00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

57 Ansichten73 SeitenMar 29, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

57 Ansichten

00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 73

CURRENT

By

Jian Zheng

A Thesis

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

2000

ABSTRACT

Transformer loading with harmonic-rich current and subsequent overheating is an

ongoing concern of electric utilities and consumers. UL Standards 1561 and 1562 suggest

using a K-factor for determination of transformer capacity with nonlinear loads.

This work focuses at investigating the concept of K-factor and the relationship between K-factor, transformer derating, and the transformer winding eddy-current loss.

The relationship between K-factor and AC winding resistance is investigated. Laboratory

test procedures for measuring the AC winding resistance of two type of distribution transformers are developed and explained. Test procedures for checking the linearity and superposition assumptions are also developed.

From the test results, it is found that linearity and superposition holds very well

for the test transformers while the K-factor overestimates the losses in transformer windings. The difference between K-factor results and lab test results is explained. Another

approach for estimating the total stray loss in transformer winding, the Harmonic Loss

Factor, is discussed and found to be a better solution.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Leonard Bohmann, for his insights and direction through this research. He has

been an excellent advisor, patient, and helpful all through the time.

I take this opportunity to thank Dr. Bruce Mork, for his help and suggestions during the course of the research.

Special thanks to my committee members: Dr. Noel Schulz and Dr.

Konrad Heuvers for their time spent on reviewing this work. Their insights

and suggestions are greatly appreciated.

Besides the professors I have listed, I would also like to thank all of

the faculty and staff of the Electrical Engineering Department, especially

Scott Ackerman, John Miller, and Chuck Sannes, for being so helpful.

Finally, I wish to thank my family and friends for all the support they

have provided. Your support made my stay at Michigan Tech one that I will

never forget and always cherish.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACTi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSii

TABLE OF CONTENTS...iii

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES ..v

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 1

CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION TO TEST TRANSFORMER AND K-FACTOR ............................... 4

2.1 SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER MODEL................................................................................................. 4

2.2 THE TEST TRANSFORMERS.................................................................................................................... 5

2.3 TRANSFORMER LOSSES AND THE AC WINDING RESISTANCE ............................................................... 7

2.4 K-FACTOR ............................................................................................................................................ 9

2.5 HARMONIC LOSS FACTOR ................................................................................................................... 12

CHAPTER 3 LABORATORY TESTS..................................................................................................... 14

3.1 MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATION ....................................................................................................... 14

3.2 TEST DEVICES ..................................................................................................................................... 15

3.2.1 Power source ............................................................................................................................. 15

3.2.2 UPC-32 ...................................................................................................................................... 16

3.2.3 Oscilloscope............................................................................................................................... 17

3.3 SHORT-CIRCUIT TESTS......................................................................................................................... 17

3.3.1 2KVA distribution Transformer ................................................................................................ 17

3.3.2 10 KVA distribution Transformer .............................................................................................. 18

3.3.3 Data Recording.......................................................................................................................... 18

3.4 HARMONIC TEST ................................................................................................................................. 19

3.5 DATA SAMPLING AND DFT ................................................................................................................ 19

3.6. SPECIAL CONSIDERATION IN THE TESTS ............................................................................................. 22

CHAPTER 4 TEST RESULTS AND ANALYSIS................................................................................... 23

4.1 LINEARITY .......................................................................................................................................... 23

4.2 SUPERPOSITION ................................................................................................................................... 24

4.3 TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS ............................................................................................................... 25

4.4 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST RESULTS .......................................................................................................... 26

4.4.1 10 KVA distribution transformer ............................................................................................... 26

4.4.2 2 KVA distribution transformer ................................................................................................. 32

4.5 TEST RESULTS ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 38

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION ............................................................. 41

5.1 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................ 41

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK ............................................................................................ 42

REFERENCE: ............................................................................................................................................ 43

APPENDIX A 10 KVA DISTRIBUTION XFMR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST RESULTS .................... 46

APPENDIX B 2 KVA DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER SHORT CIRCUIT TEST RESULTS ... 50

APPENDIX C HARMONIC GROUP TEST RESULTS ........................................................................ 54

iii

CIRCUIT TEST RESULTS ...................................................................................................................... 55

APPENDIX E MATLAB PROGRAM FOR ANALYSIS OF 10 KVA TRANSFORMER SHORT

CIRCUIT TEST RESULTS ...................................................................................................................... 60

APPENDIX F INSTRUCTIONS FOR DOING SHORT CIRCUIT TEST MANUALLY .................. 66

APPENDIX G LABORATORY EQUIPMENT AND COMPUTER RESOURCES ........................... 67

iv

FIGURE 2-1 CORE AND SHELL FORMS WITH WINDINGS ................................................................................... 4

FIGURE 2-2 SIMPLIFIED SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER MODEL ..................................................................... 5

FIGURE 2-3 FOUR WINDING CORE-SECTION WITH MAIN LEAKAGE PATHS SHOWN ........................................ 5

FIGURE 2-4 10KVA, AMORPHOUS STEEL CORE SINGLE-PHASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER ........................ 6

FIGURE 2-5 WINDING EDDY-CURRENT INDUCED BY MAGNETIC FLUX IN THE WINDING CONDUCTORS ............. 8

FIGURE 3-1. LABORATORY SETUP FOR SHORT-CIRCUIT TESTS ON 2 KVA DISTRIBUTION XFMR................ 17

FIGURE 3-2. LAB SETUP FOR SHORT-CIRCUIT TESTS OF THE 10 KVA DISTRIBUTION XFMR....................... 18

FIGURE 3-3. LINE SPECTRUM......................................................................................................................... 21

TABLE 3-1TIME STEP VALUES AND CORRESPONDING DFT FREQUENCY SPACINGS FOR DIFFERENT NUMBERS

OF POINTS TRANSFORMED. ................................................................................................................... 20

FIGURE 4-1 TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON THE WINDING RESISTANCE ............................................................... 25

FIGURE 4-2 SHORT-CIRCUIT TEST RESULTS: R.X VS. FREQUENCY (10KVA TRANSFORMER) ...................... 27

FIGURE 4-3 2ND FIT FOR RAC (FH/F1)2 FROM 60 HZ TO 2940 HZ (25 POINTS)............................................... 28

FIGURE 4-4 OPTIMAL FIT FOR 10 KVA RAC FROM 60 - 2940 HZ ( ALL THE 25 POINTS) ............................... 29

FIGURE 4-5 TOTAL FIT ERROR WHILE TRANSITION POINT MOVES. (SQUARE/NON-SQUARE) .......................... 30

FIGURE 4-6 TOTAL FIT ERROR WHILE TRANSITION POINT MOVES (BOTH SECTIONS ARE OPTIMAL FIT) .......... 31

FIGURE 4-7 2KVA XFMR AC WINDING RESISTANCE (AUTOMATIC TEST RESULTS).................................... 33

FIGURE 4-8 ONE SECTION FIT FOR 2KVA XFMR AC WINDING RESISTANCE DATA .................................... 34

FIGURE 4-9 ONE SECTION OPTIMAL FIT FOR 2 KVA XFMR RAC (60-1680 HZ)........................................... 35

FIGURE 4-10 THE TOTAL FITTING ERROR WHILE THE TRANSITION POINTS BETWEEN 2ND ORDER FIT AND

OPTIMAL FIT MOVES ............................................................................................................................. 36

FIGURE 4-11 THE TOTAL FITTING ERROR WHILE THE TRANSITION POINTS BETWEEN TWO OPTIMAL FIT

REGIMES MOVES .................................................................................................................................. 37

TABLE 4-1 LINEARITY CHECK ON 10 KVA TRANSFORMER ........................................................................... 23

TABLE 4-2 SUPERPOSITION CHECK RESULTS ................................................................................................ 24

TABLE 4-3 MEASURED AC WINDING RESISTANCE AND REACTANCE AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES. .............. 26

TABLE 4-4 FITTING METHODS COMPARISON FOR 10 KVA TRANSFORMER DATA .......................................... 32

TABLE 4-5 MEASURED 2 KVA TRANSFORMER AC WINDING RESISTANCE ................................................... 32

TABLE 4-6 FITTING METHODS COMPARISON FOR 2 KVA TRANSFORMER DATA............................................ 38

TABLE A-1 10 KVA DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER TEST NO.1 ................................................................... 46

TABLE A-2 10 KVA DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER TEST NO.2.................................................................... 47

TABLE A-3 10 KVA DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER TEST NO.3.................................................................... 48

TABLE A-4 10 KVA DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER RDC TEST RESULTS ...................................................... 49

TABLE B-1 2 KVA MANUAL SHORT CIRCUIT TEST RESULTS....................................................................... 50

TABLE B-2 2 KVA AUTOMATIC SHORT CIRCUIT TEST RESULTS [18] .......................................................... 51

TABLE B-3 2 KVA DC VALUE TEST RESULTS ............................................................................................. 53

TABLE C-1 2 KVA DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER HARMONIC GROUP TEST RESULTS 1.............................. 54

TABLE C-2 KVA DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER HARMONIC GROUP TEST RESULTS 2................................. 54

TABLE C-3 DFT ACCURACY CHECK (10 KVA TRANSFORMER)................................................................... 54

________________________________________________

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

________________________________________________

With the ever-increasing use of solid state electronics in electrical load devices,

such as switching power supplies, variable-speed drives and many types of office

equipment [6], the power system network is being subjected to higher levels of harmonic

currents. One result of this trend is excessive internal heating in power distribution

transformers that are loaded with harmonic-rich current.

The transformer manufacturers have improved their design in response to these

heating problems. Design changes include enlarging the primary winding to withstand the

inherent triplen harmonic circulating currents, doubling the secondary neutral conductor

to carry the triplen1 harmonic currents, designing the magnetic core with a lower normal

flux density by using higher grades of iron, and using smaller, insulated secondary

conductors wired in parallel and transposed to reduce the heating from the skin effect and

associated AC resistance.

Several methods of estimating the harmonic load content are available. CrestFactor and Percent Total Harmonic Distortion (%THD) are the two common methods.

Triplen harmonics are created by non-linear loads. They flow in the neutral conductor and windings of the

power transformer. They are odd harmonics devisable by three, including the 3rd, 9th, 15th, and 21st.

The third method K-Factor can be used to estimate the additional heat created by nonsinusoidal loads

The crest factor is a measure of the peak value of the waveform compared to the

true RMS value

Crest Factor =

True RMS of the current

(1.1)

current to the RMS value of the fundamental.

%THD =

(I

h=2

)2

I1

(1.2)

current.

Both of the above methods are limited because frequency characteristics of the

transformer are not considered.

The third method, K-factor, is defined as the sum of the squares of the per unit

harmonic current times the harmonic number squared:

K = ( I h ( pu ) ) 2 h 2

h =1

(1.3)

where Ih(pu) is the harmonic current expressed in per unit based upon the

magnitude of the fundamental current and h is the harmonic number.

