants remain constant anywhere within a given torque field or gravity well. Gravitomagnetic Theory shows that the magnetic field energy produced by a moving electron is shown to be a special relativistic mass fluctuation, and therefore creates a real torque, which couples to gravity as a secondary gravitational effect. This motion can either have a real velocity, or an imaginary or complex (i.e., timepast or timefuture) velocity. If the velocity is complex, then the special relativistic mass fluctuation or Me of an electron can be either positive or negative, and exhibits a corresponding gravitational or antigravitational effect, which consequently produces a complex (i.e., timepast or timefuture) magnetic field. This is the origin of the effect called gravity or antigravity. In addition, the volume of the total field energy of a complex magnetic field can either be positive or negative, which can add or subtract from the energy produced by a real magnetic field. In the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, an Amperian Current is described as an electron circulating around a nucleus at a relativistic speed. This creates a magnetic induction emerging from the center of the nucleus. Fluctuating this field by applying an external magnetic induction causes the velocity of the electron to become complex. The presence of NEGATIVE RESISTANCE, the production of NEGATIVE ENERGY, and the control of GRAVITY/ANTIGRAVITY occur by fluctuating the mass of an object in complex space. The theory presents a conceptual breakthrough for the development of energy and highspeed field propulsion technologies.
INTRODUCTION
Puthoff (1996) coined the phrase, metric engineering, and Puthoff, Little and Ibison (2002) consider the vacuum to be a polarizable medium, and that it can be expressed in terms of tensor formulations of curved spacetime. The bending of light passing near a massive object is caused by induced spatial variation in the refractive index of the vacuum near the object. This is correlated to changes in permeability 0 and permittivity 0 of the vacuum. Changes occurring in the vacuum also affect the mass of objects, the length and bending of rulers, the frequency of clocks, the energy of light, etc. This book both simplifies and links gravity with electromagnetism by presenting formulations of curved spacetime in terms of extended classical Newtonian physics, which are caused by
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relativistic fluctuations of mass M , inductance L , and capacitance C of an object. For example, when an object with mass M naturally falls downward in a given gravity well, its natural relativistic mass + M increases due to Newtonian Gravitation, or universal mass attraction. The new mass of an object M + M is displaced to a new position within this well, then massenergy remains conserved by returning the mass to its place of origin, or M + M M = M . In other words, by converting this increase in relativistic mass + M to energy + E , a force acts upon the object, and the new mass is now displaced back to its original position that was higher vertically in the well. The object exhibits an antigravitational effect by removing or subtracting M from M . The rate of change of this fluctuation could cause the speed of the object to easily exceed the speed of light. This is because the relativistic gravitational mass of the object, which is shown to be convergent, is moving at right angles to a relativistic inertial mass, which is shown to be divergent. Since the speed of the object with relativistic gravitational mass has no known upper limit, the resulting speed through deep space could be enormous and necessitates the use of the warp factor equation.
r2
g0
r1 SPHERE 1
g0
EYE
OBSERVER ON EARTH WOULD SEE TWO IDENTICAL SPHERES
SURFACE OF EARTH
Mass and volume of matter vary under the influence of different gravity. Shown in Fig. 1 above are two identical spheres, SPHERE 1 and SPHERE 2, with equal mass and volume as seen by an observer on the Earth. SPHERE 1 is now moved to the Moon as shown in Fig. 2 below.
CURVATURE DUE TO GRAVITY
OBSERVER ON MOON WOULD SEE SPHERE 2 ON EARTH AS BEING MORE MASSIVE AND SMALLER IN SIZE
r2
g0 EYE
OBSERVER ON EARTH WOULD SEE SPHERE 1 ON MOON AS BEING LESS MASSIVE AND LARGER IN SIZE
FIGURE 2. Two identical spheres change in mass and volume relative to position of the observer.
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SPHERE 1 on the left is under the influence of gravity of the Moon and SPHERE 2 on the right remains under the influence of gravity of the Earth. Since the gravity of the Moon g MOON is approximately 1 6 the gravity of the Earth g 0 , an observer on the Moon would measure the sphere on the Earth as having slightly more mass + M and being slightly smaller in volume V than the same sphere on the Moon. Likewise, an observer on the Earth would measure the sphere on the Moon as having slightly less mass M , and slightly larger in volume + V . This is due to the effect of curvature of space and time upon matter caused by torsion originating from imaginary or complex space and observed in real space as universal mass attraction, or gravity.
The first term is regarded as inertial, and therefore is considered kinetic or fluxes, and is Newtonianbased. The second term is regarded as torsional, and therefore, couples to gravity. When evaluated, the Inertial Term must be equal to zero, leaving only the Torsional Term to be determined. The Torsional Term may result in a positive or negative number meaning that Gravitational Energy may be positive or negative. This principle extends Newtonianbased physics to include Newtonian Torsion Physics, and is formulated and analyzed in the direction of gravity.
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y +y
rr
g0
Applying the product rule, the complete ideal momentum model is composed of two terms,
fM (t ) =
dpY d ( M vY ) dv dM = = M Y + vY = M vY + vY M dt dt dt dt
(1)
Where, the Inertial Term is M vY , and mass M is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity gY . The Torsional Term is vY M , and changing mass M fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity. For a mass fluctuating system, the Torsional Term is NOT zero Newtons. So, given an object having mass M 2 moving at constant velocity vY , or vY = 0 m s , the Inertial Term is,
fM (t ) = M vY = 0 N
(2)
This removes the Inertial Term, leaving only the Torsional Term,
fM (t ) = vY M 0 N
(3)
Since M has units of resistance in mNs m 2 , its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. If M is negative, it has units of negative resistance or,
M < 0 mNs m 2
(4)
(5)
So, for certain values of M , the total instantaneous power PM can be NEGATIVE or,
PM (t ) < 0 Watts
(6)
Then, integrating PM with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of mass M or,
EM (t ) = PM (t ) dt = vY 2 M dt = vY 2 M (t ) < 0 Joules
(7)
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(8)
(9)
So, for certain values of M , the total instantaneous power PM can be POSITIVE or,
PM (t ) > 0Watts
(10)
Then, integrating PM with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of mass M or,
EM (t ) = PM (t ) dt = vY 2 M dt = vY 2 M (t ) > 0 Joules
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
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(19)
(20)
So, the time derivative form of the Torsional Mass Term is,
M =
fM (t ) y c2
(21)
fM dy c2
(22)
fM y c2
(23)
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g0
+
vL
Applying the product rule, the complete ideal inductor model is composed of two terms,
L (t ) =
dI d dL ( L I L ) = L L + I L = L I L + I LL dt dt dt
(24)
Where, the Inertial Term is L I L , and inductance L is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity gY . The Torsional Term is I LL , changing inductance L fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity. For an inductive fluctuating system, the Torsional Term is NOT zero volts. By applying a constant current I L through inductor L , or I L = 0 Amps s , the Inertial Term is,
L (t ) = L I L = 0Volts
This removes the Inertial Term, leaving only the Torsional Term,
(25)
L (t ) = I L L 0 Volts
(26)
Since L has units of resistance in ohms, , its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. If L is negative, it has units of negative resistance or,
L < 0
(27)
(28)
So, for certain values of L , the total instantaneous power PL can be NEGATIVE or,
PL (t ) < 0Watts
(29)
Then, integrating PL with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of inductor L or,
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(30)
(31)
(32)
So, for certain values of L , the total instantaneous power PL can be POSITIVE or,
PL (t ) > 0 Watts
(33)
Then, integrating PL with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of inductor L or,
EL (t ) = PL dt = I L 2 L dt = I L 2 L(t ) > 0 Joules
(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
vY 2 =
(38)
(39)
(40)
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fL (t ) =
EL (t ) y
(41)
(42)
(43)
(44)
(45)
So, the time derivative form of the Torsional Inductive Term is,
L=
fL (t ) L(t ) y M L (t ) c 2
(46)
fL L dy M L c2
(47)
f L L y M L c2
(48)
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g0
+
iC VC
Applying the product rule, the complete ideal capacitor model is composed of two terms,
iC (t ) = dV d dC = C VC + VC C (C VC ) = C C + VC dt dt dt
(49)
Where, the Inertial Term is CVC , and capacitor C is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity gY . The Torsional Term is VC C , and changing capacitance C fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity. For a capacitive fluctuating system, the Torsional Term is NOT zero amps. By applying a constant voltage across capacitor C , or VC = 0Volts s , the Inertial Term is,
iC (t ) = C VC = 0 Amps
(50)
(51)
Since C has units of conductance in mhos, , its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. If C is negative, it has units of negative conductance or,
C<0
(52)
(53)
So, for certain values of C , the total instantaneous power PC can be NEGATIVE or,
PC (t ) < 0Watts
(54)
Then, integrating PC with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of capacitor C or,
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EC (t ) = PC dt = VC 2 C dt = VC 2 C (t ) < 0 Joules
(55)
(56)
(57)
So, for certain values of C , the total instantaneous power PC can be POSITIVE or
PC (t ) > 0 Watts
(58)
Then, integrating PC with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of capacitor C or,
EC (t ) = PC dt = VC 2 C dt = VC 2 C (t ) > 0 Joules
(59)
(60)
(61)
(62)
vY 2 =
(63)
(64)
(65)
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fC (t ) =
EC y
(66)
(67)
(68)
(69)
(70)
So, the time derivative form of the Torsional Capacitive Term is,
C=
fC (t ) C (t ) y M C (t ) c 2
(71)
fC C dy M C c2
(72)
fC C y M C c2
(73)
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GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
19,920
RADIUS
g yn = G
ME yn 2
y = y0 y1
INCREASED GRAVITY
7,529 6,378.1 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5
g yn
g y0 = 1.0
g 0 = 9.8
FIGURE 6. The natural mass fluctuation of an object due to gravitational free fall.
