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Theory of Exponents

Created by

Iffa Nadifa Riza (15)

IX-B

Table of Contents

Cover................................................................................................................1

Table of Contents.............................................................................................2

Review of Exponents.......................................................................................3

Exponents of Negative Values.........................................................................4

Zero Exponents................................................................................................5

Negative Exponents.........................................................................................6

Exponents and Unit.........................................................................................7

Multiplying Powers..........................................................................................8

Dividing Powers...............................................................................................9

Powers to a Power.........................................................................................10

Powers of Products........................................................................................11

I. Review of Exponents

In general, the format for using exponents is: (base)exponent

the exponent tells you how many of the base are being multiplied

together.

Example : 2 x 2 x 2 = 23 , since there are three 2's being multiplied

together.

Another example like that is 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 = 55

because there are five 5's being multiplied together.

Exponents are also referred to as "powers".

For example, 23 can be read as "two cubed" or as "two raised to the

third power".

When we multiply negative numbers together, we must utilize

parentheses to switch to exponent notation.

(-3) x (-3) x (-3) x (-3) x (-3) x (-3) = (-3)6

BEWARE!! -36 is not the same as (-3)6

The missing parentheses mean that -36 will multiply six 3's together first

(by order of operations), and then take the negative of that answer.

(-3)6 = 729

-36 = -729

but

Even powers of negative numbers allow for the negative values to be

arranged in pairs. This pairing guarantees that the answer will always be

positive.

(-5)6 = (-5)(-5) (-5)(-5) (-5)(-5)

All Pairs

=

25

25

25

Odd powers of negative numbers, however, always leave one factor of

the negative number not paired. This one lone negative term guarantees

that the answer will always be negative.

(-5)5 = (-5)(-5) (-5)(-5) (-5)

=

25

25

(-5)

The number zero may be used as an exponent.

The value of any expression raised to the zero power is 1. Zero raised to

the zero power is undefined.

Base0

20

(4)0

(-6)0

-80

Value

1

1

1

-1

Raise to the zero power

first: 80=1

then take the negative

Undefined

00

Negative numbers as exponents have a special meaning. The rule is as

follows: basenegative exponent =

1

positive exponent

base

For examples :

Negative Exponent Positive Exponent

4-1

7-3

(-5)-2

When working with units and exponents (or powers), remember to

adjust the units appropriately.

(36 ft)3 = (36 ft) (36 ft) (36 ft)

= (36 36 36) (ft ft ft)

= 46656 ft3

For all numbers x and all integers m and n,

am x an = am+n

This means when youre multiplying, and the bases are same, you add

the exponents.

Examples :

33 (36) (32) = 311

7r2 x 2r7 = 14r9 the bases are same and the numbers in front of the

bases are being multiplied.

(i7) (i-2) (i6) = i7+(-2)+6 = i11

-2rs2t3 (5s4) (7t2) = -70rs6t5 the exponents are added for the bases

that are the same. The numbers in front, the coefficients, are

multiplied.

x2y (x3 y) = x5y x2y2 the x2y is multiplied times EACH term inside

the parentheses, adding the exponents of similar bases as this process

occurs.

For all numbers x 0 and all integers m and n,

This means when you are dividing, and the bases are the same, you

subtract ( - ) the exponents. Top exponent subtract bottom exponent,

or if Xm : Xn = Xm-n , left exponent subtract right exponent.

X5

X.X.X.X.X

X2

X.X

Examples :

a. r5 : r3 = r2

b. 27a4 : 9a3

c. k2 : k4 = k2-4 = k-2

d. -21s2t3 : 3st2 = -7st the exponents are subtracted for the bases that

are the same. The numbers in front, the coefficients, are multiplied.

For all numbers x, and integers a and b,

(xa)b = xab

This means when raising a power to a power, multiply the exponents.

(x4)2 = (x4) (x4)

= x4+4

= x8

Examples :

o (53)3 = 59

o (3p4)5 = 3p20

o (ab)3 = a3b

o (y4)2a+3 = y8a+12

o (z-2)-5 = z10

o (x8)-5 = x-40

10

For all numbers a and b, and integers x,

(ab)x = ax bx

That means each factor of the product gets raised to the new power. Be

sure to notice that this rule only works when the inside of the

parentheses is a single term (a product). No + signs or - signs separating

the items.

Examples :

(4x)2 = 4x (4x)

= (4 . 4) (x . x)

= 16x2

(ab2)4 = a4 . (b2)4 = a4b8

4(5y4)2 = 4 . 52 . (y4)2

= 4. 25 . y8

within the parentheses.

= 100y8

(-3b3)2 = (-3)2 . (b3)2

= 9 . b6

= 9b6

(2a-3)2 = 22 . a-6

4(-2x3)3 = 4 . (-2)3 . (x3)3

= 4 . (-8) . x9

= -32x9

11

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