K-factor was introduced in UL standards 1561 [14] and 1562 [15] for rating

transformers based on their capability to handle load currents with significant harmonic

content.

Field application of K-factor requires knowledge of the fundamental and

harmonic load current magnitudes expected. Several manufacturers have utilized this

standard to market transformers that are specifically designed to carry the additional

harmonic currents.

This thesis is aimed at investigating the concept of K-factor and the relationship

between K-factor, derating, and the winding eddy-current loss of harmonic currents.

Chapter 2 presents the structure of the transformer under study, the K-factor theory and

existing work. Chapter 3 documents the test procedure and data processing methods

developed for determining the winding eddy-current loss, AC winding resistance and Kfactor. Chapter 4 compares the results of the measurements with the ideal results of the

K-factor theory and explains the difference. Chapter 5 provides conclusions and

recommendations for further research.

________________________________________________

CHAPTER 2

INTRODUCTION TO TEST TRANSFORMER AND K-FACTOR

________________________________________________

This chapter includes a general discussion of the single-phase transformer, a

description of the test transformers and the definition of the K-factor.

2.1 SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER MODEL.

There are two basic core designs for single-phase transformer: core form and shell

form.

a) Core

/2

b) Shell

Due to insulation requirements, the low voltage (LV) winding normally appears

closest to the core, while the high voltage (HV) winding appears outside. The windings

are usually referred to as primary and secondary winding(s) as denoted by the P and S. In

the shell form, the flux generated in the core by the windings splits equally in both "legs"

of the core. Winding configurations may vary with core design and include concentric

equivalent circuit for a single-phase model is shown below:

P2

Lp

Ls

Rp

Rs

S2

Lc

Rc

S1

P1

transformer. It includes the winding resistance and leakage as well as the core losses so it

is widely used for all core and winding configurations of the single-phase two-winding

variety.

2.2 THE TEST TRANSFORMERS

There are two transformers selected for this project.

/2

/2

view of this transformer is shown in Figure 2-3 [20].

This dry-type 2-kVA transformer can be connected 480-240V or 240-120V

depending on a series or parallel connection of the windings. Amperage rating for 120V

winding connection is 8.33A while it is 4.17A for the 240 V winding connection. In this

particular design, the high voltage windings are nearest to the core while the low voltage

winding are next to the high voltage windings.

The second one is a 10kVA, amorphous steel core-type single-phase polemounted distribution transformer, shown in Figure 2.4 [19].

This transformer is rated 7200-120/240-V, 10 kVA, and has an amorphous steel

core. This transformer consists of two low-voltage and two high-voltage windings

Tank

High Voltage

High Voltage

High Voltage

Amorphous

Low Voltage winding

High Voltage

Oil

Core type

Figure 2- 4 10kVA, amorphous steel core single-phase distribution transformer

which are concentrically wound about the magnetic core. The low-voltage (secondary)

winding is placed closest to the core, with the high-voltage (primary) winding is outside.

The two high-voltage windings of the transformer are permanently connected in series. A

center tap in secondary winding can be used to provide different output voltages.

The core of the test transformer is made of wound amorphous steel ribbons and

has a core-type structure. Amorphous steel is made by rapidly cooling the metal at a rate

of 106 K/s. Thinner gauge steel, lower electrical conductivity, and a disorderly crystalline

structure are characteristics that separate amorphous from silicon steel. Compared to a

typical silicon steel core, an amorphous core offers an impressive reduction in average

core losses of up to 60-70% [19]. The reduction in average power losses due to hysteresis

can be attributed to the disorderly crystalline structure. The reduction in eddy current

losses is due to the thinner laminations and lower electrical conductivity.

2.3 TRANSFORMER LOSSES AND THE AC WINDING RESISTANCE

In ANSI/IEEE C57.110-1986 [1], transformer losses are categorized as: no-load

loss (excitation loss); load loss (impedance loss); and total loss (the sum of no-load loss

and load loss). Load loss is subdivided into I2R loss and stray loss. [1].

Ptotal = Pno-load + Pload

= Pno-load + (I2R + Pstray)

(2.1)

where Ptotal is the total loss, Pno-load is the no-load loss, Pload is the load loss and the

Pstray is the stray loss

Stray Loss is the loss caused by stray electromagnetic flux in the windings,

core, core clamps, magnetic shields, enclosure or tank walls, etc. Thus, the stray loss can

be subdivided into winding stray loss and stray loss in components other than the

windings (POSL).

The winding conductor strand eddy-current loss is caused by the time variation of

the leakage flux through the winding conductors [21], as shown in Figure 2-5. The other

stray loss is caused by the same mechanism within the tank wall, core clamps, etc.

Magnetic flux in

the winding

Magnetic flux

in the core

Core

Winding

Winding eddycurrent

Figure 2-5 Winding eddy-current induced by magnetic flux in the winding conductors

PLoad = I2RDC + PEC + POSL

(2.2)

where PEC is the winding eddy-current loss and POSL is the other stray loss.

The AC winding resistance RAC is defined as

RAC = Pload/I2

(2.3)

According to [1], all of the stray loss is assumed to be winding eddy current loss

and winding eddy-current loss for sinusoidal currents is approximately proportional to the

square of the frequency. The total load loss (copper loss) can be stated as

Pload = I2RDC + PEC = I2RDC + I2REC-R(fh/f1)2

(2.4)

So the AC winding resistance RAC can be defined as

RAC = Pload/I2 = RDC + REC(fh/f1)2

(2.5)

By measuring the copper loss and the rms current, RAC can be measured.

2.4 K-FACTOR

UL standards 1561 [14] and 1562 [15] introduced a term called the K-factor for

rating transformers based on their capability to handle load currents with significant

harmonic content. This method is based on the ANSI/IEEE C57.110-1986 standard,

Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability When Supplying

Nonsinusoidal Load Currents [1].

The K-factor is an estimate of the ratio of: (a) the heating in a transformer due to

winding eddy currents when it is loaded with a given nonsinusoidal current to (b) the

winding eddy-current heating caused by a sinusoidal current at the rated line frequency

which has the same RMS value as the nonsinusoidal current. For example, if the current

in a transformer winding is 100 A, and this current has a K-factor of 10, then the eddy

current losses in that winding will be approximately 10 times what they would be for a

100 A sinusoidal current at the rated line frequency.

Although the K-factor formula was defined for transformer currents, K-factors of

individual load currents are sometimes computed. This practice can be misleading

because, in general, K-factors measured at transformers are significantly lower than the

relatively high K-factors commonly measured at the input of individual electronic

devices. The reduction is primarily due to other sinusoidal load currents, power system

impedance and the essentially random phase angles of the harmonic currents produced by

various loads.

The AC loss in a transformer winding is mainly due to the sum of the I2R losses

produced by the fundamental and harmonic components of the current, recognizing that

for each component, R depends on the frequency of that component. For lower-order

harmonics, the frequency dependence of the winding resistance is primarily due to the

proximity effect, a phenomenon that occurs in coils because the magnetic field

surrounding each conductor in a coil depends on the fields produced by other conductors.

The proximity effect produces greater losses than those predicted by the skin effect,

which is dominant at higher frequencies [2].

The K-factor formula does not account for the core eddy current losses and other

losses that occur in transformer cores. Core losses due to harmonics depend primarily on

the voltage distortion across the transformer windings. The voltage distortion appearing

across the windings of a transformer carrying harmonic currents depends on the

impedance of the transformer, the impedance of the system feeding the transformer, and

the voltage distortion of that system. Although K-rated transformers are usually

constructed to withstand more voltage distortion than other transformers, this capability

cannot be directly determined from K ratings [2].

The K-factor formula is based on the assumption that the winding eddy current

loss produced by each harmonic component of a nonsinusoidal current is proportional to

the square of the harmonic order as well as being proportional to the square of the

magnitude of the harmonic component. UL defines K-factor as follows: [1]

(1) K-FACTOR A rating optionally applied to a transformer indicating its

suitability for use with loads that draw nonsinusoidal currents.

(2) The K-factor equals

K = ( I h ( pu ) ) 2 h 2

h =1

(2.6)

where Ih(pu) is the rms current at harmonic h (per unit of rated rms load

current) and h is the harmonic order.

10

(3) K-factor rated transformers have not been evaluated for use with harmonic

loads where the rms current of any singular harmonic greater than the tenth

harmonic is greater than 1/h of the fundamental rms current.

K-factor definition is based on the following two assumptions:

(a) Winding eddy-current loss (PEC) is proportional to the square of the load

current and the square of the frequency.

(b) Superposition of eddy current losses will apply, which will permit the direct

addition of eddy losses due to the various harmonics.

According to [1], suppose the eddy current loss under rated conditions is

PEC R = REC R I R2

(2.7)

where PEC-R is the eddy current loss under rated conditions and

REC-R = RAC-R - RDC

(2.8)

From the first assumption, the eddy-current loss due to harmonic component is

PEC ( h ) = REC R (

fh 2 2

I

) I h = REC R h 2 I h2 = PEC R ( h ) 2 h 2

f1

IR

(2.9)

where PEC(h) is the eddy current loss due to harmonic current of order h, IR is the

rated load current, fh is the harmonic frequency at order h and f1 is the fundamental

frequency.

According to the second assumption, the eddy-current loss due to the total

nonsinusoidal load current is

PEC =

h = hmax

h = hmax

h =1

h =1

PEC ( h) = PEC R

Ih

(I

) 2 h 2 = PEC R K

(2.10)

11

So I suggest that the assumption that the winding eddy-current loss (PEC) is proportional

to the square of the frequency should be relaxed if it is made proportional to an arbitrarily

power , then the formula becomes

Ih 2

) h

IR

(2.11)

where

REC ( h ) = REC R h = R AC ( h ) RDC

(2.12)

than 2

Then an alternative K factor definition K could be defined as

K = ( I h ( pu ) ) 2 h

(2.13)

h =1

The Harmonic Loss factor, as defined by IEEE Std C57.110-1998 [17], is given below

h = hmax

FHL =

Ih h

h =1

h = hmax

h =1

Ih

h = hmax

Ih

[I

]2 h 2

h =1

1

h = hmax

h =1

I

[ h ]2

I1

(2.14)

From (2.7) (2.9), the K-factor was derived based on the assumption that the

measured application currents are taken at rated currents of the transformer. This is

seldom encountered in the field. This is where the FHL comes in handy because it can be

12

calculated in terms of the actual rms values of the harmonic currents and the quantity Ih/I1

may be directly read on a meter.

The relationship between K-factor and FHL is

h = hmax 2

Ih

K factor = h =12 FHL

IR

(2.15)

stray loss (POSL) from winding stray loss (PEC)

Pload = I2RDC + PEC + POSL

(2.2)

According to [17], a Harmonic Loss Factor for other stray losses is defined as

h = hmax

FHL STR =

h =1

h = hmax

h =1

h = hmax

I h h 0.8

Ih

Ih

[I

]2 h 0.8

h =1

1

h = hmax

h =1

I

[ h ]2

I1

(2.16)

based on the assumption that the other stray losses are proportional to the square of the

load current and the harmonic frequency to the 0.8 power.