Natural universal mass attraction or classic Newtonian gravity is a force f y that acts through a center of mass of the Earth with mass M E and a test mass M separated by a distance y ,
fy =
G ME M = gy M y2
(74)
So, given, Gravitational constant G = 6.67259 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg Radius of Earth yE = 6.3781 106 m The surface gravity g 0 of the Earth is,
11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67259 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 10 kg ) g0 = = = 9.80665 m sec 2 2 2 6 yE ( 6.378110 m )
(75)
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(76)
(77)
Marmet (2001) equates force fM produced by a fluctuating test mass dM to the gravitational force f y ,
f y (t ) = fM (t )
(78)
(79)
The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of test mass dM M and the energy equivalent of test mass dE E displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is,
dM dEM g y dy = = 2 M EM c
(80)
Marmet states the equation above shows a calculated change of energy levels as a function of gravitational potential is in perfect agreement with the Pound and Rebka and also the Pound and Snider experiments. Therefore, energy increases as a function of downward or positive displacement within a given gravity well. Let dYg y = g y dy , the exponential solutions of the derivative form of mass and energy equivalent of mass are,
M y1
M y0
1 1 dM = 2 M c
My
g y1 y1
g y0 y0
dYg y
(81)
ln ( M ) M 1 =
y0
1 Yg c2 y
g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0
(82)
My ln M y1 ln M y0 = ln 1 My 0
1 = 2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c
(83)
M y1 M y0
=e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(84)
M y1 = M y0 e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(85)
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EM y1 = EM y0 e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(86)
So, the Pound, Rebka and Snider experiment used Mossbauer spectroscopy to measure the electromagnetic gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of 14.4 keV gamma rays emitted from Fe57 through a vertical distance of 22.6 m . With the gamma rays emitted upward, they showed the RED SHIFT was within one percent (1%) of this result,
1 1 G ME y1 y0 = c2
SHIFT =
M EM = = M EM
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(87)
( 6.67259 10
SHIFT =
11
1 1 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 10 24 kg ) ( 6.3781226 106 m ) ( 6.3781000 106 m ) (2.99792458 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = 2.465961 1015
(88)
(89)
With the gamma rays emitted downward, they showed the BLUE SHIFT was,
( 6.67259 10
SHIFT =
11
1 1 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 10 24 kg ) ( 6.3781000 106 m ) ( 6.3781226 106 m ) (2.99792458 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = 2.465961 1015
(90)
(91)
Now, the force fL produced by a fluctuating inductor dL is equated to the gravitational force f y ,
f y (t ) = fL (t )
(92)
(93)
The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of inductor dL L displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is,
dL g y dy = 2 L c
(94)
Let dYg y = g y dy , the exponential solution of the derivative form of an inductor is,
Ly1
Ly0
1 1 dL = 2 L c
g y1 y1 g y0 y0
dYg y
(95)
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ln ( L ) L 1 =
Ly
y0
1 Yg c2 y
g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0
(96)
Ly ln Ly1 ln Ly0 = ln 1 Ly 0
( )
( )
1 = 2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c
(97)
Ly1 Ly0
=e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(98)
Ly1 = Ly0 e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(99)
So, the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an inductor L is,
1 1 G ME y1 y0 = c2
SHIFT =
L = L
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(100)
Now, the force fC produced by a fluctuating capacitor dC is equated to the gravitational force f y ,
f y (t ) = fC (t )
(101)
(102)
The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of capacitor dC C displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is,
dC dEC g y dy = = 2 C EC c
(103)
Let dYg y = g y dy , the exponential solution of the derivative form of a capacitor is,
C y1
C y0
1 1 dC = 2 C c
Cy
g y1 y1 g y0 y0
dYg y
(104)
ln ( C ) C 1 =
y0
1 Yg c2 y
g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0
(105)
Cy ln C y1 ln C y0 = ln 1 Cy 0
( )
( )
1 = 2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c
(106)
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C y1 C y0
=e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(107)
C y1 = C y0 e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(108)
So, the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of a capacitor C is,
1 1 G ME C g y1 y1 g y0 y0 y1 y0 SHIFT = = = 2 C c c2
(109)
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MASS M AT REST
+y
The establishment of a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE is defined as a fixed point of reference within a given gravity well g y . This point may be located in a plane of equipotential surface of gravity, and is used throughout this paper. Natural relativistic changes of mass, volume, frequency, energy, etc. fluctuate or curve as a function of displacement y from this point of reference. This displacement defines a new point within a new plane of equipotential surface of gravity g y , and the gravity at that point may be increased or decreased based upon the sign of the displacement. Marmet (2001) invokes the principle of massenergy conservation regarding the displacement of matter between planes. For example, an object of mass M displaced a distance y changes back to its original mass when returned to its original position within a given gravity well. Therefore, a new and simplified relativity model is introduced. For gravitational energy systems, and given an equipotential surface of gravity reference, the following parameters including relativistic mass M , relativistic inductance L , and relativistic capacitance C , fluctuate or curve between equipotential surfaces of gravity by displacement y . Again, the kinetic energy of gravitational energy systems is assumed to be zero. So, given a common equipotential surface of gravity reference g y , an increase in gravity causes a natural relativistic increase in mass, energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy), inductance, and capacitance. Likewise, a decrease in gravity causes a natural relativistic decrease in the same metrics. Given an object with a rest mass M y0 , an equivalent energy of the rest mass EM y0 , an inductance Ly0 , and a capacitance C y0 , the new rest mass M y1 , the new equivalent energy of the rest mass EMy0 , the new inductance Ly1 , and the new capacitance C y1 are,
M y1 = NR M y0 = M y0 M y0 EMy1 = NR EMy0 = EMy0 EMy 0 Ly1 = NR Ly0 = Ly0 Ly0 C y1 = NR C y0 = C y0 C y0
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NR = e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(114)
The difference forms and the exponential forms of the natural relativistic mass M y1 model, energy equivalent of mass EMy1 model, inductor Ly1 model, and capacitor C y1 model at position y within a given gravity well g y are,
M y1 = M y0 M y0
g y y1 g y0 y0 = M y0 1 1 = M y0 e 2 c
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(115)
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 1 = EMy0 e 2 c
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(116)
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(117)
g y y1 g y0 y0 C y1 = C y0 C y0 = C y0 1 1 = C y0 e 2 c
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(118)
In summary, Natural Relativity (NR) Theory describes the nature of the primary gravitational effect.
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c dt
ds0 = c dt0
dr = vr dt
STATIONARY OBSERVER
OBSERVER IN MOTION
Einstein (1905) formulated his theory of special relativity and is described as Observer B, moving at velocity vr relative to a stationary Observer A, undergoes a relativistic effect. This effect changes the mass, lengths, time intervals, frequencies, and energy of the observer in motion. Its expressed as a Pythagoreantype quantity called a spacetime interval, and evaluates as a Lorentz temporal correction shown below.
ds0 2 + dr 2 = c 2 dt 2 ds0 2 = c 2 dt 2 dr 2
(119) (120)
(121)
dr = vr dt
(122)
So,
ds0 2 = c 2 dt 2 vr 2 dt 2 ds0 = c 2 dt 2 c 2 dt 2 vr 2 vr 2 1 = c dt c2 c2
(123)
(124)
(125)
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ds0 = c dt0
(126)
(127)
dt0 = dt 1 dt0
vr 2 c2
(128)
dt =
v2 1 r2 c
(129)
Therefore, relative to Observer B in motion with a time interval dt B0 , stationary Observer As clock with a time interval dt A will be ticking faster or BLUE SHIFTED, and have the following Lorentz temporal correction,
dt A = dt B0 v2 1 r2 c
(130)
dt A > dtB0
(131)
Likewise, relative to stationary Observer A with a time interval dt A0 , Observer Bs clock at time interval dt B will be ticking slower or RED SHIFTED, and have the following Lorentz temporal correction,
dt B = dt A0 1 dt B < dt A0 vr 2 c2
(132) (133)
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TIME FORWARD
+ jvx
+y
INCREASED GRAVITY t
vx M + M
Given the rest mass of an object M , the special relativistic mass M v model presented by Einstein (1905) shows an object moving at velocity vx is,
Mv = M v2 1 x2 c = M = M + dM
(134)
1 v2 1 x2 c
(135)
SR = 1 +
1 vx 2 3 vx 4 5 vx 6 35 vx 8 + + + + ... 2 c 2 8 c 4 16 c 6 128 c8
(136)
Using the 1st order term of the expansion shown above where vx
SR = 1 +
vx 2 2 c2
(137)
The derivative form of the special relativistic mass M v model moving at velocity vx is,
v2 M v = SR M = M dM = M 1 x 2 2c
(138)
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(139)
An object can move at a real (i.e., timeforward) velocity vx , at an imaginary (i.e., timefuture) velocity j vx , or at a velocity that is a combination of the two. The real and imaginary components are rotated about the temporal axis and therefore, can be described as complex motion. The rotation is given as 0 90 , where the real axis is = 0 and the imaginary timefuture axis is = 90 . The complex number uses the Eulers identity e j , which functions as a temporal rotation operator.
vx = v e j = v cos + j v sin
(140)
So, the derivative form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of mass dM M , energy equivalent of mass dEM EM , inductor dL L , or capacitor dC C of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
SHIFT = dM dEM dL dC vx 2 = = = = 2 2c M EM L C
(141)
Mv
M0
v2 1 dM = x 2 2c M
Mv
(142)
ln ( M ) M =
0
vx 2 2 c2 vx 2 = 2 2c
(143)
M ln ( M v ) ln ( M 0 ) = ln v M0
2 2c Mv = e M0
vx 2 2 2c
(144)
vx 2
(145)
Mv = M0 e
(146)
EMv = EM 0 e Lv = L0 e
vx 2 2 2c
vx 2 2 2c vx 2 2c
2
Cv = C0 e
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So, the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of a mass M , an energy equivalent of mass EM , an inductor L , and a capacitor C is,
SHIFT = M E M L C v x 2 = = = = 2 2c M EM L C
(150)
SR = e
(151)
The difference forms and the exponential forms of the special relativistic mass M v model, energy equivalent of mass EMv model, inductor Lv model, and capacitor Cv model of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx are,
2 2 v2 M v = M 0 M 0 = M 0 1 x 2 = M 0 e c 2c vx 2
(152)
E M v = E M 0 E M 0
v2 = EM 0 1 x 2 2c
2 2c = EM 0 e vx 2
vx 2
(153)
v2 Lv = L0 L0 = L0 1 x 2 2c
2 2c L e = 0
vx 2
(154)
2 2c v2 Cv = C0 + C0 = C0 1 x 2 = C0 e 2c
(155)
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AT REST
ACCELERATING
dM g = 0
d 2M i > 0
fg
fi
ON THE EARTH
IN SPACE
FIGURE 10. An elevator at rest on the Earth is NOT equivalent to an elevator accelerating in space.
As shown above, the natural relativistic mass fluctuation of an elevator at rest on the surface of the Earth is zero, or dM = 0 . However, the second order special relativistic mass fluctuation of the same elevator accelerating in space is nonzero or d 2 M > 0 , and as a consequence, radiates electromagnetic waves. According to Woodward (1998), radiation reaction is observed in bodies being accelerated based upon Newtons second law of motion, f0 = m a . Therefore, given this scenario, the gravitational mass cant be equivalent to its inertial mass due to their differences in mass fluctuations.
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CONSTANT VELOCITY
dM g > 0
dM i > 0
fg = 0
fi = 0
NEAR EARTH
IN SPACE
FIGURE 11. An elevator in free fall above the Earth is equivalent to an elevator moving at constant velocity in space.
As shown above, an elevator traveling a distance + dy in free fall and the same elevator moving at a constant velocity vx at right angles to free fall produce virtually no radiation reaction. So, given this second scenario, these mass fluctuations are considered equivalent, hence, establishing a new Principle of Equivalence Theorem.
1.10
+TIMEPAST
1.05
M0 e
INERTIAL REFERENCE
1.00
0.95
0.90 1.0 j 108 7.5 j 107 5.0 j 107 2.5 j 107 0.0 VELOCITY (m/sec)
2.5 107 5.0 107 7.5 107 1.0 108
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(156)
1.0000000000 GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE g y0 0.9999999998 GRAVITATIONAL MASS (kg) DECREASING GRAVITATIONAL MASS (BLUE SHIFT) 0.9999999996
gy y gy y 0 0 1 1 c2
M y0 e
0.9999999994
0.9999999992
y0 0.9999999990
M 2.0 107 0.0 6.3781 106
FIGURE 13. Displacement profile of a 1kg gravitational mass due to Earths gravity well.
And since the gravitational RED SHIFT of the same object due to gravity g y is,
1 1 G ME y1 y0 = c2
SHIFT =
M = M
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(157)
By equating an inertial RED SHIFT to a gravitational RED SHIFT, a new Principle of Equivalence Theorem is determined as,
1 1 G ME g y y1 g y0 y0 vx y1 y0 = 1 = 2 2 2c c c2
2
(158)
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So, an object displaced y within the Earths gravity well g y is equivalent to the same object moving at complex velocity vx ,
1 1 vx = 2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = 2 G M E y1 y0
(159)
y 7.0 106
5.0 106
DISPLACEMENT (m)
y =
4.0 106
3.0 106
2.0 106
1.0 106
10000
8000
6000
4000
1.0 106
VELOCITY (m/sec)
2.0 106
3.0 106
4.0 106
FIGURE 14. Equating an inertial RED (BLUE) SHIFT to a gravitational RED (BLUE) SHIFT.
As shown above, if the displacement y = y0 y1 of an object is POSITIVE, then the object is moving at a real velocity vx . However, if the displacement y is NEGATIVE, then the same object is moving at a complex (i.e., timefuture) velocity
1 vx , or velocity j vx , where j = 1 . The real and imaginary components are rotated
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1 y0 1 2 1 + y0 vx 2G M E
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about the temporal axis as a complex velocity. The rotation is given as 0 90 , where the real axis is = 0 and the imaginary timefuture axis is = 90 . The complex number uses the Eulers identity e j , which functions as a temporal rotation operator.
vx = v e j = v cos + j v sin
(160)
So, given an object moving at a complex velocity vx , the equivalent displacement to position y1 within the Earths gravity well g y , where 0 < y1 or 1
y0 vx 2 is, 2G ME vx 2 y0 1 g y0 y0 + = 2 g y1 y v2 1+ 0 x 2G ME
y1 =
(161)
Therefore, the equivalent displacement y within the Earths gravity well g y is,
1 = y0 1 y0 vx 2 1 + 2G M E
y = y0 y1 = y0
y0 y v2 1+ 0 x 2G M E
(162)
(163)
vx max =
2G ME y0
(164)
So, given the equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max , the minimum mass M min at y1 = is,
G ME y c2 v2 0 M e = M y0 1 + x 2 = M y0 1 = y0 2 c y c 2 0 G ME
M min
(165)
In summary, this new Principle of Equivalence Theorem describes an object moving at onehalf the square of a real velocity vx is equivalent to the same object having fallen down a displacement + dy within a given gravity well g y . This object naturally acquires more relativistic mass, inductance and capacitance as it moves at a real velocity
vx , and augments its own gravitation with other objects. On the other hand, the same object moving at onehalf the square of a complex velocity j vx is equivalent to the same object having fallen up a displacement dy in the same gravity well. This object naturally loses more relativistic mass, inductance and capacitance as it moves at a complex velocity j vx , and diminishes its own gravitation with other objects. Therefore, special relativity is considered to be a secondary gravitational effect.
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Example 1. Given the velocity profile above of an object having a mass M 0 moving at a special relativistic timeforward velocity vx , compute the new special relativistic inertial mass M v . So, given, Direction of time = 0 Mass of object M 0 = 1.0 kg Velocity of object v = 1.0 108 m sec The timeforward velocity vx of an object is,
vx = v e j = (1.0 108 m sec ) e j 0 = 1.0 108 m sec
(166)
Mv = M0 e
vx 2 2 2c
= (1.0 kg ) e
(167) (168)
M v = 1.05721 kg
(169)
Example 2. Given the velocity profile above of an object having a mass M 0 moving at a special relativistic velocity timefuture j vx , compute the new special relativistic inertial mass M v . So, given, Direction of time = 90 Mass of object M 0 = 1.0 kg Velocity of object v = 1.0 108 m sec The timefuture velocity vx of an object is,
vx = v e j = (1.0 108 m sec ) e j 90 = 1.0 j 108 m sec
(170)
Mv = M0 e
vx 2 2 2c
= (1.0 kg ) e
(171) (172)
M v = 0.94589 kg
(173)
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Example 3. Given the gravitational profile above of an object having a mass M y0 displaced to a position y within Earths gravity well g y , compute the new natural relativistic gravitational mass M y1 . So, given, Mass of object M y0 = 1.0 kg Object on Earths surface y0 = 6.3781 106 m Object displaced to y1 = 1.0 108 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg The acceleration due to gravity at surface of Earth is,
11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 10 kg ) = = = 9.80665 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 6.3781 10 m ( )
g y0
(174)
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 1.0 108 m above the Earth is,
g y1 = G M E ( 6.67260 10 = y12
11
(1.0 10 m )
8
N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 1024 kg )
2
= 0.039894 m sec 2
(175)
Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic mass model, the new gravitational mass is,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2 2 8 2 6 0.039894 m sec 1.010 m 9.80665 m sec 6.378110 m 2 8 2.9979245810 m sec
)(
)(
)(
M y1 = M y0 e
= (1.0 kg ) e
(176) (177)
M y1 = 0.9999999993485 kg
(178)
Example 4. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth, compute the new minimum natural relativistic gravitational mass M min of an object at y1 = . So, given, Mass of object M y0 = 1.0 kg Object on Earths surface y0 = 6.3781 106 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg
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)(
M min = M y0 e
= (1.0 kg ) e
)(
(179) (180)
M min = 0.9999999993041 kg
(181)
(length
Ly
, width
Wy ,
and height
Hy )
gravity well g y . Likewise, the same the volume Vy dilates as a function of position y in the same gravity well. So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an object of volume V V displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 L W H = = = 1 L W H c2
(182)
The difference forms and exponential forms of the natural relativistic object of volume Vy at position y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 L y1 = L y0 L y0 = L y0 1 1 L = e y0 c2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(183)
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(184)
g y y1 g y0 y0 H y1 = H y0 H y0 = H y0 1 1 H = e y 0 c2
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(185)
(186)
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The difference forms and exponential forms of the special relativistic object of volume Vv moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
2 2c v2 Lv = L0 L0 = L0 1 x 2 = L0 e c 2 vx 2
(187)
v2 Wv = W0 W0 = W0 1 x 2 2c
2 c2 = W0 e vx 2
vx 2
(188)
2 2c v2 H v = H 0 H 0 = H 0 1 x 2 = H 0 e c 2
(189)
(190)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic frequency f y of an oscillator at position y is,
f y1 = f y0 f y0
g y y1 g y0 y0 = f y0 1 1 = f e y0 c2
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(191)
(192)
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The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic frequency f v of an oscillator moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
2 2c v2 f v = f 0 f 0 = f 0 1 x 2 = f 0 e c 2 vx 2
(193)
(i.e., speeds up) as a function of position y in the same gravity well. So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating for an interval of time t t displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 t = 1 t c2
(194)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic time interval t y of an oscillator at position y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 t y1 = t y0 t y0 = t y0 1 1 = t y0 e 2 c g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(195)
(196)
The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic time interval tv of an oscillator moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
v2 tv = t0 t0 = t0 1 x 2 2c
2 2c t e = 0
vx 2
(197)
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(198)
So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of momentum p p of an object displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
p g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = p c2
(199)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic momentum p y at position y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 p y1 = p y0 p y0 = p y0 1 1 = p y0 e 2 c g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(200)
(201)
So, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of momentum p p of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
p vx 2 = p 2 c2
(202)
The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic momentum pv of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
2 2c v2 pv = p0 p0 = p0 1 x 2 = p0 e 2c vx 2
(203)
(204)
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So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of angular momentum S S of an object displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
S =0 S
(205)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic angular momentum S y at position y is,
S y1 = S y0
(206)
(207)
So, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of angular momentum S S of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
S =0 S
(208)
The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic angular momentum Sv of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
S v = S0
(209)
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ZG t
Z B
According to Puthoff (1996) and Puthoff, Little and Ibison (2002), the vacuum is described as having magnetic permeability 0 and dielectric permittivity 0, and acts to impede the propagation of light and the motion of matter. Direct modification of these components changes the nature of light and matter.
gy
r1
r1 r1
r2 r2
r2
M 1 + M 1
M 2 + M 2 M2
M1 GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
FIGURE 15. Two similar objects undergoing natural universal mass attraction.
The active vacuum of space, or spacetime media (i.e., the aether) is composed of uncondensed relativistic mass. An object M 1 made of matter (i.e., atoms) and given a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE point undergoes universal mass attraction (i.e., gravitational free fall) with another object M 2 . Both objects acquire relativistic mass by a natural means from the surrounding spacetime media as a function of displacement +y between the two objects. This media condenses onto both objects as more relativistic mass, thereby increasing their total mass M n + M n , inductance Ln + Ln , and capacitance Cn + Cn . This action changes the relativistic momentum of both objects resulting with increasing force of attraction. The spacetime media between these objects rarefy or relativistic mass condenses out of the media thereby affecting both the magnetic permeability 0 and the dielectric permittivity 0 of free space. This rarefaction of media is referred to as a gravity well, and as a consequence, causes the volume of space occupied by both objects and the space between them to be reduced. The spacetime media in a rarefying state means gravity between these objects is increasing, which causes light passing near these objects to amplify in energy E y and increase in frequency f y as proven by the Pound and Rebka experiment (1964). This behavior of spacetime media acts as an impedance upon the natural motion of matter and the propagation of light.
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GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
gy
+y
Shown above is the BLUE SHIFTING of an electromagnetic wave due to gravity. Relative to a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE point or equipotential surface of gravity within a given gravity well g y , PHOTON A decreases in energy E y and frequency f y as it propagates through decreasing gravity g y . Likewise, PHOTON B increases in energy E y and frequency f y as it propagates through increasing gravity g +y . This effect was demonstrated in the Pound, Rebka and Snider experiment, which used Mossbauer spectroscopy to measure the electromagnetic gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of 14.4 keV gamma rays emitted from Fe57 through a vertical distance of 22.6 m . Using the difference form of fluctuating energy E of an electromagnetic wave propagating through gravity well g y and the gamma rays emitted upward, the RED SHIFT was within one percent (1%) of this result,
SHIFT = E g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = E c2
(210)
SHIFT =
(9.806581 m sec 2 )(6.3781226 106 m) ( 9.806650 m sec 2 )( 6.3781000 106 m ) (2.99792458 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = 2.465961 1015
(211)
(212)
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And with the gamma rays emitted downward, the BLUE SHIFT was,
SHIFT =
(213)
(214)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic electromagnetic energy E y at position y is,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 1 = E y0 e 2 c g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
E y1 = E y0 E y0 = E y0
Since the energy E of a single photon is,
(215)
E = h f
(216)
E f
(217)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of frequency f f of an electromagnetic wave propagating y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
f g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = f c2
(218)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic electromagnetic frequency f y at position y is,
f y1 = f y0 f y0 = f y0
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 f e = 1 y 2 0 c
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(219)
So, the natural relativistic Planck's constant hy ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
hy1 =
E y1
f y1
E y0 e
f y0 e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
E =h f
(220)
Therefore, the natural relativistic Planck's constant hy is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
hy = 6.6260755 10 34 Joule sec
(221)
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(222)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the wavelength of an electromagnetic wave displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
= g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(223)
y = y y = y 1
1 0 0 0
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = y0 e 2 c
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
(224)
So, natural relativistic the speed of light c y ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
c y1 = y1 f y1 = y0 e
f y0 e
= f = c
(225)
Therefore, the natural relativistic speed of light c y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
c y = 2.99792458 108 m sec
(226)
0 = 4 107 H m
(227)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of inductance L L displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 L = 1 L c2
(228)
(229)
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The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of length L L displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 L = 1 L c2
(230)
(231)
So, the natural relativistic permeability y of spacetime media ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
y =
1
Ly1 L y1
Ly0 e
L y0 e
L = 0 L
(232)
Therefore, the natural relativistic permeability y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
y = 4 107 H m
(233)
0 = 8.85419 1012 F m
(234)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of capacitance C C displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 C = 1 C c2
(235)
(236)
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The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of length L L displaced y = y0 y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 g y0 y0 L = 1 L c2
(237)
(238)
So, the natural relativistic permittivity y of spacetime media ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
y =
1
C y1
L y1
C y0 e
L y0 e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
C = 0 L
(239)
Therefore, the natural relativistic permittivity y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
y = 8.85419 1012 F m
(240)
0 0
(241)
Since it has been shown the permeability y and permittivity y of spacetime media are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity, it follows the natural relativistic impedance Z y of spacetime media ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
Z y1 =
y y
= Z0
(242)
Therefore, the natural relativistic impedance Z y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
Z y = 376.730
(243)
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0 0
(244)
Since it has been shown the permeability y and permittivity y of spacetime media are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity, it follows the natural relativistic speed of light c y through spacetime media ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
c y1 = 1 =c
y y
1
(245)
Therefore, the natural relativistic speed of light c y through spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
c y = 2.997924 108 m sec
(246)
(247)
Since the Ideal Gas Constant Ry and Avogadro's Number N y are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity, it follows the natural relativistic Boltzmann's Constant k y ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
k y1 = Ry1 N y1 =k
(248)
Therefore, the natural relativistic Boltzmann's Constant k y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
k y = 1.380658 1023 Joules K
(249)
f E
(250)
The electric force f y increases with the square of a decreasing distance, and the electric field E y also increases with the square of a decreasing distance at position + dy . Likewise, the electric force f y decreases with the square of a
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increasing distance, and the electric field E y also decreases with the square of a increasing distance at position dy , it follows the natural relativistic electric charge q y ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
q y1 = f y1 E y1 =q
(251)
Therefore, the natural relativistic electric charge q y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
q y = 1.60217733 1019 Coul
(252)
q2 20 h c
(253)
Since an electric charge q y , the speed of light c y , the permittivity y , and Planck's constant hy are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity, it follows the natural relativistic Fine Structure Constant y ranging from position y to +y evaluates to unity gain or,
y =
1
q y1 2 2 y1 hy1 c y1
(254)
Therefore, the natural relativistic Fine Structure Constant y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
y = 7.29738 103 =
1 137.0356
(255)
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NOTE: SPACETIME MEDIA IS MODELED AS UNCONDENSED RELATIVISTIC MASS, INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE THAT CAN BE COMPRESSED OR RAREFIED.
FIGURE 20. Increasing magnitude and frequency of B and E Fields by gravitational function.
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NOTE: SPACETIME MEDIA IS MODELED AS UNCONDENSED RELATIVISTIC MASS, INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE THAT CAN BE COMPRESSED OR RAREFIED.
FIGURE 22. Decreasing magnitude and frequency of B and E Fields by gravitational function.