Because the other stray losses can not be ignored, in [17], an assumption is made

to estimate the portion of the other stray losses.

a) 67% of the total stray loss at rated frequency is assumed to be winding eddy

losses for dry-type transformers and 33% of the total stray loss at rated

frequency is assumed to be the other stray loss.

b) 33% of the total stay loss at rated frequency is assumed to be winding eddy

losses for oil-filled transformers and 67% of the total stray loss at rated

frequency is assumed to be the other stray loss

13

________________________________________________

CHAPTER 3

LABORATORY TESTS

________________________________________________

This chapter presents the test procedure and data processing methods developed

for determining the winding eddy-current loss, AC winding resistance and K-factor.

Detailed test procedure can be found in Appendix F and [18].

3.1 MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATION

The determination of parameters for transformer equivalent circuit models has

typically been based on meter measurements. Voltages and currents are measured with

RMS meters, and power is measured with an average reading wattmeter. Significant

measurement errors are possible for harmonic study. Only a true RMS meter can take

measurements which correctly include the effect of all harmonics within the meters

bandwidth. However the information about the harmonic content is lost.

In order to improve the accuracy of the measurement results, a digital storage

oscilloscope was used to record the waveforms of the voltage and current. A voltage

probe of ratio 1:100 was used. Hall effect current probe with a 1:1 ratio was used to

obtain current waveforms. The digital scope could save the sampled data on floppy

diskette. This allowed waveform data to be transported to a PC for analysis using the

VuPoint software, which was capable of many signal- processing operations.

14

3.2.1 Power source

The power source used, AMX-3120, is a product of Pacific Power Source

Corporation (PPSC). It is a high-performance AC power conversion equipment. For our

test purposes, 3-phase voltage with programmable harmonic contents can be generated

from this device. It is configured with an interchangeable digital controller called the

Universal Programmable Controller (UPC). This programmable controller not only

allows control of voltage and frequency, but also allows the user to simulate virtually any

transient (including sub-cycle waveform disturbance). Main features of the power source

are: [11]

2.5:1 are available

External Sense input This is required for precise control of the output

voltage of the power source. The line drops are taken care of by using external

sense inputs.

15

3.2.2 UPC-32

UPC 32 is a programmable controller designed to directly plug into Pacific

Power Source Corporations AMX/ASX Series Power source. It is a highly versatile

single, two or three phase signal generator and can be remotely controlled from a PC

either through a GPIB interface or through a serial interface. Main features of the UPC32 are: [12]

Operations in 4 modes:

2. Program Operate: Control by the program stored by user

3. Program Edit: Storing of the program by the user

4. Setup: To setup all the auxiliary functions of the source

135 V) and a resolution of 0.1%

Calculation time: 45 sec + 10 sec for each non-zero magnitude of the harmonic

99 user programs that contain steady state and transient parameters can be stored

the metering point based on the metered voltage at that point. Therefore, accurate

calibration of the metering functions is essential for CSC to operate accurately.

Control Local/Remote. In remote control mode, the source can be either controlled

through GPIB or through serial communication.

16

3.2.3 Oscilloscope

The oscilloscope used is a Nicolet Pro20, a digital oscilloscope from Nicolet

Technologies Inc. It is an oscilloscope with 4 channels, each having

The Nicolet Pro20 can be configured with a wide variety of input channels and

3.3 SHORT-CIRCUIT TESTS

3.3.1

The laboratory setup used to perform the short-circuit test of the 2 kVA dry-type

Master

AMX 3120 AC

Power Source

transformer

H4

X1

Slave

H3

UPC-32

X2

H2

X3

H1

X4

Current Amplifier

Nicolet Pro 20

Oscilloscope

Figure 3-1. Laboratory Setup for Short-circuit Tests on 2 kVA Distribution XFMR

17

This transformer is a 2 kVA single phase, dry type, 4winding 120/240 Volt

general purpose transformer. It is excited at the high-voltage winding (H4-H3) with lowvoltage winding (X1-X2) short circuited.

The laboratory setup used to perform the short-circuit test of the 10 kVA

Distribution Transformer is shown below:

AMX 3120 AC

Power Source

transformer

X3

H1

X2

H2

X1

Current Amplifier

Nicolet Pro 20

Oscilloscope

Figure 3-2. Lab Setup for Short-circuit Tests of the 10 kVA Distribution XFMR

rated 7200-120/240-V, 10-kVA with an amorphous steel core.

The sampled waveform data of voltage and current are saved to floppy diskette.

This allowed waveform data to be transported to a PC for analysis using the VuPoint

software, which was capable of many signal-processing operations.

18

T

1

P = v(t )i (t )dt

T 0

which can be acquired using the statistic function Mean in the Vupoint program.

The apparent power is

S = VRMS*IRMS

the reactive power is

Q = S 2 P2

so the equivalent winding resistance and reactance are

Rsc =

P

I

2

RMS

X sc =

Q

2

I RMS

The laboratory setup used to perform the harmonic test is the same as short-circuit

tests above. The only difference is that the voltage applied to the transformer in this test

consists of a group of harmonics at different frequencies. It can be implemented by

programming the UPC-32 in the power source.

The harmonic test requires FFTs (Fast Fourier Transform) of the current

waveform data to obtain frequency spectra of DFTS (Discrete Fourier Transforms).

Software called VuPoint was used to perform FFTs on laboratory measurements. To

19

obtain a discrete spectrum or line spectrum for periodic waveforms, the waveform data

must meet the following requirements before transform:

The waveform data must cover the range of an integral number of cycles.

Some possible combinations are listed in the following table:

t (s)

91.533

100.00

122.07

244.14

NPTS

8192

2048

4096

8192

2048

4096

8192

f (Hz)

1.333

4.883

2.441

1.220

4.0

2.0

1.0

No. of 60 Hz Cycles

45.00

12.29

24.57

49.15

15.00

30.00

60.00

Total Time(sec)

0.75

0.2048

0.4096

0.8192

0.25

0.5

1.0

1024

2048

4096

4.0

2.0

1.0

15.00

30.00

60.00

0.25

0.5

1.0

Table 3-1Time step values and corresponding DFT frequency spacings for different numbers of

points transformed. [13]

The relationship between the time step, numbers of points and DFT frequency

spacing is:

f =

1

t NPTS

where

t is the time step

NPTS is the numbers of points

These conditions require a sampling interval that is unavailable to the Nicolet

Pro 20 oscilloscope used. The sampling rate of Nicolet Pro 20 oscilloscope is 1 S

and the available time setting is

20

T = 1, 2, 5 S;

10, 20, 50 S;

100, 200, 500 S

For the test purpose, a sweep length of 8192 points and time setting of 200 S

were chosen. The total length of the waveform is 1.6384 second. Then the data was cut

off and re-sampled in VuPoint to meet the FFT requirements.

VuPoint provides several different windowing possibilities: none (rectangular),

cosine-tapered rectangular, Bartlett, Hanning and Parzen. If the data being transformed

21

was an integer number of waveform cycles, a rectangular window with no tapering was

sufficient.

For the processing of harmonic test data, the last row in Table 3.1 was used. In

VuPoint, the data was first interpolated to a sampling time of 244.14 S, then cut off to

only 1 second long. The FFT result is a perfect discrete spectrum (line spectrum). (Figure

3.3)

3.6. SPECIAL CONSIDERATION IN THE TESTS

The AM 503 current probe used requires a degauss function before

measurements. It removes any residual magnetism from the attached current probe and it

initiates an operation to remove any undesired DC offsets from probe circuitry. This

operation is recommend each time a new measurement is started or any setting on the

probe is changed.

The short-circuit tests for the 2 kVA transformer were done both manually and

automatically. The manual test was done continuously. At each frequency, the test was

repeated three times and the average value was recorded. The automatic test procedure is

discussed thoroughly in [18].

The short-circuit tests for the 10 kVA transformer was done only manually

because of the limitation of the voltage output of the Power source. At each frequency

point, only one measurement was made. But the whole test sequence was repeated three

times in different order. The first and the third test were done from high frequency to low

frequency while the second was done from low frequency to high frequency. The average

values were used for analysis.

22

________________________________________________

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

________________________________________________

This chapter presents the test results obtained from the test setup developed in

chapter 3. Detailed analysis of the test results is provided. The test results can be found in

Appendix A through Appendix C.

4.1 LINEARITY

Because the voltage limitation of the power source, when doing the short-circuit

test, the rated current of the test transformer may not be reached at high frequencies.

Because only resistance is our concern, an alternative way is to do the short-circuit test at

lower voltage level if the linearity of the resistance holds. A check on the linearity of

resistance is needed. The test results of the 10 kVA transformer at 60 Hz is shown in

Table 4.1

I rms (A) V rms (V)

0.04175

4.075

0.06375

6.064

0.0847

8.049

0.10565

10.041

0.1264

12.09

0.053275

5.06

0.074525

7.05

0.094525

9.05

P(W)

0.125145

0.289843

0.49408

0.767283

1.120973

0.196378

0.386867

0.625613

R(ohm)

71.79605

71.31854

68.87006

68.74113

70.16183

69.19024

69.65587

70.01841

X(ohm)

66.12127

62.94266

65.47919

65.63003

65.00767

65.06689

64.00824

65.29875

Because the error of R is between 2.6%, the linearity of the resistance holds

very well.

23

4.2 SUPERPOSITION

As described in Chapter 2, the UL definition of the K-factor is based on several

assumptions. One of them is that superposition of eddy current losses will apply, which

will permit the direct addition of eddy losses due to the various harmonic. This

assumption could be checked by a test described below:

First, a group of harmonics is applied to the transformer together. The voltage and

current waveforms are recorded. The load loss is measured as Pgroup. An FFT is then used

on the voltage waveform to get the amplitude and the frequency of the individual

harmonics in the group. Then individual harmonic in the group is applied to the

transformer one by one at the same amplitude and frequency, the load losses are recorded

as Pindividual. If the sum of the Pindividual is equal to Pgroup, the superposition assumption is

correct.

The test results of 2 kVA transformer is presented in Table 4.2

Harmonic Groups (Voltage: 75% 3rd; 50% 5th; 25% 7th)

IRMS=8.372 A

Vrms = 5.9295 V

P = 46.02 W

Harmonic Order (h)

1

3

5

7

Frequency (Hz)

60.0

180.0

300.0

420.0

I raw (mv)

182.9

124.6

70.73

29.7

Harmonic Order(h) Frequency (Hz)

1

60.0

3

180.0

5

300.0

7

420.0

I raw (mv)

184.0

124.16

72.48

32.13

Ih (A)

6.466

4.405

2.501

1.05

2

=8.281

A

Error = 1.1%

Ih

77.2%

67 %

38.8%

17.2%

Ih(A)

6.505

4.386

2.566

1.137

2

Error = 0.5%

I h =8.332 A

P (w)

27.466

12.77

4.42

0.912

Total =45.568

24

verify the superposition assumption is correct.