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Example 5. A Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) transmits an electromagnetic signal at a frequency f SAT of
~ 10.23 MHz down to the Earth from an altitude of 20,186.8 km , and has an orbital velocity of 3.874 km sec . The natural relativistic BLUE SHIFT due to gravity and the special relativistic RED SHIFT due to velocity changes the frequency of this transmitted signal. So, given the corrected transmitted frequency f SAT , compute the BLUE
SHIFT and RED SHIFT such that a groundbased receiver will read a signal
10230000.000000 Hz . The signal frequency of the satellite is adjustable down to 1 Hz .
f RX
that is precisely
So, given, Altitude of satellite y = 20.1868 106 m Orbital velocity vx = 3.874 103 m sec Corrected frequency of satellite f SAT = 10229999.995444 Hz Receiver located on surface of Earth y1 = 6.3781 106 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg The initial radius y0 of the satellite above the Earth is,
y0 = y1 + y = ( 6.3781 106 m ) + ( 20.1868 106 m ) = 26.5649 106 m
(256)
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The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y0 = 26.5649 106 m above the Earth is,
g y0 =
11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 10 kg ) = = 0.5653 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 ( 26.5649 10 m )
(257)
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 7.529 106 m above the Earth is,
g y1 =
11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 10 kg ) = = 9.80665 m sec 2 2 6 y12 ( 6.378110 m )
(258)
Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic frequency model, the gravitational BLUE SHIFTED frequency is,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2 2 6 2 6 9.80665 m sec 6.378110 m 0.5653 m sec 26.564910 m 2 2.99792458108 m sec
)(
)(
)(
f y1 = f y0 e
= (10229999.995444 Hz ) e
(259) (260)
f y1 = 10230000.000854 Hz = f
Given the exponential solution of the special relativistic frequency model, the RED SHIFTED frequency of the BLUE SHIFTED frequency computed above is,
v2 x 2 2c
2 3.874103 m sec 2 2.99793108 m sec
fv = f e
= (10230000.000854 Hz ) e
( (
(261) (262)
f v = 10230000.000000 Hz = f RX
So, a groundbased receiver will read a signal that is precisely 10230000.000000 Hz with a satellite frequency
f SAT given above.
FIGURE 24. A constellation of 24 Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) orbiting the Earth.
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GRAVITOMAGNETIC THEORY
P
dB
CURRENT ELEMENT
MAGNETIC INDUCTION
dx
A constant positive electric current I must create a stable magnetic field B around a wire. This stable field is due to the flow of electric current shown above. The change of magnetic induction dB at a fixed point P produced by a current element dx is calculated using the BiotSavarts Law,
dB =
0 I dx r 4 r3
(263)
Or,
dB =
0 I sin ( ) dx r2 4
(264)
Since charge q is quantized in a single electron e then, electric current I is defined as quantity N of charges e passing a fixed point per change of time dt or,
I =q=
dq d ( N e ) = dt dt
(265)
And velocity vx of an electron passing a fixed point is defined as change of distance dx per change of time dt or,
vx = x = dx dt
(266)
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(267)
So, the change of magnetic induction dB at a fixed point P produced by quantity N of charges e moving at velocity vx is,
dB =
0 vx sin ( ) d ( N e ) r2 4
(268)
To find the magnetic induction B produced by a single electron at point P when = 90 and N = 1 , then integrate,
B = dB =
0 e vx 4 r 2
(269)
The total energy density uB of magnetic field B contained within volume V is,
uB = UB B2 = V 2 0
(270)
Therefore, the total field energy U B of magnetic field B contained within volume V is,
0 ( e ) vx 2 B2 UB = V= V 2 0 32 2 r 4
2
(271)
The change of magnetic field energy dU B contained within a change of volume d V is,
0 ( e ) vx 2 B2 dU B = dV = dV 2 0 32 2 r 4
2
(272)
(273)
Equate total magnetic field energy U B to the total energy EM contained within matter,
U B = EM
(274)
(275)
William Alek
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Therefore, the fluctuating magnetic mass dM B contained within a change of volume d V is,
0 ( e ) vx 2 dU dM B = 2 B = dV c 32 2 r 4 c 2
2
(276)
rmax rmin
Since the energy of an electron is finite, no field component can be present at its center. So, the volume of an electron is modeled as a hollow spheroid,
V = 2 sin ( ) d
0
rmax
rmin
r 2 dr = 4
rmax
rmin
r 2 dr
(277)
The fluctuating magnetic mass dM B contained within a change of volume d V of a hollow spheroid is,
0 ( e ) vx 2 0 ( e ) vx 2 r 1 r 2 dM B = d r dr d dr 4 = r c 2 r r 2 32 2 r 4 c 2 8
2
max
min
max
(278)
min
Given the radius of a fluctuating magnetic mass dM e ranging from a classic electron radius re to infinity, or re r , the derivative form of a moving electron is,
0 ( e ) vx 2 dM B = c2 8
2
re
1 dr r2
(279)
0 ( e ) vx 2 dM B = 8 re c 2
2
(280)
William Alek
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So, given the rest mass of an electron M e , the difference form of the special relativistic mass M ev of an electron moving at velocity vx is
v2 M ev = SR M e = M e dM e = M e 1 x 2 2c
(281)
0 ( e ) vx 2 M v2 e x2 2 8 re c 2 c
2
(282)
0 ( e )
8 re
Me 2
(283)
So, given, Permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Classic electron radius re = 2.817941 10 15 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.109390 10 31 kg
( 4 10
8 ( 2.817941 1015 m )
H m )(1.602177 10 19 C )
9.109390 1031 kg 2
(284)
This shows the fluctuating magnetic mass of a moving electron is identical to the special relativistic mass at any velocity vx ,
4.554693 4.554695
(285)
(286)
So, the magnetic mass M B and the mass M e of the electron is,
MB = Me =
0 ( e )
4 re
(287)
And the fluctuating magnetic mass M B and the fluctuating mass M e is,
0 ( e ) vx 2 0 ( e ) v x 2 v2 M B = M e = = = Me x 2 2 2 8 re c 4 re 2 c 2c
2 2
(288)
William Alek
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0 ( e
(289)
Therefore, if the fluctuating mass is positive, then the velocity of the electron is real. However, if the fluctuating mass is negative, then the velocity is imaginary.
B = 0 H IF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ENERGY U B < 0 , AND M e < 0 , THE VELOCITY vx IS IMAGINARY I A
N
IF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ENERGY U B > 0 , AND M e > 0 , THE VELOCITY vx IS REAL
Now, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the magnetic mass M B M B and the mass M e M e of a particle moving at a velocity vx is,
M B M e vx 2 = = 2 2c MB Me
(290)
A particle can move at a real (i.e., timeforward) velocity vx , at an imaginary (i.e., timefuture) velocity j vx , or at a velocity that is a combination of the two. The real and imaginary components are rotated about the temporal axis and therefore, can be described as complex motion. The rotation is given as 0 90 , where the real axis is = 0 and the imaginary timefuture axis is = 90 . The complex number uses the Eulers identity e j , which functions as a temporal rotation operator. The complex velocity vx is,
vx = v e j = v cos + j v sin
(291)
Given the rest mass of an electron M e or the classic electron radius re , the difference forms of the special relativistic magnetic mass M ev model of a particle moving at a complex velocity vx , where 0 90 are,
M ev
v2 = M e M e = M e 1 x 2 2c
2
2 2c M e = e vx 2 2
vx 2
(292)
M ev
0 ( e ) 2c vx 2 0 ( e ) 1 = M e M e = = e 4 re 2 c 2 4 re 2
(293)
William Alek
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Now, apply the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem where the fluctuating magnetic mass of a moving electron is equivalent to natural relativistic mass due to the Earths gravity well,
g y y1 g y y0 ) 0 ( e ) vx 2 ( y1 y0 vx 2 M e = = Me 2 = Me = G ME Me c2 c2 8 re c 2 2c
2
1 0
(294)
vx = 2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = 2 G M E
1 1 y1 y0
(295)
The position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earths gravity well gY where 0 < y1 or
1 y0 v x 2 is, 2G ME y1 = M e c 2 vx 2 1 1 g y0 y0 + = g y0 y0 + g y1 Me 2 g y1
(296)
y1 =
y0 y0 = 2 y v y c 2 M e 1+ 0 x 1+ 0 G ME Me 2G ME
(297)
(298)
Given the equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max , the minimum gravitational mass M e min at y1 = is,
y c2 G ME v2 0 = M e 1 + x 2 = M e 1 = M e e y0 c 2 2c G ME
M e min
(299)
(300)
So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the magnetic mass M B M B and the mass M e M e of a particle displaced a distance y within a given gravity well gY is,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 M B M e = = MB Me c2
(301)
William Alek
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Given the rest mass of an electron M e or the classic electron radius re , the difference forms of the natural relativistic mass M ey1 model of a particle displaced a distance y within a given gravity well gY are,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 2 = M e e c = M e M e = M e 1 2 c
M ey1
(302)
M ey1 = M e M e =
2 0 ( e )
4 re
(g 1
y1
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 y1 g y0 y0 0 ( e ) 2 = e c 2 4 re c 2
(303)
In summary, Gravitomagnetic Theory shows that a moving electron produces an increase in relativistic mass that extends from its classic radius re to infinity, and couples to gravity. This motion can either have a velocity vx or a complex (i.e., timefuture) velocity j vx . If the velocity is complex, then the electron will exhibit an antigravitational effect, and produce a complex (i.e., timefuture) magnetic field j B . In addition, the total field energy U B of a complex magnetic field j B contained within a volume V is NEGATIVE. Example 6. An electron e moving through a wire at a timeforward velocity vx where = 0 produces a timeforward magnetic induction B at a distance r . Given, Direction of time is forward = 0 Velocity of electron e through a wire v = 1.0 102 m sec Permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.109390 10 31 kg Radius r = 1.0 m Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg The timeforward velocity vx , where = 0 is,
vx = v e j = (1.0 102 m sec ) e j 0 = 1.0 102 m sec
(304)
(305)
B = 1.602177 1028 T
(306)
William Alek
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(307)
M e = 5.067782 10 52 kg
(308)
(309)
24
kg )
y1 = 6.37809999999490 106 m
(310)
So, the equivalent POSITIVE displacement y is gravitational within the Earths gravity well is,
y = y0 y1 = 5.0981 106 m
(311)
Example 7. An electron e moving through a wire at a timeadvanced velocity vx where 0 < < 90 produces a timeadvanced magnetic induction B at a distance r . Given, Direction of time is advanced = 45 Velocity of electron e through a wire v = 1.0 102 m sec Permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.109390 1031 kg Radius r = 1.0 m Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg The timeadvanced velocity vx , where = 45 is,
vx = v e j = (1.0 102 m sec ) e j 45 = 7.071068 103 + 7.071068 j 103 m sec
(312)
(313)
(314)
William Alek
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( 7.071068 103 + 7.071068 j 103 m sec ) v2 M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 1031 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 108 m sec )
M e = 5.067782 j 1052 kg
(315)
(316)
( 6.3781106 m ) y0 = 2 y v2 6.3781 106 m )( 7.071068 103 + 7.071068 j 103 m sec ) ( 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ 2 ( 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 1024 kg )
y1 = 6.3781 106 m 5.0986 j 106 m
(317)
(318)
So, the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earths gravity well is,
y = y0 y1 = 5.0986 j 106 m
(319)
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earths gravity well is,
vx max
(320)
(321)
Example 8. An electron e moving through a wire at a timefuture velocity vx where = 90 produces a timefuture magnetic induction B at a distance r . Given, Direction of time is future = 90 Velocity of electron e through a wire v = 1.0 102 m sec Permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.109390 1031 kg Radius r = 1.0 m Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg The timefuture velocity vx , where = 90 is,
vx = v e j = (1.0 10 2 m sec ) e j 90 = 1.0 j 10 2 m sec
(322)
William Alek
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(323)
B = 1.602177 j 1028 T
(324)
(325)
M e = 5.067782 1052 kg
(326)
(327)
24
kg )
y1 = 6.37800000000510 106 m
(328)
So, the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement y is antigravitational within the Earths gravity well is,
y = y0 y1 = 5.0981 106 m
(329)
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earths gravity well is,
vx max =
(330)
(331)
William Alek
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0
x
x0
r0 r
y0
P0
(332)
Since z0 = 0 ,
r0 2 = x0 2 + y0 2 + z0 2 = x0 2 + y0 2 dr = dx + dy + dz = dx + dy
2 2 2 2 2 2
(333) (334)
ds0 2 = c 2 0 2 ( x0 2 + y0 2 ) dt 2 2 ( y0 dx x0 dy ) dt ( dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 )
This reduces to,
ds0 2 = ( c 2 r0 20 2 ) dt 2 20 ( y0 dx x0 dy ) dt dr 2
(338)
William Alek
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vx e j
B e j
z
TEMPORAL ROTATION 0 90
FIGURE 29. The complete complex Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.