Temperature effect on the Winding Resistance

450

Low to High frequency

400

350

300

c

a

R

250

200

150

100

500

1000

1500

f (Hz)

2000

2500

Because when short-circuit tests are made continuously, heat may accumulate in the

transformer and the temperature in the transformer winding conductor may rise which

will cause the increase of the resistance. To test how much the effect will be, two set of

short-circuit tests were performed on the same 10 kVA transformer. The first set did the

test from high frequency (2940 Hz) to low frequency (60 Hz) while the second test set

was done from low frequency (60 Hz) to high frequency (2940 Hz). The results are

25

plotted in Figure 4.1. There is a small difference between the two sets of test results. The

difference is small enough to be ignored.

4.4.1 10 kVA Distribution transformer

Harmonic

Order

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

47

49

frequency

R (Ohm)

X (Ohm)

60

180

300

420

540

660

780

900

1020

1140

1260

1380

1500

1620

1740

1860

1980

2100

2220

2340

2460

2580

2700

2820

2940

69.14738

77.88052

86.78983

102.1515

118.3543

137.0394

153.8812

175.5246

192.0341

212.4019

228.5787

250.3567

262.9465

284.549

295.4238

310.6725

329.7242

344.7513

361.3698

377.7148

395.8492

413.6822

432.4653

450.7207

471.7872

64.78765

207.9448

343.4697

476.3446

608.7855

732.4207

858.2045

979.6188

1098.353

1217.341

1336.227

1450.54

1569.469

1687.727

1805.996

1927.585

2046.201

2166.064

2287.776

2414.01

2535.294

2661.516

2789.146

2912.255

3050.468

The test was repeated for three times. Please see Appendix A for original data. In

Table 4.3, the quantities are the average values of these measurements.

26

The first and the third test were done from high frequency to low frequency while

the second test was from low frequency to high frequency. Although temperature effect

has been considered to be small enough, this kind of test scheme can reduce possible

error resulted from test sequence.

3000

R

X

2500

2000

s

m

h

O

1500

1000

500

500

1000

1500

Frequency(Hz)

2000

2500

3000

Figure 4-2 Short-circuit Test Results: R.X vs. Frequency (10kVA Transformer)

4.4.1.1 2nd order fit for the AC Winding Resistance RAC (10 kVA, all points)

According to (2.7), a least square fit of a second order polynomial is used for all

the data points in Table 4.2. The original RAC curve and the fit curve are shown in Figure

4.3.

27

From Figure 4.3, it is very clear that the second order polynomial is not a good

choice for fitting the test data. Using this fit, the RAC would be:

RAC = 127.7 + 0.1605(fh/f1)2

(4.1)

2nd order fit for Rac (fh/f1)2 from 60 Hz to 2940 Hz ( 25 points)

500

Test data

Fit data

450

400

350

300

c

a

R

250

200

150

100

50

0

500

1000

1500

f (Hz)

2000

2500

3000

Figure 4-3 2nd fit for Rac (fh/f1)2 from 60 Hz to 2940 Hz (25 points)

4.4.1.2 One Section Optimal fit for the AC Winding Resistance RAC ( 10 kVA)

From Figure 4.3, it is clear that the second order polynomial for the whole data set

is not a good match. Next step would be to use an optimal fit of a constant plus a 2nd term

with an unknown exponent. It would have the form of

RAC = RDC + REC(fh/f1)x

(4.2)

It turned out that the optimal exponent found is 1.03 and the total error is 20.32.

The original RAC curve and the fit curve are shown in Figure 4-4

28

(4.3)

Optimal fit for 10 kVA Rac (fh/f1) expo from 60 Hz to 2940 Hz ( 25 points)

450

Test data

Fit data

400

350

300

250

c

a

R

200

150

100

50

0

500

1000

1500

f (Hz)

2000

2500

3000

Figure 4-4 Optimal fit for 10 kVA Rac from 60 - 2940 Hz ( all the 25 points)

According to [2], the K-factor formulas overestimate the high-frequency losses in

transformer winding because of the assumption that the eddy current losses are

proportional to the square of the frequency for all frequencies. In fact, for high enough

frequencies, winding eddy current losses in transformers are asymptotically proportional

to the square root of the frequency instead of the square of the frequency.

One improvement suggested from this explanation is to use a two-section fit for

the RAC test data. It is necessary to find where the transition between the 2nd order

polynomial and non-2nd order regimes occurs.

29

RAC = RDC + Rco1(fh/f1)2

(4.4)

So the transition point is moved from the 3rd point to the 22nd point in the data to

find a best position (minimum fit error). The first part is the 2nd order polynomial fit

while the second part is a non-2nd order polynomial optimal fit.

Total Error (transition point moves from the 3rd - 22nd(300 Hz- 2580 Hz) 10 kVA

120

100

80

r

or

r

E

l

at

o

T

60

40

20

500

1000

1500

f (Hz)

2000

2500

Figure 4-5 Total fit error while transition point moves. (Square/non-square)

From Figure 4.5, it can be seen there is no optimal transition point found when the

2nd order polynomial/non-2nd order two-section pattern is used.

Naturally, further improvement is to use optimal fit for both sections. It would

have the form:

30

(4.5)

In Figure 4.6, an optimal transition point is found on 1260 Hz (the 11th point in

the data serial).

The optimal fit for the first part is:

RAC = 63.95 + 3.168(fh/f1)1.304 (60 Hz fh < 1380 Hz)

(4.6)

RAC = 245.9 + 5.621(fh/f1)1.118 (1380 Hz fh 2940 Hz)

(4.7)

Total Error (transition point moves from the 3rd - 22nd(300 Hz- 2580 Hz) 10 kVA

20

18

16

14

r

or

r

E

l

at

o

T

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

500

1000

1500

f (Hz)

2000

2500

Figure 4-6 Total fit error while transition point moves (both sections are optimal fit)

4.4.1.4 Summary of the fitting tests for the RAC (10 kVA)

The results from these different fitting methods for the 10 kVA transformer AC

winding resistance are summarized in Table below

31

Exponent

Fitting Method

Section 1

One Section (total 25points)

Two sections(first fixed at 2)

Two sections (both optimal)

Error

Section 2

2

Optimal found = 1.034

Best transition points not found

1.304

1.118

150.5

20.32

N/A

13.0

4.4.2

The short-circuit tests for the 2 kVA distribution transformer were done both

automatically and manually. The AC winding resistance derived from the automated

tests is plotted in Figure 4.7.

Because the frequency step used in the automated tests is 30 Hz, only part of the

data set will be used for the following fitting experiment. (Table 4.5)

Harmonic orders

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

Frequency

60

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

540

600

660

720

780

840

960

1020

1080

1140

1200

1260

1320

1380

1440

1500

1560

1620

1680

Resistance

0.72

0.73

0.73

0.74

0.76

0.76

0.77

0.77

0.78

0.8

0.81

0.83

0.85

0.86

0.9

0.93

0.95

0.97

0.99

1.01

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.11

1.13

1.17

1.19

32

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

s

m

h

O

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

R

0

500

1000

1500

Frequency(Hz)

2000

2500

3000

4.4.2.1 2nd Order Polynomial Fit for the AC Winding Resistance RAC (2 kVA

distribution XFMR)

First, a 2nd order polynomial fit is used for all the data points in Table 4.5.

The original RAC curve and the fit curve are shown in Figure 4.8.

33

One section 2nd order fit for 2 kVA XFMR (60 - 1680 Hz) ( 27 points)

1.2

Test data

Fit data

0.8

c

a

R

0.6

0.4

0.2

200

400

600

800

1000

f (Hz)

1200

1400

1600

Figure 4-8 One Section fit for 2kVA XFMR AC Winding Resistance data

RAC = 0.7387 + 0.0006(fh/f1)2

(4.8)

4.4.2.2 Optimal fit for the AC Winding Resistance RAC (2 kVA distribution XFMR)

From Figure 4.8, it can be seen that the 2nd order polynomial fit for the whole data

set is not a good match. Next step would be to use optimal fit for the whole length of

data.

It turned out that the optimal exponent found is 1.7087 and the total error is

0.0278. The original RAC curve and the fit curve are shown in Figure 4.9.

RAC = 0.7218 + 0.0016(fh/f1)1.709

(4.9)

34

One section optimal fit for 2 kVA XFMR Rac (60 - 1680) Hz ( 27 points)

1.2

Test data

Fit data

0.8

c

a

R

0.6

0.4

0.2

200

400

600

800

1000

f (Hz)

1200

1400

1600

Figure 4-9 One Section Optimal fit for 2 kVA XFMR RAC (60-1680 Hz)

According to [2], a two-section fit is used for the whole data set of RAC. The first

section will use a 2nd order polynomial fit while the second part uses a non-2nd order

optimal fit. The transition point is moved from the 3rd point to the 27th point to find the

best fit.

35

0.06

0.05

0.04

r

or

r

E

l

at

o

T

0.03

0.02

0.01

10

15

Harmonic order

20

25

Figure 4-10 The total fitting error while the transition points between 2nd order fit and optimal fit

moves

The total error while the transition points moves is plotted in Figure 4.10. It can

be observed that the minimum error is found when the transition point is at 1080 Hz and

the minimum error is 0.0342.

The two-section fit curve is:

RAC = 0.7296 + 0.007(fh/f1)2

(4.10)

The same process was repeated for a two-section fit which both sections use an

optimal fit.

36

The total error while the transition points moves is plotted in Figure 4.11. It can

be observed that the minimum error is found when the transition point is at 1560 Hz and

the minimum error is 0.0271.

Total Error when the transition point moves from 3 - 27

0.06

0.05

0.04

r

or

r

E

l

at

o

T

0.03

0.02

0.01

10

15

Harmonic order

20

25

Figure 4-11 The total fitting error while the transition points between two optimal fit regimes moves

RAC = 0.7218 + 0.0016(fh/f1)1.706 (60Hz fh < 1560 Hz)

(4.11)

The results from these different fitting methods for the 2 kVA transformer AC

winding resistance are summarized in Table 4.6.

37

Fitting Method

Section 1

Exponent

Section 2

Error

0.0536

Two sections(first fixed at 2)

2

1.189

0.0278

0.0342

1.706

1.531

0.0271

The K-factor is an estimate of the ratio of the heating in a transformer due to

winding eddy currents when it is loaded with a given nonsinusoidal current to the

winding eddy-current heating caused by a sinusoidal current at the rated line frequency

which has the same RMS value as the nonsinusoidal current. [2]

Transformers with K-factor ratings are constructed so that their winding eddy

current losses are very low for sinusoidal currents at the rated line frequency. This allows

them to have acceptable losses when they are fully loaded with non-sinusoidal currents

that have a K-factor less than or equal to the K-rating of the transformer.

As stated in chapter 2, the K-factor formula is based on the assumption that the

winding eddy current loss produced by each harmonic component of a nonsinusoidal

current is proportional to the square of the harmonic order as well as being proportional

to the square of the magnitude of the harmonic component. However, this assumption is

not always true which can be seen from the test results presented in this chapter.

For example, the best fit curve for the 10 kVA distribution transformer tested is

RAC = 63.9518 + 3.1681(fh/f1)1.304 (60 Hz fh < 1380 Hz)

(4.6)

(4.7)

38

frequencies this exponent is even smaller.

A better approach can be obtained by relaxing the limitation in the definition of

the K-factor. The power of the harmonic order should not be limited to 2. The K

definition is more appropriate.

K = ( I h ( pu ) ) 2 h

(2.13)

h =1

conservative in the sense of derating.

Part of the reason that the exponent is less than 2 is that in (2.2)

Pload = I2RDC + PEC + POSL

(4.2)

The other stray loss (POSL) was ignored when defining K-factor. So the actual

winding eddy-current loss is

PEC-A=(PEC + POSL)

(4.12)

Because POSL are proportional to the square of the load current while not

proportional to the square of the harmonic frequency, the total PEC-A is not proportional to

the square of the harmonic frequency.

Another weak point of the K-factor formula is that it overestimates the highfrequency losses in transformer windings. According to formulas in [16], for high enough

frequencies, winding eddy current losses in transformers are not proportional to the

square of the frequency. The geometry of the windings in a given transformer determines

when the transition between the square and the non-square regimes occurs.

As stated in Chapter 2, an important improvement the Harmonic Loss Factor

made is separating other stray loss (POSL) from winding stray loss (PEC)

39

Because the other stray losses can not be ignored, in [17], an assumption is made

to estimate the portion of the other stray losses.

a) 67% of the total stray loss is assumed to be winding eddy losses for dry-type

transformers and 33% of the total stray loss is assumed to be the other stray

loss.

b) 33% of the total stay loss is assumed to be winding eddy losses for oil-filled

transformers and 67% of the total stray loss is assumed to be the other stray

loss.

This assumption can be checked using an optimal search. Using the assumption

that the winding eddy-current loss vary with the square of the frequency and the other

stray loss vary with the frequency raised to the 0.8 power, the fit formula is:

RAC = RDC + 1h2 + 2h0.8

It is found these assumptions are not accurate for the tested transformer but it can

help explain the difference of the exponent of (fh/f) between 2 kVA dry-type transformer

and 10 kVA oil-filled transformer.

For the 2 kVA dry-type transformer, at low frequencies

RAC = 0.7218 + 0.0016(fh/f1)1.706 (60Hz fh < 1560 Hz)

(4.11)

RAC = 63.95 + 3.168(fh/f1)1.304 (60 Hz fh < 1380 Hz)

(4.6)

proportional to the square of the frequency, takes a larger part in the total stray loss than

in the oil-filled transformer, the exponent of (fh/f) found is larger.

40

________________________________________________

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________

This chapter presents the conclusions drawn from this work. Topics including

closing comments regarding the lab tests, the K-factor concept and the Harmonic Loss

Factor (FHL). Recommendations for future work are also provided.

5.1 CONCLUSIONS

The K-factor does not apply to the two tested transformer and overestimates the

losses in transformer windings because the winding eddy current losses in

transformers tested are not proportional to the square of the frequency, instead, they

are proportional to a power of the frequency which is less than 2.

For the two transformers tested, the eddy-current loss is a function of frequency with

power less than 2 so an alternative definition of the K factor, K, in which the

exponent is less than 2 is better.

The Harmonic Loss Factor is a better approach for estimating transformer load loss.

Compared with the K-factor, the Harmonic Loss Factor is a function of the harmonic

current distribution and is independent of the relative magnitude while the K-factor is

dependent on both the magnitude and distribution of the harmonics. Harmonic Loss

Factor also has a separate definition for the other stray losses assuming that they are

41

proportional to the square of the load current magnitude and the harmonic frequency

to the 0.8 power.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

More laboratory tests on different transformers are needed. A detailed study of

transformer structure such as the geometry of the windings is necessary for further study.

A laboratory test method for separating winding eddy current losses from stray

losses in components other than windings are important in the future work.

42

Reference:

[1] "An American National Standard: IEEE Recommended Practice for Establishing

Transformer Capability When Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents."

ANSI/IEEE C57.110-1986

[2] Bryce Hesterman, "Time-Domain K-Factor Computation Methods", 29th

International Power Conversion Conference, September 1994, pp.406-417

[3] Tom Shaughnessy, "Use Derating and K-Factor Calculation Carefully", Power

Quality Assurance, March/April 1994, pp.36-41.

[4] E.F.Fuchs, D.Yildirim, and W.M.Grady, "Measurement of Eddy-Current Loss

Coefficient PEC-R, Derating of Single-Phase Transformers, and Comparison with KFactor Approach", IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Paper # 99WM104, accepted

for publication.

[5] D.Yildirim and E.F.Fuchs, Measured Transformer Derating and Comparison with

Harmonic Loss Factor (FHL) Approach, PE-084-PWRD-0-03-1999.

[6] Jerome M. Frank, Origin, Development, and Design of K-Factor Transformers,

IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, September/October, 1997, pp67-69

[7] A.W.Galli and M.D.Cox, Temperature Rise of Small Oil-filled Distribution

Transformers Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents, IEEE Transaction on

Power Delivery, January 1996, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 283-291

[8] M.T.Bishop, J.F.Baranowshki, D.Heath and S.J.Benna, Evaluating HarmonicInduced Transformer Heating, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, January

1996, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 305-311.

43

[9] Keith H. Sueker, Comments on Harmonics: The Effects on Power Quality and

Transformers, IEEE Transaction on Industry Applications, March/April 1995,

Vol.31, No.2, pp. 405-406.

[10] Gregory W. Massey, Estimation Methods for Power System Harmonic Effects on

Power Distribution Transformers, IEEE Transaction on Industry Applications,

March/April 1994, Vol. 30, No.2, pp. 485-489.

[11] AMX Series AC Power Source Operation Manual, Pacific Power Source, Oct,

1996.

[12] UPC-32/UPC-12 Operation Manual, Pacific Power Source, Jan, 1995.

[13] Bruce Andrew Mork, Ferroresonance and Chaos: Observation and Simulation of

Ferroresonance in a Five-Legged core distribution transformer, Ph.D. Thesis, May

1992, Fargo, North Dakota, pp240.

[14] Standard UL1561, Dry-Type General Purpose and Power Transformers, April 22,

1994.

[15] Standard UL1562, Transformers, Distribution, Dry-Type-Over 600 Volts, 1994

[16] P.L.Dowell, Effects of Eddy Currents in Transformer Windings Proceedings of

the IEE, Vol 112, No.8 Aug. 1966, pp. 1387-1394.

[17] "ANSI/IEEE Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability When

Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents." ANSI/IEEE C57.110/D7-February 1998,

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY, 1998.

[18] Manjunatha Rao, Development of a Laboratory Test Setup Using LabView for a

Power Quality Study, MS Report, Michigan Tech University, 1999.

44

Simulation, MS Thesis, Michigan Tech University, 1996.

[20] Michael A. Bjorge, Investigation of Short-Circuit Models for A Four-Winding

Transformer, MS Thesis, Michigan Tech University, 1996.

[21] Richard L. Bean, Transformers for the Electric Power Industry, McGraw-Hill

Book Company, Inc., 1959.

45

Table A-1 10 KVA Distribution Transformer Test No.1

Order

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

47

49

Freq Ipp(mv)

Iraw

(Hz)

rms(mv)

60

2.6

0.867

180

2.752

0.914

300

2.856

0.97

420

2.84

0.952

540

2.928

0.974

660

2.776 0.9245

780

2.736

0.926

900

2.96

0.912

1020

2.744

0.908

1140

2.656 0.9185

1260

2.888 0.9725

1380 2.8488 0.9605

1500

2.856

0.956

1620

2.864 0.9735

1740

2.92

0.998

1860

2.904

0.987

1980

2.952

1

2100

2.76 0.9455

2220

2.84 0.9645

2340

2.928

0.997

2460

3.064

1.029

2580

2.992 1.0185

2700

2.936 1.0055

2820

2.824

0.962

2940

2.904

0.977

Irms(A)

0.04335

0.0457

0.0485

0.0476

0.0487

0.046225

0.0463

0.0456

0.0454

0.045925

0.048625

0.048025

0.0478

0.048675

0.0499

0.04935

0.05

0.047275

0.048225

0.04985

0.05145

0.050925

0.050275

0.0481

0.04885

Vpp(mv)

0.11648

0.288

0.484

0.656

0.856

0.968

1.1392

1.2848

1.424

1.5968

1.8544

1.9984

2.1424

2.3424

2.5728

2.7136

2.912

2.912

3.1424

3.4272

3.7088

3.8496

3.9904

3.9872

4.2656

Vraw

V rms (v)

Mean

P(W)

S(VA)

Q (VAR) R(Ohm) X(Ohm)

rms (v)

(Vpp*Ipp)

0.04065

4.065 25.79968 0.128998 0.176218 0.12005 68.6446 63.88304

0.10125

10.125

32.256 0.16128 0.462713 0.433695 77.2233 207.6597

0.1706

17.06 39.6928 0.198464 0.82741 0.803255 84.372 341.4839

0.231

23.1

46.848 0.23424 1.09956 1.07432 103.383 474.1544

0.3014

30.14

56.217 0.281085 1.467818 1.440653 118.517 607.4373

0.3417

34.17 58.6368 0.293184 1.579508 1.55206 137.21 726.3645

0.4021

40.21 66.0992 0.330496 1.861723 1.832153 154.172 854.6726

0.4531

45.31 71.9104 0.359552 2.066136 2.034611 172.915 978.4792

0.5034

50.34 78.8224 0.394112 2.285436 2.251198 191.209

1092.2

0.5638

56.38

90.24

0.4512 2.589252 2.549636 213.93 1208.871

0.6552

65.52 106.6752 0.533376 3.18591 3.140945 225.587 1328.437

0.7062

70.62 113.4592 0.567296 3.391526 3.343743 245.966 1449.767

0.7574

75.74 119.6032 0.598016 3.620372 3.57064 261.732 1562.753

0.8284

82.84 130.9184 0.654592 4.032237 3.978749 276.286 1679.325

0.9088

90.88 149.4016 0.747008 4.534912 4.472964 300.002 1796.364

0.9592

95.92 148.1728 0.740864 4.733652 4.675316 304.203 1919.715

1.0294

102.94 163.2256 0.816128

5.147 5.081884 326.451 2032.754

1.0298

102.98 153.0368 0.765184 4.86838 4.80787 342.376 2151.244

1.1102

111.02 166.7072 0.833536 5.35394 5.288656 358.41 2274.055

1.2114

121.14 186.5728 0.932864 6.038829 5.966341 375.395 2400.92

1.3118

131.18 207.7696 1.038848 6.749211 6.668781 392.447 2519.276

1.3618

136.18 212.8896 1.064448 6.934967 6.852789 410.452 2642.441

1.4104

141.04 216.6784 1.083392 7.090786 7.007532 428.629 2772.432

1.4096

140.96

207.36

1.0368 6.780176 6.700435 448.131 2896.095

1.4998

149.98 224.0512 1.120256 7.326523 7.240371 469.449 3034.112

46

Order

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

47

49

Freq

Iraw

(Hz) rms(mv)