In the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, electrons move at relativistic speeds in discrete circular orbits around a nucleus. It has been determined the increase in relativistic mass of the electron is in the form of total magnetic field energy produced by the circulating electron. So, as a consequence of this motion, a magnetic induction B is produced at the center of the orbit. If an external magnetic field is applied to this induction, the velocity of the electron becomes complex by partially rotating into the imaginary axis. The velocity of the electron may increase or decrease as a function of the applied external field. If the field opposes the induction B , the real velocity will appear to decrease as it rotates into the imaginary axis. If the electrons velocity is fully rotated into the imaginary axis and therefore moving at a timefuture velocity j vx , a timefuture magnetic field j B will emerge from the center. The complete complex Bohr model includes the following characteristic equations shown below. These equations contain the real and imaginary components of a moving electron that is rotated about the temporal axis as complex motion. The rotation is given as 0 90 , where the real axis is = 0 and the imaginary timefuture axis is = 90 . The complex number uses the Eulers identity e j , which functions as a temporal rotation operator. So, given, Direction of time Frequency of orbit f Permeability of free space 0 Fundamental charge of an electron e Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r Rest mass of an electron M e Speed of light c Gravitational constant G Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 Mass of the Earth M E Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 Mass of the Sun M SUN
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(339)
(340)
= r 2 i = r 2 e f0
The complex angular velocity 0 of the electron is,
(341)
0 = 2 f 0
The complex velocity vx of the electron is,
vx = r 0 = 2 r f 0
(342)
(343)
The complex magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 is,
B=
0 r 2 i
2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
0
2 ( r 2 + z 2 )
3 2
0 r 2 e f 0
2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
0 r 2 e 0
4 ( r 2 + z 2 )
3 2
0 r e vx
4 ( r 2 + z 2 )
3 2
(344)
B=
0 i
2r
0 0 e f 0 0 e 0 0 e vx = = = 2 r3 2r 4 r 4 r 2
(345)
The magnetic force Fv of the electron e directed upon the nucleus is,
Fv = e vx B
(346)
2 2
0 ( e ) 0 2 0 ( e ) v x 2 0 2 2 2 Fv = 0 i = = 0 ( e ) f 0 = = 4 4 r 2 r4
2
(347)
The direction of electron motion vx is such that the magnetic force Fv is an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. The special relativistic mass M ev of the circulating electron is,
2 2c v2 M ev = M e M e = M e 1 x 2 = M e e 2c vx 2
(348)
William Alek
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The change in relativistic mass of the electron M e is in the form of the change in magnetic field energy U B produced by the circulating electron.
U B = Ee = M e c 2
(349)
The difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the mass M e M e of an electron moving at a velocity vx is,
M e vx 2 2 2 r 2 i 2 2 2 r 2 f 0 2 r 2 0 2 2 2 = 2 = = = = 2 2 Me 2c c2 2 c2 ( e ) c 2 ( e ) c 2 r 2
(350)
(351)
(352)
= r2
Fv M e = e c r 2 Me 0
(353)
(354)
0 =
2 e
Fv c 2 M e = r Me 0
(355)
So, the complex magnetic force Fv of the electron e directed upon the nucleus is,
0 ( e ) c 2 M e 0 ( e ) Ee 0 ( e ) U B = == Fv = 2 r 2 Me 2 r 2 M e 2 r 2 M e
2 2 2
(356)
And the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the mass M e M e of an electron is,
M e 2 r 2 Fv = 2 Me 0 ( e ) c 2
(357)
William Alek
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(358)
M e = M e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
1 1 y y = G ME Me 1 2 0 c
(359)
(360)
0 =
1 1 1 1 2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = 2G ME r r y1 y0
(361)
(362)
(363)
= e r
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 2
= e r
G ME 1 1 2 y1 y0
(364)
The complex magnetic force Fv of the electron e directed upon the nucleus is,
Fv =
0 ( e ) ( g y y1 g y y0 )
2
1 0
2 r 2
0 ( e ) G M E 1 1 = 2 r 2 y1 y0
2
(365)
William Alek
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The equivalent displacement to position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earths gravity well gY where 0 < y1 or 1
y0 vx 2 is, 2G ME y1 = vx 2 y0 1 g y0 y0 + = 2 g y1 y v2 1+ 0 x 2G ME
(366)
y1 =
r 2 0 2 y0 1 g y0 y0 + = 2 g y1 y r 2 0 2 1+ 0 2G ME
(367)
y1 =
1 g y + 2 2 r 2 f 02 = g y1 y0 0
y0 2 y0 r 2 f 0 2 1+ G ME
2
(368)
y1 =
1 2 2 r 2 i2 g y0 y0 + 2 g y1 ( e )
y0 = 2 2 y r 2 i2 1+ 2 0 (e ) G M E y0 2 y0 2 r 2G M E
(369)
y1 =
1 2 2 g y0 y0 + 2 g y1 ( e ) r 2
= 1+
(370)
(e )
y1 =
2 r 2 Fv 1 g y0 y0 + 2 g y1 0 ( e )
= 1+
0 ( e ) G M E
2
y0 2 r 2 y0 Fv
(371)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the mass M e M e of a particle displaced a distance y within Earths gravity well gY is,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 M e G ME 1 1 = = 2 Me c c 2 y1 y0
(372)
Given the rest mass of an electron M e , the difference forms of the natural relativistic mass M ey1 model of a particle displaced a distance y within Earths gravity well gY are,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 2 = M e e c = M e M e = M e 1 2 c
M ey1
(373)
William Alek
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M ey1
G M 1 1 = M e M e = M e 1 2 E = M e e c y1 y0
G ME 1 1 c2 y1 y0
(374)
In summary, if the real component of the magnetic field is cancelled, or B = 0 , due to an externally applied magnetic field BEXT , the velocity of the circulating electron is complex, or j vx and a complex magnetic field j B emerges. This complex magnetic field is believed to be present in the AharonovBohm Experiment, which affected the flow of electrons. The complex Amperian Current uses the temporal rotation operator or Eulers identity e j , where 0 90 . As the motion of an electron rotates from real to imaginary, or 90 , the electrons special relativistic mass M e in the form of magnetic field energy U B decreases. In addition, the electrons rest mass M e as well as its charge is invariant during acceleration or deceleration.
B
z
TEMPORAL ROTATION = 0
Example 9. In the timeforward Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom the electron e circulates around the nucleus at a relativistic velocity vx as shown above. This creates a magnetic induction B emerging from the center of the nucleus. So, given, Direction of time is forward = 0 Frequency of orbit f = 6.8 1015 Hz Permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.291773 10 11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 1031 kg Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m
William Alek
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Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg The timeforward frequency of orbit f 0 , where = 0 is,
f 0 = f e j = ( 6.8 1015 Hz ) e j 0 = 6.8 1015 Hz
(375)
(376)
The timeforward magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 is,
B = 0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
= 0
r 2 e f0 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
(377)
(378)
(379)
(380)
The timeforward magnetic force Fv of the electron e directed upon the nucleus is,
Fv = e vx B = (1.602177 1019 C )( 2.260945 106 m sec ) (12.935946 T ) Fv = 4.685962 1012 N
(381) (382)
The direction of electron motion vx is such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. The POSITIVE fluctuating mass M e of the electron e is,
( 2.260945 106 m sec ) = 2.590585 1035 kg v2 M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 1031 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 108 m sec )
2
(383)
(384)
William Alek
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(385)
y1 = 156.0784 m
(386)
So, the equivalent POSITIVE displacement y is gravitational within the Earths gravity well is,
y = y0 y1 = 6.377944 106 m
y
(387)
e
vx e j 45
TEMPORAL ROTATION = 45
Example 10. In the timeadvanced Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, the real magnetic field created by an electron circulating at relativistic speeds is partially cancelled by an externally applied magnetic field BEXT . The electron reacts by rotating its velocity into the imaginary axis as shown above. As a consequence of this complex velocity v e j 45 , a complex magnetic field B e j 45 emerges. So, given, Direction of time = 45 Frequency of orbit f = 6.8 1015 Hz Permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.291773 10 11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 1031 kg Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2
William Alek
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Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 = 6.96 108 m Mass of the Sun M SUN = 1.98892 1030 kg The timeadvanced frequency of orbit f 0 , where = 45 is,
f 0 = f e j = ( 6.8 1015 Hz ) e j 45 = 4.808326 1015 + 4.808326 j 1015 Hz
(388)
(389) (390)
The timeadvanced magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 m is,
B = 0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
= 0
r 2 e f 0 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
(391)
B = 0
(392)
(393)
(394) (395)
(396) (397)
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earths gravity well is,
vx max
(398)
(399)
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The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e far exceeds coupling to Earths gravity well! The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Suns gravity well is,
vx max =
(400)
(401)
The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e far exceeds coupling to Suns gravity well! The timeadvanced magnetic force Fv of the electron e directed upon the nucleus is,
Fv = e vx B Fv = (1.602177 1019 C )(1.598729 106 + 1.598729 j 106 m sec ) ( 9.147095 + 9.147095 j T ) Fv = 4.685962 j 1012 N
(402)
(403)
The direction of electron motion vx is timeadvanced or rotated into the future such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. The IMAGINARY fluctuating mass M e of the electron e is,
(1.598729 106 + 1.598729 j 106 m sec ) v2 M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 1031 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 108 m sec )
M e = 2.590585 j 10 35 kg
(404)
(405)
(406) (407)
(408)
(409)
William Alek
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So, the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earths gravity well or,
y = y0 y1 = 6.3781 106 + 156.0822m
(410)
e
vx e j 90
Be j 90
TEMPORAL ROTATION = 90
Example 11. In the timefuture Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, the real magnetic field created by an electron circulating at relativistic speeds is being cancelled by an externally applied magnetic field BEXT . The electron reacts by rotating its velocity into the imaginary axis as shown above. As a consequence of this complex velocity j vx , a complex magnetic field j B emerges. So, given, Direction of time = 90 Frequency of orbit f = 6.8 1015 Hz Permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.291773 10 11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 1031 kg Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 = 6.96 108 m Mass of the Sun M SUN = 1.98892 1030 kg The timefuture frequency of orbit f 0 , where = 90 is,
William Alek
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(411)
(412)
The timefuture magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 m is,
B = 0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
= 0
r 2 e f 0 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
(413)
B = 0
(414)
(416)
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earths gravity well is,
vx max
(417)
(418)
The timefuture velocity vx of the electron e far exceeds coupling to Earths gravity well. The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Suns gravity well is,
vx max
(419)
(420)
The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e far exceeds coupling to Suns gravity well! The magnetic force Fv of the electron e directed upon the nucleus is,
William Alek
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(421) (422)
The direction of electron motion vx is timefuture or rotated into the future such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass M e of the electron e is,
( 2.260945 j 106 m sec ) = 2.590585 1035 kg v2 M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 1031 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 108 m sec )
2
(423)
(424)
(425)
y1 = 156.0860 m
(426)
So, the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement y is antigravitational within the Earths gravity well is,
y = y0 y1 = 6.378256 106 m
(427)
William Alek
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E e j e vx e
e vx e j e vx e j
I e j
x TEMPORAL ROTATION 0 90
FIGURE 33. The complete complex electron drift velocity model in a copper wire.