60 0.9695

180 0.5445

300

0.901

420 1.0255

540 1.0335

660

0.939

780 0.9215

900 0.9075

1020 0.9005

1140

0.89

1260

0.933

1380

0.955

1500 0.9845

1620 0.9985

1740 1.0095

1860 1.0315

1980

1.067

2100 1.0795

2220 1.0915

2340 1.0695

2460

1.054

2580 1.0415

2700

1.016

2820

0.955

2940 0.9665

Irms(A)

0.048475

0.027225

0.04505

0.051275

0.051675

0.04695

0.046075

0.045375

0.045025

0.0445

0.04665

0.04775

0.049225

0.049925

0.050475

0.051575

0.05335

0.053975

0.054575

0.053475

0.0527

0.052075

0.0508

0.04775

0.048325

Vraw

V rms (v)

Mean

P(W)

S(VA)

Q (VAR)

rms (v)

(Vpp*Ipp)

0.04574

4.574 31.9948 0.159974 0.22172465 0.153526

0.06074

6.074 11.89376 0.059469 0.16536465 0.154301

0.1608

16.08 35.8912 0.179456

0.724404 0.701824

0.25075

25.075 52.6592 0.263296 1.28572063 1.258472

0.3213

32.13 64.0256 0.320128 1.66031775 1.629163

0.35195

35.195 60.2624 0.301312 1.65240525 1.624701

0.402

40.2 65.0752 0.325376

1.852215 1.823412

0.4529

45.29

72.832 0.36416 2.05503375 2.022511

0.50315

50.315 78.7456 0.393728 2.26543288 2.230956

0.55415

55.415 85.4016 0.427008 2.4659675 2.428716

0.6351

63.51 100.5568 0.502784 2.9627415 2.919768

0.7058

70.58 113.9712 0.569856

3.370195 3.321668

0.7869

78.69 128.6656 0.643328 3.87351525 3.819719

0.8575

85.75 141.2096 0.706048 4.28106875 4.222445

0.9287

92.87 151.9104 0.759552 4.68761325 4.625667

1.0092

100.92 167.1168 0.835584

5.204949 5.13744

1.1101

111.01 188.6208 0.943104 5.9223835 5.846809

1.1908

119.08 203.6736 1.018368

6.427343 6.346154

1.2706

127.06 217.4976 1.087488 6.9342995 6.848495

1.3118

131.18 217.3952 1.086976 7.0148505 6.930123

1.3616

136.16 222.6176 1.113088

7.175632 7.088775

1.4112

141.12 225.792 1.12896

7.348824 7.261588

1.441

144.1 223.9488 1.119744

7.32028 7.234132

1.4096

140.96 206.4384 1.032192

6.73084 6.651224

1.5

150 221.4912 1.107456

7.24875 7.163653

R(Ohm)

68.07909

80.23307

88.42364

100.1458

119.8844

136.6927

153.2692

176.872

194.2177

215.6334

231.0352

249.93

265.4978

283.2684

298.1294

314.1316

331.3529

349.5582

365.1211

380.1179

400.7821

416.313

433.9017

452.7034

474.2232

X(Ohm)

65.33493

208.1777

345.8108

478.6657

610.1037

737.0591

858.9227

982.3305

1100.484

1226.469

1341.668

1456.832

1576.376

1694.057

1815.607

1931.383

2054.235

2178.338

2299.364

2423.48

2552.407

2677.769

2803.232

2917.124

3067.544

47

Order

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

47

49

Freq

Iraw

(Hz) rms(mv)

60 3.1305

180

2.264

300 1.6955

420 1.4425

540

1.297

660 1.2125

780

1.151

900

1.114

1020

1.083

1140

1.062

1260 1.0415

1380 1.0285

1500

1.015

1620

1

1740 0.9945

1860 0.9805

1980

1.069

2100

1.058

2220 1.0455

2340

1.031

2460 1.0225

2580

1.015

2700 0.9985

2820 0.9875

2940

0.972

Irms(A)

0.156525

0.1132

0.084775

0.072125

0.06485

0.060625

0.05755

0.0557

0.05415

0.0531

0.052075

0.051425

0.05075

0.05

0.049725

0.049025

0.05345

0.0529

0.052275

0.05155

0.051125

0.05075

0.049925

0.049375

0.0486

Vraw

V rms (v)

Mean

P(W)

rms (v)

(Vpp*Ipp)

0.1505

15.05 346.5216 1.732608

0.25075

25.075 195.2512 0.976256

0.3002

30.02 125.8752 0.629376

0.3514

35.14 107.0848 0.535424

0.402

40.2 98.1248 0.490624

0.4526

45.26 100.864 0.50432

0.5034

50.34 102.144 0.51072

0.5536

55.36 109.696 0.54848

0.6058

60.58 111.8208 0.559104

0.6554

65.54 117.0944 0.585472

0.7072

70.72 124.2624 0.621312

0.7546

75.46 134.9632 0.674816

0.8074

80.74 134.7584 0.673792

0.8576

85.76 147.0464 0.735232

0.9094

90.94 142.4896 0.712448

0.9594

95.94 150.784 0.75392

1.1108

111.08 189.3376 0.946688

1.1614

116.14 191.5904 0.957952

1.2118

121.18 197.0688 0.985344

1.2614

126.14 200.704 1.00352

1.3112

131.12 206.1312 1.030656

1.3684

136.84 213.4016 1.067008

1.4106

141.06 216.7808 1.083904

1.4606

146.06 220.0576 1.100288

1.4998

149.98 222.8224 1.114112

S(VA)

Q (VAR)

2.355701

2.83849

2.544946

2.534473

2.60697

2.743888

2.897067

3.083552

3.280407

3.480174

3.682744

3.880531

4.097555

4.288

4.521992

4.703459

5.937226

6.143806

6.334685

6.502517

6.70351

6.94463

7.042421

7.211713

7.289028

1.596057

2.665324

2.465894

2.477271

2.560387

2.697143

2.851695

3.03438

3.23241

3.430573

3.629955

3.821406

4.041777

4.224497

4.465515

4.642642

5.861266

6.068664

6.257581

6.424615

6.623805

6.86217

6.958508

7.127283

7.20338

R(Ohm)

70.71848

76.18524

87.57388

102.9263

116.6618

137.2153

154.2028

176.787

190.6758

207.6429

229.1138

255.1742

261.6096

294.0928

288.14

313.6823

331.3687

342.3201

360.5785

377.6319

394.3184

414.2815

434.8652

451.3279

471.6896

X(Ohm)

65.14498

207.997

343.1143

476.2137

608.8154

733.8384

861.0183

978.0467

1102.375

1216.684

1338.575

1445.022

1569.279

1689.799

1806.018

1931.657

2051.616

2168.611

2289.91

2417.63

2534.2

2664.338

2791.772

2923.545

3049.747

48

RHV ()

35

RLV ()

0.3

Turns Ratio

30:1

RDC ()

44

49

APPENDIX B

2 KVA Distribution Transformer Short Circuit Test Results

Table B-1 Manual Short Circuit Test Results

Rec

No.

Frequency

(Hz)

Peak-Peak

Voltage

Voltage

Probe Sclae

Peak_Peak

Current

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

30

60

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

540

600

660

720

780

840

900

960

1020

1080

1140

1200

1260

1320

1380

1440

1500

1560

1620

1680

1740

1800

1860

1920

1980

2040

2100

2160

2220

2280

2340

2400

2460

2520

2580

214.72

183.04

184.32

200.8

217.28

225.12

246.4

267.52

289.92

307.52

327.04

349.76

379.52

403.84

428.8

455.04

482.88

509.76

538.56

562.88

587.84

624

651.2

678.4

704.8

731.2

757.6

785.6

810.4

838.4

866.4

877.6

903.2

929.6

958.4

984.8

1013.6

1041.6

1049.6

1078.4

1105.6

1132.8

1164

1191.2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

471.68

470.08

458.56

468.48

472.64

456.32

461.44

463.36

465.28

459.2

455.04

454.72

462.4

463.04

462.72

464.64

467.2

468.8

470.4

469.44

474.88

474.56

474.56

474.88

473.28

473.6

472.64

472.64

472

472.32

473.28

468.16

467.84

468.48

469.44

470.72

471.04

464.96

460.8

462.72

463.68

464.64

466.88

467.52

Current

Probe

Scale

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Curren

t xfmr

ratio

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Power

12.5526

10.6717

10.140057

10.7512

11.4762

10.4104

11.0166

11.5032

11.8079

12.0439

11.0543

12.0209

12.1356

12.2978

13.0515

12.4961

13.7347

13.5758

13.8396

14.685

13.4545

14.508

14.5961

14.7538

15.6918

15.2228

16.3164

16.4086

16.4864

17.5677

17.1418

17.3752

17.5923

18.1084

18.5713

18.9768

19.5543

19.6813

19.7427

20.2752

20.8323

21.2664

21.9628

22.487

50

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

2640

2700

2760

2820

2880

2940

3000

1217.6

1244

1257.6

1289.6

1321.6

1348

1377.6

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

468.16

468.8

464

466.88

469.12

469.12

470.72

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

22.8884

23.4004

23.38

24.0353

24.7685

25.3379

25.8908

frequency(Hz)

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

360

390

420

450

480

510

540

570

600

630

660

690

720

750

780

810

840

930

960

990

1020

1050

1080

1110

1140

1170

1200

1230

Power(W)

48.8

49.6

49.5

50.3

50.5

50.3

51

51.3

51.3

51.3

52.2

52.9

52.2

52.6

53

52.8

53

53.1

54.3

54.4

55.1

56.2

56.2

57.1

57.8

58

58.6

59.2

60.9

61.8

62.8

63.4

64.2

65.3

65.2

66

67

67.8

68.8

Irms(A)

8.25

8.32

8.29

8.32

8.3

8.27

8.32

8.32

8.28

8.24

8.29

8.32

8.24

8.25

8.24

8.3

8.28

8.25

8.28

8.25

8.27

8.3

8.26

8.28

8.29

8.26

8.28

8.29

8.27

8.27

8.27

8.28

8.28

8.29

8.26

8.26

8.28

8.27

8.27

Vrms(V)

5.88

5.97

6.06

6.29

6.49

6.74

7.01

7.35

7.63

7.96

8.35

8.78

9.05

9.46

9.87

10.3

10.66

11.06

11.54

11.97

12.47

12.97

13.35

13.87

14.35

14.75

15.25

15.73

17.11

17.6

18.12

18.6

19.1

19.6

20

20.48

20.95

21.47

21.97

R ()

0.72

0.72

0.72

0.73

0.73

0.73

0.74

0.74

0.75

0.76

0.76

0.76

0.77

0.77

0.78

0.77

0.77

0.78

0.79

0.8

0.81

0.81

0.82

0.83

0.84

0.85

0.85

0.86

0.89

0.9

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1.01

51

1260

1290

1320

1350

1380

1410

1440

1470

1500

1530

1560

1590

1620

1650

1680

1710

1730

1760

1790

1820

1850

1880

1910

1940

1970

2000

2030

2060

2090

2120

2150

2180

2210

2240

2270

2310

2340

2370

2400

2430

2460

2490

2520

2550

2580

2610

2640

2670

2700

2730

2760

2790

69.4

70.5

71.3

72

73.1

73.9

74.7

75.2

76.1

76.8

78.5

79.6

80.6

80.8

81.6

83

83.5

84.4

85.1

86.7

86.9

88.2

88.6

89.5

90.9

91.2

92.7

94

94.3

95.5

96.5

97.3

98.4

99.6

100.4

101.6

102.9

104.3

105.3

106.3

107.5

108.2

108.5

109.9

111.1

112.5

113.2

113.7

115

116.3

117.3

118.5

8.28

8.28

8.28

8.29

8.3

8.3

8.3

8.25

8.28

8.28

8.32

8.32

8.3

8.28

8.28

8.29

8.3

8.3

8.28

8.32

8.29

8.29

8.3

8.3

8.32

8.28

8.3

8.3

8.28

8.29

8.3

8.3

8.3

8.3

8.3

8.29

8.29

8.32

8.32

8.29

8.29

8.32

8.3

8.29

8.3

8.3

8.29

8.29

8.28

8.3

8.29

8.28

22.45

22.94

23.44

23.92

24.44

24.94

25.43

25.82

26.32

26.81

27.38

27.88

28.37

28.76

29.26

29.73

30.14

30.61

31.02

31.61

32

32.47

32.99

33.44

33.94

34.35

34.94

35.41

35.8

36.29

36.79

37.27

37.72

38.22

38.74

39.26

39.78

40.39

40.87

41.23

41.72

42.11

42.58

43.06

43.54

44.06

44.53

44.44

45.03

45.53

46.02

46.39

1.01

1.03

1.04

1.05

1.06

1.07

1.08

1.11

1.11

1.12

1.13

1.15

1.17

1.18

1.19

1.21

1.21

1.22

1.24

1.25

1.26

1.28

1.28

1.3

1.32

1.33

1.34

1.36

1.37

1.39

1.4

1.41

1.43

1.44

1.46

1.48

1.5

1.51

1.52

1.55

1.56

1.56

1.57

1.6

1.61

1.63

1.65

1.65

1.68

1.69

1.71

1.73

52

2820

2850

2880

2910

2940

2970

3000

119.4

120

120.7

121.8

122.2

122.8

123.7

8.29

8.29

8.29

8.29

8.26

8.28

8.3

46.39

46.39

46.39

46.39

46.39

46.39

46.39

1.74

1.75

1.76

1.77

1.79

1.79

1.79

RHV ()

0.6

RLV ()

0.4

Turns Ratio

2:1

RDC ()

1.4

53

APPENDIX C

Harmonic Group Test Results

Table C-1 2 KVA Distribution Transformer Harmonic Group Test Results 1

Harmonic Groups (75% 3nd; 50% 5th; 25% 7th)

IRMS=8.372 A

Vrms = 5.9295 V

FFT Analysis results

Harmonic Order

Frequency (Hz)

I raw (mv)

1

60.0

187.03

3

180.0

125.46

5

300.0

72.58

7

420.0

32.13

Individual Harmonic Test Results

Frequency (Hz)

I raw (mv)

1

60.0

186.60

3

180.0

127.04

5

300.0

72.48

7

420.0

32.13

P = 46.02 W

I (A)

6.613

4.441

2.569

1.137

67 %

38.8%

17.2%

I(A)

6.606

4.497

2.566

1.137

Total

P (w)

28.38

13.36

4.42

0.912

47.07

Harmonic Groups (75% 3nd; 50% 5th)

IRMS=8.23 A

Vrms = 5.328 V

FFT Analysis results

Harmonic Order

Frequency (Hz)

I raw (mv)

1

60.0

184.11

3

180.0

125.40

5

300.0

71.2

Individual Harmonic Test Results

Frequency (Hz)

I raw (mv)

1

60

184.0

3

180

126.4

5

300

72.0

P = 45.20 W

I (A)

6.613

4.441

2.569

67 %

38.8%

I(A)

6.678

4.475

2.549

Total

P (w)

27.5

13.3

4.38

45.18

f1(Hz)

60

60

60

60

60

60

f2(Hz)

180

300

420

540

660

780

I 1_rms(A)

0.0927243

0.1001914

0.1003674

0.100342

0.1000747

0.1004785

I 2 rms (A)

0.040763292

0.029110879

0.021298268

0.016760269

0.01371172

0.011482283

P (W)

1.508096

1.612288

1.551105

1.534208

1.515008

1.509376

I rms (A)

FFT error(%)

0.1014

-0.1095

0.104525

-0.1819

0.102775

-0.1680

0.1019

-0.1648

0.101175

-0.1633

0.1013

-0.1654

54

APPENDIX D

Matlab Program for Analysis of 2 KVA Transformer Short Circuit

Test Results

List D.1 Program for finding the best one-section fit curve

%=====================================================================

% find the best fit curve for 2KVA XFMR automatic short-circuit data %

% (R)

%

%

% Newobj.m

is used to find the best exponent fit for R array without

%

DC point

%

Matlab fmin function used as object function

%

take the exponent as input parameter, then do

%

Linear Regression with (fh/f1)^expo up to the points

%

specified by N1;

%

the error was the return value so fmin

%

can find the optimal exponent value.

% autofit22.m call the fmin (will use Newobj.m )

%

% Usage: change the N0 and N1 to decide how many point you want to be

%

used in the fitting.

%======================================================================

clear all;

close all;

global r f N0 N1;

N0 = 10;

% in Newobj.m, full length is 27 points

load TwokRaut2;

dat1 = twokRaut2;

temp = size(dat1);

N = temp(1);

%how many test records

f = dat1(1:N, 1)';

r = dat1(1:N, 2)';

%--------------------------------------------------------%

Without DC value: R start from 60 Hz

%--------------------------------------------------------%-----------------------------% Case 1: expo = 2

%-----------------------------disp('------Without DC value: R start from 60 Hz, expo = 2')

expo = 2;

for i=1:N0

h(i) =(f(i)/60)^expo;

end;

55

f11 = f(1:N0);

r11 = r(1:N0);

[p,s]= polyfit(h,r11,1)

err11 = getfield(s,'normr')

y0 = polyval(p,h);

plot(f11,r11,'r.:',f11,y0),grid;

% r: real data; y0: fit data

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('Rac');

legend('Test data','Fit data',2)

title('One section Square fit for 2 kVA XFMR (60 - 1680 Hz) ( 27

points) ');

axis tight;

%---------------------------------------------% Case 2: expo = optimal output of the Newobj

%---------------------------------------------output2 = fmin('Newobj',0.5,2)

% Newobj: without DC point

%

all points N = 25 points

% N0

%how many points are included from 60Hz

disp('------Without DC value: R start from 60 Hz, expo = best')

expo = output2

for i=1:N0

h2(i) =(f(i)/60)^expo;

end;

f12 = f(1:N0);

r12 = r(1:N0);

[p2,s2]= polyfit(h2,r12,1)

err12 = getfield(s2,'normr')

y2 = polyval(p2,h2);

figure;

plot(f12,r11,'r.:',f12,y2),grid;

% r: real data; y2: fit data

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('Rac');

legend('Test data','Fit data',2)

title('One section optimal fit for 2 kVA XFMR Rac (60 - 1680) Hz ( 27

points) ');

axis tight;

56

List D.2 Object function used in finding best one-section fit curve

%================================================================

% Object Function for finding the best one-section fit curve

%

%================================================================

function [err] = myObj(expo)

global r f N0 N1;

% Linear Regression with (fh/f1)^expo up to only N0 points

% Started from 60 Hz, without the DC point

for i=1:N0

h4(i) = (f(i)/60)^expo;

end;

r4 = r(1:N0);

[p4,s4] = polyfit(h4,r4,1);

err = getfield(s4,'normr');

List D.3 Program for finding the transition point of the two-section fit and the best

Curves.

%================================================================

% Find the best transition points and fit curves for 2KVA XFMR Short

% Circuit test data ( AC winding resistance R )

%

% R array has 25 point in total, without the

DC point

%

% change the variable "expo1" can set if the first section fit

%

is using 2nd order or a optimal value.

% the total fit error is in array err

%================================================================

clear all;

close all;

global r f N0 N;

% ----------------load resistance array

load TwokRaut2;

dat1 = TwokRaut2;

temp = size(dat1);

N = temp(1);

%how many test records

f = dat1(1:N, 1)';

r = dat1(1:N, 2)';

k = 1;

for N0 = 3: N-1;

for fitting

expo1(k) = fmin('firstpart', 0.5, 2);

57

%expo1(k) = 2;

for i=1:N0

h(i) =(f(i)/60)^expo1(k);

end;

f1 = f(1:N0);

r1 = r(1:N0);

[p,s]= polyfit(h,r1,1);

err1(k) = getfield(s,'normr'); % the error of firs part square fit

pp_a(k) = p(1);

%keep the results

pp_b(k) = p(2);

% the second part

expo2(k) = fmin('secpart',0.5,2);

for i=N0+1:N

h2(i-N0) = (f(i-N0)/60)^expo2(k);

end;

h22 = h2(1:N-N0);

r2 = r(N0+1:N);

[p1,s1] = polyfit(h22,r2,1);

err2(k) = getfield(s1,'normr');

pp1_a(k) = p1(1);

%keep the results;

pp1_b(k) = p1(2);

err(k) = err1(k) + err2(k);

k = k + 1;

end;

x = f(3:N-1);

hx = x/60;

plot(hx,err,'r.:'),grid;

xlabel('Harmonic order');

ylabel('Total Error');

axis([3 27 0 0.06]);

title('Total Error when the transition point moves from 3 - 27 ');

figure;

plot(x,expo1,x,expo2),grid;

% r: real data; y0: fit data

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('exponent');

legend('firt part','second part',2)

title('exponent found ');

axis tight;

58

%====================================================================

% Object function used for find the best fitting curve for the points

% group from 1 -> N0

%

%====================================================================

function [err] = firstpart(expo)

global r f N0 N;

% Linear Regression with (fh/f1)^expo up to only N0 points

% Started from 60 Hz, without the DC point

for i=1:N0

h(i) = (f(i)/60)^expo;

end;

r1 = r(1:N0);

[p1,s1] = polyfit(h,r1,1);

err = getfield(s1,'normr');

%======================================================================

% Object function used for find the best fitting curve for the points

% from N0 +1 -> N

%

%======================================================================

function [err] = secpart(expo)

global r f N0 N;

% Linear Regression with (fh/f1)^expo up to N0 points

% Started from 60 Hz, without the DC point

for i=N0+1:N

h(i-N0) = (f(i-N0)/60)^expo;

end;

r1 = r(N0+1:N);

[p1,s1] = polyfit(h,r1,1);

err = getfield(s1,'normr');

59

APPENDIX E

Matlab Program for Analysis of 10 KVA Transformer Short

Circuit Test Results

List E.1 Program for finding the best one-section fit curve

%================================================================

% find the best fit for 10 kVA s-c data (R)

% the data starts from 60 Hz, 25 points in total

%

% Newobj.m

is used to find the best exponent fit for R array

%

without DC point

% Newobj2.m based on Newobj.m, insert the DC value to the R array

%

%

both used Matlab fmin function as object function

%

take the exponent as input parameter, then do

%

Linear Regression with (fh/f1)^expo up to the points

%

specified by N1;

%

the error was the return value so fmin

%

can find the optimal exponent value.