If a copper wire is connected to a battery, an electric field E will be set up at every point within the wire. This field E will act on electrons and will give them a resultant motion. An electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in time t . The electric field that acts on the electrons doesnt produce a net acceleration because the electrons keep colliding with the atoms that make up the conductor. The electrons, therefore, move at an average drift velocity vx . If the electron drift velocity j vx is timefuture, the associated electric field j E and magnetic field j B are also timefuture. The complete complex electron drift velocity model includes the following characteristic equations shown below. These equations contain the real and imaginary components of a moving electron that is rotated about the temporal axis as a complex particle. The rotation is given as 0 90 , where the real axis is = 0 and the imaginary timefuture axis is = 90 . The complex number uses the Eulers identity e j , which functions as a temporal rotation operator. So, given, Direction of time Current flowing through a conductor I Fundamental charge of an electron e Radius of copper wire r Density of conductor material ( 20C ) Datom Number of conduction electrons per atom of conductor katom Avogadros Number N 0 Atomic weight of conductor material Watom Segment length of conductor x Speed of light c Rest mass of an electron M e Radius of surface of Earth y0 Gravitational constant G Mass of the Earth M E Resistivity of conductor material ( 20C ) atom
William Alek
Page 74
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
I 0 = I e j = I cos + j I sin
(428)
(429)
V = A x = r2x
The quantity of conduction electrons natom in a volume of conductor is,
natom = Datom N 0 katom Watom
(430)
(431)
(432)
(433)
I0 =
(434)
So, the complex drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a conductor is,
vx = I0 = J0 natom e
r 2 natom e
(435)
(436)
M e = M e
vx = Me 2 c2
(g
y1
y1 g y0 y0 c2
) =GM
1 1 y y Me 1 2 0 c
(437)
William Alek
Page 75
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
1 1 vx 2 = g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = G M E 2 y1 y0 1 1 vx = 2 g y1 y1 g y0 y0 = 2 G M E y1 y0
(438)
(439)
The equivalent displacement to position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earths gravity well gY where 0 < y1 or 1
y0 vx 2 is, 2G ME y1 = vx 2 1 g y0 y0 + 2 g y1
(440)
y1 =
y0 y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E
(441)
Atom
V V E x x = = = I I J A r2
(442)
(443)
E
e vx e
vx
vx A
x TEMPORAL ROTATION = 0
William Alek
Page 76
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
Example 12. A timeforward electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timeforward t . The electrons move at an average timeforward drift velocity vx . So, given, Direction of time = 0 Current through copper wire I = 10.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Radius of 10 AWG copper wire r = 1.294 103 m Density of copper conductor ( 20C ) DCu = 8.92 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadros Number N 0 = 6.0221367 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 1031 kg Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20C ) Cu = 1.68 108 m
(444)
(445)
(446)
(447)
nCu
(8.92 10 =
( 63.546 gm
mole )
(448)
(449)
William Alek
Page 77
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
qCu = nCu V e = ( 8.4533 10 28 electrons m3 )( 5.261 106 m3 )(1.60217733 1019 C ) qCu = 7.126 104 C
(450) (451)
(452)
I0 =
(453)
So, the timeforward drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is,
vx =
(454)
(455)
(456)
M e = 9.980 1056 kg
(457)
The POSITIVE fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude below its rest mass M e . Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 = y0 = y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E 1+
(458)
kg )
24
y1 = 6.3781 106 m
(459)
So, the equivalent POSITIVE displacement y is gravitational within the Earths gravity well is,
y = y0 y1 = 1.8627 10 9 m
(460)
Given a timeforward voltage V and a timeforward current I , the resistivity Cu of copper wire is given as,
William Alek
Page 78
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
Cu =
V V E x = 1.68 108 m = x= I 2 J I A r
(461)
(462)
E e j 45 e vx e
e vx e j 45 e
j 45
vx e j 45
I e j 45
x TEMPORAL ROTATION = 45
Example 13. A timeadvanced electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timeadvanced t . The electrons move at an average timeadvanced drift velocity vx . So, given, Direction of time = 45 Current flow through copper wire I = 10.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Radius of 10 AWG copper wire r = 1.294 103 m Density of copper conductor ( 20C ) DCu = 8.92 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadros Number N 0 = 6.0221367 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 1031 kg Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20C ) Cu = 1.68 108 m
William Alek
Page 79
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
(463)
(464)
(465)
(466)
nCu =
(8.92 10
( 63.546 gm
mole )
(467)
(468)
(469) (470)
(471)
I0 =
(472)
So, the timeadvanced drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is,
vx =
(1.344 106 + 1.344 j 106 Amps m2 ) I0 J0 = = r 2 nCu e nCu e ( 8.4533 1028 electrons m3 )(1.60217733 1019 C )
(473)
William Alek
Page 80
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
(474)
( 9.923 105 + 9.923 j 105 m sec ) v2 M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 1031 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 108 m sec )
M e = 9.980 j 1056 kg
(475)
(476)
The fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude beyond its rest mass M e and is imaginary. Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 =
( 6.3781106 m ) y0 = 2 y v2 6.3781 106 m )( 9.923 105 + 9.923 j 105 m sec ) ( 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ 2 ( 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 1024 kg )
y1 = 6.3781 106 m
(477)
(478)
So, the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earths gravity well is,
y = y0 y1 = 1.0041 j 109 m
(479)
Given a timeadvanced voltage V and a timeadvanced current I , the resistivity Cu of copper wire is given as,
Cu =
V V E x = 1.68 108 m = x= I 2 J I A r
(480)
(481)
William Alek
Page 81
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
jE e
e j vx e j vx
j vx
r
jI
x TEMPORAL ROTATION = 90
Example 14. A timefuture electric current + j I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timefuture t . The electrons move at an average timefuture drift velocity + j vx . So, given, Direction of time = 90 Current flow through copper wire I = 10.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e = 1.602177 1019 C Radius of 10 AWG copper wire r = 1.294 103 m Density of copper conductor ( 20C ) DCu = 8.92 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadros Number N 0 = 6.0221367 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 1031 kg Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20C ) Cu = 1.68 108 m
(482)
(483)
William Alek
Page 82
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
(484)
(485)
nCu =
(8.92 10
( 63.546 gm
mole )
(486)
(487)
(488) (489)
(490)
I0 =
(491)
So, the timefuture drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is,
vx =
(1.901 j 106 Amps m2 ) I0 J0 = = r 2 nCu e nCu e ( 8.4533 1028 electrons m3 )(1.60217733 1019 C )
vx = 1.403 j 10 4 m sec
(492)
(493)
(494)
M e = 9.980 1056 kg
(495)
William Alek
Page 83
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude below its rest mass M e . Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 = y0 = y0 v x 2 1+ 2G M E 1+
(496)
kg )
24
y1 = 6.3781 106 m
(497)
So, the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement y is antigravitational within the Earths gravity well is,
y = y0 y1 = 9.3132 1010 m
(498)
Given a timefuture voltage V and a timefuture current I , the resistivity Cu of copper wire is given as,
Cu =
V V E x = 1.68 108 m = x= I 2 J I A r
(499)
(500)
William Alek
Page 84
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
COMPLEX RESISTOR
IR
+
Ve j
+
VR R
Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e j , where 0 90 is acting upon the voltage, a complex direct current flows through resistor R . A complex voltage VR appears across the resistor. The resulting instantaneous power PR is dissipated or absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time Voltage supply V Resistor R The complex voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e j = V cos + jV sin
(501)
(502)
(503)
(504)
PR = VR I R = I R 2 R =
VR 2 R
(505)
William Alek
Page 85
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
Example 15. Given a timeforward voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time = 0 Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 The timeforward voltage VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 0 = 10.0Volts
(506)
(507)
(508)
Example 16. Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timeadvanced current and power being dissipated and absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time = 45 Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 The timeadvanced voltage VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0 Volts ) e j 45 = 7.0711 + 7.0711 jVolts
(509)
(510)
(511)
The resistor is dissipating and absorbing an equal amount of heat. The resistor is therefore, temperature neutral or adiabatic.
William Alek
Page 86
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
Example 17. Given a timefuture voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timefuture current and instantaneous power absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time = 90 Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 The timefuture voltage VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0 Volts ) e j 90 = 10.0 jVolts
(512)
(513)
(514)
COMPLEX INDUCTOR
iL
S t 0sec
+
vR R
+
Ve j
L vL
Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e j , where 0 90 is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current iL flows through resistor R and magnetizes inductor L . A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor and a complex voltage vL appears across inductor L . The resulting instantaneous power PR is dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor, the instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor, and the energy EL stored in the inductor. So, given, Direction of time Time t Voltage supply V Inductor L
William Alek
Page 87
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
(515)
(516)
(517)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the complex current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L is,
VS = vR ( t ) + vL ( t ) = iL ( t ) R + L VS L diL = iL ( t ) + R R dt iL ( t ) = VS L diL R R dt
diL = R t dt L t0
diL dt
(518)
(519)
(520)
iL ( t )
1 V iL ( t ) S R
(521)
V ln iL ( t ) S R 0
iL ( t )
R t t L t0
R = ( t t0 ) L
(522)
V ln iL ( t ) S R
VS ln R
VS iL ( t ) R = ln VS R
(523)
iL ( t ) VS R
VS R R R = e L ( t t0 ) = e L t
(524)
iL ( t ) =
R t t VS VS R V e L = S 1 e L R R R
(525)
William Alek
Page 88
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
R t VS 2 1 e L R
(526)
diL = VS iL ( t ) R iL 2 ( t ) dt
(527)
2R R R R R t t t t t V2 V2 V2 V 2 Rt PL ( t ) = S 1 e L S 1 e L = S 1 e L 1 1 e L = S e L e L R R R R
(528)
(529)
1 V EL ( t ) = L S R 2
2 2 R R LV 2 VS t t0 S L L e e 1 1 = 2 R R 2
(530)
R t LVS 2 EL ( t ) = 1 e L 2 2R
(531)
Example 18. Given a timeforward voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
So, given, Direction of time = 0 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 The timeforward voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 0 = 10.0Volts
(532)
The timeforward current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1.0sec is,
( 2.5 ) R t t VS (10.0Volts ) ( 470 mH ) L iL ( t ) = 1 e = 1 e R ( 2.5 )
(533)
(534)
William Alek
Page 89
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
(535)
PR (1.0sec ) = 39.609Watts
(536)
The instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.130sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2R t V 2 Rt (10.0Volts ) PL ( t ) = S e L e L = R ( 2.5 ) 2 2 ( 2.5 ) ( 2.5 ) t t e ( 470 mH ) e ( 470 mH )
(537)
(538) (539)
( 2.5 ) t 1 e ( 470 mH )
(540)
(541)
Example 19. Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timeadvanced current and power dissipated and absorbed by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
So, given, Direction of time = 45 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 The timeadvanced voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 45 = 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts
(542)
The timeadvanced current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1.0sec is,
( 2.5 ) R t t VS ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ( 470 mH ) L iL ( t ) = 1 e = 1 e R ( 2.5 )
(543)
(544)
William Alek
Page 90
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 1.0sec is,
2 ( 2.5 ) 2 R t t ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) V2 470 mH ) PR ( t ) = S 1 e L = 1 e ( R ( 2.5 ) 2
(545)
(546)
The instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.130sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 ( 2.5 ) ( 2.5 ) 2 2R t t t t VS 2 R ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ( 470 mH ) ( 470 mH ) L L e PL ( t ) = e e e = R ( 2.5 )
(547)
(548) (549)
(550)
(551)
Example 20. Given a timefuture voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timefuture current and power absorbed by the resistor, and the negative energy stored in the inductor.
So, given, Direction of time = 90 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 The timefuture voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 90 = 10.0 jVolts
(552)
The timefuture iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1.0sec is,
( 2.5 ) R t t VS (10.0 jVolts ) ( 470 mH ) L iL ( t ) = 1 e = 1 e R ( 2.5 )
(553)
(554)
William Alek
Page 91
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
(555)
(556)
The instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.130sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2( 2.5 ) ( 2.5 ) 2 2R t t t t VS 2 R (10.0 jVolts ) ( 470 mH ) ( 470 mH ) L L e PL ( t ) = e e e = R ( 2.5 )
(557)
(558) (559)
(560)
(561)
iL
S t 0sec
+
vR R
+
vL L
Given energy EL stored in inductor L with a temporal rotation operator e j , where 0 90 is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current iL flows through resistor R . The inductor L demagnetizes into the resistor. A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor R . The resulting instantaneous power PR and energy ER are dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time Time t Initial current through inductor I Inductor L Resistor R
William Alek
Page 92
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
(562)
(563)
(564)
(565)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the complex current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L is,
vR ( t ) = vL ( t ) iL ( t ) R = L iL ( t ) = diL dt
(566)
(567)
L diL R dt
(568)
1 R diL = dt iL ( t ) L
(569)
i(t )
I0
1 R t diL = dt iL ( t ) L t0
iL ( t ) I0
(570)
ln ( iL ( t ) )
R t L
t t0
(571)
i (t ) R ln ( iL ( t ) ) ln ( I 0 ) = ln L = ( t t0 ) L I0 iL ( t ) I0 =e
R ( t t0 ) L
(572)
(573)
iL ( t ) = I 0 e
R t L
(574)
William Alek
Page 93
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iL ( t ) = R iL 2 ( t ) = R I 0 2 e
2R t L
(575)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the energy ER dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is,
ER ( t ) = PR dt = R I 0 2 e
t t t0 t0 2R t L
dt
(576)
2R 2R 2R t t0 L I 0 2 2LR t0 L L t 2 L L L == ER ( t ) = R I 0 2 e R I e e e 0 2 2R 2R 2R t L 1 e
(577)
ER ( t ) =
L I02 2
(578)
Example 21. Given a timeforward voltage V across inductor L , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timeforward current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy dissipated by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time = 0 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 The timeforward current I 0 through the inductor L is,
I 0 = I e j = ( 4.0 Amps ) e j 0 = 4.0 Amps
(579)
The timeforward current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
iL ( t ) = I 0 e
R t L
= ( 4.0 Amps ) e
( 2.5 ) t ( 470 mH )
The instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PR ( t ) = R I 0 e
2 2R t L
2 ( 2.5 ) t ( 470 mH )
William Alek
Page 94
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
(586)
(587)
Example 22. Given a timeadvanced voltage V across inductor L , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timeadvanced current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy dissipated and absorbed by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time = 45 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 The timeadvanced current I 0 through the inductor L is,
I 0 = I e j = ( 4.0 Amps ) e j 45 = 2.828 + 2.828 j Amps
(588)
The timeadvanced current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
iL ( t ) = I 0 e
R t L
( 2.5 ) t ( 470 mH )
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PR ( t ) = R I 0 e
2 2R t L
2 ( 2.5 ) t ( 470 mH )
The energy ER dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2R t LI 2 ( 470 mH )( 2.828 + 2.828 j Amps ) ER ( t ) = 0 1 e L = 2 2 2 2 ( 2.5 ) t 1 e ( 470 mH )
(595)
(596)
William Alek
Page 95
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
Example 23. Given a timefuture voltage V across inductor L , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timefuture current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy absorbed by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time = 90 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 The timefuture current I 0 through the inductor L is,
I 0 = I e j = ( 4.0 Amps ) e j 90 = 4.0 j Amps
(597)
The timefuture current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
iL ( t ) = I 0 e
R t L
= ( 4.0 j Amps ) e
( 2.5 ) t ( 470 mH )
The instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PR ( t ) = R I 0 e
2 2R t L
2 ( 2.5 ) t ( 470 mH )
(604)
(605)
William Alek
Page 96
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
COMPLEX CAPACITOR
iC
S t 0sec
+
vR R
+
Ve j
C vC
Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e j , where 0 90 is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current flows through resistor R and charges capacitor
C . A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor and a complex voltage vC appears across capacitor C . The
resulting power PR is dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor and the energy EC is stored in the capacitor. So, given, Direction of time Time t Voltage supply V Capacitor C Resistor R The complex voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e j = V cos + jV sin
(606)
(607)
(608)
(609)
vC ( t ) = VS R C
1
dvC dt
1 dt RC
(610)
vC ( t ) VS
dvC =
(611)
William Alek
Page 97
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
vC ( t )
vC ( t ) VS
dvC =
vC ( t ) 0
1 t dt R C t0
(612)
ln ( vC ( t ) VS )
1 t RC
t t0
(613)
v ( t ) VS 1 ln ( vC ( t ) VS ) ln ( VS ) = ln C ( t t0 ) = RC VS vC ( t ) VS VS =e
1 ( t t0 ) RC
(614)
=e
1 t RC
(615)
vC ( t ) = VS VS e
1 t RC
1 t = VS 1 e RC
(616)
(V =
vC ( t ) ) R
2 t VS 2 RC e R
(617)
(618)
PC ( t ) =
1 1 1 1 1 2 t t t t t t VS 2 VS 2 VS 2 RC RC RC RC RC RC = = e e e e e e 1 1 1 1 1 R R R
(619)
(620)
2 1 1 t t0 1 RC EC ( t ) = C VS 1 e VS 1 e RC 2
CV 2 S = 2
2
2 2 1 1 t t0 RC RC 1 e 1 e
(621)
EC ( t ) =
C VS 2 2
1 t RC e 1
(622)
Example 24. Given a timeforward voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
William Alek
Page 98
9/12/2007
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.8
Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 F Resistor R = 1.0 k The timeforward voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 0 = 10.0Volts
(623)
(624)
(625)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PR ( t ) =
(626)
(627) (628)
The instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.33sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 t V2 1t (10.0Volts ) PC ( t ) = S e RC e RC = R (1.0 k ) 2 1 2 t t (1.0 k )( 470 F ) e e (1.0 k )( 470 F )
(629)
(630) (631)
(632)
EC ( t ) = 0.0182 Joules
(633)
Example 25. Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timeadvanced current and power dissipated and absorbed by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
So, given,
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Direction of time = 45 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 F Resistor R = 1.0 k The timeadvanced voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 45 = 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts
(634)
(635)
(636)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 t ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) (1.0 k )( 470 F ) t VS 2 RC e = e R (1.0 k ) 2 2
(637)
(638) (639)
The instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.33sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PC ( t ) =
1 2 t t VS 2 RC ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) e RC = e R (1.0 k ) 2 1 2 t t (1.0 k )( 470 F ) e e (1.0 k )( 470 F )
(640)
(641) (642)
(643)
EC ( t ) = 0.0182 j Joules
(644)
Example 26. Given a timefuture voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timefuture current and power absorbed by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
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So, given, Direction of time = 90 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 F Resistor R = 1.0 k The timefuture voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 90 = 10.0 jVolts
(645)
(646)
(647)
The instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 t (10.0 jVolts ) (1.0 k )( 470 F ) t VS 2 RC = e e R (1.0 k ) 2 2
(648)
(649) (650)
The instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.33sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 t V2 1t (10.0 jVolts ) PC ( t ) = S e RC e RC = R (1.0 k ) 2 1 2 t t (1.0 k )( 470 F ) (1.0 k )( 470 F ) e e
(651)
(652) (653)
(654)
EC ( t ) = 0.0182 Joules
(655)
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iC
S t 0sec
+
vR R
+
vC C
Given energy EC stored in capacitor C with a temporal rotation operator e j , where 0 90 is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current iC flows through resistor R . The capacitor C discharges into the resistor. A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor R . The resulting instantaneous power PR and energy ER are dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time Time t Initial voltage across capacitor V Capacitor C Resistor R At t = 0sec , the voltage V0 across the resistor R is,
V0 = I 0 R
(656)
(657)
(658)
dvC dt
(659)
(660)
vC ( t )
V0
vC ( t )
dvC =
1 t dt R C t0
(661)
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ln ( vC ( t ) )
vC ( t ) V0
1 t RC
t t0
(662)
v (t ) 1 ln ( vC ( t ) ) ln (V0 ) = ln C ( t t0 ) = RC V0
(663)
vC ( t ) V0
=e
1 ( t t0 ) RC
=e
1 t RC
1 t RC
(664)
vC ( t ) = V0 e
(665)
V0 2 R C t e R
(666)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the energy ER dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is,
ER ( t ) = PR dt =
t t0
V0 2 R
t0
2 t RC
dt
(667)
(668)
(669)
Example 27. Given a timeforward voltage V across capacitor C , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timeforward current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy dissipated by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time = 0 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 F Resistor R = 1.0 k The timeforward voltage V0 across the capacitor C is,
V0 = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 0 = 10.0Volts
(670)
vC ( t ) = V0 e
1 t RC
= (10.0 Volts ) e
(1.0 k )( 470 F )
(671)
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(672) (673)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 t (10.0Volts ) (1.0 k )( 470 F ) t V0 2 RC = e e R (1.0 k ) 2 2
(674)
(675) (676)
ER ( t ) =
2 t 1 e (1.0 k )( 470 F )
(677)
(678)
Example 28. Given a timeadvanced voltage V across capacitor C , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timeadvanced current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy dissipated and absorbed by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time = 45 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 F Resistor R = 1.0 k The timeadvanced voltage V0 across the capacitor C is,
V0 = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 45 = 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts
(679)
vC ( t ) = V0 e
1 t RC
(1.0 k )( 470 F )
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The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 t ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) (1.0 k )( 470 F ) t V0 2 RC e = e R (1.0 k ) 2 2
(683)
(684) (685)
The energy ER dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 t CV0 2 ( 470 F )( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ER ( t ) = 1 e RC = 2 2 2 2 t (1.0 k )( 470 F ) 1 e
(686)
(687)
Example 29. Given a timefuture voltage V across capacitor C , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timefuture current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy absorbed by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time = 90 Time 0.0sec t 1.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 F Resistor R = 1.0 k The timefuture voltage V0 across the capacitor C is,
V0 = V e j = (10.0Volts ) e j 90 = 10.0 jVolts
(688)
vC ( t ) = V0 e
1 t RC
= (10.0 jVolts ) e
(1.0 k )( 470 F )
The instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 t (10.0 jVolts ) (1.0 k )( 470 F ) t V0 2 RC = e e R (1.0 k ) 2 2
(692)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = 0.10Watts
(693)
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(694)
(695)
(696)
+
vL iL
jvL
+
jiL iC
+
vC
+
jvC
S1
S1
RLOAD
vLOAD S1 S1
+
RS RS
+
vLOAD
+ VS MAGNETIZATION PHASE
+ VS DEMAGNETIZATION PHASE
+ VS CHARGE PHASE
+ VS DISCHARGE PHASE
These systems are cyclic, and alter the local gravity well. The mass of these systems is converted to excess field energy during the magnetizing/charging phase. During the demagnetizing/discharging phase, excess electrical energy is collected, and mass is restored after this phase. Then, the cycle begins again. As a consequence, clocks runs faster due to broken symmetry of massenergy conservation in the proximity of these devices because mass is converted to NEGATIVE energy.
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CURRENT (AMPS) i
TIME (SEC) t
The diagram above shows that an impulse function occurs when excess residual magnetic flux is found in the core of a coil being magnetized at the start of the next cycle, t = 0sec . If harvested, the energy of this function manifests as NEGATIVE energy and couples to POSITIVE energy forming a complex direct current. This current consists of both real and imaginary components where the real current i is timeforward and the imaginary current j i is timefuture. The real current component is considered to be classic HOT CURRENT and the imaginary current component is considered to be COLD CURRENT. Depending upon how much residual flux is available in the core, the energy in this impulse function could be quite substantial.
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i2 e j , 0
TIME t 2
+ EIN
SOURCE DIPOLE
E = M c 2
2
+ EOUT
E = M c 2
2
+ EOUT
TIME t 2
i2 e j , 0
DENOTES HOT TIMEFORWARD ENERGY FLOW DENOTES COLD TIMEFUTURE ENERGY FLOW DENOTES HOT/COLD TIMEADVANCED ENERGY FLOW
SWITCHED OPERATION:
t1 t2
ON OFF ON OFF
FIGURE 46. Two terminal / four terminal complex field mass fluctuating systems.
The diagram above shows a typical configuration of four terminal and two terminal complex field mass fluctuating systems. In the four terminal systems, energy from the source dipole (i.e., a battery) enters through terminals 1 and 2. Excess energy leaves through terminals 3 and 4 and charges the load dipole. In the two terminal systems, the source dipole also acts as the load dipole. Energy leaves the source dipole through terminals 1 and 2 and excess energy leaves through the same terminals at Time t2 later.
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EIN
EIN
EOUT
THE ZPOD
EOUT 0
EIN
P14
o(H + M)
16 COIL/CORE ASSEMBLIES
EXCESS ENERGY
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A
+
N
iG
G
S S
E = M Fe c 2
BG
0 H M
iM e j , > 0
M Fe + ( M Fe )
F
t 0sec
+ 
iK e j , > 0
H L
+
vK e , > 0 R
+
L
iR e j , > 0
vR e , > 0
FIGURE 52. Nikola Teslas US patent 568,176.
Nikola Tesla was the first to develop the phenomenon of complex fields back in the 1880's. He devised a series of machines patented in the 1890's that greatly amplify this phenomenon, which he later called RADIANT ENERGY. As shown above, the pivoting magnetic domains created by Amperian Currents of the ferromagnetic material are ordered in the direction of field BG by magnetizing coil G . Magnetizing the high inductance coils M create an opposing field 0 H M that acts upon the ordered domains of the material, thus canceling or partially canceling the
real magnetic field created by the Amperian Currents. An imaginary magnetic field j BM emerges due to this
cancellation and couples back into the magnetizing direct current as iM e j , where > 0 . Therefore, the magnetizing direct current becomes complex because the circulating motions of the electrons are rotating into the imaginary axis.
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As shown above, before switch F is closed, the capacitors H are charged with a complex direct current iM e j produced by an opposing flux from coils M . The complex field energy is stored in capacitors H . At the moment of switch F closure t = 0sec , the complex direct current flows through coil K , rapidly discharging capacitors H . A very large complex electric potential vL e j is observed across the secondary coil L .