% autofit10.m call the fmin (will use Newobj.m and Newobj2.m )

%

%

case 1: Without DC value ( Newobj.m is used )

%

first fit it to square,(so expo is set to =2)

%

then use the best expo results (the output2) for

%

fitting

%

case 2: repeat above 2 tests with DC value inserted at

%

the head of the number in the R array.

%

(Newobj2.m is used)

% Usage: change the N0 and N1 to decide how many point you want to be

%

used in the fitting.

%

%

The two files above process the average R value from

%

dat12_1, dat12_3, dat12_4 and

%================================================================

clear all;

close all;

global r f N0 N1;

N0 = 5;

N1 = 26;

% in Newobj.m ( without the DC point) (max = 25 )

% global, the number of points used for fitting

% in Newobj2.m ( with the DC point)(max = 26 )

load dat12_1;

load dat12_3;

load dat12_4;

%--------- Data 12_1

dat1 = dat12_1;

temp = size(dat1);

N = temp(1);

%how many test records

Hord = dat1(1:N,1)';

%harmonic order

f = dat1(1:N,2)';

%frequecy (Hz)

60

P = dat1(1:N,10)';

% Power (W)

r1 = dat1(1:N,13)';

%--------Data 12_3 -----------------------------dat3 = dat12_3;

r3 = dat3(1:N,11)';

% different column with data12_1

%--------Data 12_4 -----------------------------dat4 = dat12_4;

r4 = dat4(1:N,11)';

% different column with data12_1

%--------- Average value of these 3 data set ------------r = (r1 + r3 + r4)/3;

%--------------------------------------------------------%

Without DC value: R start from 60 Hz

%--------------------------------------------------------%-----------------------------% Case 1: expo = 2

%-----------------------------%

all points N = 25 points

%how many points are included from 60Hz upward

disp('------Without DC value: R start from 60 Hz, expo = 2')

expo = 2;

for i=1:N0

h(i) =(f(i)/60)^expo;

end;

f11 = f(1:N0);

r11 = r(1:N0);

[p,s]= polyfit(h,r11,1)

err11 = getfield(s,'normr')

y0 = polyval(p,h);

plot(f11,r11,'r.:',f11,y0),grid;

% r: real data; y0: fit data

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('Rac');

legend('Test data','Fit data',2)

title('Square fit for Rac (fh/f1)^2 from 60 Hz to 2940 Hz ( 25 points)

');

axis tight;

%----------------------------% Case 2: expo = output2

%----------------------------output2 = fmin('Newobj',0.5,2)

% myobj: without DC point

%

all points N = 25 points

% N0

%how many points are included from 60Hz

disp('------Without DC value: R start from 60 Hz, expo = best')

expo = output2

for i=1:N0

h2(i) =(f(i)/60)^expo;

end;

f12 = f(1:N0);

r12 = r(1:N0);

[p2,s2]= polyfit(h2,r12,1)

err12 = getfield(s2,'normr')

61

y2 = polyval(p2,h2);

figure;

plot(f12,r11,'r.:',f12,y2),grid;

% r: real data; y2: fit data

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('Rac');

legend('Test data','Fit data',2)

title('Optimal fit for 10 kVA Rac (fh/f1) ^ expo from 60 Hz to 2940 Hz

( 25 points) ');

axis tight;

%-------------------------------------------------------------%

With DC value: Rdc = 30 ohm, R start from 60 Hz

%

(total 26 points)

%

expo = output2 ( the best value fmin found)

%-------------------------------------------------------------% insert the DC point to f, R array

rNew(1) = 30;

%R dc = 30 Ohm

rNew(2:26) = r(1:25);

fNew(1) = 0;

fNew(2:26) = f(1:25);

%---------------------% Case 1:

expo = 2

%---------------------% Linear Regression with (fh/f1)^2 up to N1 points)

%N1 ;

f3 = fNew(1:N1);

disp('------With DC value: R start from 0 Hz, expo = 2')

expo = 2;

for i=1:N1

h3(i) = (f3(i)/60)^expo;

end;

r3 = rNew(1:N1);

[p3,s3] = polyfit(h3,r3,1)

err21 = getfield(s3,'normr')

y3 = polyval(p3,h3);

figure;

plot(f3,r3,'r.:',f3,y3),grid;

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('Rac');

legend('Test data','Fit data',2)

title('Linear regression for Rac (fh/f1)^2 including DC value ');

axis tight;

%---------------------% Case 2:

expo = output2

%---------------------output2 = fmin('Newobj2',0.5,2)

% N1

62

f4 = fNew(1:N1);

disp('------With DC value: R start from 0 Hz, expo = best')

expo = output2

for i=1:N1

h4(i) = (f4(i)/60)^expo;

end;

%expo = output2

%use the fit results

r4 = rNew(1:N1);

[p4,s4] = polyfit(h4,r4,1)

err22 = getfield(s4,'normr')

y4 = polyval(p4,h4);

figure;

plot(f4,r4,'r.:',f4,y4),grid;

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('Rac');

legend('Test data','Fit data',2)

title('Linear regression for Rac (fh/f1)^expo including DC value ');

axis tight;

List E.2 Program for finding the transition point of the two-section fit and the best

Curves.

%================================================================

% Find the best transition points and fit curves for 2KVA XFMR Short

% Circuit test data ( AC winding resistance R )

%

% change the variable "expo1" can set if the first section fit

%

is using 2nd order or a optimal value.

% the total fit error is in array err

%================================================================

clear all;

close all;

global r f N0 N;

% ----------------find the average value of r

load dat12_1;

load dat12_3;

load dat12_4;

%--------Data 12_1

dat1 = dat12_1;

temp = size(dat1);

N = temp(1);

%how many test records

Hord = dat1(1:N,1)';

%harmonic order

f = dat1(1:N,2)';

%frequecy (Hz)

P = dat1(1:N,10)';

% Power (W)

r1 = dat1(1:N,13)';

%--------Data 12_3 -----------------------------dat3 = dat12_3;

r3 = dat3(1:N,11)';

% different column with data12_1

%--------Data 12_4 -----------------------------dat4 = dat12_4;

63

r4 = dat4(1:N,11)';

% different column with data12_1

%--------- Average value of these 3 data set ------------r = (r1 + r3 + r4)/3;

k = 1;

for N0 = 3:22;

%expo1(k) = fmin('firstpart', 0.5, 2);

expo1(k) = 2;

for i=1:N0

h(i) =(f(i)/60)^expo1(k);

end;

f1 = f(1:N0);

r1 = r(1:N0);

[p,s]= polyfit(h,r1,1);

err1(k) = getfield(s,'normr'); % the error of firs part square fit

p_a(k) = p(1);

%keep the data;

p_b(k) = p(2);

% the second part

expo2(k) = fmin('secpart',0.5,2);

for i=N0+1:N

h2(i-N0) = (f(i-N0)/60)^expo2(k);

end;

h22 = h2(1:N-N0);

r2 = r(N0+1:N);

[p1,s1] = polyfit(h22,r2,1);

err2(k) = getfield(s1,'normr');

p1_a(k) = p1(1);

%keep the data;

p1_b(k) = p1(2);

k = k + 1;

end;

err

err1

err2

expo1

expo2

x = f(3:22);

plot(x,err,'ro:'),grid;

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('Total Error');

axis manual;

axis([0 2700 0 140]);

title('Total Error (transition point moves from the 3rd - 22nd(300 Hz2580 Hz) 10 kVA');

64

figure;

plot(x,expo1,x,expo2),grid;

% r: real data; y0: fit data

xlabel('f (Hz)');

ylabel('exponent');

legend('firt part','second part',2)

title('exponent found ');

axis tight;

% find the p, s for the second part best fit

N0 = 11; % found

for i=N0+1:N

h3(i-N0) = (f(i-N0)/60)^expo2(9);

end;

r1 = r(N0+1:N);

[p1,s1] = polyfit(h3,r1,1)

errSec = getfield(s1,'normr');

65

APPENDIX F

Instructions for Doing Short Circuit Test Manually

Connect Test Device correctly. Please refer to Chapter 3 for different test configuration and

connection diagram.

Start up the AMX 3120 Power Source

Make sure the Output Power switch of the Master Power source is turned off

Make sure the Output Power switch of the Slave Power source is turned off

Turn on the Input Power switch of the Master Power source

Turn on the Input Power switch of the Slave Power source

Set the sweep length to 8192 points under Menu\Acquisition\Sweep length. Refer to

Chapter 3 for detailed explanation of the setting.

Degauss the Probe

Set the Currnt/Division setting to 0.5 A/DIV

On the UPC32 Panel of the AMX 3120 Power Source, choose the correct Voltage and

Frequency or harmonic groups

Turn on the Output Power Enable switch on the UPC32 Panel

Turn on the Output Power switch of the Master Power Source

Set the Time setting to 200 s.

Store the data to floppy disk

66

Appendix G

Laboratory Equipment and Computer Resources

Test Transformer:

(1) 2 KVA single phase, dry type,4 winding 120/240 Volt transformer Square D cat. No.

2S1F

(2) 10 KVA amorphous steel core single-phase oil filled distribution transformer

7200-120/240-V

Lab Equipment

Pacific Source AMX 3120 AC Power Source

Nicolet Pro 20S digital oscilloscope

Tektronix model AM503S current probe and amplifier

Computer Hardware

Gateway 2000 486 DX2 66MHz Computer

Computer Software

Vu-Point II (version 3.14)

67

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.