SOURCE DIPOLE
+ EIN iG e j , = 0
TIME t1
INPUT
E = M c 2
3
OUTPUT
iK e j , 0
TIME t2
E
+ EOUT
K
DENOTES HOT TIMEFORWARD ENERGY FLOW DENOTES COLD TIMEFUTURE ENERGY FLOW DENOTES NEUTRAL TIMEADVANCED ENERGY FLOW
NOTE: ASSUME IDEAL SYSTEM
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As shown above, John Hutchison successfully applied the Tesla complex field to metal samples with amazing results. These bulk metal samples were melted at room temperature without any application of heat. The complex fields induced cold eddy currents within the metal, which in turn, caused the metal to cold melt. As the metal softened, John inserted bits of other metals and organic material as shown. With the field turned off, the metal resolidified trapping these materials within the metal lattice structure.
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j iK = iK e j , = 90
K COMPLEX CURRENT
+
L

jvK jvL
j iL
NEGATIVE FIELD ENERGY X
j iL
NEGATIVE FIELD ENERGY Y
j BX
+
j BX jvX
COMPLEX FIELD METAL SAMPLE
j BY
+
j BY jvY
As shown above, cold eddy currents are induced in the metal block with the application of complex magnetic fields. A complex current flowing through the coils produces these magnetic fields. The magnetic field energy surrounding these coils is NEGATIVE, and the metal sample in the presence of this field will cold melt due to induction.
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Shown above is a concept vehicle for tunneling through vast distances of space. The first step concerning this antigravitational system is the disassociation of tungsten metal with the application of a complex voltage jV . This metal is used as a fuel source of gravitational energy bound as mass within the element. As the metal disassociates, it radiates away this gravitational energy in the form of a temporal field within the vehicle. This causes clocks to speedup and the mass of the vehicle to decrease. The second step begins by switching off the disassociating process, thereby turning off the temporal field. Mass converted to electrical energy is amplified as field energy in the outer hull, which can be stored, radiated away, or used to power the vehicle. The vehicle seeks a new equipotential surface of gravity that corresponds to its new mass, thus producing lift. Then, the cycle begins again.
TUNGSTEN
DECREASED GRAVITY
19,920
RADIUS
g yn = G
ME yn 2
y = y0 y1
GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
7,529 6,378.1 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5
g yn
g y1 = 1.0
g y0 = 7.0
g 0 = 9.8
FIGURE 59. Vehicle is undergoing a negative gravitational mass fluctuation above the Earth.
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The diagram above shows a 1 kg vehicle undergoing a negative gravitational mass fluctuation in a given an equipotential surface of gravity reference. A typical gravity profile of the Earth shown above is based on Newtons gravity. This system decreases the relativistic mass of the vehicle such that it displaces or vectors in height to a new equipotential surface of gravity above the Earth. Deactivating this system causes the same vehicle to naturally fall based on universal mass attraction.
Example 30. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth and given a vehicle of mass 1 kg positioned at an initial radius y0 as shown in the diagram above, compute the new gravitational mass M y1 of
the vehicle displaced y away from the Earth. So, given, Mass of vehicle M y0 = 1.0 kg Vehicle at initial radius y0 = 7.529 106 m Displacement of vehicle y = y0 y1 = 12.391 106 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg The final radius y1 of the vehicle above the Earth is,
y1 = y0 y = ( 7.529 106 m ) ( 12.391 106 m ) = 19.920 106 m
(697)
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y0 = 7.529 106 m above the Earth is,
g y0 =
11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 10 kg ) = = 7.038 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 ( 7.529 10 m )
(698)
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 19.920 106 m above the Earth is,
g y1 =
11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 10 kg ) = = 1.005 m sec 2 2 6 y12 (19.920 10 m )
(699)
Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic mass model, the new gravitational mass is,
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2 2 6 2 6 1.005 m sec 19.92010 m 7.038 m sec 7.52910 m 2 2.99792458108 m sec
)(
)(
)(
M y1 = M y0 e
= (1.0 kg ) e
(700) (701)
M y1 = 0.9999999996333 kg
(702)
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DECREASED GRAVITY
y1
y '
y0
+x
GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE x1
INERTIAL REFERENCE
SURFACE OF EARTH
FIGURE 60. Acquire position information, then energize the GPU and vectored to new position.
The first step for a Gravitational Flight Control System, or GFCS, is to acquire vehicle height h information above a known surface gravity g 0 . Once this height information is acquired, the second step involves calculating the current mass fluctuation M cur . The third step requires the pilot to determine what the next desired position will be, so, predicted mass fluctuation M pre is calculated and transmitted to a Gravitational Propulsion Unit, or GPU. The GPU is energized causing the mass of the vehicle to fluctuate, and in turn, vectors to the desired position. This system can run closedloop by implementing a software algorithm called a highspeed ProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID) control loop. It acquires new height information and computes the error difference between current and desired position. The PID calculates and transmits in realtime an error value to the GPU. The error value sent to the GPU determines the rate of mass fluctuation. This rate may exceed the speed of light because the vehicle isnt traversing space by an inertial means, but by a gravitational means. Therefore, warp factor equation shown by Whitfield (1968) could be used. The warp factor W equation is,
v =W3 c
y T c
(703)
W=
v c
(704)
Where, W is the warp factor, c is the speed of light, and v is the velocity.
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1000
800
600
400
3
v c
200
6 4 WARP FACTOR W
10
Example 31. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth and given a GPU with a NEGATIVE mass fluctuation rate M RATE ( t ) operating for a period of time T , compute the displacement y of a
vehicle leaving from the surface of the Earth at warp factor W with a vehicle mass of 1.0 kg . So, given, Initial mass of vehicle M y0 = 1.0 kg Mass fluctuation rate M RATE ( t ) = 1.0 104 gm sec Operating time T = 1.0 103 s ec Vehicle located at initial radius Y0 = 6.3781 106 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 1011 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 1024 kg The new gravitational mass of the vehicle M y1 operating a GPU for a period of time T is,
4 3 M y1 = M y0 + ( M RATE ( t ) T ) = (1.0 kg ) + ( 1.0 10 gm sec )(1.0 10 sec )
(705) (706)
M y1 = 0.9999999999000 kg
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Given the exponential form of the natural relativistic mass M y model, compute the new radius y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
G ME G ME y0 y1 c2
M y1 = M y0 e
g y1 y1 g y0 y0 c2
= M y0 e
(707)
M y1 M y0 M y1 c 2 ln M y0
=e
G ME G ME y0 y1 c2
(708)
G ME G ME = y1 y0
(709)
y1 =
y0 My y c 1+ 0 ln 1 G ME M y0
2
(710)
y1 =
(711)
W=
v c
( 2.99792458 10
m sec )
==
( 2.99792458 10
m sec )
(715)
W = 1.5284
(716)
Leaving from the surface of the Earth, the vehicle is displaced over 665 miles above the Earth within 1 millisecond.
CONCLUSION
The parameters of space and time identified as mass, volume, frequency, time, temperature, and energy are functions of gravity. Therefore, controlling the mass of a space vehicle, for example, controls gravity, but more precisely, controls its current position within a given gravity well. The control of how fast mass fluctuates controls the speed of the vehicle through this well. Whether the vehicle implementing GMF is above the surface of the Earth or
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traveling at warp factor 1.53 through deep space, the physical constants where shown in previous sections to remain invariant within the vehicle. The vehicles Gravitational Propulsion Unit, or GPU, using one of the two devices that are under investigation control mass by an electrical means, thus utilizing the theoretical link between gravity and electromagnetism presented in this paper. Either device can change its own mass by converting it to excess electrical energy, and as a consequence, the broken symmetry of massenergy conservation causes the gravitational energy equivalent of mass to be radiated away as a temporal field. A force is created and acts antigravitationally on the device. This changes the frequency of clocks within the vehicle relative to clocks outside of the vehicle. The vehicle will require a Gravitational Flight Control System, or GFCS, capable of controlling the GPU. This control system acts as an interface between man and the GPU. The development of this system can be directly implemented from the mathematical formulations in this paper. An additional requirement is the development of realtime navigation software programs that maps the gravity of the entire Sol System, and includes the nearby stars.
REFERENCES
Hal Puthoff, SETI, the VelocityofLight Limitation, and the Alcubierre Warp Drive: An Integrating View, Physics Essays, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 156158, 1996. On the Web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/seti.pdf Hal Puthoff, S. Little, and M. Ibison, Engineering the ZeroPoint Field and Polarizable Vacuum for Interstellar Flight, JBIS, Vol. 55 pp 137144, 2002. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/jbis_final.pdf Paul Marmet, Natural Length Contraction Due to Gravity, 2001. On the Web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/NaturalLengthContractionDueToGravity.htm Paul Marmet, Fundamental Nature of Relativistic Mass and Magnetic Fields, 2003. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/FundamentalNatureOfRelativisticMassAndMagneticField.htm Paul Marmet, Natural Length Contraction Due to Kinetic Energy. Journal of New Energy 2001. On the Web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/NaturalLengthContractionMechanismDueToKineticEnergy.htm R.V. Pound and G.A. Rebka Apparent Weight of Photons, Phys. Rev. Letters. 4,337 1964. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/PoundRebka.htm Carlos Calvet, Gravitation and Inertia as a Consequence of Quantum Vacuum Energy, Journal of Theoretics Vol.42. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/UGCQEfinal.pdf JeanLouis Naudin, The Parametric Power Conversion, 1997. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/ppc.PDF Nickolay Zaev, Inductive Conversion of Heat Environmental Energy to Electrical Energy, New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 JanFeb 2002, pp. 4044. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/zaev1.pdf Nickolay Zaev, FuelLess Energetics, New Energy Technologies, Issue #2 MarApr 2002. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/zaev2.pdf Nickolay Zaev, Ferrites and Ferromagnetics Free Energy Generation, New Energy Technologies, Issue #5 SepOct 2002. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/zaev3.pdf James F. Woodward, Transient Mass Fluctuation, 1998. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/TRANSIENT%20MASS%20FLUCTUATIONS.htm James F. Woodward, Radiation Reaction, 1998. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/RADIATION_REACTION.htm Robert Neil Boyd, Alterations of Aether Density. On the web at: http://www.rialian.com/rnboyd/aether.htm Bruce DePalma, On the Nature of Electrical Induction, 1993. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/OnTheNatureOfElectricalInduction.htm Leon Dragone, Energetics of Ferromagnetism, 1989. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/Dragone.pdf William Alek, Analysis of Leon Dragone's, Energetics of Ferromagnetism, 2003. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/DragoneAnalysis.pdf Stanley Byers, Radiant Pressure of Remote Forces, 1995. On the web at:
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http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/RadiantPressure.pdf Tom Van Flandern, The Speed of Gravity  What the Experiments Say, 1998, corrections 2002. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/TheSpeedofGravityWhattheExperimentsSay.htm Tom Bearden, Scalar Waves, NEW ENERGY NEWS, July 1998. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/SCALAR_WAVES.htm Nikola Tesla, Apparatus for Producing Electric Currents of High Frequency and Potential, US Patent 568,176, issued September 22, 1896. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Patents/00568176.pdf Neil Ashby, Relativistic Effects on Satellite Clocks, 2003. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/RelativisticEffectsOnSatelliteClocks.pdf Robert A. Nelson, Practical Relativistic Timing Effects in GPS and Galileo, 2003. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/gps.ppt Costinel Lepadatu, Spin and Relativity, Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 51, Vladimir Fock, The Theory of Space, Time and Gravitation, 2nd Revised Edition, 1964, The Macmillan Co. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/Fock1964.pdf D. L. Hotson, Diracs Equation and the Sea of Negative Energy Part 1, Infinite Energy, Issue 43, 2002. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/HotsonPart1.pdf D. L. Hotson, Diracs Equation and the Sea of Negative Energy Part 2, Infinite Energy, Issue 44, 2002. On the web at: http://www.intalek.com/Index/Projects/Research/HotsonPart2.pdf Hayt & Kemmerly, Engineering Circuit Analysis, 5th edition, McGraw Hill, 1993, ISBN 007027410X. Col. William McLyman, Transformer and Inductor Design Handbook, 2nd edition, Marcel Dekker, 1988, ISBN 0824778286. Weidner and Sells, Elementary Classical Physics, Volume One, 2nd edition, 1974. Shadowitz, The Electromagnetic Field, 1999, ISBN 0486656608. Vincent Del Toro, Electromechanical Devices for Energy Conversion and Control Systems, PrenticeHall 1968. Halliday and Resnick, Physics, Part II, Wiley 1962, ISBN 0471345237. Francois Cardarelli, Scientific Unit Conversion, 2nd edition, Springer, 1999, ISBN 1852330430. Stephen Whitfield, The Making of Star Trek, 1968, ISBN 0345315545.
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